Viktor Orbán

Viktor Orbán
Orbán Viktor 2018.jpg
Orbán in 2018
Prime Minister of Hungary
Assumed office
29 May 2010
  • Sándor Pintér
  • Zsolt Semjén
  • Mihály Varga
Preceded byGordon Bajnai
In office
6 July 1998 – 27 May 2002
Preceded byGyula Horn
Succeeded byPéter Medgyessy
President of Fidesz
Assumed office
17 May 2003
Preceded byJános Áder
In office
18 April 1993 – 29 January 2000
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded byLászló Kövér
Member of the National Assembly
Assumed office
2 May 1990
Personal details
Viktor Mihály Orbán

(1963-05-31) 31 May 1963
Székesfehérvár, Hungary
Political partyFidesz (1988–present)
Anikó Lévai
(m. 1986)
Children5, including Gáspár
  • Erzsébet Sípos
  • Győző Bálint Orbán
Residence(s)Carmelite Monastery of Buda
Alma mater
WebsiteViktor Orbán website

Viktor Mihály Orbán[1] (Hungarian: [ˈviktor ˈorbaːn] (audio speaker iconlisten); born 31 May 1963) is a Hungarian politician who has served as prime minister of Hungary since 2010, previously holding the office from 1998 to 2002. He has presided over Fidesz, since 1993, with a brief break between 2000 and 2003.

Orbán studied at Eötvös Loránd University and, briefly, at the University of Oxford before entering politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989. He headed the reformist student movement the Alliance of Young Democrats (Fiatal Demokraták Szövetsége), the nascent Fidesz. Orbán became nationally known after giving an address at the 1989 reburial of Imre Nagy and other martyrs of the 1956 revolution, in which he openly demanded that Soviet troops leave the country. After Hungary's transition to multiparty democracy in 1990, he was elected to the National Assembly and led Fidesz's parliamentary caucus until 1993. Under his leadership, Fidesz shifted away from its original centre-right, classical liberal, pro-European platform toward right-wing national conservatism.

Orbán's first term as prime minister, from 1998 to 2002 at the head of a conservative coalition government, was dominated by the economy and Hungary's accession to NATO. He served as leader of the opposition from 2002 to 2010. In 2010, Orbán again became prime minister after Fidesz's supermajority victory in coalition with the Christian Democrats. Central issues during Orbán's second premiership have included major constitutional and legislative reforms, the European migrant crisis, the lex CEU, and the COVID-19 pandemic. He has won reelection twice, in 2014 and 2018, and in November 2020 became the country's longest-serving prime minister.[2] In December 2021, he became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union.

Because of Orbán's curtailing of press freedom, erosion of judicial independence and undermining of multiparty democracy, many political scientists and watchdogs consider Hungary to have experienced democratic backsliding during Orbán's tenure.[3][4][5][6][7] Orbán's attacks on the European Union while accepting its money and funneling it to his allies and family have also led to characterizations of his government as a kleptocracy.[8] Between 2010 and 2020, Hungary dropped 69 places in the Press Freedom Index[9][10] and 11 places in the Democracy Index;[11][12] Freedom House has downgraded the country from "free" to "partly free."[13] Orbán defends his policies as "illiberal democracy."[14][15] As a result, Fidesz was suspended from the European People's Party from March 2019[16] until March 2021, when Fidesz left the EPP over a dispute over new rule-of-law language in the latter's bylaws.[17]

Early life

Orbán was born on 31 May 1963 in Székesfehérvár into a rural middle-class family, as the eldest son of the entrepreneur and agronomist Győző Orbán (born 1940)[18] and the special educator and speech therapist, Erzsébet Sípos (born 1944).[19] He has two younger brothers, both entrepreneurs, Győző, Jr. (born 1965) and Áron (born 1977). His paternal grandfather, Mihály Orbán, practiced farming and animal husbandry. Orbán spent his childhood in two nearby villages, Alcsútdoboz and Felcsút in Fejér County;[20] he attended school there and in Vértesacsa.[21][22] In 1977, his family moved permanently to Székesfehérvár.[23]

Orbán graduated from Blanka Teleki High School in Székesfehérvár in 1981, where he studied English. After completing two years of military service, he studied law at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, writing his thesis on the Polish Solidarity movement.[24] After obtaining his JD degree (equivalent to a Master study)[25] in 1987,[26][27] he lived in Szolnok for two years, commuting to his job in Budapest as a sociologist at the Management Training Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food.[28]

In 1989, Orbán received a scholarship from the Soros Foundation to study political science at Pembroke College, Oxford.[22] His personal tutor was the Hegelian political philosopher Zbigniew Pełczyński.[29] In January 1990, he left Oxford and returned to Hungary to run for a seat in Hungary's first post-communist parliament.[30]

At the age of 14 and 15, he was a secretary of the communist youth organization, KISZ, of his secondary grammar school (KISZ membership was mandatory in order to matriculate to a university).[31][32] Orbán said in a later interview that his political views had radically changed during the military service: earlier he had considered himself a "naive and devoted supporter" of the Communist regime.[33]

Early career (1988–1998)

Orbán and Gábor Fodor at the Szárszó meeting of 1993

On 30 March 1988, Orbán was one of the founding members of Fidesz (originally an acronym for Fiatal Demokraták Szövetsége, "Alliance of Young Democrats")[34] and served as its first spokesperson. The first members of the party, including Orbán, were mostly students from the Bibó István College for Advanced Studies who opposed the Communist regime.[35] At the college, itself a part of Eötvös Loránd University,[36] Orbán also co-founded the dissidenting social science journal Századvég.[37]

On 16 June 1989, Orbán gave a speech in Heroes' Square, Budapest, on the occasion of the reburial of Imre Nagy and other national martyrs of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. In his speech, he demanded free elections and the withdrawal of Soviet troops. The speech brought him wide national and political acclaim. In summer 1989, he took part in the opposition round table talks, representing Fidesz alongside László Kövér.[38]

Orbán in 1997 as leader of the opposition

On returning home from Oxford, he was elected Member of Parliament from his party's Pest County Regional List during the 1990 parliamentary election. He was appointed leader of the Fidesz's parliamentary group, serving in this capacity until May 1993.[39]

On 18 April 1993, Orbán became the first president of Fidesz, replacing the national board that had served as a collective leadership since its founding. Under his leadership, Fidesz gradually transformed from a radical liberal student organization to a center-right people's party.[40]

The conservative turn caused a severe split in the membership. Several members left the party, including Péter Molnár, Gábor Fodor and Zsuzsanna Szelényi. Fodor and others later joined the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), initially a strong ally of Fidesz, but later a political opponent.[41]

During the 1994 parliamentary election, Fidesz barely reached the 5% threshold.[42] Orbán became MP from his party's Fejér County Regional List.[39] He served as chairman of the Committee on European Integration Affairs between 1994 and 1998.[39] He was also a member of the Immunity, Incompatibility and Credentials Committee for a short time in 1995.[39] Under his presidency, Fidesz adopted "Hungarian Civic Party" (Magyar Polgári Párt) to its shortened name in 1995. His party gradually became dominant in the right-wing of the political spectrum, while the former ruling conservative Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) had lost much of its support.[42] From April 1996, Orbán was chairman of the Hungarian National Committee of the New Atlantic Initiative (NAI).[43]

In September 1992, Orbán was elected vice chairman of the Liberal International.[44] In November 2000, however, Fidesz left the Liberal International and joined the European People's Party (EPP). During the time, Orbán worked hard to unite the center-right liberal conservative parties in Hungary. At the EPP's Congress in Estoril in October 2002, he was elected vice-president, an office he held until 2012.[45]

First premiership (1998–2002)

In 1998, Orbán formed a successful coalition with the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) and the Independent Smallholders' Party (FKGP) and won the 1998 parliamentary elections with 42% of the national vote.[45] Orbán became the second youngest prime minister of Hungary at the age of 35 (after András Hegedüs), serving between 1998 and 2002.[46]

The new government immediately launched a radical reform of state administration, reorganizing ministries and creating a superministry for the economy. In addition, the boards of the social security funds and centralized social security payments were dismissed. Following the German model, Orbán strengthened the prime minister's office and named a new minister to oversee the work of his Cabinet.[47]

Orbán with Tamás Deutsch in 2000

Despite vigorous protests from the opposition parties,[48][49][50] in February the government decided that plenary sessions of the unicameral National Assembly would be held only every third week.[51] As a result, according to opposition arguments, parliament's legislative efficiency and ability to supervise the government were reduced.[52] In late March, the government tried to replace the National Assembly rule that requires a two-thirds majority vote with one of a simple majority, but the Constitutional Court ruled this unconstitutional.[53]

The year saw only minor changes in top government officials. Two of Orbán's state secretaries in the prime minister's office had to resign in May, due to their implication in a bribery scandal involving the American military manufacturer Lockheed Martin Corporation. Before bids on a major jet-fighter contract, the two secretaries, along with 32 other deputies of Orbán's party, had sent a letter to two US senators to lobby for the appointment of a Budapest-based Lockheed manager to be the US ambassador to Hungary.[54] On 31 August, the head of the Tax Office also resigned, succumbing to protracted attacks by the opposition on his earlier, allegedly suspicious, business dealings. The tug-of-war between the Budapest City Council and the government continued over the government's decision in late 1998 to cancel two major urban projects: the construction of a new national theatre[55] and of the fourth subway line.

