Basílica de Nuestra Señora del Pilar y río Ebro
La Seo del Salvador
Exterior ábside de la Seo del Salvador
Palacio de la Aljafería
Gran Vía de Zaragoza
Torre del Agua (Expo 2008)
(c) Tiia Monto, CC BY-SA 3.0
World Trade Center Zaragoza y Centro Comercial Grancasa
From top to bottom: Cathedral-Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar, La Seo, La Seo exterior, La Aljafería Palace, Building, Torre del agua, Centro Comercial Gran Casa y WTCZ
Flag of Zaragoza
The Florence of Spain[1]
Zaragoza is located in Spain
Location of Zaragoza within Aragon
Zaragoza (Aragon)
Zaragoza is located in Europe
Zaragoza (Europe)
Coordinates:41°39′N 0°53′W / 41.650°N 0.883°W / 41.650; -0.883Coordinates:41°39′N 0°53′W / 41.650°N 0.883°W / 41.650; -0.883
Country Spain
Autonomous community Aragon
DistrictsCentro, Casco Histórico, Delicias, Universidad, San José, Las Fuentes, La Almozara, Oliver-Valdefierro, Torrero-La Paz, Actur-Rey Fernando, El Rabal, Casablanca, Santa Isabel, Miralbueno, Sur, Distrito Rural
 • TypeAyuntamiento
 • BodyAyuntamiento de Zaragoza
 • MayorJorge Azcón (People's Party)
 • Total973.78 km2 (375.98 sq mi)
243 m (797 ft)
 • Total675,301
 • Density690/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
Demonym(s)zaragozano (m), zaragozana (f)
Time zoneCET (GMT +1)
 • Summer (DST)CEST (GMT +2)
Postal codes
ISO 3166-2ES-Z

Zaragoza,[a] also known in English as Saragossa,[b][4] is the capital city of the Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. It lies by the Ebro river and its tributaries, the Huerva and the Gállego, roughly in the center of both Aragon and the Ebro basin.

On 1 January 2021 the population of the municipality of Zaragoza was 675,301,[5] (the fifth most populated in Spain) on a land area of 973.78 square kilometres (375.98 square miles). The population of the metropolitan area was estimated in 2006 at 783,763 inhabitants. The municipality is home to more than 50 percent of the Aragonese population. The city lies at an elevation of about 208 metres (682 feet) above sea level.

Zaragoza hosted Expo 2008 in the summer of 2008, a world's fair on water and sustainable development. It was also a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2012.

The city is famous for its folklore, local cuisine, and landmarks such as the Basílica del Pilar, La Seo Cathedral and the Aljafería Palace. Together with La Seo and the Aljafería, several other buildings form part of the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Fiestas del Pilar are among the most celebrated festivals in Spain.


The Iberian town that preceded Roman colonisation was called Salduie[6] or Salduba.[7] The Romans and Greeks called the ancient city Caesaraugusta (in Greek Καισαραυγοῦστα),[8][9] from which derive the Arabic name سرقسطة Saraqusṭa (used during the Al-Andalus period), the medieval Çaragoça, and the modern Zaragoza.


Roman Caesaraugusta

Roman theatre
Roman Caesaraugusta 1.- Decumano; 2.- Cardo ; 3.- Forum ; 4.- Port; 5.- Thermal baths; 6.- Theatre; 7.- Walls

The Sedetani, a tribe of ancient Iberians, populated a village called Salduie (Salduba in Roman sources). Later on, Augustus founded a city called Caesaraugusta[10] at the same location to settle army veterans from the Cantabrian wars. The foundation date of Caesaraugusta has not been set with exact precision, though it is known to lie between 25 BC and 11 BC.

Middle Ages

The city did not suffer any decline during the last centuries of the Roman empire and was captured peacefully by the Goths in the fifth century AD.

In the 8th century, following the Umayyad conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, Zaragoza became the capital of the Upper March of al-Andalus.[11]

Map of Zaragoza (Saraqusta) during the Muslim rule, superimposed on the current city (light grey)

In 1018, amid the collapse of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Zaragoza became an independent taifa kingdom controlled by the Tujibid family.[12] Ruled by the Banu Hud from 1039,[12] the taifa greatly prospered in a cultural and political sense in the late 11th century, and being later governed by Ahmad al-Muqtadir, Yusuf al-Mu'taman ibn Hud and Al-Musta'in II.[13] It fell to the Almoravids in 1110.[12]

On 18 December 1118, Alfonso I of Aragon conquered the city from the Almoravids,[14] and made it the capital of the Kingdom of Aragon.[15] After Alfonso's death without heirs in 1134, Zaragoza was swiftly occupied by Alfonso VII of León. The city control was held by García Ramírez, king of Navarra, until 1136 when it was given to Ramiro II the Monk in the treaty signed at the betrothal of Ramiro's daughter Petronila and Alfonso's son Sancho. The wedding never happened, as Petronila ended up marrying Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona. The marriage union was the origin of the Crown of Aragón, and union with Castile would not happen for another 333 years, when King Ferdinand II of Aragon and his wife, Queen Isabella I of Castile, each took their respective thrones.

