Victoria Cross

Victoria Cross
A bronze cross pattée bearing the crown of Saint Edward surmounted by a lion with the inscription "for valour". A crimson ribbon is attached
Obverse of the cross; ribbon:1+12 inches (38 mm), crimson (blue ribbon for naval awards 1856–1918)
TypeMilitary decoration
Awarded for"... most conspicuous bravery, or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice, or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy"[1]
DescriptionBronze Cross pattée with Crown and Lion Superimposed, and motto: "For Valour"
Presented byThe Monarch of the United Kingdom
EligibilityPersons of any rank in the Naval, Military and Air Forces of the United Kingdom, its colonies or territories, and Commonwealth countries that award UK honours; members of the Merchant Navy; and civilians serving under the orders, directions or supervision of any of the above-mentioned forces or services[2]
Post-nominalsVC
ClaspsBars can be awarded for further acts of valour
StatusCurrently awarded
Established29 January 1856
First awarded26 June 1857
Last awarded26 February 2015
Total1,358
Total recipients1,355
UK Victoria Cross ribbon bar.svg
Ribbon bar
Victoria Cross, second award bar.png
Second award bar
Order of Wear
Next (higher)None
Next (lower)George Cross[3]

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest and most prestigious award of the British honours system. It is awarded for valour "in the presence of the enemy" to members of the British Armed Forces and may be awarded posthumously. It was previously awarded by countries of the Commonwealth of Nations, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians under military command. No civilian has received the award since 1879. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857, two thirds of all awards have been personally presented by the British monarch. The investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace.

The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War. Since then, the medal has been awarded 1,358 times to 1,355 individual recipients. Only 15 medals, of which 11 to members of the British Army and four to members of the Australian Army, have been awarded since the Second World War. The traditional explanation of the source of the metal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the siege of Sevastopol. However, research has indicated another origin for the material.[4] The historian John Glanfield has established that the metal for most of the medals made since December 1914 came from two Chinese cannon and that there is no evidence of Russian origin.[5]

Because of its rarity, the VC is highly prized, and the medal has fetched over £400,000 at auctions.[6] A number of public and private collections are devoted to the Victoria Cross. The private collection of Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains over one tenth of all Victoria Crosses awarded. After a 2008 donation to the Imperial War Museum, the Ashcroft collection went on public display alongside the museum's Victoria and George Cross collection in November 2010.[7]

Beginning with the Centennial of Confederation in 1967, Canada,[8] followed in 1975 by Australia[9] and New Zealand,[10] developed their own national honours systems, separate from and independent of the British or Imperial honours system. As each country's system evolved, operational gallantry awards were developed with the premier award of each system, with the Victoria Cross for Australia, the Canadian Victoria Cross and the Victoria Cross for New Zealand being created and named in honour of the Victoria Cross. They are unique awards of each honours system recommended, assessed, gazetted and presented by each country.

Origin

In 1854, after 39 years of peace, Britain found itself fighting a major war against Russia. The Crimean War was one of the first wars with modern reporting, and the dispatches of William Howard Russell described many acts of bravery and valour by British servicemen that went unrewarded.[11]

Before the Crimean War, there was no official standardised system for recognition of gallantry within the British armed forces. Officers were eligible for an award of one of the junior grades of the Order of the Bath and brevet promotions while a Mention in Despatches existed as an alternative award for acts of lesser gallantry. This structure was very limited; in practice, awards of the Order of the Bath were confined to officers of field rank[12] and brevet promotions or Mentions in Despatches were largely confined to those who were under the immediate notice of the commanders in the field, generally members of the commander's own staff.[13]

Other European countries had awards that did not discriminate against class or rank; France awarded the Légion d'honneur (Legion of Honour, established 1802) and the Netherlands gave the Order of William (established in 1815). There was a growing feeling among the public and in the Royal Court that a new award was needed to recognise incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with the length or merit of a man's service. Queen Victoria issued a warrant under the royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856[11][14] (gazetted 5 February 1856)[14] that officially constituted the VC. The order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War.[15]

Queen Victoria had instructed the War Office to strike a new medal that would not recognise birth or class. The medal was meant to be a simple decoration that would be highly prized and eagerly sought after by those in the military services.[16] To maintain its simplicity, Queen Victoria, under the guidance of Prince Albert, vetoed the suggestion that the award be called The Military Order of Victoria and instead suggested the name Victoria Cross. The original warrant stated that the Victoria Cross would only be awarded to officers and men who had served in the presence of the enemy and had performed some signal act of valour or devotion.[17] The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857 at which Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park, London.[11]

Manufacture

A single company of jewellers, Hancocks & Co, has been responsible for the production of every VC awarded since its inception.[18]

It has long been widely believed that all the VCs were cast in bronze from the cascabels of two cannon that were captured from the Russians at the siege of Sevastopol.[19][20][18] However, in 1990 Creagh and Ashton conducted a metallurgical examination of the VCs in the custody of the Australian War Memorial,[21][22] and later the historian John Glanfield wrote that, through the use of X-ray studies of older Victoria Crosses, it was determined that the metal used for almost all VCs since December 1914 is taken from antique Chinese guns, replacing an earlier gun.[4][20][18][23] Creagh noted the existence of Chinese inscriptions on the cannon, which are now barely legible due to corrosion.[21] A likely explanation is that the cannon were taken as trophies during the First Opium War and held in the Woolwich repository.

It was also thought that some medals made during the First World War were composed of metal captured from different Chinese guns during the Boxer Rebellion. This is not so, however. The VCs examined by Creagh and Ashton[21][22] both in Australia (58) and at the National Army Museum in New Zealand (14)[21] spanned the entire time during which VCs have been issued and no compositional inconsistencies were found.[21] It was also believed that another source of metal was used between 1942 and 1945 to create five Second World War VCs when the Sevastopol metal "went missing".[4] Creagh accessed the Army records at MoD Donnington in 1991 and did not find any gaps in the custodial record.[21] The composition found in the WW2 VCs, amongst them those for Edwards (Australia) and Upham (New Zealand), is similar to that for the early WW1 medals. This is likely to be due to the reuse of material from earlier pourings, casting sprues, defective medals, etc.

The remaining portion of the only remaining cascabel, weighing 358 oz (10 kg), is stored in a vault maintained by 15 Regiment Royal Logistic Corps at MoD Donnington and may only be removed under armed guard. It is estimated that approximately 80 to 85 more VCs could be cast from this source.[4]

Appearance

The obverse and reverse of the bronze cross pattée medal; obverse showing the crown of Saint Edward surmounted by a lion with the inscription "for valour" with a crimson ribbon; the reverse shows the inscription of the recipient on the bar connecting the ribbon with the regiment in the centre of the medal.
The front and back of Edward Holland's VC

The decoration is a bronze cross pattée,1+3964″ (41 mm) high,1+2764″ (36 mm) wide, bearing the crown of Saint Edward surmounted by a lion, and the inscription "for valour".[24] This was originally to have been "for the brave", until it was changed on the recommendation of Queen Victoria, as it implied that not all men in battle were brave.[20] The decoration, suspension bar, and link weigh about 0.87 troy ounces (27 g).[25]

The cross is suspended by a ring from a seriffed "V" to a bar ornamented with laurel leaves, through which the ribbon passes. The reverse of the suspension bar is engraved with the recipient's name, rank, number and unit.[16] On the reverse of the medal is a circular panel on which the date of the act for which it was awarded is engraved in the centre.[16]

The Original Warrant Clause 1 states that the Victoria Cross "shall consist of a Maltese cross of bronze".[24] Nonetheless, it has always been a cross pattée; the discrepancy with the warrant has never been corrected.[26]

The ribbon is crimson,1+12″(38 mm) wide. The original (1856) specification for the award stated that the ribbon should be red for army recipients and dark blue for naval recipients,[27] but the dark blue ribbon was abolished soon after the formation of the Royal Air Force on 1 April 1918. On 22 May 1920 King George V signed a warrant that stated all recipients would now receive a red ribbon and the living recipients of the naval version were required to exchange their ribbons for the new colour.[28] Although the army warrants state the colour as being red, it is defined by most commentators as being crimson or "wine-red".[29]

Since 1917 a miniature of the Cross has been affixed to the centre of the ribbon bar when worn without the Cross. In the event of a second award bar, a second replica is worn alongside the first.[26]

Award process

The obverse of the bronze cross pattée medal; showing the crown of Saint Edward surmounted by a lion with the inscription FOR VALOUR with a blue ribbon
The obverse of William Johnstone's VC showing the dark blue ribbon for pre-1918 awards to naval personnel

The Victoria Cross is awarded for

... most conspicuous bravery, or some daring or pre-eminent act of valour or self-sacrifice, or extreme devotion to duty in the presence of the enemy.[1]

A recommendation for the VC is normally issued by an officer at regimental level, or equivalent, and has to be supported by three witnesses, although this has been waived on occasion.[30] The recommendation is then passed up the military hierarchy until it reaches the Secretary of State for Defence. The recommendation is then laid before the monarch who approves the award with his or her signature. Victoria Cross awards are always promulgated in the London Gazette with the single exception of the award to the American Unknown Soldier in 1921.[31] The Victoria Cross warrant makes no specific provision as to who should actually present the medals to the recipients. Queen Victoria indicated that she would like to present the medals in person and she presented 185 medals out of the 472 gazetted during her reign. Including the first 62 medals presented at a parade in Hyde Park on 26 June 1857 by Queen Victoria, nearly 900 awards have been personally presented to the recipient by the reigning British monarch. Nearly 300 awards have been presented by a member of the royal family or by a civil or military dignitary. About 150 awards were either forwarded to the recipient or next of kin by registered post or no details of the presentations are known.[32]

The original royal warrant did not contain a specific clause regarding posthumous awards, although official policy was not to award the VC posthumously. Between the Indian Mutiny in 1857 and the beginning of the Second Boer War, the names of six officers and men were published in the London Gazette with a memorandum stating they would have been awarded the Victoria Cross had they survived. A further three notices were published in the London Gazette in September 1900 and April 1901 for gallantry in the Second Boer War. In an exception to policy for the Second Boer War, six posthumous Victoria Crosses, three to those mentioned in the notices in 1900 and 1901 and a further three, were granted on 8 August 1902, the first official posthumous awards.[33][note 1] Five years later in 1907, the posthumous policy was reversed for earlier wars, and medals were sent to the next of kin of the six officers and men whose names were mentioned in notices in the Gazette dating back to the Indian Mutiny.[34] The Victoria Cross warrant was not amended to explicitly allow posthumous awards until 1920, but one quarter of all awards for World War I were posthumous.[35][36]

The process and motivations of selecting the medal's recipients has sometimes been interpreted as inconsistent or overly political. The most common observation being that the Victoria Cross may be given more often for engagements that senior military personnel would like to publicly promote.[37][38]

The 1920 royal warrant made provision for awards to women serving in the Armed Forces. No woman has been awarded a VC.[note 2][40]

