United States Army

United States Army
Military service mark of the United States Army.svg
Military service mark of the United States Army[1]

Army Star logo
Founded14 June 1775 (1775-06-14)[a]
(247 years ago)[2][3]
Country United States
TypeArmy
RolePrompt and sustained land combat
Combined arms operationsSpecial operations
Set and sustain the theater for the joint force
Integrate national, multinational, and joint power on land
Size485,000 Regular Army personnel (2021)[4]
336,000 Army National Guard personnel (2021)
189,500 Army Reserve personnel (2021)[4]
1,005,725 total uniformed personnel
252,747 civilian personnel (30 September 2020)
1,258,472 total
4,406 crewed aircraft[5]
Part ofUnited States Armed Forces
Emblem of the United States Department of the Army.svg Department of the Army
HeadquartersThe Pentagon
Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.
Motto(s)"This We'll Defend"
ColorsBlack, gold and white[6][7]
     
March"The Army Goes Rolling Along" Play 
Mascot(s)Army Mules
AnniversariesArmy Birthday: 14 June
EquipmentList of U.S. Army equipment
Engagements
WebsiteArmy.mil
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief President Joe Biden
Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin
Secretary of the Army Christine Wormuth
Chief of Staff GEN James C. McConville[9]
Vice Chief of Staff GEN Joseph M. Martin[10]
Sergeant Major of the Army SMA Michael A. Grinston[11]
Insignia
FlagFlag of the United States Army (official proportions).svg
Field flag[b]Field flag of the United States Army.svg

The United States Army (USA) is the land service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the eight U.S. uniformed services, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the U.S. Constitution.[12] The oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence,[13] the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed 14 June 1775 to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States was established as a country.[14] After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army.[15][16] The United States Army considers itself to be a continuation of the Continental Army, and thus considers its institutional inception to be the origin of that armed force in 1775.[14]

The U.S. Army is a uniformed service of the United States and is part of the Department of the Army, which is one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense. The U.S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the secretary of the Army (SECARMY) and by a chief military officer, the chief of staff of the Army (CSA) who is also a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. It is the largest military branch, and in the fiscal year 2020, the projected end strength for the Regular Army (USA) was 480,893 soldiers; the Army National Guard (ARNG) had 336,129 soldiers and the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) had 188,703 soldiers; the combined-component strength of the U.S. Army was 1,005,725 soldiers.[17] As a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U.S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, sustained land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders".[18] The branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States.

Mission

The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U.S. Armed Forces. Section 7062 of Title 10, U.S. Code defines the purpose of the army as:[19][20]

  • Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States
  • Supporting the national policies
  • Implementing the national objectives
  • Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United States

In 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.[21] While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons.[21] Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, and Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028.[21]

The Army's five core competencies are prompt and sustained land combat, combined arms operations (to include combined arms maneuver and wide–area security, armored and mechanized operations and airborne and air assault operations), special operations, to set and sustain the theater for the joint force, and to integrate national, multinational, and joint power on land.[22]

History

Origins

The Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress[23] as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander.[14][24][25][26] The army was initially led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them. As the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid, resources and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills.

The storming of Redoubt No. 10 in the Siege of Yorktown during the American Revolutionary War prompted Great Britain's government to begin negotiations, resulting in the Treaty of Paris and Great Britain's recognition of the United States as an independent state.

The Army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780 and 1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces. Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British.

After the war, the Continental Army was quickly given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army. The Regular Army was at first very small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash,[27] where more than 800 Americans were killed, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, which was established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796.

In 1798, during the Quasi-War with France, Congress established a three-year "Provisional Army" of 10,000 men, consisting of twelve regiments of infantry and six troops of light dragoons. By March 1799 Congress created an "Eventual Army" of 30,000 men, including three regiments of cavalry. Both "armies" existed only on paper, but equipment for 3,000 men and horses was procured and stored.[28]

19th century

Early wars on the Frontier

General Andrew Jackson standing on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders during the defense of New Orleans, the final major and most one-sided battle of the War of 1812

The War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results. The U.S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U.S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U.S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U.S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, which was defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however, proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the previously rejected terms of a status quo antebellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed (but not ratified), Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, and became a national hero. U.S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane, Levant and Penguin in the final engagements of the war. Per the treaty, both sides (the United States and Great Britain) returned to the geographical status quo. Both navies kept the warships they had seized during the conflict.

The army's major campaign against the Indians was fought in Florida against Seminoles. It took long wars (1818–1858) to finally defeat the Seminoles and move them to Oklahoma. The usual strategy in Indian wars was to seize control of the Indians' winter food supply, but that was no use in Florida where there was no winter. The second strategy was to form alliances with other Indian tribes, but that too was useless because the Seminoles had destroyed all the other Indians when they entered Florida in the late eighteenth century.[29]

The U.S. Army fought and won the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), which was a defining event for both countries.[30] The U.S. victory resulted in acquisition of territory that eventually became all or parts of the states of California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming and New Mexico.

American Civil War

The Battle of Gettysburg, the turning point of the American Civil War

The American Civil War was the costliest war for the U.S. in terms of casualties. After most slave states, located in the southern U.S., formed the Confederate States, the Confederate States Army, led by former U.S. Army officers, mobilized a large fraction of Southern white manpower. Forces of the United States (the "Union" or "the North") formed the Union Army, consisting of a small body of regular army units and a large body of volunteer units raised from every state, north and south, except South Carolina.[31]

For the first two years, Confederate forces did well in set battles but lost control of the border states.[32] The Confederates had the advantage of defending a large territory in an area where disease caused twice as many deaths as combat. The Union pursued a strategy of seizing the coastline, blockading the ports, and taking control of the river systems. By 1863, the Confederacy was being strangled. Its eastern armies fought well, but the western armies were defeated one after another until the Union forces captured New Orleans in 1862 along with the Tennessee River. In the Vicksburg Campaign of 1862–1863, General Ulysses Grant seized the Mississippi River and cut off the Southwest. Grant took command of Union forces in 1864 and after a series of battles with very heavy casualties, he had General Robert E. Lee under siege in Richmond as General William T. Sherman captured Atlanta and marched through Georgia and the Carolinas. The Confederate capital was abandoned in April 1865 and Lee subsequently surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House. All other Confederate armies surrendered within a few months.

The war remains the deadliest conflict in U.S. history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 men on both sides. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6.4% in the North and 18% in the South.[33]

Later 19th century

Army soldiers in 1890

Following the Civil War, the U.S. Army had the mission of containing western tribes of Native Americans on the Indian reservations. They set up many forts, and engaged in the last of the American Indian Wars. U.S. Army troops also occupied several Southern states during the Reconstruction Era to protect freedmen.

The key battles of the Spanish–American War of 1898 were fought by the Navy. Using mostly new volunteers, the U.S. forces defeated Spain in land campaigns in Cuba and played the central role in the Philippine–American War.

20th century

Starting in 1910, the army began acquiring fixed-wing aircraft.[34] In 1910, during the Mexican Revolution, the army was deployed to U.S. towns near the border to ensure the safety of lives and property. In 1916, Pancho Villa, a major rebel leader, attacked Columbus, New Mexico, prompting a U.S. intervention in Mexico until 7 February 1917. They fought the rebels and the Mexican federal troops until 1918.

World wars

U.S. Army troops assaulting a German bunker in France, c. 1918

The United States joined World War I as an "Associated Power" in 1917 on the side of Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the other Allies. U.S. troops were sent to the Western Front and were involved in the last offensives that ended the war. With the armistice in November 1918, the army once again decreased its forces.

In 1939, estimates of the Army's strength range between 174,000 and 200,000 soldiers, smaller than that of Portugal's, which ranked it 17th or 19th in the world in size. General George C. Marshall became Army chief of staff in September 1939 and set about expanding and modernizing the Army in preparation for war.[35][36]

U.S. soldiers hunting for Japanese infiltrators during the Bougainville Campaign

The United States joined World War II in December 1941 after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Some 11 million Americans were to serve in various Army operations.[37][38] On the European front, U.S. Army troops formed a significant portion of the forces that landed in French North Africa and took Tunisia and then moved on to Sicily and later fought in Italy. In the June 1944 landings in northern France and in the subsequent liberation of Europe and defeat of Nazi Germany, millions of U.S. Army troops played a central role.