13th century Zaragoza was the scene of two controversial martyrdoms related with the Spanish Inquisition: those of Saint Dominguito del Val, a choirboy in the basilica, and Pedro de Arbués, head official of the inquisition. While the reality of the existence of Dominguito del Val is questioned, his "murder" at the hands of "jealous Jews" was used as an excuse to murder or convert the Jewish population of Zaragoza.[16]

Early Modern history

An outbreak of bubonic plague decimated the city in 1564.[17] It reportedly killed about 10,000 people out of an estimated population of 25–30,000.[18]

View of Zaragoza (1647) by Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo

In the context of the 1701–1714 War of Spanish Succession, the city rose in arms in favour of the Archduke Charles, who was proclaimed "King of Aragon" in the city on 29 June 1706, following the uprising of other parts of the Kingdom of Aragon in December 1705.[19] Charles entered the city in July 1706, directing the attack on those places of Aragon that had sided with the Bourbon faction such as Borja or the Cinco Villas.[20] Following the April 1707 battle at Almansa, the tide turned with the Austracist forces fleeing in disarray, and the Bourbon forces commanded by the Duke of Orléans entering the city on 26 May 1707.[21] As he seized control of the kingdom, he began to enact the series of institutional reforms known as the Nueva Planta, abolishing the Aragonese institutions in favour of the Castilian ones.[21] The war turned around again in 1710 after the Battle of Almenar, and, following another Bourbon defeat near Zaragoza on 20 August 1710, Archduke Charles returned to the city on the next day.[20] This was for only a brief period, though, as following the entry of Philip V in Madrid and the ensuing Battle of Villaviciosa in December 1710, the Habsburg armies fled from Zaragoza in haste in December 1710 and Philip V proceeded to consolidate his rule over the kingdom of Aragon, resuming administrative reforms after a period of institutional void.[22]

An important food riot caused by the high price of bread and other necessity goods[23] took place in the city in April 1766, the so-called motín de los broqueleros, named after the repressive agents, volunteer farmers and craftsmen who wielded swords and bucklers (broqueles).[24] The repression left about 300 wounded, 200 detainees and 8 deaths and it was followed by 17 public executions, and an indeterminate number of killings at the dungeons of the Aljafería.[25]

Late Modern history

Assault of the French Army at Santa Engracia Monastery on 8 February 1809 during the Peninsular War. Oil on canvas, 1827.

Zaragoza suffered two famous sieges during the Peninsular War against the Napoleonic army: a first from June to August 1808; and a second from December 1808 to February 1809, surrendering only after some 50,000 defenders had died.[26]

Railway transport arrived to Zaragoza on 16 September 1861 via the inauguration of the Barcelona–Zaragoza line with the arrival of a train from the former city to the Estación del Norte.[27] The opening of the Madrid–Zaragoza line took place a year and a half later, on 16 May 1863.[27]

The July 1936 coup d'état (with Gral. Miguel Cabanellas, Col. Monasterio, Urrutia, Sueiro, Major Cebollero and Gral. Gregorio de Benito at the centre of the Mola-led conspiration in Zaragoza) triumphed in the city.[28] The military uprising in Africa on 17 July was followed in the early morning of 19 July by the military command, easily attaining their objectives in Zaragoza,[29] despite the latter's status as stronghold of mobilised labour (most of them CNT anarcho-syndicalists but also UGT trade unionists), as the civil governor critically refused to give weapons to the people in time.[30] Many refugees, including members of the provincial committees of parties and unions, would flee to Caspe, the capital of the territory of Aragon, which was still controlled by the Republic.[31]

Falange members in front of the Basilica of El Pilar (12 October 1936)

The rearguard violence committed by the putschists, with already at least 12 murders on 19 July, would only go in crescendo along the beginning of the conflict.[32] Thus one of the two big cities under Rebel control since the early stages of the Spanish Civil War along Seville, Zaragoza profited from an increasing industrial production vis-à-vis the war economy,[33] playing a key role for the Francoist faction as ammunition manufacturer.[34]

The General Military Academy, a higher training center of the Spanish Army, was re-established on 27 September 1940 by José Enrique Varela, the Francoist Minister of the Army.

The 1953 Accords ensued with the installment of a joint US–Spain air base in Zaragoza.[35]

Following the declaration of Zaragoza as Polo de Desarrollo Industrial ("Pole for Industrial Development") by the regime in 1964, the city doubled in population in a short time.[36] The increase in population ran parallel to the rural flight and depopulation in the rest of Aragon.[35]

In 1979, the Hotel Corona de Aragón fire killed at least 80. The armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization ETA has been blamed, but officially the fire is still regarded as accidental.[37] ETA carried out the Zaragoza barracks bombing in 1987 which killed eleven people, including a number of children, leading to 250,000 people taking part in demonstrations in the city.[38]

Since 1982, the city has been home to a large factory built by General Motors for the production of Opel cars, some of which are exported to the United Kingdom and sold under the Vauxhall brand. The city took advantage of the entry of Spain into the European Communities (later European Union).[39]



Zaragoza, as seen by the European Space Agency's Sentinel-2

Zaragoza lies in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula, in the rather arid depression formed by the valley of the Ebro. The Ebro cuts across the city in a west north-west by east south-east direction, entering the municipality at 205 metres above sea level and exiting the municipality at a level of 180 metres above sea level.[40]