In the case of a gallant and daring act being performed by a squadron, ship's company or a detached body of men (such as marines) in which all men are deemed equally brave and deserving of the Victoria Cross, a ballot is drawn. The officers select one officer, the NCOs select one individual, and the private soldiers or seamen select two individuals.[41] In all, 46 awards have been awarded by ballot with 29 of the awards during the Indian Mutiny. Four further awards were granted to Q Battery, Royal Horse Artillery at Korn Spruit on 31 March 1900 during the Second Boer War. The final ballot awards for the army were the six awards to the Lancashire Fusiliers at W Beach during the landing at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915, although three of the awards were not gazetted until 1917. The final seven ballot awards were the only naval ballot awards with three awards to two Q-ships in 1917 and four awards for the Zeebrugge Raid in 1918. The provision for awards by ballot is still included in the Victoria Cross warrant, but there have been no further such awards since 1918.[30]

Between 1858 and 1881, the Victoria Cross could be awarded for actions taken "under circumstances of extreme danger" not in the face of the enemy.[42] Six such awards were made during this period—five of them for a single incident during an Expedition to the Andaman Islands in 1867.[43] In 1881, the criteria were changed again and the VC was only awarded for acts of valour "in the face of the enemy".[43] Due to this, it has been suggested by many historians including Lord Ashcroft that the changing nature of warfare will result in fewer VCs being awarded.[44]

Colonial awards

The Victoria Cross was extended to colonial troops in 1867. The extension was made following a recommendation for gallantry regarding colonial soldier Major Charles Heaphy for action in the New Zealand Wars in 1864.[45] He was operating under British command and the VC was gazetted in 1867. Later that year, the Government of New Zealand assumed full responsibility for operations, but no further recommendations for the Victoria Cross were raised for local troops who distinguished themselves in action.[46] Following gallant actions by three New Zealand soldiers in November 1868 and January 1869 during the New Zealand Wars, an Order in Council on 10 March 1869 created a "Distinctive Decoration" for members of the local forces without seeking permission from the Secretary of State for the Colonies.[47] Although the governor was chided for exceeding his authority, the Order in Council was ratified by the Queen. The title "Distinctive Decoration" was later replaced by the title New Zealand Cross.[46] In addition, in 1870 Victoria sent six ceremonial Highland broadswords to New Zealand, to be presented as "Swords of Honour" to Māori rangatira who had served with distinction during the New Zealand Land Wars. The swords were presented in a ceremony in Wellington in June 1870 to Mōkena Kōhere, Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui (Major Kemp), Te Pokiha Taranui, Henare Tomoana, Ropata Wahawaha, and Ihaka Whaanga.[48]

The question of whether awards could be made to colonial troops not serving with British troops was raised in South Africa in 1881. Surgeon John McCrea, an officer of the South African forces was recommended for gallantry during hostilities which had not been approved by the British Government. He was awarded the Victoria Cross and the principle was established that gallant conduct could be rewarded independently of any political consideration of military operations. More recently, four Australian soldiers were awarded the Victoria Cross in the Vietnam War although Britain was not involved in the conflict.[49]

Indian troops were not originally eligible for the Victoria Cross since they had been eligible for the Indian Order of Merit since 1837, which was the oldest British gallantry award for general issue. When the Victoria Cross was created, Indian troops were still controlled by the Honourable East India Company and did not come under Crown control until 1860. European officers and men serving with the Honourable East India Company were not eligible for the Indian Order of Merit and the Victoria Cross was extended to cover them in October 1857. It was only at the end of the 19th century that calls for Indian troops to be awarded the Victoria Cross intensified. Indian troops became eligible for the award in 1911. The first awards to Indian troops appeared in the London Gazette on 7 December 1914 to Darwan Sing Negi and Khudadad Khan. Negi was presented with the Victoria Cross by King George V during a visit to troops in France. The presentation occurred on 5 December 1914 and he is one of a very few soldiers presented with his award before it appeared in the London Gazette.[50]

Separate Commonwealth awards

Victoria Cross as it appears on Commonwealth War Graves Commission headstones.

Since the Second World War, most but not all Commonwealth countries have created their own honours systems and no longer participate in the British honours system. This began soon after the Partition of India in 1947, when the new countries of India and Pakistan introduced their own systems of awards. The VC was replaced by the Param Vir Chakra (PVC) and Nishan-e-Haider (NH) respectively. Most if not all new honours systems continued to permit recipients of British honours to wear their awards according to the rules of each nation's order of wear. Sri Lanka, whose defence personnel were eligible to receive the Victoria Cross until 1972, introduced its own equivalent, the Parama Weera Vibhushanaya medal. Three Commonwealth realms—Australia, Canada and New Zealand[51]—have each introduced their own decorations for gallantry and bravery, replacing British decorations such as the Victoria Cross with their own. The only Commonwealth countries that still can recommend the VC are the small nations that still participate in the British honours system, none of whose forces have ever been awarded the VC.[52]

When the Union of South Africa instituted its own range of military decorations and medals with effect from 6 April 1952, these new awards took precedence before all earlier British decorations and medals awarded to South Africans, with the exception of the Victoria Cross, which still took precedence before all other awards. The other older British awards continued to be worn in the order prescribed by the British Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood.[3][53][54]

Australia was the first Commonwealth realm to create its own VC, on 15 January 1991. Although it is a separate award, its appearance is identical to its British counterpart.[55] Canada followed suit when in 1993 Queen Elizabeth signed Letters Patent creating the Canadian VC, which is also similar to the British version, except that the legend has been changed from "for valour" to the Latin "pro valore". This language was chosen so as to favour neither French nor English, the two official languages of Canada.[56] New Zealand was the third country to adapt the VC into its own honours system. While the New Zealand and Australian VCs are technically separate awards, the decoration is identical to the British design, including being cast from the same gunmetal as the British VC.[51][55] The Canadian Victoria Cross also includes metal from the same cannon, along with copper and other metals from all regions of Canada.[57]

There have been five recipients of the Victoria Cross for Australia, four for action in Afghanistan and one awarded for action in the Second World War following a review. The first was to Trooper Mark Donaldson (Special Air Service Regiment) on 16 January 2009 for actions during Operation Slipper, the Australian contribution to the War in Afghanistan;[58] Ben Roberts-Smith,[59] Daniel Keighran[60] and Cameron Baird were also awarded the Victoria Cross for Australia for actions in Afghanistan. Teddy Sheean was awarded the VC after the Australian Government convened an expert panel to review his case.[61] The Victoria Cross for New Zealand has been awarded once: Corporal Willie Apiata (New Zealand Special Air Service) on 2 July 2007, for his actions in the War in Afghanistan in 2004. The Canadian Victoria Cross has been cast once, to be awarded to the Unknown Soldier at the rededication of the Vimy Memorial on 7 April 2007 (this date being chosen as it was the 90th anniversary of the battle of Vimy Ridge), but pressure from veterans' organisations caused the plan to be dropped.[62]

Authority and privileges

As the highest award for valour of the United Kingdom, the Victoria Cross is always the first award to be presented at an investiture, even before knighthoods, as was shown at the investiture of Private Johnson Beharry, who received his medal before General Sir Mike Jackson received his knighthood.[19] Owing to its status, the VC is always the first decoration worn in a row of medals and it is the first set of post-nominal letters used to indicate any decoration or order.[52] Similar acts of extreme valour that do not take place in the face of the enemy are honoured with the George Cross (GC), which has equal precedence but is awarded second because the GC is newer.[63]

It is not statutory for "all ranks to salute a bearer of the Victoria Cross": There is no official requirement that appears in the official warrant of the VC, nor in Queen's Regulations and Orders, but tradition dictates that this occurs and, consequently, senior officers will salute a private awarded a VC or GC.[63]

As there was no formal order of wear laid down,[64] the Victoria Cross was at first worn as the recipient fancied. It was popular to pin it on the left side of the chest over the heart, with other decorations grouped around the VC. The Queen's Regulations for the Army of 1881 gave clear instructions on how to wear it; the VC had to follow the badge of the Order of the Indian Empire. In 1900 it was ordained in Dress Regulations for the Army that it should be worn after the cross of a Member of the Royal Victorian Order. It was only in 1902 that King Edward VII gave the cross its present position on a bar brooch.[65] The cross is also worn as a miniature decoration on a brooch or a chain with mess jacket, white tie or black tie. As a bearer of the VC is not a Companion in an Order of Chivalry, the VC has no place in a coat of arms.[66]

Annuity

The original warrant stated that NCOs and private soldiers or seamen on the Victoria Cross Register were entitled to a £10 per annum annuity.[67] In 1898, Queen Victoria raised the pension to £50 for those that could not earn a livelihood, be it from old age or infirmity.[68] Today holders of the Victoria Cross or George Cross are entitled to an annuity, the amount of which is determined by the awarding government. Since 2015, the annuity paid by the British Government is £10,000 per year.[69] This is exempted from tax for British taxpayers by Section 638 Income Tax (Earnings and Pensions) Act 2003, along with pensions or annuities from other awards for bravery.[70] In Canada, under the Gallantry Awards Order, members of the Canadian Forces or people who joined the British forces before 31 March 1949 while domiciled in Canada or Newfoundland receive Can$3,000 per year.[71] Under Subsection 103.4 of the Veterans' Entitlements Act 1986, the Australian Government provides a Victoria Cross Allowance.[72] Until November 2005 the amount was A$3,230 per year. Since then this amount has been increased annually in line with the Australian Consumer Price Index.[73][74]

Forfeited awards

The original royal warrant involved an expulsion clause that allowed for a recipient's name to be erased from the official register in certain wholly discreditable circumstances and his pension cancelled.[75] Eight were forfeited between 1861 and 1908. The power to cancel and restore awards is still included in the Victoria Cross warrant.[76]

King George V felt very strongly that the decoration should never be forfeited and in a letter from his Private Secretary, Lord Stamfordham, on 26 July 1920, his views are forcefully expressed:

The King feels so strongly that, no matter the crime committed by anyone on whom the VC has been conferred, the decoration should not be forfeited. Even were a VC to be sentenced to be hanged for murder, he should be allowed to wear his VC on the scaffold.[31]

Recipients

The 93rd Highlanders storming Sikandar Bagh. National Army Museum, London (NAM 1987-06-12)
James Hills-Johnes VC pictured earning his Victoria Cross at the siege of Delhi in July 1857

A total of 1,358 Victoria Crosses have been awarded since 1856 to 1,355 men.[77] There are several statistics related to the greatest number of VCs awarded in individual battles or wars. The greatest number of Victoria Crosses awarded for a single day was 24 for deeds performed during the Indian Mutiny on 16 November 1857, 23 for deeds at Lucknow and one by Francis David Millet Brown for action at Narnoul, south of Delhi.[78] The greatest number won by a single unit during a single action is seven, to the 2nd/24th Foot, for the defence of Rorke's Drift, 22–23 January 1879, during the Zulu War.[79] The greatest number won in a single conflict is 628, being for the First World War.[80] Ishar Singh became the first Indian Sikh to receive the award.[81] Eight of the then-twelve surviving holders of the Victoria Cross attended the 150th Anniversary service of remembrance at Westminster Abbey on 26 June 2006.[82]

Three people have been awarded the VC and Bar, the bar representing a second award of the VC. They are Noel Chavasse and Arthur Martin-Leake, both doctors in the Royal Army Medical Corps, for rescuing wounded under fire; and New Zealander Captain Charles Upham, an infantryman, for combat actions.[83] Upham remains the only combatant soldier to have received a VC and Bar. Surgeon General William Manley, an Irishman, remains the sole recipient of both the Victoria Cross and the Iron Cross. The VC was awarded for his actions during the Waikato-Hauhau Maori War, New Zealand on 29 April 1864, while the Iron Cross was awarded for tending the wounded during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71.[84] Royal New Zealand Air Force Flying Officer Lloyd Trigg has the distinction of being the only serviceman ever awarded a VC on evidence solely provided by the enemy, for an action in which there were no surviving Allied witnesses.[85] The recommendation was made by the captain of the German U-boat U-468 sunk by Trigg's aircraft. Lieutenant Commander Gerard Roope was also awarded a VC on recommendation of the enemy, the captain of the Admiral Hipper, but there were also numerous surviving Allied witnesses to corroborate his actions.[86]

Since the end of the Second World War, the original VC has been awarded fifteen times: four in the Korean War, one in the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation in 1965, four to Australians in the Vietnam War, two during the Falklands War in 1982, one in the Iraq War in 2004, and three in the War in Afghanistan for actions in 2006, 2012 and 2013.[87][88][89][90]

In 1921, the British Unknown Warrior was awarded the US Medal of Honor and reciprocally the Victoria Cross was presented to the American Unknown Soldier of the First World War.[87] This is the only ungazetted VC award following the normal British practice for both gallantry and meritorious awards to foreign recipients not being gazetted. It is included in the total of 1,358 awards.