In the Pacific War, U.S. Army soldiers participated alongside the United States Marine Corps in capturing the Pacific Islands from Japanese control. Following the Axis surrenders in May (Germany) and August (Japan) of 1945, army troops were deployed to Japan and Germany to occupy the two defeated nations. Two years after World War II, the Army Air Forces separated from the army to become the United States Air Force in September 1947. In 1948, the army was desegregated by order 9981 of President Harry S. Truman.

Cold War

1945–1960
U.S. Army soldiers observing an atomic bomb test of Operation Buster-Jangle at the Nevada Test Site during the Korean War

The end of World War II set the stage for the East–West confrontation known as the Cold War. With the outbreak of the Korean War, concerns over the defense of Western Europe rose. Two corps, V and VII, were reactivated under Seventh United States Army in 1950 and U.S. strength in Europe rose from one division to four. Hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops remained stationed in West Germany, with others in Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, until the 1990s in anticipation of a possible Soviet attack.[39]: minute 9:00–10:00 

US tanks and Soviet tanks at Checkpoint Charlie, 1961

During the Cold War, U.S. troops and their allies fought communist forces in Korea and Vietnam. The Korean War began in June 1950, when the Soviets walked out of a UN Security Council meeting, removing their possible veto. Under a United Nations umbrella, hundreds of thousands of U.S. troops fought to prevent the takeover of South Korea by North Korea and later to invade the northern nation. After repeated advances and retreats by both sides and the Chinese People's Volunteer Army's entry into the war, the Korean Armistice Agreement returned the peninsula to the status quo in July 1953.

1960–1970

The Vietnam War is often regarded as a low point for the U.S. Army due to the use of drafted personnel, the unpopularity of the war with the U.S. public and frustrating restrictions placed on the military by U.S. political leaders. While U.S. forces had been stationed in South Vietnam since 1959, in intelligence and advising/training roles, they were not deployed in large numbers until 1965, after the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. U.S. forces effectively established and maintained control of the "traditional" battlefield, but they struggled to counter the guerrilla hit and run tactics of the communist Viet Cong and the People's Army Of Vietnam (NVA).[40][41]

A U.S. Army infantry patrol moving up to assault the last North Vietnamese Army position at Dak To, South Vietnam during Operation Hawthorne

During the 1960s, the Department of Defense continued to scrutinize the reserve forces and to question the number of divisions and brigades as well as the redundancy of maintaining two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve.[42] In 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara decided that 15 combat divisions in the Army National Guard were unnecessary and cut the number to eight divisions (one mechanized infantry, two armored, and five infantry), but increased the number of brigades from seven to 18 (one airborne, one armored, two mechanized infantry and 14 infantry). The loss of the divisions did not sit well with the states. Their objections included the inadequate maneuver element mix for those that remained and the end to the practice of rotating divisional commands among the states that supported them. Under the proposal, the remaining division commanders were to reside in the state of the division base. However, no reduction in total Army National Guard strength was to take place, which convinced the governors to accept the plan. The states reorganized their forces accordingly between 1 December 1967 and 1 May 1968.

1970–1990
U.S. Army soldiers preparing to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama City during Operation Just Cause

The Total Force Policy was adopted by Chief of Staff of the Army General Creighton Abrams in the aftermath of the Vietnam War and involved treating the three components of the army – the Regular Army, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve as a single force.[43] General Abrams' intertwining of the three components of the army effectively made extended operations impossible without the involvement of both the Army National Guard and Army Reserve in a predominately combat support role.[44] The army converted to an all-volunteer force with greater emphasis on training to specific performance standards driven by the reforms of General William E. DePuy, the first commander of United States Army Training and Doctrine Command. Following the Camp David Accords that was signed by Egypt, Israel that was brokered by president Jimmy Carter in 1978, as part of the agreement, both the United States and Egypt agreed that there would be a joint military training led by both countries that would usually take place every 2 years, that exercise is known as Exercise Bright Star.

The 1980s was mostly a decade of reorganization. The Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 created unified combatant commands bringing the army together with the other four military services under unified, geographically organized command structures. The army also played a role in the invasions of Grenada in 1983 (Operation Urgent Fury) and Panama in 1989 (Operation Just Cause).

By 1989 Germany was nearing reunification and the Cold War was coming to a close. Army leadership reacted by starting to plan for a reduction in strength. By November 1989 Pentagon briefers were laying out plans to reduce army end strength by 23%, from 750,000 to 580,000.[45] A number of incentives such as early retirement were used.

1990s

M1 Abrams tanks moving out before the Battle of Al Busayyah during the Gulf War

In 1990, Iraq invaded its smaller neighbor, Kuwait, and U.S. land forces quickly deployed to assure the protection of Saudi Arabia. In January 1991 Operation Desert Storm commenced, a U.S.-led coalition which deployed over 500,000 troops, the bulk of them from U.S. Army formations, to drive out Iraqi forces. The campaign ended in total victory, as Western coalition forces routed the Iraqi Army. Some of the largest tank battles in history were fought during the Gulf war. The Battle of Medina Ridge, Battle of Norfolk and the Battle of 73 Easting were tank battles of historical significance.[46][47][48]

Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry during the Gulf War, February 1991

After Operation Desert Storm, the army did not see major combat operations for the remainder of the 1990s but did participate in a number of peacekeeping activities. In 1990 the Department of Defense issued guidance for "rebalancing" after a review of the Total Force Policy,[49] but in 2004, Air War College scholars concluded the guidance would reverse the Total Force Policy which is an "essential ingredient to the successful application of military force".[50]

21st century

U.S. Army Rangers taking part in a raid during an operation in Nahr-e Saraj, Afghanistan

On 11 September 2001, 53 Army civilians (47 employees and six contractors) and 22 soldiers were among the 125 victims killed in the Pentagon in a terrorist attack when American Airlines Flight 77 commandeered by five Al-Qaeda hijackers slammed into the western side of the building, as part of the September 11 attacks.[51] In response to the September 11 attacks and as part of the Global War on Terror, U.S. and NATO forces invaded Afghanistan in October 2001, displacing the Taliban government. The U.S. Army also led the combined U.S. and allied invasion of Iraq in 2003; it served as the primary source for ground forces with its ability to sustain short and long-term deployment operations. In the following years, the mission changed from conflict between regular militaries to counterinsurgency, resulting in the deaths of more than 4,000 U.S. service members (as of March 2008) and injuries to thousands more.[52][53] 23,813 insurgents were killed in Iraq between 2003 and 2011.[54]

U.S. Army soldiers with the 2nd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division returning fire during a firefight with Taliban forces in Barawala Kalay Valley in Kunar province, Afghanistan, March 2011

Until 2009, the army's chief modernization plan, its most ambitious since World War II,[55] was the Future Combat Systems program. In 2009, many systems were canceled, and the remaining were swept into the BCT modernization program.[56] By 2017, the Brigade Modernization project was completed and its headquarters, the Brigade Modernization Command, was renamed the Joint Modernization Command, or JMC.[57] In response to Budget sequestration in 2013, Army plans were to shrink to 1940 levels,[58] although actual Active-Army end-strengths were projected to fall to some 450,000 troops by the end of FY2017.[59][60] From 2016 to 2017, the Army retired hundreds of OH-58 Kiowa Warrior observation helicopters,[61] while retaining its Apache gunships.[62] The 2015 expenditure for Army research, development and acquisition changed from $32 billion projected in 2012 for FY15 to $21 billion for FY15 expected in 2014.[63]

Organization

Organization of the United States Army within the Department of Defense

Planning

By 2017, a task force was formed to address Army modernization,[64] which triggered shifts of units: RDECOM, and ARCIC, from within Army Materiel Command (AMC), and TRADOC, respectively, to a new Army Command (ACOM) in 2018.[65] The Army Futures Command (AFC), is a peer of FORSCOM, TRADOC, and AMC, the other ACOMs.[66] AFC's mission is modernization reform: to design hardware, as well as to work within the acquisition process which defines materiel for AMC. TRADOC's mission is to define the architecture and organization of the Army, and to train and supply soldiers to FORSCOM.[67]: minutes 2:30–15:00 [39] AFC's cross-functional teams (CFTs) are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future.[68] In order to support the Army's modernization priorities, its FY2020 budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years.[69] The $30 billion came from $8 billion in cost avoidance and $22 billion in terminations.[69]

Army Components

U.S. Army organization chart[70]

The task of organizing the U.S. Army commenced in 1775.[71] In the first one hundred years of its existence, the United States Army was maintained as a small peacetime force to man permanent forts and perform other non-wartime duties such as engineering and construction works. During times of war, the U.S. Army was augmented by the much larger United States Volunteers which were raised independently by various state governments. States also maintained full-time militias which could also be called into the service of the army.