The city enjoys a beneficial location at the geographical centre of the rough hexagon formed by the Spanish cities of Bilbao, Madrid, Valencia and Barcelona and the French cities of Bordeaux and Toulouse.[39]

The municipality has a surface of 973.78 km2 (375.98 sq mi),[41] making it the 9th largest municipality in Spain.[42]

While the river banks are largely flat, the territory flanking them can display a rugged terrain, featuring muelas and escarpments.[43] The surrounding elevations rise up to heights of about 600–750 metres above sea level.[40] The locations near the meanders of the Ebro feature some sinkholes formed upon the subsidence of the gypsum-rich soil, that can form ponds fed from irrigation water.[43] There is also an instance of seasonal endorheic lagoon, la Sulfúrica, in the moors located in the southern part of the municipality.[43]

The Roman core of Caesaraugusta was founded on the right bank of the Ebro, with the north-east corner limiting the confluence of the Ebro with the Huerva river, a modest right-bank tributary of the Ebro.[44] The Huerva runs through the city buried for much of its lower course.[45] Zaragoza is also located near the confluence of the Ebro with the Gállego, a more voluminous left-bank tributary born in the Pyrenees.[46]


Zaragoza has a semi-arid climate (Köppen: BSk),[47] as it lies in a wide basin entirely surrounded by mountains which block off moist air from the Atlantic and Mediterranean. The average annual precipitation is a scanty 322 millimetres (12.7 in) with abundant sunny days, and the rainiest seasons are spring (April–May) and autumn (September–November), with a relative drought in summer (July–August) and winter (December–March).

Temperatures are hot in summer reaching up to 44.5 °C (112.1 °F), and in winter are cool, either because of the fog (about twenty days from November to January) or a cold and dry wind blowing from the northwest, the Cierzo (related to other northerly winds such as the Mistral in the SE of France) on clear days. Night frost is common and there is sporadic snowfall.

Climate data for Zaragoza Airport, altitude 263m (averages for 1981-2010)
Record high °C (°F)20.6
Average high °C (°F)10.5
Daily mean °C (°F)6.6
Average low °C (°F)2.7
Record low °C (°F)−10.4
Average precipitation mm (inches)21.0
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Average snowy days0.
Average relative humidity (%)75675957544947515767737661
Mean monthly sunshine hours1311652172262743073483152431951481242,693
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[48]

Administrative subdivisions

Zaragoza is administratively divided into 15 urban districts and 14 rural neighborhoods:[49]

#Urban district
1Casco Histórico
5San José
6Las Fuentes
7La Almozara
10El Rabal
11Actur–Rey Fernando
13Santa Isabel
15Distrito Sur


World Trade Center Zaragoza

The population, in thousands, can be seen here:


According to a survey carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS) in 2019 with a sample size of 300, 51.0% of the surveyed people described themselves as non-practising Catholic, 24.0% as practising Catholic, 6.7% as indifferent/non-believer, 5.0% as agnostic, 4.3% as atheist and 2.3% as "other religions", while a 6.7% did not answer.[50]


In 2017 there were 64,003 foreign citizens in Zaragoza,[51] which represent 9.6% of the total population. From 2010 to 2017 immigration dropped from 87,735 to 64,003 people, a 27% drop. Romanians represent 29.8% of foreigners living in Zaragoza, or 2.9% of the total city population, followed by Moroccans (9.1%) and Chinese (7%).

Foreign Nationals in Zaragoza in 2017[51]
1st Romania19,064
2nd Morocco5,804
3rd China4,497
4th Ecuador3,302
5th Colombia2,488
6th Algeria2,470
7th Senegal2,117
8th Dominican Republic1,115
9th Ukraine1,030


Pavilion of Aragon in the Expo 2008
Torre del Agua at the Expo 2008 site

An Opel factory was opened in 1982 in Figueruelas, a small village nearby. The automotive industry is a main pillar of the regional economy along with Balay, which manufactures household appliances; CAF, which builds railway rolling stock for both the national and international markets; SAICA and Torraspapel in the stationery sector; and various other local companies, such as Pikolin, Lacasa, and Imaginarium SA.

The city's economy benefited from projects like the Expo 2008, the official World's Fair, whose theme was water and sustainable development, held between 14 June and 14 September 2008, Plataforma Logística de Zaragoza (PLAZA), and the Parque Tecnológico de Reciclado (PTR). Furthermore, since December 2003, it has been a city through which the AVE high-speed rail travels. Currently, Zaragoza Airport is a major cargo hub in the Iberian Peninsula, behind only Madrid, Barcelona, and Lisbon.