Relations between the Fidesz-led coalition government and the opposition worsened in the National Assembly, where the two seemed to have abandoned all attempts at consensus-seeking politics. The government pushed to swiftly replace the heads of key institutions (such as the Hungarian National Bank chairman, the Budapest City Chief Prosecutor and the Hungarian Radio) with partisan figures. Although the opposition resisted, for example by delaying their appointing of members of the supervising boards, the government ran the institutions without the stipulated number of directors. In a similar vein, Orbán failed to show up for question time in parliament, for periods of up to 10 months. His statements of the kind that "The parliament works without opposition too..." also contributed to the image of an arrogant and aggressive governance.[56]

A later report in March by the Brussels-based International Federation of Journalists criticized the Hungarian government for improper political influence in the media, as the country's public service broadcaster teetered close to bankruptcy.[57] Numerous political scandals during 2001 led to a de facto, if not actual, breakup of the coalition that held power in Budapest. A bribery scandal in February triggered a wave of allegations and several prosecutions against the Independent Smallholders' Party. The affair resulted in the ousting of József Torgyán from both the FKGP presidency and the top post in the Ministry of Agriculture. The FKGP disintegrated and more than a dozen of its MPs joined the government faction.[58]


Orbán's economic policy was aimed at cutting taxes and social insurance contributions over four years, while reducing inflation and unemployment. Among the new government's first measures was to abolish university tuition fees and reintroduce universal maternity benefits. The government announced its intention to continue the Socialist–Liberal stabilization program and pledged to narrow the budget deficit, which had grown to 4.5% of GDP.[59] The previous Cabinet had almost completed the privatization of government-run industries and had launched a comprehensive pension reform. However, the Socialists had avoided two major socioeconomic issues—reform of health care and agriculture, these remained to be tackled by Orbán's government.

Economic successes included a drop in inflation from 15% in 1998 to 10.0% in 1999, 9.8% in 2000 and 7.8% in 2001. GDP growth rates were fairly steady: 4.4% in 1999, 5.2% in 2000, and 3.8% in 2001. The fiscal deficit fell from 3.9% in 1999, to 3.5% in 2000 and 3.4% in 2001 and the ratio of the national debt decreased to 54% of GDP.[59] Under the Orbán cabinet, there were realistic hopes that Hungary would be able to join the Eurozone by 2009. However, negotiations for entry into the European Union slowed in the fall of 1999, after the EU included six more countries (in addition to the original six) in the accession discussions. Orbán repeatedly criticized the EU for its delay.

Mikuláš Dzurinda, Orbán and Günter Verheugen during the opening of the Mária Valéria Bridge across the Danube, connecting the Slovak town of Štúrovo with Esztergom in Hungary in November 2001

Orbán also came under criticism for pushing through an unprecedented two-year budget and for failing to curb inflation, which only dropped a half point, from 10% in 1999 to 9.5% in 2000, despite the tight monetary policy of the Central Bank. However, investments continued to grow.[60]

Foreign policy

In March 1999, after Russian objections were overruled, Hungary joined NATO along with the Czech Republic and Poland.[61] The Hungarian membership to NATO demanded its involvement in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's Kosovo crisis and modernization of its army. NATO membership also gave a blow to the economy because of a trade embargo imposed on Yugoslavia.[62]

Hungary attracted international media attention in 1999 for passing the "status law" concerning estimated three-million ethnic Hungarian minorities in neighbouring Romania, Slovakia, Serbia and Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia and Ukraine. The law aimed to provide education, health benefits and employment rights to those, and was said to heal the negative effects of the disastrous 1920 Trianon Treaty.[63]

Governments in neighbouring states, particularly Romania, claimed to be insulted by the law, which they saw as an interference in their domestic affairs. The proponents of the status law countered that several of the countries criticizing the law themselves have similar constructs to provide benefits for their own minorities. Romania acquiesced after amendments following a December 2001 agreement between Orbán and Romanian Prime Minister Adrian Năstase;[64] Slovakia accepted the law after further concessions made by the new government after the 2002 elections.[65]

Orbán with George W. Bush at the White House in 2001

Leader of the Opposition (2002–2010)

The level of public support for political parties generally stagnated, even with general elections coming in 2002. Fidesz and the main opposition Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) ran neck and neck in the opinion polls for most of the year, both attracting about 26% of the electorate. According to a September 2001 poll by the Gallup organization, however, support for a joint Fidesz – Hungarian Democratic Forum party list would run up to 33% of the voters, with the Socialists drawing 28% and other opposition parties 3% each.[66]

Meanwhile, public support for the FKGP plunged from 14% in 1998 to 1% in 2001. As many as 40% of the voters remained undecided, however. Although the Socialists had picked their candidate for prime minister—former finance minister Péter Medgyessy—the opposition largely remained unable to increase its political support. The dark horse of the election was the radical nationalist Hungarian Justice and Life Party (MIÉP), with its leader, István Csurka's radical rhetoric. MIÉP could not be ruled out as the key to a new term for Orbán and his party, should they be forced into a coalition after the 2002 elections.

The elections of 2002 were the most heated Hungary had experienced in more than a decade, and an unprecedented cultural-political division formed in the country. In the event, Orbán's group lost the April parliamentary elections to the opposition Hungarian Socialist Party, which set up a coalition with its longtime ally, the liberal Alliance of Free Democrats. Turnout was a record-high 70.5%. Beyond these parties, only deputies of the Hungarian Democratic Forum made it into the National Assembly. The populist Independent Smallholders' Party and the right Hungarian Justice and Life Party lost all their seats. Thus, the number of political parties in the new assembly was reduced from six to four.[67]

MIÉP challenged the government's legitimacy, demanded a recount, complained of election fraud, and generally kept the country in election mode until the October municipal elections. The socialist-controlled Central Elections Committee ruled that a recount was unnecessary, a position supported by observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, whose only substantive criticism of the election conduct was that the state television carried a consistent bias in favour of Fidesz.[68]

Orbán received the Freedom Award of the American Enterprise Institute and the New Atlantic Initiative (2001), the Polak Award (2001), the Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit (2001), the "Förderpreis Soziale Marktwirtschaft" (Price for the Social Market Economy, 2002) and the Mérite Européen prize (2004). In April 2004, he received the Papal Grand Cross of the Order of St. Gregory the Great.

In the 2004 European Parliament election, the ruling Hungarian Socialist Party was heavily defeated by the opposition conservative Fidesz. Fidesz gained 47.4% of the vote and 12 of Hungary's 24 seats.[69][70]

Orbán and Hans-Gert Pöttering in 2006

Orbán was the Fidesz candidate for the parliamentary election in 2006. Fidesz and its new-old candidate failed again to gain a majority in this election, which initially put Orbán's future political career as the leader of Fidesz in question.[71] However, after fighting with Socialist-Liberal coalition, Orbán's position solidified again, and he was elected president of Fidesz yet again for another term in May 2007.[72]

On 17 September 2006, an audio recording surfaced from a closed-door Hungarian Socialist Party meeting, which was held on 26 May 2006, in which Hungarian Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány gave an obscenity-laden speech. The leak ignited mass protests. On 1 November, Orbán and his party announced their plans to stage several large-scale demonstrations across Hungary on the anniversary of the Soviet suppression of the 1956 Revolution. The events were intended to serve as a memorial to the victims of the Soviet invasion and a protest against police brutality during the 23 October unrest in Budapest. Planned events included a candlelight vigil march across Budapest. However, the demonstrations were small and petered out by the end of the year.[73] A new round of demonstrations expected in the spring of 2007 did not materialize.

On 1 October 2006, Fidesz won the municipal elections, which counterbalanced the MSZP-led government's power to some extent. Fidesz won 15 of 23 mayoralties in Hungary's largest cities—although it narrowly lost Budapest to the Liberal Party—and majorities in 18 of 20 regional assemblies.[74][75]

On 9 March 2008, a national referendum took place on revoking government reforms which introduced doctor fees per visit and medical fees paid per number of days spent in hospital as well as tuition fees in higher education. Fidesz initiated the referendum against the ruling MSZP.[76][77] The procedure for the referendum started on 23 October 2006, when Orbán announced they would hand in seven questions to the National Electorate Office, three of which (on abolishing copayments, daily fees and college tuition fees) were officially approved on 17 December 2007 and called on 24 January 2008. The referendum passed, a significant victory for Fidesz.[78]

In the 2009 European Parliament election, Fidesz won by a large margin, garnering 56.36% of votes and 14 of Hungary's 22 seats.[79]

Second premiership (2010–present)

Orbán at a press conference following the meeting of leaders of the Visegrád Group, Germany and France on 6 March 2013
"Hungarians won’t live according to the commands of foreign powers", Orbán told the crowd at Kossuth square on 15 March 2012

During the 2010 parliamentary elections, Orbán's party won 52.73% of the popular vote, with a two-thirds majority of seats, which gave Orbán enough authority to change the Constitution.[80] As a result, Orbán's government drafted and passed a new constitution in 2011.[81][82][83][84] Among other changes, it includes support for traditional values, nationalism, references to Christianity, and a controversial electoral reform, which lowered the number of seats in the Parliament of Hungary from 386 to 199.[85][86] The new constitution entered into force on 1 January 2012 and was later amended further.

In his second term as prime minister, he garnered controversy for his statements against liberal democracy, for proposing an "internet tax", and for his perceived corruption.[87] His second premiership has seen numerous protests against his government, including one in Budapest in November 2014 against the proposed "internet tax".[88]

In terms of domestic legislation, Orbán's government implemented a flat tax on personal income. This tax is set at 16%.[89] Orbán has called his government "pragmatic", citing restrictions on early retirement in the police force and military, making welfare more transparent, and a central banking law that "gives Hungary more independence from the European Central Bank".[90]

After the 2014 parliamentary election, Fidesz won a majority, garnering 133 of the 199 seats in the National Assembly.[91] While he won a large majority, he garnered 44.54% of the national vote, down from 52.73% in 2010.