Senior American commanders of the European theatre of World War II. *Seated are (from left to right) Generals William H. Simpson, George S. Patton, Carl A. Spaatz, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, Courtney H. Hodges, and Leonard T. Gerow
*standing are (from left to right) Generals Ralph F. Stearley, Hoyt Vandenberg, Walter Bedell Smith, Otto P. Weyland, and Richard E. Nugent

By the twentieth century, the U.S. Army had mobilized the U.S. Volunteers on four occasions during each of the major wars of the nineteenth century. During World War I, the "National Army" was organized to fight the conflict, replacing the concept of U.S. Volunteers.[72] It was demobilized at the end of World War I, and was replaced by the Regular Army, the Organized Reserve Corps and the state militias. In the 1920s and 1930s, the "career" soldiers were known as the "Regular Army" with the "Enlisted Reserve Corps" and "Officer Reserve Corps" augmented to fill vacancies when needed.[73]

In 1941, the "Army of the United States" was founded to fight World War II. The Regular Army, Army of the United States, the National Guard and Officer/Enlisted Reserve Corps (ORC and ERC) existed simultaneously. After World War II, the ORC and ERC were combined into the United States Army Reserve. The Army of the United States was re-established for the Korean War and Vietnam War and was demobilized upon the suspension of the draft.[73]

Currently, the Army is divided into the Regular Army, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard.[72] Some states further maintain state defense forces, as a type of reserve to the National Guard, while all states maintain regulations for state militias.[74] State militias are both "organized", meaning that they are armed forces usually part of the state defense forces, or "unorganized" simply meaning that all able-bodied males may be eligible to be called into military service.

The U.S. Army is also divided into several branches and functional areas. Branches include officers, warrant officers, and enlisted Soldiers while functional areas consist of officers who are reclassified from their former branch into a functional area. However, officers continue to wear the branch insignia of their former branch in most cases, as functional areas do not generally have discrete insignia. Some branches, such as Special Forces, operate similarly to functional areas in that individuals may not join their ranks until having served in another Army branch. Careers in the Army can extend into cross-functional areas for officer,[75] warrant officer, enlisted, and civilian personnel.

U.S. Army branches and functional areas
BranchInsignia and colorsBranchInsignia and colorsFunctional Area (FA)
Acquisition Corps (AC)Acquisition-Corps-Branch-In.pngAir Defense Artillery (AD)USAADA-BRANCH.svgInformation Network Engineering (FA 26)
Adjutant General's Corps (AG)
Includes Army Bands (AB)
AdjGenBC.svg ArmyBand Collar Brass.PNGArmor (AR)
Includes Cavalry (CV)
Armor-Branch-Insignia.png US-Cavalry-Branch-Insignia.pngInformation Operations (FA 30)
Aviation (AV)US Army Aviation Branch Insignia.svgCivil Affairs Corps (CA)USA - Civil Affairs.pngStrategic Intelligence (FA 34)
Chaplain Corps (CH)ChristChaplainBC.gif JewishChaplainBC.gif US Army Hindu Faith Branch Insignia.png
BuddhistChaplainBC.gif MuslimChaplainBC.gif ChaplainAsstBC.gif
Chemical Corps (CM)Chemical Branch Insignia.svgSpace Operations (FA 40)
Cyber Corps (CY)US Army Cyber Branch Insignia.pngDental Corps (DC)USA - Army Medical Dental.pngPublic Affairs Officer (FA 46)
Corps of Engineers (EN)USA - Engineer Branch Insignia.pngField Artillery (FA)USA - Army Field Artillery Insignia.pngAcademy Professor (FA 47)
Finance Corps (FI)USA - Army Finance Corps.pngInfantry (IN)USA - Army Infantry Insignia.pngForeign Area Officer (FA 48)
Inspector General (IG)USA - Inspector General Branch Insignia.pngLogistics (LG)USA - Logistics Branch Insignia.pngOperations Research/Systems Analysis (FA 49)
Judge Advocate General's Corps (JA)JAGC Staff Corps Insignia Army.gifMilitary Intelligence Corps (MI)MI Corps Insignia.svgForce Management (FA 50)
Medical Corps (MC)USA - Army Medical Corps.pngMedical Service Corps (MS)USA - Army Medical Specialist Corps.pngAcquisition (FA 51)[75]
Military Police Corps (MP)USAMPC-Branch-Insignia.pngArmy Nurse Corps (AN)USA - Army Medical Nurse.pngSimulation Operations (FA 57)
Psychological Operations (PO)USA - Psych Ops Branch Insignia.pngMedical Specialist Corps (SP)USA - Army Medical Specialist.pngArmy Marketing (FA 58)[76]
Quartermaster Corps (QM)USA - Quartermaster Corps Branch Insignia.pngStaff Specialist Corps (SS)
(USAR and ARNG only)
StaffSpecUSAR ARNGBC.gifHealth Services (FA 70)
Special Forces (SF)USA - Special Forces Branch Insignia.pngOrdnance Corps (OD)Ordnance Branch Insignia.svgLaboratory Sciences (FA 71)
Veterinary Corps (VC)USA - Army Medical Veterinary.pngPublic Affairs (PA)PublicAffairsBC.svgPreventive Medicine Sciences (FA 72)
Transportation Corps (TC)USA - Transportation Corps Branch Insignia.pngSignal Corps (SC)Insignia signal.svgBehavioral Sciences (FA 73)
Special branch insignias (for some unique duty assignments)
National Guard Bureau (NGB)NatlGuardBureauBC.gifGeneral StaffUSA - Army General Staff Branch Insignia.pngU.S. Military Academy StaffUS Military Academy Staff Insignia.png
Chaplain CandidateChaplain Candidate Branch Insignia.pngOfficer CandidateUS Army Officer Candidate Insignia.pngWarrant Officer CandidateUS Army Warrant Officer Candidate Insignia.png
Aide-de-camp
Lapel insignia of an aide-de-camp to a U.S. Army Brigadier General.jpg MajGenAide.jpg LtGenAide.jpg GenAide.jpg GA-Aide.GIF Branch insignia, Aide to Vice Chief, National Guard Bureau.jpg Branch insignia, Aide to Chief, National Guard Bureau.jpg Aide VCoS-Army BC.png AideCoSArmyBC.gif Aide UnderSec-Army BC.png AideSecyArmyBC.gif Aide VJCoS BC.png AideJCoSBC.gif AideSecyDefenseBC.gif Aide-de-camp insignia for VP aide.gif AidePOTUSBC.gif
Senior Enlisted Advisor (SEA)
USA - Army Immaterial Command Insignia.png Sma-bos.jpg SEAC-collar1.jpg

Before 1933, members of the Army National Guard were considered state militia until they were mobilized into the U.S. Army, typically on the onset of war. Since the 1933 amendment to the National Defense Act of 1916, all Army National Guard soldiers have held dual status. They serve as National Guardsmen under the authority of the governor of their state or territory and as reserve members of the U.S. Army under the authority of the president, in the Army National Guard of the United States.