Zaragoza is home to a Spanish Air Force base, which was shared with the U.S. Air Force until 1994.[52] In English, the base was known as Zaragoza Air Base. The Spanish Air Force maintained a McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet wing at the base. No American flying wings (with the exception of a few KC-135's) were permanently based there, but it served as a training base for American fighter squadrons across Europe. It also hosts the main Spanish Army academy, Academia General Militar, a number of brigades at San Gregorio, and other garrisons.[53]


Christianity took root in Zaragoza at an early date.[54] According to legend, St. Mary appeared miraculously to Saint James the Great in Zaragoza in the first century, standing on a pillar. This apparition is commemorated by a famous Catholic basilica called Nuestra Señora del Pilar ("Our Lady of the Pillar").[55]

The Aragonese language, in decline for centuries and restricted mostly to northern Aragon, has recently attracted more people in the region. Thus, nowadays, in Zaragoza, up to 7,000 people speak Aragonese.[56]


Offering of Fruits at the Fiestas del Pilar

The annual Fiestas del Pilar last for nine days, with its main day on 12 October. Since this date coincided in 1492 with the first sighting by Christopher Columbus of the Americas, that day is also celebrated as El Día de la Hispanidad (Columbus Day) by Spanish-speaking people worldwide.

Holy Week in Zaragoza

There are many activities during the festival, from the massively attended Pregon (opening speech) to the final fireworks display over the Ebro; they also include marching bands, dances such as "Jota aragonesa" (the most popular dance of folklore music genre), a procession of gigantes y cabezudos, concerts, exhibitions, vaquillas, bullfights, fairground amusements, and fireworks. Some of the most important events are the Ofrenda de Flores, or Flower Offering to St. Mary of the Pillar, on 12 October, when an enormous surface resembling a cloak for St. Mary is covered with flowers, and the Ofrenda de Frutos on 13 October, when all the autonomous communities of Spain offer their typical regional dishes to St. Mary and donate them to soup kitchens.

Holy Week in Zaragoza, although not as elaborate an affair as its Andalusian or Bajo Aragón counterparts, has several processions passing through the city centre every day with dramatic sculptures, black-dressed praying women and hundreds of hooded people playing drums. It has been a Festival of International Tourist Interest since 2014.[57]


The University of Zaragoza is based in the city. As one of the oldest universities in Spain and a major research and development centre, this public university awards all the highest academic degrees in dozens of fields. Zaragoza is also home to the MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program, a unique partnership between MIT, the Government of Aragon and the University of Zaragoza.

There is also a private university, Universidad San Jorge, which is located in Villanueva de Gállego.

There is a French international primary and secondary school, Lycée Français Molière de Saragosse.


Zaragoza's Third Millennium Bridge spans the Ebro and is the world's largest concrete tied-arch bridge, with six traffic lanes, two bike lanes, and two glass-enclosed walkways for pedestrians.[58]


Zaragoza tram in Paseo de la Independencia

The city is connected by motorway with the main cities in central and northern Spain, including Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, and Bilbao, all of which are located about 300 kilometres (200 miles) from Zaragoza.


The city has a network of buses which is controlled by the Urban Buses of Zaragoza (AUZSA). The network consists of 31 regular lines (two of them circle lines), two scheduled routes, six shuttle buses (one free), and seven night buses operating on Fridays, Saturdays and other festivities.[59] Zaragoza also has an interurban bus network operated by Transport Consortium Zaragoza Area (CTAZ) that operates 17 regular lines.[60]


Zaragoza's bicycle lanes facilitate non-motorised travel and help cyclists to avoid running into pedestrians and motor vehicles. The city council also has a public bicycle-hire scheme; the 'bizi zaragoza' - which consists in the payment of an annual charge.


The first line of the Zaragoza tram (Valdespartera-Parque Goya) is fully operational.


Zaragoza is a part of the Spanish high-speed railway operated by Renfe, AVE, which connects Madrid, Lleida, Tarragona, Barcelona and Figueres via high-speed rail. Madrid can be reached in 75 minutes, and Barcelona in approximately 90 minutes. The central station is Zaragoza–Delicias railway station, which serves both railway lines and coaches. In addition to long-distance railway lines and the high-speed trains, Zaragoza has a network of commuter trains operated by Renfe called Cercanías Zaragoza.


Zaragoza Airport

Zaragoza Airport is located in the Garrapinillos neighbourhood, 10 kilometres from the city centre.

It is a major commercial airport, its freight traffic surpassing that of Barcelona El Prat in 2012,[61] and serves as the home of the Spanish Air Force's 15th Group. It was also used by NASA as a contingency landing site for the Space Shuttle in the case of a Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL).

Public transportation statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Zaragoza, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 48 min. 9% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 12% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.2 km, while 5% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[62]



A 2013 La Liga fixture in La Romareda vs Real Madrid

Zaragoza's main football team, Real Zaragoza, plays in the Segunda División. Founded on 18 March 1932, its home games are played at La Romareda, which seats 34,596 spectators. The club has spent the majority of its history in La Liga. One of the most remarkable events in the team's recent history is the winning of the former UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1995. The team has also won the Spanish National Cup "Copa del Rey" six times: 1965, 1966, 1986, 1994, 2001 and 2004 and an Inter-Cities Fairs Cup (1964). A government survey in 2007 found that 2.7% of the Spanish population support the club, making them the seventh-most supported in the country.

Zaragoza's second football team is CD Ebro. Founded in 1942, it plays in Segunda División B – Group 2, holding home games at Campo Municipal de Fútbol La Almozara, which has a capacity of 1,000 seats.