During the 2015 European migrant crisis, Orbán ordered the erection of the Hungary–Serbia barrier to block entry of illegal immigrants[92] so that Hungary could register all the migrants arriving from Serbia, which is the country's responsibility under the Dublin Regulation, a European Union law. Under Orbán, Hungary took numerous actions to combat illegal immigration and reduce refugee levels.[93] In May 2020, the European Court of Justice ruled against Hungary's policy of migrants transit zones, which Orbán subsequently abolished while also making the country's asylum rules stricter.[94]

Orbán questioned Nord Stream II, a new Russia–Germany natural gas pipeline. He said he wants to hear a "reasonable argument why South Stream was bad and Nord Stream is not".[95] "South Stream" refers to the Balkan pipeline cancelled by Russia in December 2014 after obstacles from the EU.[96]

Since 2017, Hungary's relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine.[97] Orbán and his cabinet ministers repeatedly criticized Ukraine's 2017 education law, which makes Ukrainian the only language of education in state schools,[98][99] and threatened to block further Ukraine's EU and NATO integration until it is modified or repealed.[100]

In July 2018, Orbán travelled to Turkey to attend the inauguration ceremony of re-elected Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.[101] In October 2018, Orbán said after talks with President Erdoğan in Budapest that "A stable Turkish government and a stable Turkey are a precondition for Hungary not to be endangered in any way due to overland migration."[102]

Poland's Law and Justice (PiS) leader Jarosław Kaczyński with Orbán on 22 September 2017

In April 2019, Orbán attended China's Belt and Road forum in Beijing,[103] where he met the Chinese President Xi Jinping.[104] In June 2019, Orbán met Myanmar’s State Counsellor and Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi. They discussed bilateral ties and illegal migration.[105][106]

On 30 March 2020, the Hungarian parliament voted 137 to 53 in favor of passing legislation that would create a state of emergency without a time limit, grant the Prime Minister the ability to rule by decree, the suspension of by-elections, and possibly prison sentences for spreading fake news and sanctions for leaving quarantine.[107][108][109] Two and a half months later, on 16 June 2020, the Hungarian parliament passed a bill that ended the state of emergency effective 19 June.[110] However, on the same day the parliament passed a new law removing the requirement of parliamentary approval for future "medical" states of emergencies, allowing the government to declare them by decree.[111][112]

In 2021, the parliament transferred control of 11 state universities to foundations led by allies of Orbán.[113][114] The Mathias Corvinus Collegium, a residential college, received an influx of government funds and assets equal to about 1% of Hungary's gross domestic product, reportedly as part of a mission to train future right-wing intellectuals.[115]

Due to a combination of unfavourable conditions, which involved soaring demand of natural gas, its diminished supply from Russia and Norway to the European markets, and less power generation by renewable energy sources such as wind, water and solar energy, Europe faced steep increases in energy prices in 2021. In October 2021, Orbán blamed a record-breaking surge in energy prices on the European Commission's Green Deal plans.[116]

Orbán in February 2022

Amidst the 2021-2022 Ukraine crisis Orbán was the first EU leader to meet with Vladimir Putin in Moscow in a visit which he called "a peacekeeping mission".[117] They also discussed Russian gas export to Hungary.[118] On 2 March, as Russia had already launched an invasion of Ukraine, Orbán decided to welcome Ukrainian refugees to Hungary, and will support the Ukrainian membership to the European Union.[118]

Anti-LGBT policies

Since his election as prime minister in 2010, Orbán has led initiatives and laws to hinder human rights of LGBT+ people, regarding those as "not compatible with Christian values."

In 2020, Orbán's government ended legal recognition of transgender people, receiving widespread criticism both in Hungary and abroad.[119]

In 2021 his party proposed legislation to censor any "LGBT+ positive content" in movies, books or public advertisements and to severely restrict sex education in school forbidding any information thought to "encourage gender change or homosexuality". The law has been likened to Russia's restriction on "homosexual propaganda."[120] German Chancellor Angela Merkel and European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen harshly criticized the law,[121] while a letter from sixteen EU leaders including Pedro Sánchez and Mario Draghi warned against “threats against fundamental rights and in particular the principle of non-discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation”.[122]

His anti-LGBT+ positions came under more scrutiny after the revelation that one of the European deputies of his party, József Szájer, had participated in a gay sex party in Brussels, despite the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic quarantine restrictions.[123][124][125] Szájer was one of the major architects behind the 2011 Constitution of Hungary. This new constitution has been criticized by Human Rights Watch for being discriminatory towards the LGBT+ community.[126][127]

Hungary's ascension to the Organization of Turkic States

Viktor Orbán during the 7th Summit of Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States in Baku, in 2019

Since 2014 Hungary has had observer status at the General Assembly of Turkic-speaking States, and in 2017 it submitted an application for accession to the International Turkic Academy. During the 6th Summit of Turkic Council, Orbán said that Hungary is seeking even closer cooperation with the Turkic Council.[128] In 2018, Hungary obtained its observer status in the council.[129] In 2021, Orbán mentioned that the Hungarian and Turkic peoples share a historical and cultural heritage "reaching back many long centuries". He also pointed out that the Hungarian people are "proud of this heritage, and "were also proud when their opponents in Europe mocked them as barbarian Huns and Attila's people".[130]

Nationalistic and racist views

In his 2018 speech at the meeting of the Association of Cities with County Rights, Orbán said We must state that we do not want to be diverse and do not want to be mixed: we do not want our own colour, traditions and national culture to be mixed with those of others. We do not want this. We do not want that at all. We do not want to be a diverse country.[131][132]

In his 2021 speech, Orbán said “The challenge with Bosnia is how to integrate a country with 2 million Muslims”. Bosnian leaders responded with calling for Orbán's visit to Sarajevo to be cancelled. The head of the country's Islamic Community, Husein Kavazović, characterized his statement “xenophobic and racist”.[133][134]

Views and public image

Orbán with José Manuel Barroso and Stavros Lambrinidis in January 2011

Orbán's blend of soft Euroscepticism, populism,[135][136][137] and national conservatism has seen him compared to politicians and political parties as diverse as Jarosław Kaczyński's Law and Justice, Silvio Berlusconi's Forza Italia, Matteo Salvini's League, Marine Le Pen's National Rally, Donald Trump,[138] Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Vladimir Putin.[139] Orbán has sought to make Hungary an "ideological center for ... an international conservative movement."[140]

According to Politico, Orbán's political philosophy "echoes the resentments of what were once the peasant and working classes" by promoting an "uncompromising defense of national sovereignty and a transparent distrust of Europe's ruling establishments".[138]

Orbán had a close relationship with the former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, having known him for decades. He is described as "one of Mr Netanyahu's closest allies in Europe."[141] Orbán received personal advice on economic reforms from Netanyahu, while the latter was Finance Minister of Israel (2003–2005).[142] In February 2019, Netanyahu thanked Orbán for "deciding to extend the embassy of Hungary in Israel to Jerusalem".[143]

Orbán is seen as having laid out his political views most concretely in a widely cited 2014 public address at Băile Tușnad (known in Hungary as the Tusnádfürdői beszéd, or "Tusnádfürdő speech"). In the address, Orbán repudiated the classical liberal theory of the state as a free association of atomistic individuals, arguing for the use of the state as the means of organizing, invigorating, or even constructing the national community. Although this kind of state respects traditionally liberal concepts like civic rights, it is properly called "illiberal" because it views the community, and not the individual, as the basic political unit.[144] In practice, Orbán claimed, such a state should promote national self-sufficiency, national sovereignty, familialism, full employment and the preservation of cultural heritage, and cited countries such as Turkey, India, Singapore, Russia, and China as models.[144]

Orbán and Angela Merkel, Congress of the European People's Party in Madrid on 21 October 2015
Orbán with Vladimir Putin in February 2016

Orbán's second and third premierships have been the subject of significant international controversy, and reception of his political views is mixed. The 2011 constitutional changes enacted under his leadership were, in particular, accused of centralizing legislative and executive power, curbing civil liberties, restricting freedom of speech, and weakening the Constitutional Court and judiciary.[145] For these reasons, critics have described him as "irredentist,"[146] "right-wing populist,"[147] "authoritarian,"[148] "autocratic,"[149] "Putinist,"[150] as a "strongman,"[151] and as a "dictator."[152]

Orbán with Mike Pompeo in Budapest in February 2019

Other commentators, however, noted that the European migrant crisis, coupled with continued Islamist terrorism in the European Union, have popularized Orbán's nationalist, protectionist policies among European conservative leaders. "Once ostracized" by Europe's political elite, writes Politico, Orbán "is now the talisman of Europe's mainstream right."[138] As other Visegrád Group leaders, Orbán opposes any compulsory EU long-term quota on redistribution of migrants.[153]

He wrote in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: "Europe's response is madness. We must acknowledge that the European Union's misguided immigration policy is responsible for this situation."[154] He also demanded an official EU list of "safe countries" to which migrants can be returned.[155] According to Orbán, Turkey should be considered a safe third country.[156]

Orbán has promoted the Great Replacement conspiracy theory. Le Journal du Dimanche reported on Orbán's explicit adoption of the conspiracy theory, after he claimed; "if we let tens of millions of migrants travel to Europe from Africa and the Middle East... the young people of Western Europe will know the day when they will be in a minority in their own country."[157]

During a press conference in January 2019, Orbán praised Brazil's president Jair Bolsonaro, saying that currently "the most apt definition of modern Christian democracy can be found in Brazil, not in Europe."[158]