Since the adoption of the total force policy, in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, reserve component soldiers have taken a more active role in U.S. military operations. For example, Reserve and Guard units took part in the Gulf War, peacekeeping in Kosovo, Afghanistan, and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Army commands and army service component commands

US Army Star Logo SSI.png Headquarters, United States Department of the Army (HQDA):

Army CommandsCurrent commanderLocation of headquarters
United States Army Forces Command SSI.svg United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM)GEN Andrew P. PoppasFort Bragg, North Carolina
Army Futures Command SSI.png United States Army Futures Command (AFC)LTG James M. Richardson ActingAustin, Texas
AMC shoulder insignia.svg United States Army Materiel Command (AMC)GEN Edward M. DalyRedstone Arsenal, Alabama
TRADOC patch.svg United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC)GEN Paul E. Funk IIFort Eustis, Virginia
Army Service Component CommandsCurrent commanderLocation of headquarters
US3ASSI.svg United States Army Central (ARCENT)/Third ArmyLTG Patrick D. FrankShaw Air Force Base, South Carolina
USAREUR Insignia.svg United States Army Europe and Africa/Seventh ArmyGEN Darryl A. Williams[77]Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden, Germany
United States Army North CSIB.svg United States Army North (ARNORTH)/Fifth ArmyLTG John R. Evans Jr.Joint Base San Antonio, Texas
USARPAC insignia.svg United States Army Pacific (USARPAC)GEN Charles A. FlynnFort Shafter, Hawaii
UNITED STATES ARMY SOUTH SSI.svg United States Army South (ARSOUTH)/Sixth ArmyMG William L. ThigpenJoint Base San Antonio, Texas
Surface Deployment and Distribution Command SSI.svg Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC)[78]MG Heidi J. Hoyle[79]Scott AFB, Illinois
US Army Cyber Command SSI.png United States Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER)[80][81][82]LTG Maria B. BarrettFort Belvoir, Virginia[83]
United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command Logo.svg United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command/United States Army Forces Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT)LTG Daniel L. KarblerRedstone Arsenal, Alabama
United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC)LTG Jonathan P. BragaFort Bragg, North Carolina
Operational Force HeadquartersCurrent commanderLocation of headquarters
Eighth United States Army CSIB.svg Eighth Army (EUSA)[84]LTG Willard M. Burleson IIICamp Humphreys, South Korea
Direct reporting unitsCurrent commanderLocation of headquarters
Arlington National Cemetery Seal.png Arlington National Cemetery and Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National Cemetery[85]Katharine Kelley[86] (civilian)Arlington, Virginia
Military Postal Service Agency.jpg Military Postal Service Agency[87]Arlington, Virginia
US Army ASAALT Insignia.svg United States Army Acquisition Support Center (USAASC)[88]Craig A. Spisak[89] (civilian)Fort Belvoir, Virginia
US Army Civilain Human Resources Agnecy seal.png United States Army Civilian Human Resources Agency (CHRA)[90]Carol Burton[91] (civilian)Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
USACE.gif United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)LTG Scott A. Spellmon[92]Washington, D.C.
Cid patch color.jpg United States Army Criminal Investigation Division (USACID)Gregory D. FordQuantico, Virginia
HRCPatch.png United States Army Human Resources Command (HRC)[93]MG Thomas R. DrewFort Knox, Kentucky
INSCOM.svg United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM)MG Michele H. BredenkampFort Belvoir, Virginia
MEDCOM.png United States Army Medical Command (MEDCOM)LTG R. Scott DingleJoint Base San Antonio, Texas
United States Army Military District of Washington CSIB.svg United States Army Military District of Washington (MDW)MG Allan M. PepinFort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C.
United States Army Test and Evaluation Command SSI.png United States Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC)MG James J. Gallivan[94]Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
US Army War College SSI.png United States Army War College (AWC)[95]MG David C. HillCarlisle, Pennsylvania
USMA SSI.png United States Military Academy (USMA)LTG Steven W. GillandWest Point, New York

Source: U.S. Army organization[96]

Structure

See Structure of the United States Army for a detailed treatment of the history, components, administrative and operational structure and the branches and functional areas of the Army.

U.S. Army soldiers of the 1st Battalion, 175th Infantry Regiment, Maryland Army National Guard conducting an urban cordon and search exercise as part of the army readiness and training evaluation program in the mock city of Balad at Fort Dix, New Jersey

The U.S. Army is made up of three components: the active component, the Regular Army; and two reserve components, the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. Both reserve components are primarily composed of part-time soldiers who train once a month – known as battle assemblies or unit training assemblies (UTAs) – and conduct two to three weeks of annual training each year. Both the Regular Army and the Army Reserve are organized under Title 10 of the United States Code, while the National Guard is organized under Title 32. While the Army National Guard is organized, trained and equipped as a component of the U.S. Army, when it is not in federal service it is under the command of individual state and territorial governors. However, the District of Columbia National Guard reports to the U.S. president, not the district's mayor, even when not federalized. Any or all of the National Guard can be federalized by presidential order and against the governor's wishes.[97]

U.S. soldiers from the 6th Infantry Regiment taking up positions on a street corner during a foot patrol in Ramadi, Iraq

The U.S. Army is led by a civilian secretary of the Army, who has the statutory authority to conduct all the affairs of the army under the authority, direction and control of the secretary of defense.[98] The chief of staff of the Army, who is the highest-ranked military officer in the army, serves as the principal military adviser and executive agent for the secretary of the Army, i.e., its service chief; and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a body composed of the service chiefs from each of the four military services belonging to the Department of Defense who advise the president of the United States, the secretary of defense and the National Security Council on operational military matters, under the guidance of the chairman and vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.[99][100] In 1986, the Goldwater–Nichols Act mandated that operational control of the services follows a chain of command from the president to the secretary of defense directly to the unified combatant commanders, who have control of all armed forces units in their geographic or function area of responsibility, thus the secretaries of the military departments (and their respective service chiefs underneath them) only have the responsibility to organize, train and equip their service components. The army provides trained forces to the combatant commanders for use as directed by the secretary of defense.[101]

The 1st Cavalry Division's combat aviation brigade performing a mock charge with the horse detachment

By 2013, the army shifted to six geographical commands that align with the six geographical unified combatant commands (CCMD):

  • United States Army Central headquartered at Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina
  • United States Army North headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, Texas
  • United States Army South headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, Texas
  • United States Army Europe and Africa headquartered at Clay Kaserne, Wiesbaden, Germany
  • United States Army Pacific headquartered at Fort Shafter, Hawaii
U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers from the 3rd Special Forces Group patrolling a field in the Gulistan district of Farah, Afghanistan

The army also transformed its base unit from divisions to brigades. Division lineage will be retained, but the divisional headquarters will be able to command any brigade, not just brigades that carry their divisional lineage. The central part of this plan is that each brigade will be modular, i.e., all brigades of the same type will be exactly the same and thus any brigade can be commanded by any division. As specified before the 2013 end-strength re-definitions, the three major types of brigade combat teams are:

  • Armored brigades, with a strength of 4,743 troops as of 2014.
  • Stryker brigades, with a strength of 4,500 troops as of 2014.
  • Infantry brigades, with a strength of 4,413 troops as of 2014.

In addition, there are combat support and service support modular brigades. Combat support brigades include aviation (CAB) brigades, which will come in heavy and light varieties, fires (artillery) brigades (now transforms to division artillery) and expeditionary military intelligence brigades. Combat service support brigades include sustainment brigades and come in several varieties and serve the standard support role in an army.

Combat maneuver organizations

To track the effects of the 2018 budget cuts, see Transformation of the United States Army#Divisions and brigades

The U.S. Army’s conventional combat capability currently consists of 11 active divisions and one deployable division headquarters (7th Infantry Division) as well as several independent maneuver units.