Zaragoza CFF is a Spanish women's football team from Zaragoza playing in Primera División Femenina.

Zaragoza was one of the Spanish cities which hosted the FIFA World Cup 1982. Three matches were played at La Romareda.


Stadium Casablanca celebrating a win in 2015

The main basketball team, Basket Zaragoza, known as Tecnyconta Zaragoza for sponsorship reasons, plays in the Liga ACB. They play their home games at the Pabellón Principe Felipe with a capacity of 10,744.

Stadium Casablanca, a.k.a. Mann Filter for sponsorship reasons, is the Spanish women's basketball club from Zaragoza that plays in the Primera Division.


The main futsal team, is Dlink Zaragoza, plays in the LNFS Primera División. They play at the Pabellón Siglo XXI with a capacity of 2,600.

Other sports

Nani Roma Baja España 2009

Zaragoza's handball team, BM Aragón, plays in the Liga ASOBAL.

The Spanish Baja or Baja Aragon is a Rally raid event held in the region of Aragon in northern Spain. This event was launched in 1983, and chose the desert of Monegros because of the scenery and availability of service infrastructure in Zaragoza.

Zaragoza was strongly associated with Jaca in its failed bid for the 2014 Winter Olympics.

There are three Rugby Union teams playing in the regional league:

  1. Ibero Club de Rugby Zaragoza
  2. Fénix Club de Rugby
  3. Club Deportivo Universitario de Rugby

A permanent feature built for Expo 2008 is the pump-powered artificial whitewater course "El Canal de Aguas Bravas."

Main sights

Cathedral-Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar and the Puente de Piedra bridge on the Ebro River
(c) Carlos Delgado, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Roman walls
Santa María Magdalena church

Near the basilica on the banks of the Ebro are located the city hall, the Lonja (old currency exchange), La Seo (literally "the See" in the Aragonese language) or Cathedral of San Salvador, a church built over the main mosque (partially preserved in the 11th-century north wall of the Parroquieta), with Romanesque apses from the 12th century; inside, the imposing hallenkirche from the 15th to 16th centuries, the Baroque tower, and finally, with its famous Museum of Tapestries near the Roman ruins of forum and port city wall.

Some distance from the centre of the old city is the Moorish castle (or palace) Aljafería, the most important Moorish buildings in northern Spain and the setting for Giuseppe Verdi's opera Il trovatore (The Troubadour). The Aragonese parliament currently sits in the building.

The churches of San Pablo, Santa María Magdalena and San Gil Abad were built in the 14th century, but the towers may be old minarets dating from the 11th century; San Miguel (14th century); Santiago (San Ildefonso) and the Fecetas monastery are Baroque with Mudéjar ceilings of the 17th century. All the churches are Mudéjar monuments that comprise a World Heritage Site.[63]

Other important sights are the stately houses and palaces in the city, mainly of the 16th century: palaces of the count of Morata or Luna (Audiencia), Deán, Torrero (colegio de Arquitectos), Don Lope or Real Maestranza, count of Sástago, count of Argillo (today the Pablo Gargallo museum), archbishop, etc.

On 14 June 2008, the site of Expo 2008 opened its doors to the public. The exhibition ran until 14 September.

Other sights

Labordeta Grand Park
  • Puente de Piedra
  • San Ildefonso church
  • Santa Engracia Monastery
  • Fuente de la Hispanidad

Museums[64] in Zaragoza are:

  • Museum of Fine Arts Zaragoza, with paintings by early Aragonese artists, 15th century, and by El Greco, Ribera and Goya.[65]
  • Museo Goya - Colección Ibercaja - Museo Camón Aznar with works by Rubens, Rembrandt, Van Dyck, Velazquez and Goya to Renoir, Manet and Sorolla.

Twin towns and sister cities

Zaragoza is twinned with:[66][67]

  • China Dalian, Liaoning, China, 2008
  • China Yulin, Guangxi, China, 2008
  • North Macedonia Skopje, North Macedonia, 2008
  • Malta Mdina, Malta, 2008
  • Argentina Córdoba, Argentina, 2008
  • Mexico Atizapan, Mexico, 2009
  • Colombia Cúcuta, Colombia, 2010
  • Honduras Yoro, Honduras, 2012
  • Brazil Campinas, Brazil, 2012
  • El Salvador Zaragoza, El Salvador, 2014
  • Spain Canfranc, Spain, 2015

Zaragoza has special bilateral collaboration agreements with:

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2001
  • Albania Tirana, Albania, 2002
  • Romania Ploiești, Romania, 2004
  • France Toulouse, France, 2008
  • Mexico Zapopan, Mexico, 2010 [68]

Notable people

  • Avempace (1085–1138), polymath
  • Bahya ben Joseph ibn Paquda (1050–1120), the author of Chovot HaLevavot
  • Sebastián Pozas (1876–1946), military officer
  • Abraham Abulafia (1240–1291), founder of the school of "Prophetic Kabbalah"
  • Amaral (band) (established 1992), popular musical band in Spain and America.
  • Alonso Fernández de Heredia (died March 19, 1782), Captain General and governor of Honduras (1747), Florida (1751–1758), Yucatán (in modern-day Mexico; 1758–?), the Captaincy General of Guatemala (1761–1771) and Nicaragua (1761–1771).
  • José Luis Gil (born 1957), actor
  • Luis de Horruytiner (? – ?), governor of Spanish Florida (1633 – 1638), and viceroy of Sardinia
  • Rafael Navarro (born 8 October 1940), photographer
  • Dino Valls (born 1959), painter.
  • José María Vigil (born 1946), theologian
  • [(Irene Vallejo (Writer)]