Despite the anti-immigration rhetoric from Orbán, it has been reported that Hungary has actually increased immigration of foreign workers into the country.[159][160][161]

Donald Trump's former chief strategist, Steve Bannon, once called Orbán "Trump before Trump."[162]

As stated by The Guardian, the "Hungarian government doubled family spending between 2010 and 2019," intending to achieve "a lasting turn in demographic processes by 2030." Orbán has espoused an anti-immigration platform, and has also advocated for increased investment into "Family First." Orbán has disregarded the European Union's attempts to promote integration as a key solution to population distribution problems in Europe. He has also supported investments into the country's low birth rates. Orbán has tapped into the "great replacement theory" which emulates a nativist approach to rejecting foreign immigration out of fear of replacement by immigrants. He has stated that "If Europe is not going to be populated by Europeans in the future and we take this as given, then we are speaking about an exchange of populations, to replace the population of Europeans with others." The Guardian stated that "This year the Hungarian government introduced a 10 million forint (£27,000) interest-free loan for families, which does not have to be paid back if the couple has three children."[163]

In July 2020, Orbán expressed that he still expects arguments over linking of disbursement of funds of the European Union to rule-of-law criteria but remarked in a state radio interview that they "didn't win the war, we (they) won an important battle."[164] In August 2020, Orbán whilst speaking at an event to inaugurate a monument commemorating the Treaty of Trianon, said Central European nations should come together to preserve their Christian roots as western Europe experiments with same-sex families, immigration and atheism.[165]

In January 2022 Donald Trump endorsed Orbán in the 2022 Hungarian parliamentary election saying in a statement that he “truly loves his Country and wants safety for his people,” while also touting his hard-line immigration policies.[166][167]


Orbán's critics have included domestic and foreign leaders (including former United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton,[168] German Chancellor Angela Merkel,[169] and the Presidents of the European Commission José Manuel Barroso,[170] and Jean-Claude Juncker),[171] intergovernmental organizations, and non-governmental organizations. He has been accused of pursuing anti-democratic reforms; attacking the human rights of the LGBT community; reducing the independence of Hungary's press, judiciary and central bank; amending Hungary's constitution to prevent amendments to Fidesz-backed legislation; and of cronyism and nepotism.[172][173][174]

Pork barrel spending

He was accused of pork barrel politics for building a 4,000-seat stadium in the village in which he grew up, Felcsút,[175] at a distance of some 6 metres (20 ft) from his country house.[175]

Economic cronyism

A 2019 New York Times investigation revealed how Orban leased plots of farm land to politically connected individuals and supporters of his and his party, thereby channeling dispropotionate amounts of the EU's agricultural subsidies Hungary receives every year into the pockets of cronies.[176]

Opposition to European integration

Some opposition parties and critics also consider Orbán an opponent of European integration. In 2000, opposition parties MSZP and SZDSZ and the left-wing press presented Orbán's comment that "there's life outside the EU" as proof of his anti-Europeanism and sympathies with the radical right.[177][178] In the same press conference, Orbán clarified that "[w]e're trying to make the accession fast because it may boost the growth of Hungary's economy."

Migrant crisis

Hungarian-American business magnate and political activist George Soros criticized Orbán's handling of the European migrant crisis in 2015, saying: "His plan treats the protection of national borders as the objective and the refugees as an obstacle. Our plan treats the protection of refugees as the objective and national borders as the obstacle."[179]

The Orbán government began to attack Soros and his NGOs in early 2017, particularly for his support for more open immigration. In July 2017, the Israeli ambassador in Hungary joined Jewish groups and others in denouncing a billboard campaign backed by the government. Orbán's critics claimed it "evokes memories of the Nazi posters during the Second World War". The ambassador stated that the campaign "evokes sad memories but also sows hatred and fear", an apparent reference to the Holocaust. Hours later, Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a "clarification", denouncing Soros, stating that he "continuously undermines Israel's democratically elected governments" and funded organizations "that defame the Jewish state and seek to deny it the right to defend itself". The clarification came a few days before an official visit to Hungary by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[180] The anti-Soros messages became key elements of the government's communication and campaign since then, which, among others, also targeted the Central European University (CEU).[181][182][183][184]

Orban has been criticized for engineering the 2015 European migrant crisis for his own political gain. Specifically, he has been accused of mistreating migrants within Hungary and later sending many to Western Europe in an effort to stoke far-right sympathies in Western European countries.[185][186]

Democratic backsliding

Following a decade of Fidesz–KDNP rule led by Orbán, Freedom House's Nations in Transit 2020 report reclassified Hungary from a democracy to a transitional or hybrid regime.[187]

Personal life

Orbán and his wife, Anikó Lévai, at the funeral of President Árpád Göncz in November 2015.

Orbán married jurist Anikó Lévai in 1986; the couple have five children.[188] Their eldest daughter, Ráhel, is married to entrepreneur Tiborcz István, whose company, Elios, was accused of receiving unfair advantages when winning public tenders.[189] (see Elios case) Orbán's son, Gáspár, is a retired footballer, who played for Ferenc Puskás Football Academy in 2014.[190] He is also the founder of a religious community called Felház. Orbán has three younger daughters (Sára, Róza, Flóra) and three granddaughters (Ráhel's children Aliz and Anna Adél; Sára's daughter Johanna).

Orbán is a member of the Calvinist Hungarian Reformed Church, while his wife and their five children are Roman Catholic.[191]

Football interests

Orbán is very fond of sports, especially of football; he was a signed player of the FC Felcsút, and as a result he also appears in Football Manager 2006.[192][193]

Orbán has played football from his early childhood. He was a professional player with FC Felcsút. After ending his football career, he became one of the main financiers of the Hungarian football and his hometown's club, Felcsút FC, later renamed the Ferenc Puskás Football Academy.[194] He had a prominent role in the foundation of Puskás Akadémia in Felcsút, creating one of the most modern training facilities for young Hungarian footballers.[195]

He played an important role in establishing the annually organised international youth cup, the Puskás Cup, at Pancho Aréna, which he also helped build,[196][197] in his hometown of Felcsút. His only son, Gáspár, learned and trained there.[198]

Orbán is said to watch as many as six games a day. His first trip abroad as prime minister in 1998 was to the World Cup final in Paris; according to inside sources, he has not missed a World Cup or Champions League final since.[199]

Then FIFA president Sepp Blatter visited the facilities at the Puskás Academy in 2009. Blatter, together with the widow of Ferenc Puskás, as well as Orbán, founder of the academy, announced the creation of the new FIFA Puskás Award during that visit.[200] He played the minor role of a footballer in the Hungarian family film Szegény Dzsoni és Árnika (1983).[201]