From 2013 through 2017, the Army sustained organizational and end-strength reductions after several years of growth. In June 2013, the Army announced plans to downsize to 32 active brigade combat teams by 2015 to match a reduction in active-duty strength to 490,000 soldiers. Army chief of staff Raymond Odierno projected that the Army was to shrink to "450,000 in the active component, 335,000 in the National Guard and 195,000 in U.S. Army Reserve" by 2018.[102] However, this plan was scrapped by the incoming Trump administration, with subsequent plans to expand the Army by 16,000 soldiers to a total of 476,000 by October 2017. The National Guard and the Army Reserve will see a smaller expansion.[103][104]

The Army’s maneuver organization was most recently altered by the reorganization of United States Army Alaska into the 11th Airborne Division, transferring the 1st and 4th Brigade Combat Teams of the 25th Infantry Division under a separate operational headquarters to reflect the brigades’ distinct, Arctic-oriented mission. As part of the reorganization, the 1–11 (formerly 1–25) Stryker Brigade Combat Team will reorganize as an Infantry Brigade Combat Team.[105] Following this transition, the active component BCTs will number 11 Armored brigades, 6 Stryker brigades, and 14 Infantry brigades.

Within the Army National Guard and United States Army Reserve, there are a further eight divisions, 27 brigade combat teams, additional combat support and combat service support brigades, and independent cavalry, infantry, artillery, aviation, engineer and support battalions. The Army Reserve in particular provides virtually all psychological operations and civil affairs units.

United States Army Forces Command SSI.svg United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM)

Direct reporting unitsCurrent commanderLocation of headquarters
U.S. I Corps CSIB.svg I CorpsLTG Xavier T. BrunsonJoint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington
3 Corps Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.svg III CorpsLTG Robert "Pat" WhiteFort Hood, Texas
V Corps.svg V CorpsLTG John S. KolasheskiFort Knox, Kentucky
XVIII Airborne Corps CSIB.svg XVIII Airborne CorpsLTG Christopher T. DonahueFort Bragg, North Carolina
1st Army.svg First Army[106]LTG Antonio A. Aguto Jr.Rock Island Arsenal, Illinois
US Army Reserve Command SSI.svg U.S. Army Reserve Command[107]LTG Jody J. DanielsFort Bragg, North Carolina
US Army Security Force Assistance Brigade SSI.png Security Force Assistance CommandMG Scott A. JacksonFort Bragg, North Carolina
20th CBRNE Logo.jpg 20th CBRNE CommandMG Antonio MuneraAberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
32aamdc.svg 32nd Army Air and Missile Defense CommandBG David F. StewartFort Bliss, Texas
US Army Air Traffic Services Command SSI.png U.S. Army Air Traffic Services CommandCOL Jason T. CookFort Rucker, Alabama
Active combat maneuver units
NameHeadquartersSubunitsSubordinate to
United States Army 1st Armored Division CSIB.svg
1st Armored Division
Fort Bliss, Texas and New Mexico3 armored BCTs (ABCTs),[108] 1 Division Artillery (DIVARTY), 1 Combat Aviation Brigade (CAB), and 1 sustainment brigadeIII Corps
1 Cav Shoulder Insignia.svg
1st Cavalry Division
Fort Hood, Texas3 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeIII Corps
1st US Infantry Division.svg 1st Infantry DivisionFort Riley, Kansas2 armored BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeIII Corps
2nd Infantry Division SSI (full color).svg
2nd Infantry Division
Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington

Camp Humphreys, South Korea
2 Stryker BCTs, 1 mechanized brigade from the ROK Army,[109] 1 DIVARTY (under administrative control of 7th ID), 1 sustainment brigade, and a stateside ABCT from another active division that is rotated in on a regular basis.I Corps (CONUS)

Eighth Army (OCONUS)
United States Army 3rd Infantry Division SSI (1918-2015).svg
3rd Infantry Division
Fort Stewart, Georgia2 armored BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigade as well as the 48th Infantry BCT of the Georgia Army National GuardXVIII Airborne Corps
4th Infantry Division SSI.svg
4th Infantry Division
Fort Carson, Colorado2 Stryker BCT, 1 armored BCT, DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeIII Corps
10th Mountain Division SSI.svg
10th Mountain Division
Fort Drum, New York3 infantry BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeXVIII Airborne Corps
11th Airborne Division
Joint Base Elmendorf–Richardson, Alaska1 airborne infantry BCT, 1 infantry BCT, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeI Corps
25th Infantry Division CSIB.svg
25th Infantry Division
Schofield Barracks, Hawaii2 infantry BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeI Corps
82 ABD SSI.svg
82nd Airborne Division
Fort Bragg, North Carolina3 airborne infantry BCTs, 1 airborne DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 airborne sustainment brigadeXVIII Airborne Corps
US 101st Airborne Division patch.svg
101st Airborne Division
Fort Campbell, Kentucky3 infantry BCTs, 1 DIVARTY, 1 CAB, and 1 sustainment brigadeXVIII Airborne Corps
US 2nd Cavalry Regiment SSI.jpg
2nd Cavalry Regiment
Rose Barracks, Vilseck, Germany4 Stryker squadrons, 1 engineer squadron, 1 fires squadron, and 1 support squadronU.S. Army Europe and Africa
3dACRSSI.PNG
3rd Cavalry Regiment
Fort Hood, Texas4 Stryker squadrons, 1 fires squadron, 1 engineer squadron, and 1 support squadron (overseen by the 1st Cavalry Division)[110]III Corps
173Airborne Brigade Shoulder Patch.png
173rd Airborne Brigade
Camp Ederle, Vicenza, Italy3 airborne infantry battalions (including 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment of the Texas and Rhode Island Army National Guard), 1 airborne field artillery battalion, 1 airborne cavalry squadron, 1 airborne engineer battalion,[111] and 1 airborne support battalionU.S. Army Europe and Africa
US Army National Guard Seal.png Combat maneuver units under the Army National Guard until federalized
NameLocationsSubunits
28th Infantry Division SSI (1918-2015).svg
28th Infantry Division
Pennsylvania, Ohio and Maryland2nd Infantry BCT, 56th Stryker BCT, 28th CAB, US Army 55th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade.png 55th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade (MEB),[112] and the 28th Infantry Division Sustainment Brigade (SB)
29th Infantry Division SSI.svg
29th Infantry Division
Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina and Florida30th Infantry Division SSI.svg 30th Armored BCT, 53rd Infantry Brigade SSI.svg 53rd Infantry BCT, 116th Infantry BCT, 29th CAB, 142FABdeSSI.svg 142nd Field Artillery Regiment, 29th Infantry Division SB, and the 226MnvrEnhance.jpg 226th MEB[113]
34th 'Red Bull' Infantry Division SSI.svg
34th Infantry Division
Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa and Idaho1st Armored BCT, 2nd Infantry BCT, 32nd infantry division shoulder patch.svg 32nd Infantry BCT, 116th Cavalry Brigade CSIB.svg 116th Cavalry BCT, 115FABdeSSI.png 115th Field Artillery Brigade, 34th CAB, 34th Infantry Division SB, and the 57th Field Artillery Brigade SSI.svg 157th MEB
35th Infantry Division SSI.svg
35th Infantry Division
Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Oklahoma, Georgia, Arkansas, and Nebraska33rd Infantry Division SSI.svg 33rd Infantry BCT, USArmy 39th Inf Brig Patch.svg 39th Infantry BCT, 45thIBCTSSI.png 45th Infantry BCT, 130FABdeSSI.svg 130th Field Artillery Brigade, 35th CAB, and the 67th Infantry Brigade SSI.svg 67th MEB
36th Infantry Division SSI.png
36th Infantry Division
Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi56th Infantry BCT, 72nd Infantry BCT, 256 INF BRGDE SSI.svg 256th Infantry BCT, 155th Armored Brigade Combat Team CSIB.svg 155th Armored BCT, US278ACRSSI.svg 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 36th CAB, 36th Infantry Division SB, and the 136th MEB.png 136th MEB
38th Infantry Division SSI.svg
38th Infantry Division
Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Tennessee37th Infantry Brigade SSI.svg 37th Infantry BCT, 76th IBCT shoulder sleeve insignia.jpg 76th Infantry BCT, 138FABdeSSI.png 138th Field Artillery Brigade, 38th CAB, 38th Infantry Division SB, and the 149th Armored Brigade CSIB.svg 149th MEB
40th Infantry Division CSIB.svg
40th Infantry Division
Arizona, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington29th Infantry Brigade SSI.svg 29th Infantry BCT, 41st Infantry Division SSI.svg 41st Infantry BCT, 79 Infantry Brigade Combat Team insignia.svg 79th Infantry BCT, 81st ABCT Unit Insignia.svg 81st Stryker BCT, 40th CAB, and the 40th Infantry Division SB
42nd Infantry Division SSI.svg
42nd Infantry Division
New York, New Jersey and Vermont27th Infantry Division SSI.svg 27th Infantry BCT, US Army 44th Infantry Division SSI.png 44th Infantry BCT, 86th BCT (MTN).jpg 86th Infantry BCT (Mountain), 197th FA Brigade patch.png 197th Field Artillery Brigade, 42nd CAB, 42nd Infantry Division SB, and the Yankee Division.svg 26th MEB