In 1856, Queen Victoria laid an unnamed Victoria Cross beneath the foundation stone of Netley Military hospital.[91] When the hospital was demolished in 1966 the VC, known as "The Netley VC", was retrieved and is now on display in the Army Medical Services Museum, Mytchett, near Aldershot. This VC is not counted in official statistics.[91]

Public sales

Since 1879, more than 300 Victoria Crosses have been publicly auctioned or advertised. Others have been privately sold. The value of the VC can be seen by the increasing sums that the medals reach at auctions. In 1955 the set of medals awarded to Edmund Barron Hartley was bought at Sotheby's for the then record price of £300 (approximately £8000 in present-day terms[92]). In October 1966 the Middlesex Regiment paid a new record figure of £900 (approximately £17100 in present-day terms[92]) for a VC awarded after the Battle of the Somme. In January 1969, the record reached £1700 (£28600[92]) for the medal set of William Rennie.[93] In April 2004 the VC awarded in 1944 to Sergeant Norman Jackson, RAF, was sold at an auction for £235,250.[94][95] On 24 July 2006, an auction at Bonhams in Sydney of the VC awarded to Captain Alfred Shout fetched a world record hammer price of A$1 million (approximately £410,000 at the time).[6] In November 2009, it was reported that almost £1.5 million was paid to St Peter's College, Oxford by Lord Ashcroft for the VC and bar awarded to Noel Chavasse.[96] Vice Admiral Gordon Campbell's medal group, including the VC he received for actions while in command of HMS Farnborough, was reportedly sold for a record £840,000.[97]

Thefts

Several VCs have been stolen and, being valuable, have been placed on the Interpol watch-list for stolen items.[98] The VC awarded to Milton Gregg, which was donated to the Royal Canadian Regiment Museum in London, Ontario, Canada in 1979, was stolen on Canada Day (1 July 1980), when the museum was overcrowded[99] and has been missing since. A VC awarded in 1917 to Canadian soldier Corporal Filip Konowal[100] was stolen from the same museum in 1973 and was not recovered until 2004.[101]

On 2 December 2007, nine VCs were among 100 medals (12 sets) stolen from locked, reinforced glass cabinets at the QEII Army Memorial Museum in Waiouru, New Zealand, with a value of around NZD$20 million. Charles Upham's VC and Bar was among these.[102] A reward of NZ$300,000, provided by Lord Ashcroft, was posted for information leading to the recovery of the decorations. On 16 February 2008 New Zealand Police announced all the medals had been recovered.[103]

Collections

There are a number of collections of Victoria Crosses. The VC collection of businessman and politician Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains 162 medals, over one-tenth of all VCs awarded. It is the largest collection of such decorations. In July 2008 it was announced that Ashcroft was to donate £5 million for a permanent gallery at the Imperial War Museum where the 50 VCs held by the museum would be put on display alongside his collection.[104] The Lord Ashcroft Gallery at the Imperial War Museum opened on 12 November 2010, containing a total of 210 VCs and 31 GCs.[7]

Prior to the November 2010 opening of the Ashcroft Gallery, the largest collection of VCs on public display was held by the Australian War Memorial, whose collection includes all nine VCs awarded to Australians at Gallipoli. Of the 101 medals awarded to Australians (96 VCs, and five VCs for Australia), this collection contains around 70 medals, including three medals awarded to British soldiers (Grady, 1854; Holbrook, 1914; and Whirlpool, 1858), and three of the VCs for Australia (Donaldson, 2008; Keighran, 2010; and Roberts-Smith, 2010).[105]

Museums with holdings of ten or more VCs include:[106][107]

In the UK
MuseumLocationNumber
of VCs
Lord Ashcroft Gallery, Imperial War MuseumNorth Lambeth, London210
The National Army MuseumChelsea, London39
The Royal Green Jackets (Rifles) MuseumWinchester, Hampshire34
The Royal Engineers MuseumGillingham, Kent26
The Army Medical Services MuseumMytchett, Surrey22
Firepower – The Royal Artillery MuseumWoolwich, London20
The Queen's Own Highlanders MuseumFort George, Inverness-shire16
The Regimental Museum of The Royal WelshBrecon, Wales16
The Green Howards Regimental MuseumRichmond, Yorkshire15
The Royal Fusiliers MuseumTower of London12
The Gordon Highlanders MuseumAberdeen12
The National Maritime MuseumGreenwich, London11
The National War MuseumEdinburgh Castle11
The RAF MuseumHendon, London11
The Sherwood Foresters MuseumNottingham11
The Gurkha MuseumWinchester, Hampshire10
The Royal Marines MuseumPortsmouth, Hampshire10
The Royal Welch Fusiliers MuseumCaernarfon Castle, Wales10
Outside the UK
Australian War MemorialCanberra, Australia~70[108]
Canadian War MuseumOttawa, Ontario, Canada39[109]
National Army MuseumWaiouru, New Zealand11
Note: Many VCs are on loan to the museums and are owned by individuals and not owned by the museums themselves.[106]

Legacy

Memorials

In 2004, a national Victoria Cross and George Cross memorial was installed in Westminster Abbey close to the tomb of the Unknown Warrior.[110] Westminster Abbey contains monuments and memorials to central figures in British History including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin and James VI & I.[111] One VC recipient, Lord Henry Percy, is buried, within a family vault, in the Abbey.[112]

Canon William Lummis was a military historian who built up an archive on the service records and final resting places of Victoria Cross holders.[113] This was then summarised into a pamphlet which was taken to be an authoritative source on these matters. However, Lummis was aware of short-comings in his own work and encouraged David Harvey to continue it. The result was Harvey's seminal book Monuments to Courage. In 2007 the Royal Mail used material from Lummis' archives to produce a collection of stamps commemorating Victoria Cross recipients.[114]

It is a tradition within the Australian Army for soldiers' recreational clubs on military bases to be named after a particular recipient of the Victoria Cross.[115] Australia has another unique means of remembering recipients of the Victoria Cross. Remembrance Drive is a path through city streets and highways linking Sydney and Canberra. Trees were planted in February 1954 by Queen Elizabeth II in a park near Sydney Harbour and at the Australian War Memorial in Canberra, marking either end of the route, with various plantations along the roadsides in memory of the fallen. Beginning in 1995, 23 rest stop memorials named for Australian recipients of the VC from World War II onwards have been sited along the route, providing picnic facilities and public amenities to encourage drivers to take a break on long drives. 23 of the 26 memorial sites have been dedicated, with a further three reserved for the surviving VC recipients, including two of the newer Victoria Cross for Australia awards. Edward Kenna was honoured with the most recent rest stop on 16 August 2012, having died in 2009.[116]

Valour Road is a residential street in the city of Winnipeg, Canada named in honour of three World War I recipients of the Victoria Cross who lived in the same block of that street. The story is also commemorated in a sixty-second short film commonly seen on Canadian television.[117]