See also


  1. ^ "Orbánnak kiütötték az első két fogát". Origo (in Hungarian). 20 December 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  2. ^ Szurovecz, Illés (30 November 2020). "Varga Judittól kellett megtudnunk, hogy Orbán Viktor többet volt hatalmon, mint bármelyik magyar miniszterelnök a történelemben". (in Hungarian). Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  3. ^ Lee, Frances E. (3 September 2019). "Populism and the American Party System: Opportunities and Constraints". Perspectives on Politics. 18 (2): 371. doi:10.1017/s1537592719002664. ISSN 1537-5927.
  4. ^ "What to do when Viktor Orban erodes democracy". The Economist. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  5. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (10 February 2018). "As West Fears the Rise of Autocrats, Hungary Shows What's Possible". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  6. ^ Kelemen, R. Daniel (2017). "Europe's Other Democratic Deficit: National Authoritarianism in Europe's Democratic Union". Government and Opposition. 52 (2): 211–238. doi:10.1017/gov.2016.41. ISSN 0017-257X.
  7. ^ Maerz, Seraphine F.; Lührmann, Anna; Hellmeier, Sebastian; Grahn, Sandra; Lindberg, Staffan I. (2020). "State of the world 2019: autocratization surges – resistance grows". Democratization. 27 (6): 909–927. doi:10.1080/13510347.2020.1758670. ISSN 1351-0347.
  8. ^ "The EU is tolerating—and enabling—authoritarian kleptocracy in Hungary". The Economist. 5 April 2018. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  9. ^ "World Press Freedom Index 2010". RSF. 20 April 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  10. ^ "2020 World Press Freedom Index | Reporters Without Borders". RSF. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  11. ^ "Democracy Index 2010: democracy in retreat" (PDF). Economist Intelligence Unit. 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  12. ^ "Democracy Index 2020: In sickness and in health?". Economist Intelligence Unit. 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ Kelemen, R. Daniel (8 February 2019). "Hungary's democracy just got a failing grade". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  14. ^ "Full text of Viktor Orbán's speech at Băile Tuşnad (Tusnádfürdő) of 26 July 2014". The Budapest Beacon. 30 July 2014.
  15. ^ "Hungarian PM sees shift to illiberal Christian democracy in 2019 European vote". Reuters. 28 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2020. Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban said on Saturday that European parliament elections next year could bring about a shift toward illiberal “Christian democracy” in the European Union that would end the era of multiculturalism.
  16. ^ "Hungary Orban: Europe's centre-right EPP suspends Fidesz". BBC. 20 March 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  17. ^ "Hungary: Viktor Orban's ruling Fidesz party quits European People's Party". Deutsche Welle. 18 March 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  18. ^ A Közgép is hizlalhatja Orbán Győző cégét, Heti Világgazdaság, 11 July 2012.
  19. ^ "Erzsébet Sípos". Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  20. ^ Lendvai 2017, pp. 11–12.
  21. ^ Pünkösti, Árpád (13 May 2000). "Szeplőtelen fogantatás 7". Népszabadság (in Hungarian). Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  22. ^ a b Orbán Viktor [Viktor Orbán] (biography) (in Hungarian), Hungary: arlament, 1996
  23. ^ Lendvai 2017, pp. 14, 265.
  24. ^ Kenney, Padraic (2002). A Carnival of Revolution: Central Europe 1989. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 138. ISBN 0-691-05028-7.
  25. ^ Faculty of Law - website of Eötvös Loránd University
  26. ^ Curriculum vitae of Viktor Orbán - website of the Hungarian government
  27. ^ Dr. Orbán Viktor - website of the Hungarian parlament
  28. ^ Orbán Viktor [Viktor Orban] (PDF) (biography) (in Hungarian), Hungary: National Assembly
  29. ^ "Fulbright report" (PDF), Rhodes House, Oxford, United Kingdom, archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2014
  30. ^ Lendvai 2017, p. 23.
  31. ^ Pünkösti Árpád: Szeplőtelen fogantatás. Népszabadság Könyvek, Budapest, 2005, pp. 138–139.
  32. ^ Debreczeni, József (2002), Orbán Viktor (in Hungarian), Budapest: Osiris
  33. ^ Debreczeni, József: Orbán Viktor, Osiris Kiadó, Budapest, 2002.
  34. ^ Lendvai 2017, p. 21.
  35. ^ Lendvai 2017, pp. 17–21.
  36. ^ Schwartzburg, Rosa; Szijarto, Imre (24 July 2019). "When Orbán Was a Liberal". Jacobin. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  37. ^ LeBor, Adam (11 September 2015). "How Hungary's Prime Minister Turned From Young Liberal Into Refugee-Bashing Autocrat". The Intercept. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  38. ^ Martens 2009, pp. 192–193.
  39. ^ a b c d "Register". Országgyűlés.
  40. ^ Hungary under Orbán: Can Central Planning Revive Its Economy?, Simeon Djankov, Peterson Institute for International Economics, July 2015; accessed 20 January 2015.
  41. ^ Petőcz, György: Csak a narancs volt. Irodalom Kft, 2001ISBN 963-00-8876-2.
  42. ^ a b Vida, István (2011). Magyarországi politikai pártok lexikona (1846–2010) [Encyclopedia of the Political Parties in Hungary (1846–2010)] (in Hungarian). Gondolat Kiadó. pp. 346–350. ISBN 978-963-693-276-3.
  43. ^ Orbán Viktor életrajza, Government of Hungary, accessed 2020-04-04
  44. ^ Lendvai 2017, p. 26.
  45. ^ a b Martens 2009, p. 193.
  46. ^ Kormányfői múltidézés: a jogászok a nyerők,
  47. ^ "Stumpf lesz a miniszterelnök-helyettes". Origo (in Hungarian). 21 November 2001. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  48. ^ "A parlamenti pártokat még mindig megosztja a háromhetes ülésezés". Népszava. 3 March 2000.
  49. ^ "Bírálják az új munkarendet. A háromhetes ciklus miatt összeomolhat a törvénygyártás gépezete". Népszava. 4 March 1999.
  50. ^ Bodnár, Lajos (23 July 2001). "Marad a háromhetes munkarend. Az ellenzéknek az őszi parlamenti ülésszak idején sem lesz ereje a változtatáshoz". Magyar Hírlap.
  51. ^ István Kukorelli – Péter Smuk: A Magyar Országgyűlés 1990–2010. Országgyűlés Hivatala, Budapest, 2011. pp. 47–48.
  52. ^ Tamás Bauer: A parlament megcsonkítása. Népszava, 8 February 1999.
  53. ^ 4/1999. (III. 31.) AB határozat, Magyar Közlöny: 1999. évi 27. szám and AB közlöny: VIII. évf. 3. szám.
  54. ^ Orbán nem gyanít korrupciót a Lockheed-botrány mögött, Origo, 26 May 1999; accessed 24 July 2012.
  55. ^ Történeti áttekintés Archived 13 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, National Theatre; accessed 17 June 2018. (in Hungarian).
  56. ^ Népszabadság Archívum, Népszabadság; accessed 15 March 2014.
  57. ^ "Nemzetközi Újságíró-szövetség vizsgálná a magyar médiát". Index (in Hungarian). 13 January 2001. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  58. ^ Torgyán lemondott, Index, 8 February 2001; accessed 15 March 2014.
  59. ^ a b Gazdag, László: Így kormányozták a magyar gazdaságot,, 12 February 2012; accessed 15 March 2014.
  60. ^ Kétéves költségvetés készül a PM-ben, Origo, 31 July 2001; accessed 15 March 2014.
  61. ^ Magyarország teljes jogú NATO-tag, Origo, 12 March 1999; accessed 15 March 2014.
  62. ^ Bell 2003, p. 315.
  63. ^ Michael Toomey, "History, nationalism and democracy: myth and narrative in Viktor Orbán’s ‘illiberal Hungary’." New Perspectives. Interdisciplinary Journal of Central & East European Politics and International Relations 26.1 (2018): 87-108 [1].
  64. ^ Nastase-Orbán egyezség készül a státustörvényről, Transindex, 17 December 2001; accessed 15 March 2014.
  65. ^ A magyar státustörvény fogadtatása és alkalmazása a Szlovák Köztársaságban Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Center for Legal Analyses-Kalligram Foundation; accessed 15 March 2014.
  66. ^ Gallup: nőtt a Fidesz-MDF közös lista előnye, Origo, 15 November 2001; accessed 15 March 2014.
  67. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p. 899ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  68. ^ A MIÉP cselekvésre szólít a 'csalás' miatt, Index, 22 April 2002; accessed 15 March 2014.
  69. ^ Hack, Péter (18 June 2004). "A vereség tanulságai". Hetek (in Hungarian). Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  70. ^ "A Fidesz győzött, és a legnagyobb európai frakció tagja lesz". (in Hungarian). 14 June 2004. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  71. ^ Országos Választási Iroda – 2006 Országgyűlési Választások eredményei [National Election Office – 2006 parliamentary elections] (in Hungarian), Valasztas
  72. ^ Ismét Orbán Viktor lett a Fidesz elnöke Archived 25 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine; accessed 12 April 2018.
  73. ^ Gorondi, Pablo (27 February 2007) "Hungary's prime minister expects political tension but no riots on 15 March commemorations", Associated Press.
  74. ^ "Vokscentrum – a választások univerzuma". 2006. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
  75. ^ "Opposition makes substantial gains in Hungarian elections". Taipei Times. 3 October 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2017.
  76. ^ "Hungarian president announces referendum date", Xinhua (People's Daily), 24 January 2008.
  77. ^ "Hungary's ruling MSZP vows to stick to medical reforms despite referendum – People's Daily Online". People's Daily. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  78. ^ Edelényi, Márk; Tóth, András; Neumann, László (18 May 2008). "Majority vote 'yes' in referendum to abolish medical and higher education fees". European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  79. ^ "EP-választás: A jobboldal diadalmenete". EURACTIV. 8 June 2009. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  80. ^ "Q&A Hungary's controversial constitutional changes". BBC News.
  81. ^ Judy Dempsey, "Hungarian Parliament Approves New Constitution", The New York Times, 18 April 2011; accessed April 25, 2011
  82. ^ "Hungarian lawmakers approve socially and fiscally conservative new constitution", The Washington Post, 18 April 2011; accessed April 25, 2011
  83. ^ Margit Feher, "Hungary Passes New Constitution Amid Concerns", The Wall Street Journal, 18 April 2011; accessed April 26, 2011
  84. ^ "Hungarian president signs new constitution despite human rights concerns", Deutsche Welle, 25 April 2011; accessed April 25, 2011
  85. ^ "New electoral system in the home stretch" (PDF). Valasztasirendszer.
  86. ^ "Hungary's parliament passes controversial new constitution". Deutsche Welle. 18 April 2011. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  87. ^ Lyman, Rick; Smale, Alison (7 November 2014). "Defying Soviets, Then Pulling Hungary to Putin". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  88. ^ "Opposing Orban". The Economist. 20 November 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  89. ^ Eder, Marton. "Hungary's personal income tax still under fire. The Wall Street Journal. June 2012.
  90. ^ "Hungary PM Viktor Orban: Antagonising Europe since 2010". BBC News. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  91. ^ "Hungary election: PM Viktor Orban declares victory". BBC News. 6 April 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  92. ^ Troianovski, Anton (19 August 2015). "Migration crisis pits EU's East against West". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  93. ^ Savitsky, Shane (1 February 2017). "Border fences and refugee bans: Hungary did it — fast". Axios. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  94. ^ Dunai, Marton; Komuves, Anita (21 May 2020). "Hungary tightens asylum rules as it ends migrant detention zones". Reuters. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  95. ^ Steinhauser, Gabriele (18 December 2015). "Germany's Merkel defends Russian gas pipeline plan". The Wall Street Journal.
  96. ^ Szpala, Marta; Gniazdowski, Mateusz; Groszkowski, Jakub; Łoskot-Strachota, Agata; Sadecki, Andrzej (17 December 2014). "Central and South-Eastern Europe after the cancellation of South Stream". Centre for Eastern Studies. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  97. ^ McLaughlin, Daniel (27 September 2017). "Ukraine defends education reform as Hungary promises 'pain'". The Irish Times.
  98. ^ Rusheva, Violetta (26 March 2018). "Hungary–Ukraine relations hit new low over troop deployment". New Europe. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  99. ^ "Ukrainian language bill facing barrage of criticism from minorities, foreign capitals". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 24 September 2017.
  100. ^ Prentice, Alessandra (8 December 2017). "Criticism of Ukraine's language law justified: rights body". Reuters.
  101. ^ "PM Orbán attends Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan's inauguration ceremony in Ankara". About Hungary. 10 July 2018.
  102. ^ "Orbán: Hungarian Security, Turkish Stability Directly Linked". Hungary Today. 9 October 2018.
  103. ^ "Second Belt and Road Forum Top-Level Attendees". The Diplomat. 27 April 2019.
  104. ^ "Xi meets individually with leaders at forum". China Daily. 26 April 2019.
  105. ^ "Orbán to Myanmar State Counsellor: Hungarian Govt Rejects "Export of Democracy"". Hungary Today. 5 June 2019.
  106. ^ Ellis-Petersen, Hannah (6 June 2019). "Aung San Suu Kyi finds common ground with Orbán over Islam". The Guardian.
  107. ^ "Hungary passes law allowing Viktor Orban to rule by decree". Deutsche Welle. 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020.