For a description of U.S. Army tactical organizational structure, see: a U.S. context and also a global context.

Special operations forces

United States Army Special Operations Command (Airborne) (USASOC):[114]

NameHeadquartersStructure and purpose
1st Special Forces Command
Fort Bragg, North CarolinaManages seven special forces groups designed to deploy and execute nine doctrinal missions: unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct action, counter-insurgency, special reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, information operations, counterproliferation of weapon of mass destruction, and security force assistance. The command also manages two psychological operations groups—tasked to work with foreign nations to induce or reinforce behavior favorable to U.S. objectives—a civil affairs brigade—that enables military commanders and U.S. ambassadors to improve relationships with various stakeholders via five battalions—and a sustainment brigade—that provides combat service support and combat health support units via three distinct battalions.
U.S. Army Special Operations Aviation Command SSI (2013-2015).png
Army Special Operations Aviation Command
Fort Bragg, North CarolinaCommands, organizes, mans, trains, resources, and equips Army special operations aviation units to provide responsive, special operations aviation support to special operations forces consisting of five units, including the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne).
75 Ranger Regiment Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.svg
75th Ranger Regiment
Fort Benning, GeorgiaIn addition to a regimental headquarters, a special troops battalion, and a military intelligence battalion, the 75th Ranger Regiment has three maneuver battalions of elite airborne infantry specializing in large-scale, joint forcible entry operations and precision targeting raids. Additional capabilities include special reconnaissance, air assault, and direct action raids seizing key terrain such as airfields, destroying or securing strategic facilities, and capturing or killing enemies of the Nation. The Regiment also helps develop the equipment, technologies, training, and readiness that bridge the gap between special operations and traditional combat maneuver organizations.
JFKSWCS SSI.gif
John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School
Fort Bragg, North CarolinaSelects and trains special forces, civil affairs, and psychological operations soldiers consisting of two groups and other various training units and offices.
1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta
Fort Bragg, North CarolinaCommonly referred to as Delta Force, Combat Applications Group (CAG), "The Unit," Army Compartmented Element (ACE), or Task Force Green, SFOD–D is the U.S. Army's Tier 1 Special Mission Unit tasked with performing the most complex, classified, and dangerous missions directed by the National Command Authority. Under the control of Joint Special Operations Command, SFOD–D specializes in hostage rescue, counter-terrorism, direct action, and special reconnaissance against high-value targets via eight squadrons: four assault, one aviation, one clandestine, one combat support, and one nuclear disposal.[115][116]

Personnel

The Army's Talent Management Task Force (TMTF) has deployed IPPS-A,[117] the Integrated Personnel and Pay System - Army, an app which serves the National Guard, and in 2021 the Army Reserve and Active Army. Soldiers are reminded to update their information using the legacy systems to keep their payroll and personnel information current by December 2021. IPPS-A is the Human Resources system for the Army, is now available for download for Android, or the Apple store.[118] It will be used for future promotions and other personnel decisions. Among the changes are:

  • BCAP, the Battalion Commander Assessment Program. In January 2020, over 800 majors and lieutenant colonels from all over the Army converged on Fort Knox to take part in a five-day program to select the next battalion commanders for the Army (beginning in FY2021). This process replaces the former selection process which was based solely on rank and individual reviews of past performance. From now on, more consideration will be given to an individual officer's personal preference, as part of 25 other selection criteria.[119] "Promotion boards will now be able to see almost all substantiated adverse information".[120] The promotion boards will be able to see anything in an officer's human resource record. Officers are encouraged to become familiar with their human resource record, and to file rebuttals to adverse information.[120]
  • Depending on the success of this initiative, other assessment programs could be instituted as well, for promotion to sergeants major,[121] and for assessment of colonels for command.[122]

Below are the U.S. Army ranks authorized for use today and their equivalent NATO designations. Although no living officer currently holds the rank of General of the Army, it is still authorized by Congress for use in wartime.

Commissioned officers

There are several paths to becoming a commissioned officer[123] including the United States Military Academy, Reserve Officers' Training Corps, Officer Candidate School, and direct commissioning. Regardless of which road an officer takes, the insignia are the same. Certain professions including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, lawyers and chaplains are commissioned directly into the Army.

Most army commissioned officers (those who are generalists)[124] are promoted based on an "up or out" system. A more flexible talent management process is underway.[124] The Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980 establishes rules for the timing of promotions and limits the number of officers that can serve at any given time.

Army regulations call for addressing all personnel with the rank of general as "General (last name)" regardless of the number of stars. Likewise, both colonels and lieutenant colonels are addressed as "Colonel (last name)" and first and second lieutenants as "Lieutenant (last name)".[125]

US DoD Pay GradeO-1O-2O-3O-4O-5O-6O-7O-8O-9O-10Special grade[126]
NATO CodeOF-1OF-2OF-3OF-4OF-5OF-6OF-7OF-8OF-9OF-10
InsigniaUS-O1 insignia.svgUS-O2 insignia.svgUS-O3 insignia.svgUS-O4 insignia.svgUS-O5 insignia.svgUS-O6 insignia.svgUS-O7 insignia.svgUS-O8 insignia.svgUS-O9 insignia.svgUS-O10 insignia.svgUS-O11 insignia.svg
Service Green
Uniform Insignia
US Army O1 (Army greens).svgUS Army O2 (Army greens).svgUS Army O3 (Army greens).svgUS Army O4 (Army greens).svgUS Army O5 (Army greens).svgUS Army O6 (Army greens).svgUS Army O7 (Army greens).svgUS Army O8 (Army greens).svgUS Army O9 (Army greens).svgUS Army O10 (Army greens).svgUS Army O11 (Army greens).svg
TitleSecond lieutenantFirst lieutenantCaptainMajorLieutenant colonelColonelBrigadier generalMajor generalLieutenant generalGeneralGeneral of the Army
Abbreviation2LT1LTCPTMAJLTCCOLBGMGLTGGENGA

Warrant officers

Warrant officers[123] are single track, specialty officers with subject matter expertise in a particular area. They are initially appointed as warrant officers (in the rank of WO1) by the secretary of the Army, but receive their commission upon promotion to chief warrant officer two (CW2).

By regulation, warrant officers are addressed as "Mr. (last name)" or "Ms. (last name)" by senior officers and as "sir" or "ma'am" by all enlisted personnel.[125] However, many personnel address warrant officers as "Chief (last name)" within their units regardless of rank.