In art

The subject of soldiers earning the VC has been popular with artists since the medal's inception. Notable are the fifty paintings by Louis William Desanges that were painted in the late 1850s and early 1860s. Many of these were exhibited at the Egyptian Gallery in Piccadilly, but in 1900, they were brought together by Lord Wantage as the Victoria Cross Gallery and exhibited in the town of Wantage, at that time in Berkshire. Later, the collection was broken up and many of the paintings were sent to the various regiments depicted. Some were damaged or destroyed.[118] A number of the acts were also portrayed in a Second World War propaganda pamphlet, and the images commissioned by the Ministry of Information are presented in an online gallery available on the website of The National Archives.[119] In 2016, portrait photographer Rory Lewis was commissioned by the Victoria Cross and George Cross Association to hold portrait sittings with all living recipients of the Victoria Cross and the George Cross.[120]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ On 8 August 1902, in a partial reversal of War Office policy, recommendations for posthumous awards of the Victoria Cross were approved for officers and men who fell in the South African War 1899-1902 in the performance of acts of valour which would, in the opinion of the Commander in Chief, have entitled them to a Victoria Cross had they survived. The relevant recipients were:[33] The three first names were men who had previously been the subject of Memoranda published in the London Gazette on 28 October 1900 for Younger and on 19 April 1901 for Digby-Jones and Albrecht stating that they would have been recommended for the Victoria Cross had they survived. The medals were now sent to their next of kin.
    • Captain David Younger, action near Krugersdorp, 11 July 1900
    • Lieutenant Robert Digby-Jones and Trooper Herman Albrecht, Battle of Wagon Hill, 6 January 1900
    The following three names were gazetted for the first time and similarly medals were sent to their next of kin.
  2. ^ Elizabeth Webber Harris was presented with a replica gold VC by the 104th Bengal Fusiliers for her valour in nursing cholera-ridden soldiers in India in 1869.[39]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b "Military Honours and Awards". Defence Internet. UK Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2007.
  2. ^ Special Army Order 65 of 1961, paragraph 6.
  3. ^ a b "No. 56878". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 March 2003. p. 3351.
  4. ^ a b c d Davies, Catriona (28 December 2005). "Author explodes myth of the gunmetal VC". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 4 June 2008. Retrieved 16 June 2007.
  5. ^ Glanfield (2005) pp. 24–35.
  6. ^ a b "The Victoria Cross ... awarded to Captain Alfred Shout have been sold at auction". Iain Stewart, Victoria Cross.org. Archived from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2008.
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  10. ^ "History". New Zealand Honours System. New Zealand Government. 1 April 2011. Archived from the original on 27 August 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  11. ^ a b c Ashcroft (2006), preface.
  12. ^ Original Warrant Foreword: "And, whereas, the third class of Our Most Honourable Order of the Bath is limited, except in very rare cases, to the higher ranks of both services, and the granting of Medals, both in Our Navy and Army, is only awarded for long service or meritorious conduct, rather than for bravery in action or distinction before an enemy."
  13. ^ British Gallantry Awards, p. 283.
  14. ^ a b "No. 21846". The London Gazette. 5 February 1856. pp. 410–411. The Gazette publishing the original royal warrant.
  15. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, pp. 7–10.
  16. ^ a b c "The Victoria Cross". Vietnam Veterans of Australia. Archived from the original on 29 April 2013. Retrieved 15 June 2007.
  17. ^ Original Warrant, Clause 5: "Fifthly. It is ordained that the Cross shall only be awarded to those officers and men who have served Us in the presence of the enemy, and shall have then performed some signal act of valour or devotion to their country."
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  19. ^ a b Beharry, Johnson p. 359.
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  21. ^ a b c d e f Creagh, Dudley (1992). Charles Barrett (ed.). Advances in X-ray Analysis Vol. 35. Plenum. pp. 1127–1132. ISBN 978-0-306-44249-0.
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  23. ^ Glanfield (2005), pp. 24–35.
  24. ^ a b Original Warrant, Clause 1: "Firstly. It is ordained that the distinction shall be styled and designated 'The Victoria Cross', and shall consist of a Maltese cross of bronze, with our Royal crest in the centre, and underneath with an escroll bearing the inscription 'For Valour'."
  25. ^ Ashcroft, Michael, p. 16.
  26. ^ a b Abbott PE, Tamplin JMA, Chapter 44, p. 291.
  27. ^ Original warrant, Clause Two: "Secondly. It is ordained that the Cross shall be suspended from the left breast by a blue riband for the Navy, and by a red riband for the Army."
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  42. ^ Warrant Amendment dated 10 August 1858: "subject to the rules and ordinances already made, on Officers and Men of Her Majesty's Naval and Military Services, who may perform acts of conspicuous courage and bravery under circumstances of extreme danger, such as the occurrence of a fire on board ship, or the foundering of a vessel at sea, or under any of the other circumstance in which, through the courage and devotion displayed, life or public property may be saved."
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  53. ^ Government Notice no. 1982 of 1 October 1954—Order of Precedence of Orders, Decorations and Medals, published in the Government Gazette of 1 October 1954.
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  65. ^ Sir Ivan de la Bère, The Queen's Orders of Chivalry, 1964.
  66. ^ The complete book of Heraldry by Stephen Slater, 2002.
  67. ^ Original Warrant, Clause 14: "It is ordained that every warrant officer, petty officer, seaman or marine, or non-commissioned officer, or soldier who shall have received the Cross, shall, from the date of the act by which the Decoration has been gained be entitled to a special pension of 10 pounds a year, and each additional bar conferred under Rule 4 on such warrant or petty officers, or non-commissioned officers or men, shall carry with it an additional pension of 5 pounds per annum."
  68. ^ Warrant Amendment 1898-07-1898 "... authorize the increase of the Victoria Cross pension from 10 pounds to 50 pounds per annum, the condition to be satisfied in such cases being inability to earn a livelihood, in consequence of age or infirmity occasioned by causes beyond an Annuitant's control."
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Sources

  • Abbott, Peter; Tamplin, John (1981). British Gallantry Awards. London: Nimrod Dix and Company. ISBN 0-902633-74-0.
  • Arthur, Max (2005). Symbol of Courage: Men behind the Medal. Pan Books. ISBN 978-0-330-49133-4.
  • Ashcroft, Michael (2006). Victoria Cross Heroes. Headline Book Publishing. ISBN 0-7553-1632-0.
  • Ashton, John (1995). ANZAC Fellowship 1995 Report: The Analyses of Victoria Crosses in New Zealand. Australian War Memorial.
  • Beharry, Johnson (2006). Barefoot Soldier. Sphere. ISBN 0-316-73321-0.
  • Creagh, Dudley (1992). Charles Barrett (ed.). Advances in X-ray Analysis. Vol. 35. Plenum. pp. 1127–1132. ISBN 978-0-306-44249-0.
  • Creagh, Dudley; Ashton, John (1999). J. Fernandez; A. Tartari (eds.). Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry. Editrice Compositori. pp. 299–305. ISBN 88-7794-195-2.
  • Crook, M. J. (1975). The Evolution of the Victoria Cross. Midas Books. ISBN 0-85936-041-5.
  • Duckers, Peter (2006). British Gallantry Awards, 1855–2000. Shire Publications. ISBN 0-7478-0516-4.
  • Duckers, Peter (2005). The Victoria Cross. Shire Publications. ISBN 978-0-7478-0635-6.
  • Glanfield, John (2005). Bravest of the Brave. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-3695-9.
  • Harvey, David (2000). Monuments to Courage. Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84342-356-1.
  • Pillinger, Dennis; Staunton, Anthony (2000). Victoria Cross Presentations and Locations. Maidenhead, Berkshire: Woden. ISBN 0-646-39741-9.
  • Ross, Graham (1995). Scotland's Forgotten Valour. MacLean Press. ISBN 1-899272-00-3.
  • The Register of the Victoria Cross (3rd ed.). This England. 1997. ISBN 0-906324-03-3.
  • Wigmore, Lionel, ed. (1986). They Dared Mightily (2nd ed.). Canberra, ACT: Australian War Memorial. ISBN 0-642-99471-4.

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Ribbon BDF Marumo Medal Class II.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Marumo Medal, Class II ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and cobalt blue with two three-coloured bands spaced 10 millimetres apart and 3 millimetres from each edge, each consisting of a 1 millimetre wide green band, a 1 millimetre wide cobalt blue band, a 4 millimetres wide yellow band, a 1 millimetre wide cobalt blue band and a 1 millimetre wide green band.
Ribbon - Volunteer Officers' Decoration.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Volunteer Officers' Decoration, 38 mm wide and dark green.
Ribbon - Africa Service Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Africa Service Medal, with a 3½ mm wide green band and a 3½ mm wide dark yellow band, repeated in reverse order and separated by an 18 mm wide dark orange band.
Ribbon - Distinguished Flying Cross.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon bar of the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC), 32 millimetres wide with diagonal 4 millimetres wide purple and white bands, slanted downwards toward the left arm of the recipient.
Ribbon - Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct (Natal).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Army Long Service and Good Conduct Medal (Natal), 32 mm wide and crimson with a 4 mm wide light yellow band in the centre.
Red Ensign of South Africa (1910–1912).svg
Author/Creator: Fornax, Zscout370, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
South African Red Ensign (without white roundel) from 1910 until 1912.
Ribbon - Silver Medal for Merit.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Silver Medal for Merit ribbon of the Azanian People's Liberation Army, 32 millimetres wide and dark blue, with two 6 millimetres wide white bands in the centre, spaced 4 millimetres apart.
Queen's Medal for Chiefs Ribbon.gif
Queen's Medal for Chiefs Ribbon
Ribbon - Silver Service Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Silver Service Medal ribbon of the Azanian People's Liberation Army, 32 millimetres wide, with a 6 millimetres wide black band and a 3 millimetres wide yellow band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 14 millimetres wide green band in the centre.
Royal Red Cross (UK) ribbon.png
(c) PalawanOz at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Red Cross ribbon

Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm

Permission given by Megan Robertson to User:PalawanOz on 22 Apr 2007 for the use of this image in Wikipedia articles
Baronet's Badge ribbon.png
Author/Creator: The original uploader was PalawanOz at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Baronet's Badge ribbon

Summary

Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: [1] Permission given by Megan Robertson to User:PalawanOz on 22 April 2007 for the use of this image in Wikipedia articles
Ribbon - Order of the Leopard, Military Division.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Order of the Leopard, Military Division, Commander ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 2 millimetres wide dark blue band and a 6 millimetres wide light orange band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 16 millimetres wide dark blue centre band.
George Cross UK ribbon.png
Author/Creator: The original uploader was PalawanOz at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
George Cross (with miniature cross) ribbon

Summary

Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm Permission given by Megan Robertson to User:PalawanOz on 22 Apr 2007 for the use of this image in Wikipedia articles
PPMlint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The Pro Patria Medal ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 3 millimetres wide orange band, a 1½ millimetres wide white band, a 5 millimetres wide orange band and a 6 millimetres wide dark blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 1 millimetre wide orange band in the centre.
Ribbon - Meritorious Service Medal (UK).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Meritorious Service Medal (United Kingdom), 32 mm wide with a 3½ mm wide white band and an 11 mm wide maroon band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 3 mm wide white band.
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Bronze PF.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Bronze ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green, with a 1 millimetre wide band 2 millimetres from each side, in white to indicate Permanent Force service.
Ribbon - Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct, Gold.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct, Gold ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and dark yellow, with a 6 millimetres wide green band in the centre.
SAMlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Southern Africa Medal ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with red, yellow and black bands, all 5 millimetres wide and repeated in reverse order, separated by a 2 millimetres wide white band in the centre.
Sierra Leone Fire Brigades Medal for Gallantry.png
Author/Creator: Ericalford, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Sierra Leone fire brigades medal for Gallantry ribbon bar
AFM (UK) ribbon.png
Author/Creator: The original uploader was PalawanOz at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Air Force Medal (UK) ribbon

Summary

Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm

Permission given by Megan Robertson to User:PalawanOz on 22 Apr 2007 for the use of this image in Wikipedia articles
Ribbon - Volunteer Long Service Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Volunteer Long Service Medal, 32 mm wide and dark green.
Ceylon Police Medal for Meritorious Service.png
Author/Creator: Ericalford, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Ceylon Police Medal for Meritorious Service ribbon bar
SSA1lint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Star of South Africa (1952) ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 44 millimetres wide with three green bands in the centre, all 3 millimetres wide and spaced 6 millimetres apart.
HC2lint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Honoris Crux (1975) ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide, with a 2½ millimetres wide white band, a 3 millimetres wide orange band and a 1 millimetre wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 19 millimetres wide orange band in the centre.
Ribbon - Gold Decoration for Merit.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Gold Decoration for Merit ribbon of the Azanian People's Liberation Army, 32 millimetres wide and dark blue, with two 6 millimetres wide yellow bands in the centre, spaced 4 millimetres apart.
Ribbon - Military Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon bar of the Military Medal (MM), 32 millimetres wide with an 8 mm wide dark blue band, a 3 mm wide white band and a 3½ mm wide red band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 3 mm wide white band.
Military Cross ribbon.png
Author/Creator: The original uploader was PalawanOz at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Military Cross ribbon

Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm

Permission given by Megan Robertson to User:PalawanOz on 22 Apr 2007 for the use of this image in Wikipedia articles
DVRlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Van Riebeeck Decoration ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and sky blue.
UK Albert Medal 1st class (Land).png
Author/Creator: EricSerge, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
UK Albert Medal 1st class (Land) ribbon bar
Queens Police Medal (Gallantry) UK.png
Author/Creator: EricSerge, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The Queen's Police Medal for Gallantry Ribbon bar.
Royal Order of Victoria and Albert - ribbon bar.gif
Author/Creator: McOleo, Licence: CC0
Ribbon bar of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert
DTMlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Danie Theron Medal ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide, green with three 4 millimetres wide yellow bands spaced 5 millimeters apart in the centre.
Queens Fire Service Medal UK.png
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-2.5
Ribbon - Arctic Star.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Arctic Star, a British World War II military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with a 3½ millimetres wide Air Force blue band, a 6 millimetres wide Navy blue band, a 4 millimetres wide red band and a ¼ millimetres wide black band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 4½ millimetres wide white band. The three colours represent the forces that were involved in the campaign, light blue for the Air Forces, dark blue for the Navy and red for the Merchant Navy, and the central white band, edged in black, represents the Arctic.
Ribbon - Distinguished Conduct Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM), 32 millimetres wide and dark crimson with a 10 millimetres wide Navy blue band in the centre.
Ribbon - British War Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the British War Medal, a British World War I military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with a 3 millimetres wide blue band, a 2 millimetres wide black band and a 3 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 16 millimetres wide orange band.
Ribbon - Air Force Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon bar of the Air Force Medal (AFM), 32 millimetres wide with diagonal 3 millimetres wide red and white bands, slanted downwards toward the left arm of the recipient, as worn.
Title Badge (India) 1st class. Ribbon.png
Author/Creator: Hsq7278, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Title Badge (India) 1st class. Ribbon bar. Awarded to native Indians for loyal service by the British Raj.
Ribbon Star for Bravery in Gold.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Star for Bravery in Gold ribbon of Umkhonto we Sizwe, 32 millimetres wide and red, with two 6 millimetres wide white bands in the centre, spaced 4 millimetres apart
Ribbon - Merit Medal in Silver.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Merit Medal in Silver ribbon of Umkhonto we Sizwe, 32 millimetres wide and dark blue, with a 12 millimetres wide white band in the centre.
Ribbon - Southern Cross Medal (1975).png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Southern Cross Medal (1975) of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 2 millimetres wide white band, a 11½ millimetres wide dark blue band and a 1 millimetre wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 3 millimetres wide dark blue band in the centre. This was the original ribbon and was replaced by a redesigned ribbon in 1986.
Ord.St.Michele-Giorgio.png
British order of Saint Michael and George's ribbon - UK
OBI 1939-1947 1.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Gold PF.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Gold ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green, with three 1 millimetre wide bands, 2 millimetres from each side and spaced 1 millimetre apart, in white to indicate Permanent Force service.
UK Distinguished Service Cross BAR.svg
Author/Creator: Orem (wiki-pl: Orem, commons: Orem), Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Ribbon bar: Distinguished Service Cross (of UK)
Ribbon - Long Service Medal, Gold.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Long Service Medal, Gold ribbon of the Venda Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 4 millimetres wide blue band and an 8 millimetres wide green band, repeated in reverse order and separated by an 8 millimetres wide yellow band.
Ribbon - Decoration for Officers of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Ribbon of the Decoration for Officers of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, 38 mm wide with a 12 mm wide Navy blue band and a 4 mm wide dark red band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 6 mm wide dark green band.
Flag of South Africa 1928-1994.svg
Flag of South Africa, also known as the Oranje-Blanje-Blou, used from 31 May 1928 until 27 April 1994
SSASlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Star of South Africa, Silver ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 35 millimetres wide with a 2 millimetres wide white band in the centre.
Ribbon - Natal Native Rebellion Medal.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Natal Native Rebellion Medal, a South African military campaign medal of 1906, with a 7 mm black, an 18 mm crimson and a 7 mm black bands.
Badge of Honour ribbon.png
Author/Creator: EricSerge, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Ribbon of the Badge of Honour
Union of South Africa Commemoration Medal (ribbon).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The Union of South Africa Commemoration Medal ribbon, 38 millimetres wide, with a 10 millimetres wide orange band, an 18 millimetres wide dark blue band and a 10 millimetres wide orange band.
UK Albert Medal 2nd class (Land).png
Author/Creator: EricSerge, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
UK Albert Medal 2nd class (Land) ribbon bar
Yellow star on green.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Yellow star on green background
Ribbon - War Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the War Medal, a British World War II military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with a 6½ millimetres wide red band, a 6½ millimetres wide blue band and a 2 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 2 millimetres wide red band.
Ribbon - Distinguished Service Cross.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon bar of the Distinguished Service Cross (DSC), 32 millimetres wide with a 10 mm wide dark blue band, a 12 mm wide white band and a 10 mm wide dark blue band.
Ribbon - Independence Medal (Transkei).png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Independence Medal ribbon of the Transkei Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide, with a 4 millimetres wide brown band and a 4 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 16 millimetres wide green band.
Ribbon - Pro Merito Medal (1986).gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Replacement ribbon of the Pro Merito Medal (1975) of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and dark blue, with a 6½ millimetres wide white band and a 7 millimetres wide dark blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 5 millimetres wide white band in the centre. This ribbon was introduced in 1986.
Ribbon - Queen's Medal for Champion Shots.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The Queen's/King's Medal for Champion Shots (Army) ribbon, 32 millimetres wide and dark crimson with a 3 millimetres wide black band, a 3 millimetres wide beige band and a 3 millimetres wide black band on each edge.
Ribbon - Medal for Distinguished Conduct & Loyal Service 2.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Military medal ribbon of the Medal for Distinguished Conduct and Loyal Service, version 2, used from 1991 to 1994 and awarded to members of the South African Defence Force after 40 years loyal service. A 9 carat gold medal displaying the coat of arms, suspended on a dark green ribbon with a centre band in the orange, white and blue of the pre-1994 national flag between two narrow white bands. Two versions exist. In 1994 the ribbon was replaced with a ribbon showing the colours of the post-1994 flag.
Ribbon - Bronze Service Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Bronze Service Medal ribbon of the Azanian People's Liberation Army, 32 millimetres wide with an 8 millimetres wide black band and a 4 millimetres wide yellow band, repeated in reverse order and separated by an 8 millimetres wide green band in the centre.
UK AFM ribbon.svg
UK Air Force Medal ribbon bar.
Ribbon - Merit Medal in Bronze.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Merit Medal in Bronze ribbon of Umkhonto we Sizwe, 32 millimetres wide and dark blue, with a 12 millimetres wide dark yellow band in the centre.
HCGlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Honoris Crux Gold ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and orange with a single 1 millimetre wide white band in the centre.
Ribbon - Efficiency Decoration (South Africa).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Ribbon of the Efficiency Decoration (South Africa), 38 mm wide and dark green with a 7 mm wide lime yellow band in the centre.
KKMlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Cadet Corps Medal ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide, with an 8 millimetres wide dark blue band and a 1½ millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 13 millimetres wide orange band.
Ribbon - Dekoratie voor Trouwe Dienst (SAR).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Dekoratie voor Trouwe Dienst, a South African military good service decoration, in the South African Republic (Transvaal) orientation, 32 millimetres wide with a 3 mm wide red band, a 7 mm wide green band, a 12 mm wide blue band, a 7 mm wide orange band and a 3 mm wide white band.
Canada General Service Medal BAR.svg
Author/Creator: Orem (wiki-pl: Orem, commons: Orem), Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape .
Ribbon - Conspicuous Gallantry Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon bar of the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (CGM), 32 millimetres wide with a 5 mm wide dark blue band, a 22 mm wide white band and a 5 mm wide dark blue band.
Order of the Indian Empire Ribbon.svg
Author/Creator: Jayarathina, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
The ribbon bar of the Order of the Indian Empire
South Africa Medal (1854).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The South Africa Medal (1854) ribbon, 32 millimetres wide, with a 2½ millimetres wide golden yellow band, a 4 millimetres wide blue band, a 3 millimetres wide golden yellow band and a ½ millimetre wide blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 12 millimetres wide golden yellow band.
LWDlint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Louw Wepener Decoration ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 1 3⁄8 inches (35 millimetres) wide and orange, with five white bands, all 1⁄8 inch (3.18 millimetres) wide and spaced 1⁄8 inch (3.18 millimetres) apart.
CClint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Medical Service Cross ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and white with a 12 millimetres wide ruby red centre band.
Ribbon - Pacific Star.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Pacific Star, a British World War II military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with a 5½ millimetres wide Army red band, a 3 millimetres wide Navy blue band, a 6 millimetres wide dark green band, a 3 millimetres wide yellow band, a 6 millimetres wide dark green band, a 3 millimetres wide Air Force blue band and a 5½ millimetres wide Army red band.
Indian Police Medal for Gallantry Ribbon.gif
Indian Police Medal for Gallantry Ribbon
Colonial Police Medal for Gallantry Ribbon.png
Colonial Police Medal for Gallantry Ribbon
Ribbon - Pro Merito Medal (1975).png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Original ribbon of the Pro Merito Medal (1975) of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and dark blue, with a 2 millimetres wide white band and a 12 millimetres wide dark blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 4 millimetres wide white band in the centre. This ribbon was replaced in 1986.
UK Colonial Police Medal for Meritorious Service ribbon bar.PNG
Author/Creator: EricSerge, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Overseas Territories Police Medal, formerly the Colonial Police Medal for Meritorious Service, ribbon bar
DWMlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The De Wet Medal ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 4 millimetres wide green band, a 2 millimetres wide white band and a 7 millimetres wide dark blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 6 millimetres wide yellow band in the centre.
Queen’s Commendation for Bravery in the Air.png
Author/Creator: Hsq7278, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Ribbon device. For acts of bravery while flying, not in the presence of the enemy.
Ribbon - Long Service & Good Conduct Medal (SA).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct (Military), 32 mm wide and dark reddish-violet, edged with 3 mm wide white bands.
Queens Ambulance Service Medal.png
Author/Creator: EricSerge, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Queens Ambulance Service Medal ribbon bar
JCMlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The John Chard Medal ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 3 millimetres wide dark blue band, a 2 millimetres wide white band, a 22 millimetres wide dark red band, a 2 millimetres wide white band and a 3 millimetres wide dark blue band.
Ribbon - General Service Medal (Venda).png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The General Service Medal ribbon of the Venda Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 2 millimetres wide yellow band, a 7 millimetres wide brown band and a 2 millimetres wide yellow band, repeated and separated by a 10 millimetres wide green band.
Ribbon - Commandant General's Medal.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Commandant General's Medal ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 6 millimetres wide light blue band and a 7 millimetres wide dark orange band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 6 millimetres wide navy blue band in the centre.
Edward Medal.png
Author/Creator: Ericalford, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Edward Medal ribbon bar
Ribbon - Medal for Long Service, Bronze.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Medal for Long Service, Bronze ribbon of the Ciskei Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with an 8 millimetres wide brown band and a 3 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 10 millimetres wide blue band in the centre.
JHMlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Jack Hindon Medal ribbon bar of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and yellow, with green bands 4½ millimetres wide on the edges and a green band 1 millimetre wide in the centre.
DWDlint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The De Wet Decoration ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 3 millimetres wide green band, a 2 millimetres wide white band and an 8 millimetres wide yellow band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 6 millimetres wide dark blue band in the centre.
Galó de l'Orde del Mèrit (UK).svg
Ribbon of the Order of Merit
Ribbon Imperial Service Order 100x30.jpg
Crop white space and make ratio 100:30