  108. ^ Bayer, Lili (30 March 2020). "Hungary's Viktor Orbán wins vote to rule by decree". Politico. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  109. ^ Silvia Amaro (31 March 2020). "Coronavirus in Hungary – Viktor Orban rules by decree indefinitely". Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  110. ^ "Megszűnt a veszélyhelyzet, de életbe lépett a járványügyi készültség". (in Hungarian). 18 June 2020. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  111. ^ Skorić, Toni (29 June 2020). "Is the State of Emergency in Hungary Really Over?". Friedrich Naumann Stiftung für die Freiheit. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  112. ^ Lehotai, Orsolya. "Hungary's Democracy Is Still Under Threat". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 16 February 2021.
  113. ^ Novak, Benjamin (28 April 2021). "Hungary Transfers 11 Universities to Foundations Led by Orban Allies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  114. ^ "Hungary's Orban extends dominance through university reform". Reuters. 27 April 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  115. ^ Hopkins, Valerie (28 June 2021). "Campus in Hungary is Flagship of Orban's Bid to Create a Conservative Elite". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  116. ^ "The Green Brief: East-West EU split again over climate". Euractiv. 20 October 2021.
  117. ^ "Strongmen strut their stuff as Orbán visits Putin in Russia". Politico Europe. 1 February 2022. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  118. ^ a b Amaro, Silvia (2 March 2022). "Putin loses his key ally in the EU as Hungary's Orban turns on the Russian leader". CNBC. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  119. ^ Walker, Shaun (19 May 2020). "Hungary votes to end legal recognition of trans people". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  120. ^ Nattrass, William (11 June 2021). "Orbán's LGBT+ crackdown extends to schools". The Independent. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  121. ^ Strozewski, Zoe (23 June 2021). "Angela Merkel Joins Other EU Leaders in Criticizing Hungary's LGBT Law: 'This Law is Wrong'". Newsweek. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  122. ^ Rankin, Jennifer (24 June 2021). "EU leaders to confront Hungary's Viktor Orbán over LGBTQ+ rights". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  123. ^ Chastand, Jean-Baptiste; Stroobants, Jean-Pierre (2 December 2020). "Jozsef Szajer, eurodéputé du parti de Viktor Orban, démissionne après une soirée de débauche sexuelle en plein confinement". Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  124. ^ Walker, Shaun (2 December 2020). "Hungary's rightwing rulers downplay MEP 'gay orgy' scandal amid hypocrisy accusations". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  125. ^ Berretta, Emmanuel (4 December 2020). "Hongrie : Viktor Orban gêné par les frasques du député Jozsef Szajer". Le Point (in French). Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  126. ^ "Wrong Direction on Rights". Human Rights Watch. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  127. ^ "Jozsef Szajer: Hungary MEP quits after allegedly fleeing gay orgy". BBC News. 1 December 2020. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  128. ^ "Hungary is ready for the opening of a new chapter in Hungarian-Turkic cooperation". 3 September 2018.
  129. ^ "Turkic Council inaugurates office in Budapest". Anadolu Agency. 19 September 2021.
  130. ^ "Hungary to initiate joint summit of Turkic Council and V4". 12 November 2021.
  131. ^ "Prime Minister Viktor Orbán's speech at the annual general meeting of the Association of Cities with County Rights –".
  132. ^ "In Trump, Hungary's Viktor Orban Has a Rare Ally in the Oval Office".
  133. ^ "'Shameful and rude': Orban slammed over remark on Bosnia's Muslims". 23 December 2021.
  134. ^ "With its EU and US anchors dislodged, Bosnia-Herzegovina is cast adrift".
  135. ^ "Hungary: One-party rule". The Guardian (editorial). London. 5 January 2011.
  136. ^ Castle, Stephen (22 April 2002). "Populist premier set for defeat in Hungarian election". The Independent. London.
  137. ^ "A populist's lament: Viktor Orbán has made Hungary a ripe target for doubters",, Hungary, 22 November 2011, archived from the original on 16 November 2017, retrieved 3 September 2018
  138. ^ a b c Waller, Luke. "Viktor Orbán: The conservative subversive". Politico. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  139. ^ Simonyi, Andras (12 October 2014). "Putin, Erdogan and Orban: Band of Brothers?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  140. ^ Novak, Benjamin; Grynbaum, Michael M. (7 August 2021). "Conservative Fellow Travelers: Tucker Carlson Drops In On Viktor Orban". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 December 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  141. ^ "Binyamin Netanyahu is soft on anti-Semitism when it suits him". The Economist. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  142. ^ "Hungarian PM: We share the same security concerns as Israel". Israel Hayom. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  143. ^ Ahren, Raphael (19 February 2019). "Hungary to open office with 'diplomatic status' in Jerusalem". The Times of Israel.
  144. ^ a b Orbán, Viktor. "Prime Minister Viktor Orbán's speech at the 25th Bálványos Summer Free University and Student Camp". Government of Hungary. Archived from the original on 15 October 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  145. ^ "Q&A: Hungary's controversial constitutional changes". BBC. 11 March 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  146. ^ Pack, Jason. "The Hungary model: Resurgent nationalism". The National Interest. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  147. ^ "Playing with fear". The Economist. 12 December 2015. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  148. ^ Schliefer, Yigal (October 2014). "Hungary at the turning point". Moment, Slate. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  149. ^ Veer, Harmen van der; Meijers, Maurits (3 May 2017). "Analysis – Hungary's government is increasingly autocratic. What is the European Parliament doing about it?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  150. ^ Zakaria, Fareed (31 July 2014). "The rise of Putinism". The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  151. ^ Faris, Stephan (22 January 2015). "Power Hungary: How Viktor Orban became Europe's new strongman". Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  152. ^ Woodard, Colin (17 June 2015). "Europe's new dictator". Politico. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  153. ^ Traynor, Ian (5 September 2015). "Refugee crisis: East and West split as leaders resent Germany for waiving rules". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  154. ^ Traynor, Ian (3 September 2015). "Migration crisis: Hungary PM says Europe in grip of madness". The Guardian.
  155. ^ "Hungary PM rejects Merkel's 'moral imperialism' in refugee crisis", Yahoo! News, 23 September 2015.
  156. ^ Birnbaum, Michael; Witte, Griff (3 September 2015). "'People in Europe are full of fear' over refugee influx". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 August 2020.
  157. ^ "Wauquiez is not "embarrassed" by Viktor Orban's speech on immigration". Le Journal du Dimanche. 12 July 2017.
  158. ^ Gorondi, Pablo (10 January 2019). "'Hungary's Orban wants anti-migration forces to control EU". Associated Press.
  159. ^ Hungary, Bojan Pancevski in Budapest and Adam Bihari in Mór (8 September 2019). "Hungary, Loudly Opposed to Immigration, Opens Doors to More Foreign Workers". Wall Street Journal.
  160. ^ Vass, Ábrahám (24 September 2019). "Number of Foreigners Coming to Hungary to Work Growing". Hungary Today.
  161. ^ "In Orban's Hungary, more migrants due to labor shortage". InfoMigrants. 30 September 2019.
  162. ^ "In Trump, Hungary's Viktor Orban Has a Rare Ally in the Oval Office".
  163. ^ Walker, Shaun (6 September 2019). "Viktor Orbán trumpets Hungary's 'procreation, not immigration' policy". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  164. ^ Simon, Zoltan (24 July 2020). "Viktor Orban Expects More Battles Over Rule of Law". Bloomberg. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  165. ^ "Hungary's Orban calls for central Europe to unite around Christian roots". NBC News. 20 August 2020. Retrieved 20 August 2020.
  166. ^ Schnell, Mychael (3 January 2022). "Trump endorses autocratic Hungarian leader". TheHill. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  167. ^ Goldmacher, Shane (3 January 2022). "Trump Endorses Viktor Orban, Hungary's Far-Right Prime Minister". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  168. ^ "Letter to the Prime Minister of Hungary from the Secretary of State of the United States of America" (PDF). 23 December 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  169. ^ "Angela Merkel criticized Viktor Orban behind closed doors", Daily News Hungary, 9 October 2015.
  170. ^ "The European Commission reiterates its serious concerns over the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution of Hungary". 12 April 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  171. ^ "Happy slaps, rambling speeches and jaw-dropping insults... this is the man who RUNS the EU", Daily Express, 28 June 2016.
  172. ^ "Press freedom a loser in Viktor Orbán's winner-take-all Hungary". 2 December 2011. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  173. ^ Bayer, Lili (24 September 2020). "How Orbán broke the EU — and got away with it". Politico. Retrieved 7 February 2021.
  174. ^ Bayer, Lili (23 June 2021). "It's Hungary vs. Everyone after attacks on LGBTQ+ rights". Politico. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  175. ^ a b Hakim, Danny (3 April 2014). "A village stadium is a symbol of power for Hungary's premier". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  176. ^ Gebrekidan, Selam; Apuzzo, Matt; Novak, Benjamin (3 November 2019). "The Money Farmers: How Oligarchs and Populists Milk the E.U. for Millions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  177. ^ "Orbán: van élet az EU-n kívül is". Új Szó. 1 February 2002. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  178. ^ "Orbán Viktor – Wikidézet". Wikiquote (in Hungarian). Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  179. ^ Gergely, Andras (30 October 2015). "Orbán accuses Soros of stoking refugee wave to weaken Europe". Bloomberg. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  180. ^ Baker, Luke (10 July 2017). "Israel backs Hungary, says financier Soros is a threat". Reuters. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  181. ^ Gorondi, Pablo (3 April 2017). "Hungary: Parliament to rush bill targeting Soros school". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2 April 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  182. ^ Witte, Griff (17 March 2018). "Once-fringe Soros conspiracy theory takes center stage in Hungarian election". The Washington Post.
  183. ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (27 April 2017). "Hungary's Freudian political fight: Orbán vs Soros". Politico. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  184. ^ Walker, Shaun (22 June 2017). "'A useful punching bag': why Hungary's Viktor Orbán has turned on George Soros". The Guardian.
  185. ^ "Viktor Orban Uses Migrant Crisis to Shore Up His Sagging Popularity". PIIE. 2 March 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  186. ^ Beauchamp, Zack (18 September 2015). ""Like animals:" why Hungary is herding refugees into miserable detention camps". Vox. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  187. ^ "Hungary". Freedom House. 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  188. ^ "Családja", Orbán Viktor [Viktor Orbán family] (Official Website) (in Hungarian), Hungary
  189. ^ "Viktor Orbán's son-in-law awarded billions in state and local contracts". The Budapest Beacon. 22 December 2014.
  190. ^ "Orbán Gáspár játszott az NB I-ben". Blikk (in Hungarian). 8 March 2014. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
  191. ^ István, Sebestyén. "Orbán hite" [The faith of Orbán]. Hetek (in Hungarian). Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  192. ^ "Top ten footballers turned politicians", Goal, 9 May 2010
  193. ^ Goldblatt, David; Nolan, Daniel (11 January 2018). "Viktor Orbán's reckless football obsession". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  194. ^ Orbán lenne a felcsúti focimese hőse, Origo; accessed 12 April 2018. (in Hungarian).
  195. ^ Puskas Academy,; accessed 12 April 2018. (in Hungarian).
  196. ^ Foster, Peter (7 October 2016). "A village fit for a king: How Viktor Orban had a football stadium and a railway built on his doorstep". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 11 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  197. ^ Buckley, Neil; Byrne, Andrew (20 December 2017). "Viktor Orban's oligarchs: a new elite emerges in Hungary". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  198. ^ "NB II: Orbán fia őrült meccsen debütált, a Fradi Dragónerrel ikszelt – eredmények". Archived from the original on 26 October 2010.
  199. ^ "Viktor Orbán's reckless football obsession". the Guardian. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  200. ^ Sepp Blatter az Akadémián, Puskás Akadémia official website; accessed 17 June 2018. (in Hungarian).
  201. ^ Szegény Dzsoni és Árnika (1983), IMDb; accessed 17 June 2018.