See also

  • Crown of Aragon
  • Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zaragoza
  • Third Millennium Bridge


Informational notes
  1. ^ Aragonese and Spanish pronunciation: [θaɾaˈɣoθa]; generally approximated in English by /ˌzærəˈɡzə, ˌsærəˈɡsə, ˌθærəˈɡθə/.
  2. ^ English pronunciation: /ˌsærəˈɡɒsə/.[3]
  1. ^ Martí Font, J. M. (2017). La España de las ciudades: El Estado frente a la sociedad urbana (in Spanish). ED Libros. ISBN 9788461799220.
  2. ^ Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
  3. ^ "Saragossa". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica "Zaragoza (conventional Saragossa)" Archived 2012-03-07 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Instituto_Nacional_de_Estadística_(Spain)[1]
  6. ^ Alex Mullen; Patrick James (6 September 2012). Multilingualism in the Graeco-Roman Worlds. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-139-56062-7.
  7. ^ William Smith (1854). A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. Walton and Maberly London. ISBN 978-1-845-11001-7.
  8. ^ Strabo, Geography, 3.2.15
  9. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Caesăraugusta
  10. ^ Sivan, H., S. Keay, R. Mathisen, DARMC, R. Talbert, S. Gillies, J. Åhlfeldt, J. Becker, T. Elliott. "Places: 246344 (Col. Caesaraugusta)". Pleiades. Archived from the original on 24 December 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Corral Lafuente 2008, p. 199.
  12. ^ a b c "Los reinos de Taifas en la Marca Superior (Zaragoza-Albarracín)". Atlas de historia de Aragón. Institución Fernando el Católico.
  13. ^ Espada Torres, Diana María (2019). "Historia, memoria y ciudad. La recuperación de la imagen de Alfonso I, El Batallador". La Tadeo Dearte. Bogotá: Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano. 5 (5): 80. doi:10.21789/24223158.1530.
  14. ^ Rogers, Clifford J., ed. (2010). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology. Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 466. ISBN 978-0-19-533403-6. Archived from the original on 2017-03-19.
  15. ^ "Aragon | region, Spain". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2017-08-25. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
  16. ^ "Jewish Community of Zaragoza". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
  17. ^ Alfaro Pérez, Fco. José (2019). Zaragoza 1564. El año de la peste (PDF). Zaragoza: Institución Fernando el Católico. p. 19. ISBN 978-84-9911-570-2.
  18. ^ Alfaro Pérez 2019, p. 61.
  19. ^ Monreal Casamayor 2017, p. 24, 28.
  20. ^ a b La Guerra de Sucesión en Ibdes y su comarca. Una villa privilegiada en la aplicación de los decretos de Nueva Planta (PDF). Zaragoza: Institución Fernando el Católico. pp. 175–176.
  21. ^ a b Bonell Colmenero 2010, p. 22.
  22. ^ Armillas & Pérez 2004, p. 268.
  23. ^ Monterde Albiac 1999, pp. 221–222.
  24. ^ Monterde Albiac 1999, p. 222.
  25. ^ Armillas Vicente 1989, pp. 242–243.
  26. ^ "Napoleon's Total War". 7 March 2007. Archived from the original on 19 March 2017. Retrieved 2017-03-16.
  27. ^ a b Muñoz Padrós, A (28 August 2011). "El tren cumple 150 años en Zaragoza". El Periódico de Aragón.
  28. ^ Casanova 1989, p. 299.
  29. ^ Casanova 1989, pp. 299–300.
  30. ^ Alcalde Fernández 2010, pp. 40–41.
  31. ^ Barcelo Gresa 2016, p. 114.
  32. ^ Alcalde Fernández 2010, pp. 41.
  33. ^ Martínez de Baños Carrillo 2010, p. 13.
  34. ^ García, Mariano (18 July 2010). "La primera gran fábrica de guerra de Franco". Heraldo de Aragón.
  35. ^ a b Biescas 1989, p. 231.
  36. ^ Zazo, Ana (2010). "Procesos de urbanización de la huerta zaragozana. Incoherencias instrumentales". In Vázquez, Mariano; Verdaguer, Carlos (eds.). El espacio agrícola entre el campo y la ciudad. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.
  37. ^ "El incendio del Corona de Aragón, fue provocado, según "El Alcázar"". El País (in Spanish). PRISA. 20 November 1979. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 25 July 2016. .