VDF Independence Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Independence Medal ribbon bar of the Venda Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 5 millimetres wide brown band, a 2 millimetres wide yellow band, a 5 millimetres wide green band and a 1 millimetre wide yellow band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 6 millimetres wide blue band.
Indian Distinguished Service Medal Ribbon.gif
Indian Distinguished Service Medal Ribbon
Queens Gallantry Medal UK ribbon.png
Author/Creator: The original uploader was PalawanOz at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Queen's Gallantry Medal (UK) ribbon Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm Permission given by Megan Robertson to User:PalawanOz on 22 Apr 2007 for the use of this image in Wikipedia articles
ADMlint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The General Service Medal ribbon bar of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 6 millimetres wide dark blue band, a 2 millimetres wide white band and a 7 millimetres wide orange band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 2 millimetres wide dark blue band in the centre.
South Africa Medal (1880).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The South Africa Medal (1880) ribbon, 32 millimetres wide, with a 2½ millimetres wide golden yellow band, a 4 millimetres wide blue band, a 3 millimetres wide golden yellow band and a 1 millimetre wide blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by an 11 millimetres wide golden yellow band.
Ribbon - Medal for Distinguished Conduct & Loyal Service 1.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Military medal ribbon of the Medal for Distinguished Conduct & Loyal Service, used from 1991 to 1994 and awarded to members of the South African Defence Force after 40 years loyal service. A 9 carat gold medal displaying the coat of arms, suspended on a dark green ribbon with a centre band in the orange, white and blue of the pre-1994 national flag between two narrow white bands. In 1994 the ribbon was replaced with a ribbon showing the colours of the post-1994 flag.
Ribbon - Air Crew Europe Star.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Air Crew Europe Star, a British World War II military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with a 4 millimetres wide black band and a 3 millimetres wide yellow band, repeated in reverse order and separated by an 18 millimetres wide light blue band.
Ribbon - General Service Medal (Bophuthatswana).png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The General Service Medal ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 4 millimetres wide yellow band, a 2 millimetres wide red band and a 4 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 12 millimetres wide red band in the centre.
SM1lint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Southern Cross Medal (1952) ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 13 millimetres wide dark blue band, one orange and one white band, both 3 millimetres wide and a 13 millimetres wide dark blue band.
Distinguished Service Medal UK ribbon.png
Author/Creator: The original uploader was PalawanOz at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Distinguished Service Medal (UK) ribbon Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm Permission given by Megan Robertson to User:PalawanOz on 22 Apr 2007 for the use of this image in Wikipedia articles
SDlint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Southern Cross Decoration ribbon bar of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and dark blue, with two 1 millimetre wide white bands in the centre, 4 millimetres apart.
Ribbon - Distinguished Gallantry Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Distinguished Gallantry Medal ribbon bar of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 12 millimetres wide red band, an 8 millimetres wide green band and a 12 millimetres wide red band.
Ribbon - Burma Star.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Burma Star, a British World War II military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with a 3½ millimetres wide Navy blue band, a 4 millimetres wide dark yellow band and a 3½ millimetres wide Navy blue band, repeated and separated by a 10 millimetres wide Army red band.
PVDlint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Pro Virtute Decoration ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide, with a 21 millimetres wide orange centre band between two 5½ millimetres wide pale blue bands.
Ribbon bar Order of St. Patrick.jpg
Ribbon bar of the UK Order of St. Patrick
CMlint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Army Cross ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and white with a 12 millimetres wide Army orange centre band.
Ribbon - Question mark.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Question mark filler for unknown ribbon design, 32 millimetres wide.
Distinguished Service Cross (UK) ribbon.png
Ribbon of the Distinguished Service Cross, United Kingdom - 100x30px
James Hill Johnes, VC, Attacking the Enemy (gcf03672).jpg
Painting from the Framed Works of Art collection at the National Library of Wales.
Hills-Johnes won the VC in July 1857 during the Indian Mutiny.
UK Distinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg
UK Distinguished Service Medal ribbon bar.
Ribbon - Distinguished Flying Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon bar of the Distinguished Flying Medal (DFM), 32 millimetres wide with diagonal 3 millimetres wide purple and white bands, slanted downwards toward the left arm of the recipient, as worn.
Title Badge (India) 3rd class. Ribbon.jpg
Author/Creator: Hsq7278, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Title Badge (India) 1st class. Ribbon bar. Awarded to native Indians for loyal service by the British Raj.
Ribbon Bravery Star in Silver.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Bravery Star in Silver ribbon of the Azanian People's Liberation Army, 32 millimetres wide and red, with a 12 millimetres wide yellow band in the centre
Queen's South Africa Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The Queen's South Africa Medal ribbon, 32 millimetres wide, with a 7 millimetres wide red band and a 4 millimetres wide dark blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 10 millimetres wide orange band.
Ribbon - Operational Medal for Southern Africa.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Operational Medal for Southern Africa ribbon of Umkhonto we Sizwe and the Azanian People's Liberation Army, 32 millimetres wide, with a 4 millimetres wide red band, an 8 millimetres wide green band and a 1 millimetre wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 6 millimetres wide black band in the centre.
Ribbon - Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct, Bronze.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct, Bronze ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and dark yellow, with three 4 millimetres wide green bands spaced 5 millimetres apart in the centre.
Ribbon - Service Medal in Gold.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Service Medal in Gold ribbon of Umkhonto we Sizwe, 32 millimetres wide and green, with a 4 millimetres wide black edge at left and a 4 millimetres wide yellow edge at right.
KMlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Korea Medal ribbon bar of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 6 millimetres wide orange band and a 5 millimetres wide dark blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 10 millimetres wide light blue band in the centre.
Ribbon - Efficiency Medal (South Africa).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Ribbon of the Efficiency Medal (South Africa), 32 mm wide and dark green, edged with 3 mm wide lime yellow bands.
UK Distinguished Conduct Medal ribbon.svg
UK Distinguished Conduct Medal ribbon bar.
UK George Medal ribbon.svg
UK George Medal ribbon bar.
Order of the Thistle UK ribbon.png
Author/Creator: Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Ribbon of the Order of the Thistle
Ribbon - Victory Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The Victory Medal ribbon, 38 millimetres wide with a "two rainbow" design, with the violet from each rainbow on the outside edges moving through to a central red stripe where both rainbows meet. Sized at 380x98px so as to display correctly alongside a 320x98px 32 millimetres wide ribbon. The other versions below are all displayed at 29 pixels high.
PSlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The iPhrothiya yeSiliva - Silver Protea ribbon of the South African National Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and national flag blue with a 2 millimetres wide white band, a 2 millimetres wide black band, a 2 millimetres wide gold band, a 2 millimetres wide black band and a 2 millimetres wide white band in the centre.
Ribbon - Meritorious Service Medal (Union).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Meritorious Service Medal (Union of South Africa 1914-1939), 32 mm wide with a 5 mm wide dark blue band, a 6½ mm wide dark red-violet band and a 2½ mm wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 4 mm wide dark blue band.
NGlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Nkwe ya Gauta - Golden Leopard ribbon bar of the South African National Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and sky blue with 6 millimetres wide yellow edges.
Ribbon - QE II Coronation Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal ribbon, 32 millimetres wide and maroon with a 2 millimetres wide white band, a 10.5 millimetres wide maroon band and a 3 millimetres wide royal blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 1 millimetre wide maroon band in the centre. (Dimensions deduced from this photograph of the medal and ribbon.)
MTDlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Medalje vir Troue Diens ribbon of the South African National Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and national flag green, with a 3 millimetres wide national flag red band and a 3 millimetres wide white band on the left edge, and a 3 millimetres wide white band and a 3 millimetres wide national flag blue band on the right edge.
Ribbon - Closure Commemoration Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The Closure Commemoration Medal ribbon of the South African National Defence Force Commandos, 32 millimetres wide and green, with a 12 millimetres wide yellow band in the centre.
Order of Burma (United Kingdom) - ribbon bar.png
Author/Creator: McOleo, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Ribbon bar of the Order of Burma (United Kingdom)
CAlint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Air Force Cross ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and white with a 12 millimetres wide centre band consisting of a 5 millimetres wide light blue band, a 2 millimetres wide yellow band and a 5 millimetres wide light blue band.
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Bronze.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Bronze ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and bronze coloured, with a single dark green band in the centre, 12 millimetres wide.
Ribbon - Defence Force Merit Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Defence Force Merit Medal ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 12 millimetres wide dark blue band, an 8 millimetres wide dark yellow band and a 12 millimetres wide dark blue band.
Ribbon - Ciskei Defence Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Ciskei Defence Medal ribbon of the Ciskei Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 10 millimetres wide blue band and a 4 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 4 millimetres wide black band in the centre.
Ribbon - Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal, 32 millimetres wide with a 7 mm wide Navy blue band and a 3 mm wide dark red band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 12 mm wide dark green band.
Ribbon - South Africa Service Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The South Africa Service Medal ribbon of Umkhonto we Sizwe and the Azanian People's Liberation Army, 32 millimetres wide, with a 4 millimetres wide blue band, an 8 millimetres wide yellow band and a 1 millimetre wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 6 millimetres wide red band in the centre.
Order of St John (UK) ribbon -vector.svg
Venerable Order of Saint John (UK) ribbon. This vector version includes a miniature cross worn on ribbon. For example, see here
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Bronze CF.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Bronze ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green, with a 1 millimetre wide band 2 millimetres from each side, in dark blue to indicate Citizen Force service.
Ribbon - Independence Medal (Bophuthatswana).png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Independence Medal ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide, with a 3 millimetres wide red band, an 8 millimetres wide dark blue band, a 4 millimetres wide dark yellow band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 2 millimetres wide green band.
Ribbon - Chief C.D.F. Commendation Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Chief C.D.F. Commendation Medal ribbon of the Ciskei Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 5 millimetres wide green band, a 2 millimetres wide red band, a 5 millimetres wide yellow band and a 3 millimetres wide light blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 2 millimetres wide white band in the centre.
Ribbon - France and Germany Star.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the France and Germany Star, a British World War II military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with equal width dark blue, white, red, white and dark blue bands.
UK Albert Medal 1st class (Sea).png
Author/Creator: EricSerge, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
UK Albert Medal 1st class (Sea) ribbon bar
Queen's Commendation for Bravery.png
Author/Creator: Hsq7278, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Ribbon device. For acts of bravery not in the presence of the enemy.
OBI 1838-1939.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
KKKlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The National Cadet Bisley Grand Champion Medal ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and yellow with 6 millimetres wide dark green edges.
Polar Medal (UK) ribbon.png
Polar Medal (UK) ribbon Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm Permission given by Megan Robertson to User:PalawanOz on 22 Apr 2007 for the use of this image in Wikipedia articles
Ribbon - King George V Silver Jubilee Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The King George V Silver Jubilee Medal ribbon, 32 millimetres wide, with a 3 millimetres wide dark blue band, a 2 millimetres wide white band and a 2 millimetres wide dark blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by an 18 millimetres wide maroon band.
Ribbon - Long Service Medal, Bronze.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Long Service Medal, Bronze ribbon of the Venda Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green, with 4 millimetres wide blue edges and a 2 millimetres wide brown band in the centre.
UMlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Union Medal ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide, with three bands of orange, white and blue repeated three times, the outer orange and blue bands each 4 millimetres wide and the seven inner bands all approximately 3½ millimetres wide.
Ribbon - 1914 Star.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the 1914 Star as well as the 1914–15 Star, British World War I military campaign medals, 32 millimetres wide with equal width watered bands of red, white and blue