  • Bell, Imogen (2003). Central and South-Eastern Europe 2004. Routledge. ISBN 978-1857431865.
  • Fabry, Adam. "Neoliberalism, crisis and authoritarian–ethnicist reaction: The ascendancy of the Orbán regime." Competition & Change 23.2 (2019): 165–191. online
  • Lendvai, Paul (2017). Orbán: Hungary's Strongman. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190874865.
  • Martens, Wilfried (2009). Europe: I Struggle, I Overcome. Springer. ISBN 978-3540892885.
  • Metz, Rudolf, and Daniel Oross. "Strong Personalities’ Impact on Hungarian Party Politics: Viktor Orbán and Gábor Vona." in Party Leaders in Eastern Europe (Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2020) pp. 145–170. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-32025-6_7
  • Rydliński, Bartosz. "Viktor Orbán–First among Illiberals? Hungarian and Polish Steps towards Populist Democracy." Online Journal Modelling the New Europe 26 (2018): 95–107. online
  • Szikra D. "Democracy and welfare in hard times: the social policy of the Orban Government in Hungary between 2010 and 2014" Journal of European Social Policy (2014) 24(5): 486–500.
  • Szilágyi, Anna, and András Bozóki. "Playing it again in post-communism: the revolutionary rhetoric of Viktor Orbán in Hungary." Advances in the History of Rhetoric 18.sup1 (2015): S153–S166. online
  • Toomey, Michael. "History, nationalism and democracy: myth and narrative in Viktor Orbán’s ‘illiberal Hungary’." New Perspectives. Interdisciplinary Journal of Central & East European Politics and International Relations 26.1 (2018): 87–108 online.

Further reading

  • Hollós, János – Kondor, Katalin: Szerda reggel – Rádiós beszélgetések Orbán Viktor miniszterelnökkel, 1998. szeptember – 2000. december;ISBN 963-9337-32-3
  • Hollós, János – Kondor, Katalin: Szerda reggel – Rádiós beszélgetések Orbán Viktor miniszterelnökkel, 2001–2002;ISBN 963-9337-61-7
  • A történelem főutcáján – Magyarország 1998–2002, Orbán Viktor miniszterelnök beszédei és beszédrészletei, Magyar Egyetemi Kiadó;ISBN 963-8638-31-1
  • 20 év – Beszédek, írások, interjúk, 1986–2006, Heti Válasz Kiadó,ISBN 963-9461-22-9
  • Egy az ország. Helikon Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 2007. (translated into Polish as Ojczyzna jest jedna in 2009).
  • Rengéshullámok. Helikon Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 2010.
  • Janke, Igor: Hajrá, magyarok! – Az Orbán Viktor-sztori egy lengyel újságíró szemével Rézbong Kiadó, 2013. (English: Igor Janke: Forward! – The Story of Hungarian Prime Minister, Viktor Orbán, German: Viktor Orbán: Ein Stürmer in der Politik).

External links

Media files used on this page

Flag of Europe.svg
The Flag of Europe is the flag and emblem of the European Union (EU) and Council of Europe (CoE). It consists of a circle of 12 golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. It was created in 1955 by the CoE and adopted by the EU, then the European Communities, in the 1980s.

The CoE and EU are distinct in membership and nature. The CoE is a 47-member international organisation dealing with human rights and rule of law, while the EU is a quasi-federal union of 27 states focused on economic integration and political cooperation. Today, the flag is mostly associated with the latter.