US DoD Pay GradeW-1W-2W-3W-4W-5
NATO CodeWO-1WO-2WO-3WO-4WO-5
InsigniaUS-Army-WO1.svgUS-Army-CW2.svgUS-Army-CW3.svgUS-Army-CW4.svgUS-Army-CW5.svg
TitleWarrant officer 1Chief warrant officer 2Chief warrant officer 3Chief warrant officer 4Chief warrant officer 5
AbbreviationWO1CW2CWOCW4CW5

Enlisted personnel

Sergeants and corporals are referred to as NCOs, short for non-commissioned officers.[123][127] This distinguishes corporals from the more numerous specialists who have the same pay grade but do not exercise leadership responsibilities. Beginning in 2021, all corporals will be required to conduct structured self-development for the NCO ranks, completing the basic leader course (BLC), or else be laterally assigned as specialists. Specialists who have completed BLC and who have been recommended for promotion will be permitted to wear corporal rank before their recommended promotion as NCOs.[128]

Privates and privates first class (E3) are addressed as "Private (last name)", specialists as "Specialist (last name)", corporals as "Corporal (last name)" and sergeants, staff sergeants, sergeants first class and master sergeants all as "Sergeant (last name)". First sergeants are addressed as "First Sergeant (last name)" and sergeants major and command sergeants major are addressed as "Sergeant Major (last name)".[125]

U.S. DoD Pay gradeE-1E-2E-3E-4E-5E-6E-7E-8E-9
NATO CodeOR-1OR-2OR-3OR-4OR-5OR-6OR-7OR-8OR-9
Service Green
Uniform Insignia
No insigniaArmy-USA-OR-02 (Army greens).svgArmy-USA-OR-03 (Army greens).svgArmy-USA-OR-04b (Army greens).svgArmy-USA-OR-04a (Army greens).svgArmy-USA-OR-05 (Army greens).svgArmy-USA-OR-06 (Army greens).svgArmy-USA-OR-07 (Army greens).svgArmy-USA-OR-08b (Army greens).svgArmy-USA-OR-08a (Army greens).svgArmy-USA-OR-09c (Army greens).svgArmy-USA-OR-09b (Army greens).svgArmy-USA-OR-09a (Army greens).svg
TitlePrivatePrivate
[129]
Private
first class
SpecialistCorporalSergeantStaff
sergeant
Sergeant
first class
Master
sergeant
First
sergeant
Sergeant
major
Command
sergeant major
Sergeant major
of the Army
Senior enlisted
advisor to the chairman
[130]
AbbreviationPV1 ¹PV2 ¹PFCSPC ²CPLSGTSSGSFCMSG1SG ³SGMCSMSMASEAC
¹ PVT is also used as an abbreviation for both private ranks when pay grade need not be distinguished.[131]
² SP4 is sometimes encountered instead of SPC for specialist. This is a holdover from when there were additional specialist ranks at pay grades E-5 to E-7.
³ First sergeant is considered a temporary and lateral rank and is senior to master sergeant. A first sergeant can revert to master sergeant upon leaving assignment.

Training

U.S. Army Rangers practicing fast roping techniques from an MH-47 during an exercise at Fort Bragg

Training in the U.S. Army is generally divided into two categories – individual and collective. Because of COVID-19 precautions, the first two weeks of basic training — not including processing and out-processing – incorporate social distancing and indoor desk-oriented training. Once the recruits have tested negative for COVID-19 for two weeks, the remaining 8 weeks follow the traditional activities for most recruits,[132] followed by Advanced Individualized Training (AIT) where they receive training for their military occupational specialties (MOS). Some individual's MOSs range anywhere from 14 to 20 weeks of One Station Unit Training (OSUT), which combines Basic Training and AIT. The length of AIT school varies by the MOS. The length of time spent in AIT depends on the MOS of the soldier. Certain highly technical MOS training requires many months (e.g., foreign language translators). Depending on the needs of the army, Basic Combat Training for combat arms soldiers is conducted at a number of locations, but two of the longest-running are the Armor School and the Infantry School, both at Fort Benning, Georgia. Sergeant Major of the Army Dailey notes that an infantrymen's pilot program for One Station Unit Training (OSUT) extends 8 weeks beyond Basic Training and AIT, to 22 weeks. The pilot, designed to boost infantry readiness ended in December 2018. The new Infantry OSUT covered the M240 machine gun as well as the M249 squad automatic weapon.[133] The redesigned Infantry OSUT started in 2019.[134][135] Depending on the result of the 2018 pilot, OSUTs could also extend training in other combat arms beyond the infantry.[134] One Station Unit Training will be extended to 22 weeks for Armor by Fiscal Year 2021.[21] Additional OSUTs are expanding to Cavalry, Engineer, and Military Police (MP) in the succeeding Fiscal Years.[136]

A new training assignment for junior officers was instituted, that they serve as platoon leaders for Basic Combat Training (BCT) platoons.[137] These lieutenants will assume many of the administrative, logistical, and day-to-day tasks formerly performed by the drill sergeants of those platoons and are expected to "lead, train, and assist with maintaining and enhancing the morale, welfare and readiness" of the drill sergeants and their BCT platoons.[137] These lieutenants are also expected to stem any inappropriate behaviors they witness in their platoons, to free up the drill sergeants for training.[137]

A trainer with Company A, 1st Battalion 502nd Infantry Regiment, Task Force Strike, 101st Airborne Division assisting Iraqi army ranger students during a room clearing drill at Camp Taji, Iraq on 18 July 2016

The United States Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) was introduced in 2018 to 60 battalions spread throughout the Army.[138] The test and scoring system is the same for all soldiers, regardless of gender. It takes an hour to complete, including resting periods.[139] The ACFT supersedes the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT),[140][141][142] as being more relevant to survival in combat.[138] Six events were determined to better predict which muscle groups of the body were adequately conditioned for combat actions:[139] three deadlifts,[143] a standing power throw of a ten-pound medicine ball,[144] hand-release pushups[145] (which replace the traditional pushup), a sprint/drag/carry 250 yard event,[146] three pull-ups with leg tucks (or a plank test in lieu of the leg tuck),[147][148] a mandatory rest period, and a two-mile run.[149] As of 1 October 2020 all soldiers from all three components (Regular Army, Reserve, and National Guard)[150] are subject to this test.[151][152] The ACFT now tests all soldiers in basic training as of October 2020. The ACFT became the official test of record 1 October 2020; before that day every Army unit was required to complete a diagnostic ACFT[153] (All Soldiers with valid APFT scores can use them until March 2022. The Holistic Health and Fitness (H2F) System is one way that soldiers can prepare.).[154][155][156] The ACFT movements directly translate to movements on the battlefield.[135]

Following their basic and advanced training at the individual level, soldiers may choose to continue their training and apply for an "additional skill identifier" (ASI). The ASI allows the army to take a wide-ranging MOS and focus it on a more specific MOS. For example, a combat medic, whose duties are to provide pre-hospital emergency treatment, may receive ASI training to become a cardiovascular specialist, a dialysis specialist, or even a licensed practical nurse. For commissioned officers, training includes pre-commissioning training, known as Basic Officer Leader Course A, either at USMA or via ROTC, or by completing OCS. After commissioning, officers undergo branch-specific training at the Basic Officer Leaders Course B, (formerly called Officer Basic Course), which varies in time and location according to their future assignments. Officers will continue to attend standardized training at different stages of their careers.[157]

U.S. Army soldiers familiarizing with the latest INSAS 1B1 during exercise Yudh Abhyas 2015

Collective training at the unit level takes place at the unit's assigned station, but the most intensive training at higher echelons is conducted at the three combat training centers (CTC); the National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, the Joint Readiness Training Center (JRTC) at Fort Polk, Louisiana and the Joint Multinational Training Center (JMRC) at the Hohenfels Training Area in Hohenfels and Grafenwöhr,[158] Germany. ARFORGEN is the Army Force Generation process approved in 2006 to meet the need to continuously replenish forces for deployment, at unit level and for other echelons as required by the mission. Individual-level replenishment still requires training at a unit level, which is conducted at the continental U.S. (CONUS) replacement center (CRC) at Fort Bliss, in New Mexico and Texas before their individual deployment.[159]

Chief of Staff Milley notes that the Army is suboptimized for training in cold-weather regions, jungles, mountains, or urban areas where in contrast the Army does well when training for deserts or rolling terrain.[160]: minute 1:26:00  Post 9/11, Army unit-level training was for counter-insurgency (COIN); by 2014–2017, training had shifted to decisive action training.[161]

Equipment

The chief of staff of the Army has identified six modernization priorities, in order: artillery, ground vehicles, aircraft, network, air/missile defense, and soldier lethality.[162]

Weapons

A Lockheed Martin Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system used for ballistic missile protection

Individual weapons

The United States Army employs various weapons to provide light firepower at short ranges. The most common weapon type used by the army is the M4 carbine, a compact variant of the M16 rifle,[163] along with the 7.62×51mm variant of the FN SCAR for Army Rangers. The primary sidearm in the U.S. Army is the 9 mm M9 pistol; the M11 pistol is also used. Both handguns are to be replaced by the M17[164] through the Modular Handgun System program.[165] Soldiers are also equipped with various hand grenades, such as the M67 fragmentation grenade and M18 smoke grenade.