Ribbon Conspicuous Leadership Star.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Conspicuous Leadership Star ribbon of Umkhonto we Sizwe, 32 millimetres wide and red with two 6 millimetres wide brown bands in the centre, spaced 4 millimetres apart.
SSA2lint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Star of South Africa, Gold ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 35 millimetres wide and dark blue.
UNMlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Unitas Medal ribbon of the South African National Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide, with an 8 millimetres wide blue band and a 4 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by an 8 millimetres wide green band.
Sierra Leone Police Medal for Meritorious Service.png
Author/Creator: Hsq7278, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Ribbon bar: Sierra Leone Police Meritorious Service Medal (1961–71)
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Silver CF.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Silver ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green with two 1 millimetre wide bands, 2 millimetres from each side and spaced 1 millimetre apart, in dark blue to indicate Citizen Force service.
Rbn TDF Military Rule Medal.GIF
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Military Rule Medal ribbon of the Transkei Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green, with a 2 millimetres wide white band, a 2 millimetres wide brown band and a 2 millimetres wide white band in the centre.
Ribbon - Service Medal in Bronze.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Service Medal in Bronze ribbon of Umkhonto we Sizwe, 32 millimetres wide with a 10 millimetres wide black band, a 12 millimetres wide green band and a 10 millimetres wide yellow band.
CNlint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Navy Cross ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and white with a 12 millimetres wide Navy blue centre band.
Royal Guelphic Order.png
Author/Creator: Ericalford, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Guelphic Order ribbon bar
King's South Africa Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The King's South Africa Medal ribbon, 32 millimetres wide, with an 11 millimetres wide green band, a 10 millimetres wide white band and an 11 millimetres wide orange band.
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon.svg
UK Order of St Michael and St George ribbon bar.
United Kingdom Distinguished Flying Cross ribbon.svg
Author/Creator: F l a n k e r, Licence: CC BY 3.0
United Kingdom Distinguished Flying Cross ribbon
Ribbon - Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct (Cape).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Army Long Service and Good Conduct Medal (Cape of Good Hope), 32 mm wide and crimson with a 4 mm wide yellow band in the centre.
Ribbon Gallantry Cross, Silver.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Gallantry Cross, Silver ribbon of the Venda Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and dark brown with 4 millimetres wide dark blue edges and a 4 millimetres wide white band in the centre
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Silver C.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Silver ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green with two 1 millimetre wide bands, 2 millimetres from each side and spaced 1 millimetre apart, in orange to indicate Commando service.
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Silver.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Silver ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and white with two dark green bands in the centre, each 6 millimetres wide and spaced 6 millimetres apart.
GBR Family Order Elizabeth II BAR.png
Author/Creator: Mboro, Licence: CC0
Ribbon bar (not worn): Royal Family Order of Queen Elizabeth II – UK.
Ribbon BDF Marumo Medal Class I.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Marumo Medal, Class I ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 2 millimetres wide green band, a 9 millimetres wide dark blue band, a 1 millimetre wide green band, a 1 millimetre wide dark blue band and a 2½ millimetres wide dark red band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 1 millimetre wide green band in the centre.
CGM (Flying) UK ribbon.png
Author/Creator: Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Ribbon og the British Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (flying)
Ribbon - Decoration for Merit in Gold.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Decoration for Merit in Gold ribbon of Umkhonto we Sizwe, 32 millimetres wide and dark blue with a 12 millimetres wide yellow band in the centre.
Order of the Bath (ribbon).svg
Author/Creator: Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm, Licence: CC BY 2.5
Ribbon of the Order of the Bath
LWMlint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Louw Wepener Medal ribbon bar of the South African Defence Force, 1 3⁄8 inches (35 millimetres) wide and orange, with four white bands, all 1⁄16 inch (1.6 millimetres) wide and spaced 7⁄32 inch (5.6 millimetres) apart.
NSlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Nkwe ya Selefera - Silver Leopard ribbon of the South African National Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and sky blue with 6 millimetres wide white edges.
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Gold CF.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Gold ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green, with three 1 millimetre wide bands, 2 millimetres from each side and spaced 1 millimetre apart, in dark blue to indicate Citizen Force service.
Ribbon - Military Cross.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon bar of the Military Cross (MC), 32 millimetres wide with a 10 mm wide white band, a 12 mm wide dark purple band and a 10 mm wide white band.
Ribbon - Nkwe Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Nkwe Medal ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 4 millimetres wide red band, a 2 millimetres wide white band and a 4 millimetres wide red band, repeated and separated by a 12 millimetres wide yellow band in the centre.
Sierra Leone Police Medal for Gallantry.png
Author/Creator: Ericalford, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Sierra Leone Police Medal for Gallantry ribbon bar
Ribbon - Sir Harry Smith's Medal for Gallantry.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of Sir Harry Smith's Medal for Gallantry of 1851, 32 millimetres wide with 7 millimetres wide brownish red bands, separated by an 18 millimetres wide dark blue band.
TIlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Tshumelo Ikatelaho - General Service Medal ribbon of the South African National Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide, with a 5 millimetres wide national flag blue band, a 2 millimetres wide white band, a 6 millimetres wide national flag red band, a 1½ millimetres wide gold band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 3 millimetres wide black band in the centre.
PMDlint.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Pro Merito Decoration ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and dark blue with a 4 millimetres wide white band in the centre.
Ribbon - Medal for Distinguished Conduct & Loyal Service 3.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Military medal ribbon of the Medal for Distinguished Conduct & Loyal Service, used from 1994 to 2003 and awarded to members of the South African Defence Force after 40 years loyal service. A 9 carat gold medal displaying the coat of arms, until 1994 suspended on a dark green ribbon with a centre band in the orange, white and blue of the pre-1994 national flag between two narrow white bands. In 1994 the ribbon was replaced with a ribbon showing the colours of the post-1994 flag, 32 millimetres wide and green, with a single multicoloured band in the centre consisting of red, white, black, yellow and blue bands, all five bands 2 millimetres wide.
Ribbon - Military Merit Medal (South Africa).png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Military Merit Medal ribbon bar of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide, with dark blue and light blue bands, both 5 millimetres wide, a dark orange band 12 millimetres wide, and light blue and dark blue bands, both 5 millimetres wide. The colours are those of the three Arms of the Service prior to the formation of the South African Medical Service as a separate fourth Arm, dark orange for the Army, light blue for the Air Force and dark blue for the Navy.
Ribbon Defence Force Merit Decoration.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Defence Force Merit Decoration ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and dark blue.
Order of the Garter UK ribbon.png
Author/Creator: Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Ribbon of the Order of the Garter
Ad Astra Decoration.jpg
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Ribbon of the Ad Astra Decoration, post-nominal letters AAD, 32 millimetres wide with diagonal 4 millimetres wide light blue and white bands, slanted upwards toward the left shoulder of the recipient.
Mention in despatches silver ribbon device.png
Author/Creator: Hsq7278, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
British mention in dispatches silver oak leaf worn on the appropriate campaign medal ribbon. Introduced in 1993.
Ribbon - South African Medal for War Services.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the South African Medal for War Services, 32 millimetres wide with three equal width bands of red, white and dark blue.
King's African Rifles Distinguished Conduct Medal Ribbon.gif
King's African Rifles Distinguished Conduct Medal Ribbon
Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service.png
Author/Creator: Hsq7278, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Ribbon device. Awarded for meritorious service in an operational theatre.
Ribbon - Defence Force Commendation Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Defence Force Commendation Medal ribbon bar of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and cobalt blue, with two 4 millimetres wide yellow bands in the centre, spaced 8 millimetres apart.
Kaisar-i-Hind Medal.gif
Author/Creator: Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Ribbon of the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal
Ceylon Police Medal for Gallantry.png
Author/Creator: EricSerge, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Ribbon bar of the Ceylon Police Medal for Gallantry
Victoria Cross 2.jpg
Author/Creator: Arghya1999, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
A Victoria Cross Edit this at Structured Data on Commons
Ribbon - Union of South Africa King's Medal for Bravery.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The Union of South Africa King's Medal for Bravery and Union of South Africa Queen's Medal for Bravery (Gold and Silver) ribbon, 44 millimetres wide and dark blue with 4½ millimetres wide dark orange edges.
Ribbon - Service Medal in Silver.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Service Medal in Silver ribbon of Umkhonto we Sizwe, 32 millimetres wide and green, with an 8 millimetres wide black edge at left and an 8 millimetres wide yellow edge at right.
UK Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service device.svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY 3.0
Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service (UK) for wearing without a medal ribbon
Waterloo Medal BAR.svg
Author/Creator: Orem (wiki-pl: Orem, commons: Orem), Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape .
UK Military Medal ribbon.svg
UK Military Medal ribbon bar.
Ribbon - Air Efficiency Award.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Ribbon of the Air Efficiency Award, 38 mm wide with a 13½ mm wide dark green band and a 4 mm wide pale blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 3 mm wide dark green band.
Ribbon - Long Service Medal, Silver.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Long Service Medal, Silver ribbon of the Venda Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 4 millimetres wide blue band and a 10 millimetres wide green band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 4 millimetres wide white band.
Lint voor Verwonding SAR.gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The Lint voor Verwonding (Wound Riband) in the South African Republic (Transvaal) orientation, 38 mm wide with a 3 mm wide red band, a 14½ mm wide green band, a 4 mm wide white band, a 14½ mm wide orange band and a 3 mm wide blue band.
Ribbon Star for Conspicuous Leadership.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Star for Conspicuous Leadership ribbon of the Azanian People's Liberation Army, 32 millimetres wide and red with a 12 millimetres wide dark brown band in the centre.
Ribbon - Air Force Cross.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon bar of the Air Force Cross (AFC), 32 millimetres wide with diagonal 4 millimetres wide red and white bands, slanted downwards toward the left arm of the recipient, as worn.
Ribbon - Dekoratie voor Trouwe Dienst (OFS).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Dekoratie voor Trouwe Dienst, a South African military good service decoration, in the Orange Free State orientation, 32 millimetres wide with a 3 mm wide white band, a 7 mm wide orange band, a 12 mm wide blue band, a 7 mm wide green band and a 3 mm wide red band.
Ribbon - Permanent Forces of the Empire Beyond the Seas Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Permanent Forces of the Empire Beyond the Seas Medal, 32 mm wide with an 11½ mm wide crimson band and a 2½ mm wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 4 mm wide dark blue band.
Queen's Volunteer Reserves Medal Ribbon 100px.png
Author/Creator: AusTerrapin, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5 au
Ribbon of the Queen's Volunteer Reserves Medal (QVRM)
Ribbon - Venda Defence Force Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Defence Force Medal ribbon of the Venda Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 10 millimetres wide red band, a 2 millimetres wide blue band, a 2 millimetres wide green band, a 4 millimetres wide yellow band, a 2 millimetres wide green band, a 2 millimetres wide blue band and a 10 millimetres wide red band.
Ribbon - Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (Flying).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon bar of the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (Flying) (CGM), 32 millimetres wide with a 5 mm wide dark blue band, a 22 mm wide light blue band and a 5 mm wide dark blue band.
Ribbon - Gold Service Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Gold Service Medal ribbon of the Azanian People's Liberation Army, 32 millimetres wide, with a 4 millimetres wide black band and a 2 millimetres wide yellow band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 20 millimetres wide green band in the centre.
Ribbon - Kimberley Star.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Kimberley Star, 25 millimetres (1 inch) wide with an 8 millimetres wide black band, a 3 millimetres wide red band, a 3 millimetres wide white band, a 3 millimetres wide dark blue band and an 8 millimetres wide yellow band.
Ribbon - 1939-45 Star.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the 1939-45 Star, a British World War II military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with equal width bands of Navy blue, Army red and Air Force blue.
Lint Indische Orde van Verdienste Indian Order of Merit.jpg
Author/Creator: No machine-readable author provided. Robert Prummel assumed (based on copyright claims)., Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5