  38. ^ Reuters (1987-12-12). "11 Killed by Bomb in Northern Spain". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-02-01. Retrieved 2018-02-01.
  39. ^ a b Fernández Maldonado & Romein 2012, p. 58.
  40. ^ a b Sotelo Pérez & Sotelo Navalpotro 2016, p. 260.
  41. ^ "Datos del Registro de Entidades Locales". Ministerio de Asuntos Económicos y Transformación Digital. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
  42. ^ Miguel González 2015, p. 66.
  43. ^ a b c "Zaragoza Natural. Un mosaico de paisajes y de biodiversidad" (PDF). Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza. 12 August 2020. p. 10; 12.
  44. ^ Adiego Adiego 2002, p. 251; 253.
  45. ^ Valiente, Marga (31 January 2010). "El Huerva, el cauce más agraviado". El Periódico de Aragón.
  46. ^ Adiego Adiego 2002, p. 268.
  47. ^ "Zaragoza, Spain Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  48. ^ "Standard Climate Values. Zaragoza Aeropuerto". Archived from the original on 2015-07-07. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  49. ^ Velasco, Javier L. (28 May 2018). "La ciudad revisará las fronteras de sus distritos". Heraldo de Aragón.
  50. ^ "Postelectoral Elecciones Autonómicas y Municipales 2019. Zaragoza (Municipio de); Results on page 47" (PDF). 2019. Retrieved 2020-05-14.
  51. ^ a b "Población por sexo, municipios y nacionalidad (principales nacionalidades) - Zaragoza". Instituto Nacional de Estadística (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 July 2018.
  52. ^ John Pike. "Zaragoza Air Base". Archived from the original on 2009-06-17. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
  53. ^ "Spanish Army units at Zaragoza". Spanish MoD. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  54. ^ Albert Frederick Calvert (1908). Valladolid, Oviedo, Segovia, Zamora, Avil, & Zaragoza: An Historical & Descriptive Account. Lane. p. 136.
  55. ^ J. Gordon Melton (15 January 2014). Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History. ABC-CLIO. p. 734. ISBN 978-1-61069-026-3.
  56. ^ Panti, Madalina (22 April 2021). "La lucha por la conservación del aragonés: "Tenim un patrimonio inmaterial que estam dixant perder y morir"". (in Spanish).
  57. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2018-01-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  58. ^ "Puente del Tercer Milenio – Third Millennium Bridge". Discover Monuments, Zaragoza. Sociedad Estatal para la Gestión de la Innovación y las Tecnologías Turísticas, S.A. (SEGITTUR). Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  59. ^ "Avanza Zaragoza". Archived from the original on 4 June 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  60. ^ "portada -". Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  61. ^ J. L. Gaona (13 September 2012). "El aeropuerto de Zaragoza supera al de Barcelona en tráfico de mercancías". Heraldo. Zaragoza: Heraldo de Aragon Editora Digital. Tráfico aéreo. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
  62. ^ "Zaragoza Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017. CC-BY icon.svg Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Archived 2017-10-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  63. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Mudejar Architecture of Aragon". Archived from the original on 2017-10-03. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
  64. ^ "Municipal Museums and Exhibitions". Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  65. ^, Area25 IT -. "Provincial Museum of Fine Arts". InSpain. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  66. ^ "Zaragoza Internacional: Hermanamientos con Zaragoza" (official website) (in Spanish). Ayuntamiento de Zaragoza. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  67. ^ "International Zaragoza: Town Twinnings" (official website). Zaragoza Council. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  68. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-10-03. Retrieved 2021-01-29.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links