It was the intention of the CoE that the flag should come to represent Europe as a whole, and since its adoption the membership of the CoE covers nearly the entire continent. This is why the EU adopted the same flag. The flag has been used to represent Europe in sporting events and as a pro-democracy banner outside the Union.
Flag of Austria.svg
Flag of Austria with the red in the Austrian national colours which was official ordered within the Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) in the characteristic “Pantone 032 C” (since May 2018 the Red is ordered in the characteristic “Pantone 186 C”.)
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg
The civil ensign and flag of Belgium. It is identical to Image:Flag of Belgium.svg except that it has a 2:3 ratio, instead of 13:15.
Flag of Croatia.svg
It is easy to put a border around this flag image
Flag of Estonia.svg
Flag of Estonia 7:11, blue PANTONE 285C.
Flag of Germany.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Greece.svg
Flag of Greece (since 1978) and Naval Ensign of Greece (since 1828)
Flag of Ireland.svg
Note that the green portion of the flag was designed to represent the majority Catholic residents of the island, the orange side the minority Protestant and the white middle part peace and harmony between them.
Flag of Italy.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Portugal.svg
Flag of Portugal, created by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), officially adopted by Portuguese government in June 30th 1911 (in use since about November 1910). Color shades matching the RGB values officially reccomended here. (PMS values should be used for direct ink or textile; CMYK for 4-color offset printing on paper; this is an image for screen display, RGB should be used.)
Flag of Slovenia.svg
The flag of Slovenia.
"The construction sheet for the coat of arms and flag of the Republic of Slovenia
is issued in the Official Gazette Uradni list Republike Slovenije #67, 27 October 1994
as the addendum to the Law on the coat of arms and flag."
Flag of Spain.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Sweden.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Albania.svg
Flag of Albania
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Flag of Canada introduced in 1965, using Pantone colors. This design replaced the Canadian Red Ensign design.
Flag of Iceland.svg
The Flag of Iceland.
  • Horizontal aspect ratio: 7:1:2:1:14;
  • Vertical aspect ratio: 7:1:2:1:7.
Flag of Montenegro.svg
Flag of the Republic of Montenegro (adopted on 13 July 2004) - RGB colours, official 1:2 dimensions and construction details based partly on the templates: Flag (Government of Montenegro) and Coat of arms (Government of Montenegro).
Flag of Norway.svg
Flag of Norway. The colors approximately correspond to Pantone 200 C (deep red) and 281 C (dark blue).
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Flag of the United Kingdom, Union Jack or Union Flag in a 1:2 ratio (typical on British warships and also the rank flag of an admiral of the fleet).
Flag of the United States.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg
The proportions of this flag are 3:2; however, there is no official definition for the correct proportions and also 5:3 is widely used.
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg
The national flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Created according to the 2006 constitution : Son emblème est le drapeau bleu ciel, orné d’une étoile jaune dans le coin supérieur gauche et traversé en biais d’une bande rouge finement encadrée de jaune. (Its symbol is a sky blue flag, decorated with a yellow star in the upper left corner and crossed in the diagonal by a red strip with thin yellow borders) It seems to be identical, except for a lighter field hue, to the 1966–1971 flag.
Flag of Ethiopia.svg
Flag of Ethiopia
Flag of Côte d'Ivoire.svg
Flag of the Ivory Coast, written by Jon Harald Søby, modified by Zscout370. The colors match to what is reported at
Flag of Mauritania.svg
Flag of Mauritania, adopted in 2017. The National Assembly added red stripes to the top and bottom edges to represent “the blood shed by the martyrs of independence”.
Flag of Namibia.svg
Flag of Namibia
Flag of Niger.svg
This flag was created with a text editor.
Flag of Rwanda.svg
Flag of Rwanda. The flag ratio is 2:3 with the stripes being 2:1:1. Colors are the following officially: Pantone 299 C 2X (blue), RAL 6029 (green), RAL 1023 (yellow) and RAL 1003 (golden yellow). (As of 03/08/2010, the only color used is the Pantone 299 C, which is from here. The rest of the colors are RAL shades from here.)
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg
Flag of São Tomé and Príncipe
Flag of Senegal.svg
Flag of Senegal
Flag of Brazil.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Chile.svg
It is easy to put a border around this flag image
Flag of Dominica.svg
Author/Creator: See File history below for details., Licence: CC0
The Flag of Dominica.
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg
The flag of the Dominican Republic has a centered white cross that extends to the edges. This emblem is similar to the flag design and shows a bible, a cross of gold and 6 Dominican flags. There are branches of olive and palm around the shield and above on the ribbon is the motto "Dios,Patria!, Libertad" ("God, Country, Freedom") and to amiable freedom. The blue is said to stand for liberty, red for the fire and blood of the independence struggle and the white cross symbolized that God has not forgotten his people. "Republica Dominicana". The Dominican flag was designed by Juan Pablo Duarte, father of the national Independence of Dominican Republic. The first dominican flag was sewn by a young lady named Concepción Bona, who lived across the street of El Baluarte, monument where the patriots gathered to fight for the independence, the night of February 27th, 1844. Concepción Bona was helped by her first cousin María de Jesús Pina.
Flag of Ecuador.svg
Made by author of Xramp, first uploaded by Denelson83 as Flag of Ecuador.svg, modifications by Husunqu.
Flag of Haiti.svg
The national and official state flag of Haiti; arms obtained from The civil flag can be found at here.
Flag of Mexico.svg
Flag of Mexico Official version of the Flag of the United Mexican States or Mexico, adopted September 16th 1968 by Decree (Published August 17th 1968), Ratio 4:7. The previous version of the flag displayed a slightly different Coat of Arms. It was redesigned to be even more resplendent due to the upcoming Mexico City 1968 Olympic Games; According to Flag of Mexico, the colors are Green Pantone 3425 C and Red Pantone 186 C. According to [1] or [2], that translates to RGB 206, 17, 38 for the red, and RGB 0, 104, 71 for the green.
Flag of India.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence:
Flag of Iran.svg
Flag of Iran. The tricolor flag was introduced in 1906, but after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the Arabic words 'Allahu akbar' ('God is great'), written in the Kufic script of the Qur'an and repeated 22 times, were added to the red and green strips where they border the white central strip and in the middle is the emblem of Iran (which is a stylized Persian alphabet of the Arabic word Allah ("God")).
The official ISIRI standard (translation at FotW) gives two slightly different methods of construction for the flag: a compass-and-straightedge construction used for File:Flag of Iran (official).svg, and a "simplified" construction sheet with rational numbers used for this file.
Flag of Israel.svg
Flag of Israel. Shows a Magen David (“Shield of David”) between two stripes. The Shield of David is a traditional Jewish symbol. The stripes symbolize a Jewish prayer shawl (tallit).
Flag of Laos.svg
Flag of Laos
Flag of Maldives.svg
Flag of Maldives. The colours used are Pantone 186 C for red and Pantone 348 C for green.
Flag of Syria.svg
It is easy to put a border around this flag image
Flag of Fiji.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of Nauru.svg
The national flag of Nauru. Official Pantone colours are: PMS 280 blue, PMS 123 yellow.
Viktor Orbán 2022.jpg
Author/Creator: Palácio do Planalto from Brasilia, Brasil, Licence: CC BY 2.0

(Budapeste - Hungria, 17/02/2022) Presidente da República Jair Bolsonaro cumprimenta o Primeiro-Ministro da Hungria, Viktor Mihály Orbán.

Foto: Alan Santos/PR
Author/Creator: Európa Pont, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Budapest, 2011-01-07

Az Európa Pont ünnepélyes avatásán: Stavros Lambrinidis az Európai Parlament alelnöke, Schmitt Pál a Magyar Köztársaság elnöke és José Manuel Barroso az Európai Bizottság elnöke Orbán Viktor magyar miniszterelnök beszédét hallgatja. Az épület átadása óta itt működik az Európai Bizottság Magyarországi Képviselete és az Európai Parlament Tájékoztatási Irodája.

Fotó: Európai Bizottság/ Dudás Szabolcs
Accession Treaty 2011 Viktor Orbán signature.svg
Signature de Viktor Orbán extraite du traité d'adhésion de la Croatie à l'Union Européenne
Orbán Viktor 2018.jpg
Author/Creator: European People's Party, Licence: CC BY 2.0
EPP Summit, Brussels, December 2018 (cropped)
Vladimir Putin and Viktor Orbán (2016-02-17) 11.jpg
(c), CC BY 4.0
Встреча Президента России Владимира Путина с Премьер-министром Венгрии Виктором Орбаном
Pha01 mariavaleriabridge original.jpg
Author/Creator: EPA PHOTO CTK/JANA MISAUEROVA, Licence: Attribution
European Commissioner for enlargement Guenter Verheugen (right) and Prime Ministers Viktor Orban of Hungary (centre) and Mikulas Dzurinda of Slovakia (left) face the media as they open the Maria Valeria bridge across the Danube connecting the Slovak town of Stúrovo with Esztergom in Hungary
Seal of the Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hungary
Author/Creator: Občanská demokratická strana - Civic Democratic Party in the Czech Republic, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Meeting of V4 countries - Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Germany and France.
Orbán and Bush.jpg
Orbán Viktor and George Bush
Jarosław Kaczyński i Viktor Orbán w Sejmie.jpg
Author/Creator: Kancelaria Sejmu / Paweł Kula, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Jarosław Kaczyński i Viktor Orbán w Sejmie. Viktor Orbán w Sejmie.
Flag of South Ossetia.svg
Flag of South Ossetia
Viktor Orbán 1997.jpg
Author/Creator: Rita Molnár, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
/as per the original
Author/Creator: Malatinszky, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Pronunciation of Orbán Viktor
Baku hosts 7th Summit of Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States 04.jpg
(c), CC BY 4.0
7th Summit of Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States in Baku
OrbanViktor and deutchTamas.jpg
Author/Creator: No machine-readable author provided. Nikita~commonswiki assumed (based on copyright claims)., Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5

en:Viktor Orbán and en:Tamás Deutsch Hungarian politicians, 2000. My own picture.

Created by Rita Molnár. 2000
Göncz Árpád funeral 18.JPG
Author/Creator: Tibor Végh, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Funeral of Árpád Göncz
Viktor Orbán 2018.jpg
Author/Creator: European People's Party, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Viktor Orbán in 2018.
Szárszói találkozó 1993 Fodor Gábor Orbán Viktor.jpg
Author/Creator:, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Fodor Gábor és Orbán Viktor a tanácskozás közben beszélgetnek - Szárszói Találkozó 1993
Secretary Pompeo Meets With Prime Minister Orban - 47013210012.jpg
U.S. Secretary of State Michael R. Pompeo meets with Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban in Budapest, Hungary on February 11, 2019. [State Department photo by Ron Przysucha/ Public Domain]
Orbán Viktor beszéde, 2012.03.15, Kossuth tér (1).JPG
Author/Creator: Derzsi Elekes Andor, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Live on the 15th of march, 2012. Budapest Kossuth tér. Orbán Viktor, prime minister of Hungary: “We won’t be a colony,” Orban told the crowd at Kossuth Square outside the parliament building, his 27-minute speech often interrupted by cheers. “Hungarians won’t live according to the commands of foreign powers, they wont give up their independence or their freedom.” Orban said Hungary would defend its new constitution, “We write our constitution ourselves,” Orban said. “We don’t want unrequested assistance from foreigners who want to guide our hands.” Published under Creative Commons in the Metapolisz DVD line.

A felvételek 2012. március 15 –én készültek Budapesten, a Kossuth téren. Szájer József, Orbán Viktor beszéde. A felvételek megjelentek Creative Commons alatt a Metapolisz DVD sorozatban. A BS file, illetve az ahhoz tartozó adatfile tartalma a portálon Creative Commons alatt megjelent anyag. Szerzője és impresszuma az adatfile szerinti. Tartalma szerzőjének illetve a portál előírásainak megfelelően másolható. Közzétéve Creative Commons alatt a Metapolisz DVD sorozatban. Források: Az elmúlt tíz év is benne van a kohéziós pénzek befagyasztásában Hungarian PM Viktor Orban denounces EU's 'colonialism' Hungary’s prime minister accuses EU of colonialist behavior, tells bloc to stop meddling

Orbán compares EU to Soviet Union Orbán Viktor: Brüsszel nem Moszkva Mindenből kihagyta a kormány az MNB-t By Kester Eddy in Budapest