Eigen tekening Own drawing Robert Prummel

Maart 2007
Rbn TDF Cross for Bravery.GIF
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Cross for Bravery ribbon of the Transkei Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and red with a 2 millimetres wide white band 2 millimetres from each edge
Ribbon - Atlantic Star.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Atlantic Star, a British World War II military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with shaded and watered bands of dark blue, white and sea-green.
Ribbon - Distinguished Service Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon bar of the Distinguished Service Medal (DSM), 32 millimetres wide with a 9½ mm wide dark blue band and a 6 mm wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 1 mm wide dark blue band.
Ribbon - Southern Cross Medal (1986).gif
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
Southern Cross Medal (1975) of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 4½ millimetres wide white band, a 9 millimetres wide dark blue band and a 1 millimetre wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 3 millimetres wide dark blue band in the centre. This ribbon was introduced in 1986.
Ribbon - Pro Merito Medal (1967).png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Original ribbon of the Pro Merito Medal (1967) of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with dark blue, orange, white and dark blue bands, all 3¼ millimetres wide, and an orange band, 1½ millimetres wide, repeated in reverse order and separated by a white band in the centre, 3 millimetres wide. This ribbon was replaced in 1968.
Ribbon - SAR & OFS War Medal (OFS).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Medalje voor de Anglo-Boeroorlog (South African Republic & Orange Free State War Medal), a South African military campaign medal, in the Orange Free State orientation, 32 mm wide with an 11½ mm wide orange band, a 3 mm blue band, a 3 mm white band, a 3 mm red band and an 11½ mm green band.
Ribbon - Honoris Crux (1952).gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Honoris Crux (1952) ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 3 millimetres wide red band, a 2 millimetres wide white band, a 22 millimetres wide dark green band, a 2 millimetres wide white band and a 3 millimetres wide red band.
Ribbon - Sandile Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Sandile Medal ribbon of the Ciskei Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 5 millimetres wide red band and a 9 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 4 millimetres wide green band in the centre.
Ord.Stella.India.jpg
British order of india's star - ribbon - UK
Ribbon - British Empire Medal (Military).png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The military ribbon bar of the British Empire Medal (BEM), 32 millimetres wide with a 2 mm wide pearl-grey band and a 13 mm wide rose-pink band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 2 mm wide pearl-grey band. The civil version is the same, but without the centre band. Rose-pink was used to colour the territories of the British Empire on contemporary world maps.
Merchant Navy Medal for Meritorious Service ribbon.png
Author/Creator: EricSerge, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Merchant Navy Medal for Meritorious Service ribbon
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Silver PF.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Silver ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green with two 1 millimetre wide bands, 2 millimetres from each side and spaced 1 millimetre apart, in white to indicate Permanent Force service.
Ribbon - Defence Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Defence Medal, a British World War II military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with a 4½ millimetres wide green band, a 1 millimetre wide black band and a 4½ millimetres wide green band, repeated and separated by a 12 millimetres wide orange band.
Victoria Cross (UK) ribbon.png
Modified version of Image:Victoria Cross (Canada) ribbon bar.png to use 'standard' ribbon size of 100x30px
Distinguished Flying Medal ribbon.svg
Author/Creator: This vector image was created with Inkscape by F l a n k e r, and then manually replaced, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Distinguished Flying Medal ribbon
Ribbon - King George V Coronation Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The King George V Coronation Medal ribbon, 32 millimetres wide, with an 11½ millimetres wide dark blue band and a 3½ millimetres wide dark red band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 2 millimetres wide dark blue band.
Burma Gallantry Medal ribbon.PNG
Author/Creator: EricSerge, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Ribbon bar of the Burma Gallantry Medal
Ribbon Cape Copper Company Medal for the Defence of O'okiep.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Cape Copper Company Medal for the Defence of O'okiep, 1¼ inches wide and dark bronze coloured with a ¼ inch wide dark green band in the centre.
Ribbon - SADF Champion Shot Medal.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The SADF Champion Shot Medal ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 6 millimetres wide light blue band and a 7 millimetres wide dark orange band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 6 millimetres wide navy blue band in the centre.
Rbn TDF Faithful Service Medal.GIF
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Faithful Service Medal ribbon bar of the Transkei Defence Force. Three different ribbon versions are known. This one, the known official ribbon as worn by TDF members, is 32 millimetres wide, with an 11 millimetres wide dark blue band, a 10 millimetres wide sky blue band and an 11 millimetres wide red band.
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Gold.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Gold ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green, with two yellow bands, each 7 millimetres wide and spaced 6 millimetres apart.
Victoria Cross, second award bar.png
Author/Creator: Hsq7278, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
British Gallantry medal. Bar, or clasp worn on ribbon in the event of a second award.
CGM UK ribbon.png
Author/Creator: Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Ribbon og the Brithish Conspicuous Gallantry Medal
Indian Police Medal for Meritorious Service.png
Author/Creator: Ericalford, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Indian Police Medal for Meritorious Service ribbon bar
Ord.fam.EdwardVII.JPG
Royal Familiar Order of King Edward VII - Ribbon
VCstone.jpg
(c) Acmthompson at English Wikipedia, CC-BY-SA-3.0
Image of Victoria Cross Medal as appears on CWGC gravestones. Medal design was UK Crown copyright prior to 1952 and now in the public domain.
Ribbon - Mercantile Marine War Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Mercantile Marine War Medal, a British World War I military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with a 13½ millimetres wide green band, a 5 millimetres wide white band and a 13½ millimetres wide red band, representing the starboard and port running lights with the masthead steaming light in the centre.
UK Victoria Cross ribbon bar.svg
UK Victoria Cross ribbon bar.
Sierra Leone Fire Brigades Medal for Meritorious Service.png
Author/Creator: Hsq7278, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Ribbon bar: Sierra Leone Fire Brigades Meritorious Service Medal ribbon bar (1961–71)
Ribbon - King George VI Coronation Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The King George VI Coronation Medal ribbon, 32 millimetres wide, with a 3 millimetres wide white band, a 2½ millimetres wide red band and a 1½ millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by an 18 millimetres wide dark blue band.
Ribbon - Distinguished Service Medal, Silver.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Distinguished Service Medal, Silver ribbon of the Venda Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 3 millimetres wide dark green band, a 2 millimetres wide brown band and a 9 millimetres wide dark blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 4 millimetres wide white band.
Rbn TDF Medal.GIF
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Transkei Defence Force Medal ribbon of the Transkei Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide, with a 4 millimetres wide red band and a 4 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 16 millimetres wide dark blue band.
Ribbon - Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Cape of Good Hope General Service Medal, 32 millimetres wide and dark blue with a pale yellow band in the centre, with all three bands of equal width.
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Gold C.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Gold ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green, with three 1 millimetre wide bands, 2 millimetres from each side and spaced 1 millimetre apart, in orange to indicate Commando service.
Volunteer Decoration (UK) ribbon.png
Ribbon for the Volunteer Decoration
Ribbon - Sandile Decoration.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Sandile Decoration ribbon of the Ciskei Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 5 millimetres wide red band and a 9 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 4 millimetres wide red band in the centre.
Ribbon Gallantry Cross, Gold.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Gallantry Cross, Gold ribbon of the Venda Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and dark brown with 4 millimetres wide dark blue edges
UK Albert Medal 2nd class (Sea).png
Author/Creator: EricSerge, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
UK Albert Medal 2nd class (Sea) ribbon bar
Ribbon - Good Service Medal, Bronze C.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Good Service Medal, Bronze ribbon of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and green, with a 1 millimetre wide band 2 millimetres from each side, in orange to indicate Commando service.
Ribbon Distinguished Gallantry Cross.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Distinguished Gallantry Cross ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and dark red
Ribbon - Italy Star.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Italy Star, a British World War II military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with a 7 millimetres wide red band and a 6 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 6 millimetres wide green band.
Ribbon Star for Bravery in Silver.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Star for Bravery in Silver ribbon of Umkhonto we Sizwe, 32 millimetres wide and red, with two 6 millimetres wide gold bands in the centre, spaced 4 millimetres apart.
Ribbon - Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct, Silver.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Medal for Long Service and Good Conduct, Silver ribbon of the Bophuthatswana Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and dark yellow, with two 4 millimetres wide green bands spaced 8 millimetres apart in the centre.
UK MID 1920-94.svg
UK Mentioned in Despatches oak leaf device (bronze: 1920-1994).
Ribbon - Africa Star.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon of the Africa Star, a British World War II military campaign medal, 32 millimetres wide with a 5 millimetres wide pale buff band, a 1½ millimetres wide Navy blue band, a 5 millimetres wide pale buff band, a 9 millimetres wide Army red band, a 5 millimetres wide pale buff band, a 1½ millimetres wide Air Force blue band and a 5 millimetres wide pale buff band.
PBlint.gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The iPhrothiya yeBhronzi - Bronze Protea ribbon of the South African National Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and national flag blue, with four 2 millimetres wide white bands separated by three 2 millimetres wide black bands in the centre.
OBI 1939-1947 2.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Ribbon - Distinguished Service Order.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The ribbon bar of the Distinguished Service Order (DSO), 32 millimetres wide and dark crimson with 7 millimetres wide Navy blue edges.
IPhrothiya yeGolide Ribbon Bar.svg
Author/Creator: Jack Ryan Morris, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
IPhrothiya yeGolide Ribbon Bar
Ribbon - President's Medal for Shooting.png
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
The President's Medal for Shooting ribbon of the Ciskei Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide with a 3 millimetres wide white band, a 10 millimetres wide green band and a 2 millimetres wide white band, repeated in reverse order and separated by a 2 millimetres wide black band in the centre.
Ribbon - Pro Merito Medal (1968).gif
(c) Col André Kritzinger, CC BY-SA 3.0
Replacement ribbon of the Pro Merito Medal (1967) of the South African Defence Force, 32 millimetres wide and sky blue, divided in the centre by five bands of orange, white, dark blue, white and orange, the dark blue band 3 millimetres wide and the other four all 1½ millimetres wide. This ribbon was instituted in 1968.
Queens Police Medal for Merit.png
Author/Creator: Megan Robertson, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Queen's Police Medal for Distinguished Service (UK) medal ribbon