Media files used on this page

CC-BY icon.svg
Creative Commons "Attribution" license icon.
Europe relief laea location map.jpg
Author/Creator: Alexrk2, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Physical location map Europe; Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection
Flag of Spain.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Ecuador.svg
Made by author of Xramp, first uploaded by Denelson83 as Flag of Ecuador.svg, modifications by Husunqu.
Flag of Senegal.svg
Flag of Senegal
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg
The flag of the Dominican Republic has a centered white cross that extends to the edges. This emblem is similar to the flag design and shows a bible, a cross of gold and 6 Dominican flags. There are branches of olive and palm around the shield and above on the ribbon is the motto "Dios,Patria!, Libertad" ("God, Country, Freedom") and to amiable freedom. The blue is said to stand for liberty, red for the fire and blood of the independence struggle and the white cross symbolized that God has not forgotten his people. "Republica Dominicana". The Dominican flag was designed by Juan Pablo Duarte, father of the national Independence of Dominican Republic. The first dominican flag was sewn by a young lady named Concepción Bona, who lived across the street of El Baluarte, monument where the patriots gathered to fight for the independence, the night of February 27th, 1844. Concepción Bona was helped by her first cousin María de Jesús Pina.
Flag of the United States.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Mexico.svg
Flag of Mexico Official version of the Flag of the United Mexican States or Mexico, adopted September 16th 1968 by Decree (Published August 17th 1968), Ratio 4:7. The previous version of the flag displayed a slightly different Coat of Arms. It was redesigned to be even more resplendent due to the upcoming Mexico City 1968 Olympic Games; According to Flag of Mexico, the colors are Green Pantone 3425 C and Red Pantone 186 C. According to [1] or [2], that translates to RGB 206, 17, 38 for the red, and RGB 0, 104, 71 for the green.
Flag of Portugal.svg
Flag of Portugal, created by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), officially adopted by Portuguese government in June 30th 1911 (in use since about November 1910). Color shades matching the RGB values officially reccomended here. (PMS values should be used for direct ink or textile; CMYK for 4-color offset printing on paper; this is an image for screen display, RGB should be used.)
Flag of Brazil.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Albania.svg
Flag of Albania
Zaragoza Airport.jpg
Author/Creator: Angel Plaza, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Zaragoza Airport
Corner Real Zaragoza Real Madrid.JPG
Author/Creator: Campeones 2008, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Corner en el partido Real Zaragoza Real Madrid de la temporada 2012-13. La Romareda.
SEMANA SANTA DE ZARAGOZA Cofradia de las siete palabras 2413.jpg
Author/Creator: Turol Jones, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
This is a photography of a Folklore festival in Spain (Wikidata id
Falange Members in Saragossa 1936 (Retouched).jpg
Members of the Spanish Falange in front of the basilica of Nuestra Señora del Pilar in Saragossa.
Relief Map of Spain.png
Author/Creator: derivative work Виктор_В, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Map of Spain
Zaragoza - Centro Comercial Gran Casa y WTCZ.jpg
Author/Creator: Zarateman, Licence: CC0
Centro Comercial Gran Casa y WTCZ (Zaragoza)
Torreón de la Zuda-Muralla.jpg
(c) Carlos Delgado, CC BY-SA 3.0
Old Roman city walls ant Zuda tower in Zaragoza.
Paseo de la Independencia, Zaragoza.gif
Author/Creator: Héctor Ochoa 'Robot8A', Licence: CC BY 4.0
Imagen animada del Paseo de la Independencia, con tranvía y bus pasando, tomada el 17/09/2016.
Zaragoza (ciudad).svg
Author/Creator: Ulaidh, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Bandera de la ciudad de Zaragoza (España)
Torre del agua.jpg
Author/Creator: Sergio, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Torre del agua (Water Tower), one of the buildings at the Expo 2008 in Zaragoza, Spain
Stadium Casablanca Mann Filter 2014-15 Celebracion.JPG
Author/Creator: Campeones 2008, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Stadium Casablanca Mann Filter 2014-15 Baloncesto
Torre de la Magdalena.jpg
(c) I, Escarlati, CC-BY-SA-3.0
Torre de la Iglesia de la Magdalena (Zaragoza, España)
Puente del Tercer Milenio (Zaragoza).jpg
(c) Willtron, CC BY-SA 3.0
Puente del Tercer Milenio (Zaragoza)
La Seo-Zaragoza - P1410404.jpg
Author/Creator: FRANCIS RAHER, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Catedral del Salvador de Zaragoza, Spain
WTCZ World Trade Center Zaragoza (2).JPG
Author/Creator: Onanymous José A. Aranaz de Motta, Architect., Licence: CC BY 3.0
WTCZ World Trade Center Zaragoza
Zaragoza Spain (cropped) ESA.jpg
Author/Creator: European Space Agency, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0 igo
This Copernicus Sentinel-2B image features the city of Zaragoza nestling in the Ebro valley and flanked by mountains to the south. Zaragoza is the capital of the province of Zaragoza in the region of Aragon in northeast Spain. It is home to about half of Aragon’s population, making it the fifth largest municipality in Spain. Released: 25/01/2019
Zaragoza - Basílica del Pilar y río Ebro.jpg
Author/Creator: Turol Jones, un artista de cojones from Villanueva del Cascajal, República Independiente de Mi Casa, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Basílica del Pilar y río Ebro (Zaragoza)
Nani Baja Spain.jpg
Author/Creator: Xraid, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Nani Roma Baja Spain
Distritos Zaragoza. Mapa.svg
Author/Creator: Up and Go, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Distritos de Zaragoza
Palacio de la Aljafería-Zaragoza - CS 22062003 132349 01199.jpg
Author/Creator: FRANCIS RAHER, Licence: CC BY 2.0
CS 22062003 #132349 #01199.jpg
La Seo - Exterior ábside.JPG
Author/Creator: ecelan, Licence: CC BY 2.5
La Seo, ábside
Pabellon Aragon Expo 2008 01.JPG
Author/Creator: Oikema 0, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Aragonese Pavilion of the International Exposition of Zaragoza 2008
Teatro Romano Cesaraugusta-vista desde arriba-3.jpg
Zaragoza - Torre del agua2.jpg
(c) Tiia Monto, CC BY-SA 3.0
Torre del agua building in Zaragoza.
FIESTAS DEL PILAR DE ZARAGOZA Ofrenda de frutos 18.jpg
Author/Creator: Turol Jones, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
This is a photography of a Folklore festival in Spain (Wikidata id
Parque Grande by juanedc.jpg
Author/Creator: Juan E De Cristofaro, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Parque Primo de Rivera de Zaragoza, España
WLM14ES - 27072008 121549 ZGZ 3155 - .jpg
Author/Creator: Turol Jones, un artista de cojones from Villanueva del Cascajal, República Independiente de Mi Casa, Licence: CC BY 2.0

27072008 121549 ZGZ 3155

Icone chateau fort.svg

This is a photo of a historical area indexed in the Spanish heritage register of Bienes de Interés Cultural under the reference RI-53-0000581.