Many units are supplemented with a variety of specialized weapons, including the M249 SAW (Squad Automatic Weapon), to provide suppressive fire at the squad level.[166] Indirect fire is provided by the M320 grenade launcher. The M1014 Joint Service Combat Shotgun or the Mossberg 590 Shotgun are used for door breaching and close-quarters combat. The M14EBR is used by designated marksmen. Snipers use the M107 Long Range Sniper Rifle, the M2010 Enhanced Sniper Rifle and the M110 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle.

Crew-served weapons

The army employs various crew-served weapons to provide heavy firepower at ranges exceeding that of individual weapons.

The M240 is the U.S. Army's standard Medium Machine Gun.[167] The M2 heavy machine gun is generally used as a vehicle-mounted machine gun. In the same way, the 40 mm MK 19 grenade machine gun is mainly used by motorized units.[168]

The U.S. Army uses three types of mortar for indirect fire support when heavier artillery may not be appropriate or available. The smallest of these is the 60 mm M224, normally assigned at the infantry company level.[169] At the next higher echelon, infantry battalions are typically supported by a section of 81 mm M252 mortars.[170] The largest mortar in the army's inventory is the 120 mm M120/M121, usually employed by mechanized units.[171]

Fire support for light infantry units is provided by towed howitzers, including the 105 mm M119A1[172] and the 155 mm M777.[173]

The U.S. Army utilizes a variety of direct-fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an Anti-Armor Capability. The AT4 is an unguided projectile that can destroy armor and bunkers at ranges up to 500 meters. The FIM-92 Stinger is a shoulder-launched, heat seeking anti-aircraft missile. The FGM-148 Javelin and BGM-71 TOW are anti-tank guided missiles.

Vehicles

A U.S. soldier on patrol in Iraq with the support of a Humvee vehicle

U.S. Army doctrine puts a premium on mechanized warfare. It fields the highest vehicle-to-soldier ratio in the world as of 2009.[174] The army's most common vehicle is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), commonly called the Humvee, which is capable of serving as a cargo/troop carrier, weapons platform and ambulance, among many other roles.[175] While they operate a wide variety of combat support vehicles, one of the most common types centers on the family of HEMTT vehicles. The M1A2 Abrams is the army's main battle tank,[176] while the M2A3 Bradley is the standard infantry fighting vehicle.[177] Other vehicles include the Stryker,[178] the M113 armored personnel carrier[179] and multiple types of Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles.

3rd Infantry Division soldiers manning an M1A1 Abrams in Iraq

The U.S. Army's principal artillery weapons are the M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer[180] and the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS),[181] both mounted on tracked platforms and assigned to heavy mechanized units.

Aviation

While the United States Army Aviation Branch operates a few fixed-wing aircraft, it mainly operates several types of rotary-wing aircraft. These include the AH-64 Apache attack helicopter,[182] the UH-60 Black Hawk utility tactical transport helicopter[183] and the CH-47 Chinook heavy-lift transport helicopter.[184] Restructuring plans call for reduction of 750 aircraft and from 7 to 4 types.[185] The Army is evaluating two fixed-wing aircraft demonstrators; ARES, and Artemis are under evaluation to replace the Guardrail ISR (Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) aircraft.[186] Under the Johnson-McConnell agreement of 1966, the Army agreed to limit its fixed-wing aviation role to administrative mission support (light unarmed aircraft which cannot operate from forward positions). For UAVs, the Army is deploying at least one company of drone MQ-1C Gray Eagles to each Active Army division.[187]

Uniforms

The 2020 Army Greens uniform

The Army Combat Uniform (ACU) currently features a camouflage pattern known as Operational Camouflage Pattern (OCP); OCP replaced a pixel-based pattern known as Universal Camouflage Pattern (UCP) in 2019.

An element of the 18th Infantry Regiment, wearing ASUs, representing the United States at the 2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade.

On 11 November 2018, the Army announced a new version of 'Army Greens' based on uniforms worn during World War II that will become the standard garrison service uniform.[188] The blue Army Service Uniform will remain as the dress uniform. The Army Greens are projected to be first fielded in the summer of 2020.[188]

Berets

The Ranger Honor Platoon marching in their tan berets and former service uniform

The beret flash of enlisted personnel displays their distinctive unit insignia (shown above). The U.S. Army's black beret is no longer worn with the ACU for garrison duty, having been permanently replaced with the patrol cap. After years of complaints that it was not suited well for most work conditions, Army Chief of Staff General Martin Dempsey eliminated it for wear with the ACU in June 2011. Soldiers who are currently in a unit in jump status still wear berets, whether the wearer is parachute-qualified or not (maroon beret), while members of Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) wear brown berets. Members of the 75th Ranger Regiment and the Airborne and Ranger Training Brigade (tan beret) and Special Forces (rifle green beret) may wear it with the Army Service Uniform for non-ceremonial functions. Unit commanders may still direct the wear of patrol caps in these units in training environments or motor pools.

Tents

The Army has relied heavily on tents to provide the various facilities needed while on deployment (Force Provider Expeditionary (FPE)).[162]: p.146  The most common tent uses for the military are as temporary barracks (sleeping quarters), DFAC buildings (dining facilities),[189] forward operating bases (FOBs), after-action review (AAR), tactical operations center (TOC), morale, welfare and recreation (MWR) facilities, as well as security checkpoints. Furthermore, most of these tents are set up and operated through the support of Natick Soldier Systems Center. Each FPE contains billeting, latrines, showers, laundry and kitchen facilities for 50–150 Soldiers,[162]: p.146  and is stored in Army Prepositioned Stocks 1, 2, 4 and 5. This provisioning allows combatant commanders to position soldiers as required in their Area of Responsibility, within 24 to 48 hours.

The U.S. Army is beginning to use a more modern tent called the deployable rapid assembly shelter (DRASH). In 2008, DRASH became part of the Army's Standard Integrated Command Post System.[190]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ As the Continental Army.
  2. ^ Adopted in 1962.

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  161. ^ "Army Updates Mobilization Model". Association of the United States Army. 8 October 2018.
  162. ^ a b c ASA(ALT) Weapon Systems Handbook 2018 Page 32 lists how this handbook is organized. 440 pages.
  163. ^ M4. U.S. Army Fact Files
  164. ^ O'Melveny, Sean (19 January 2017). "Army Picks Sig Sauer's P320 Handgun to Replace M9 Service Pistol". Military.com.
  165. ^ Individual Weapons Future Innovations Archived 24 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Project Manager Soldier Weapons.
  166. ^ M249, U.S. Army Fact Files
  167. ^ M240, U.S. Army Fact Files
  168. ^ MK 19, U.S. Army Fact Files
  169. ^ M224, U.S. Army Fact Files
  170. ^ M252, U.S. Army Fact Files
  171. ^ M120, U.S. Army Fact Files
  172. ^ M119, U.S. Army Fact Files
  173. ^ John Pike. "M777 Lightweight 155mm howitzer (LW155)". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  174. ^ Us Future Combat & Weapon Systems Handbook. Int'l Business Publications. 30 March 2009. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-4387-5447-5. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  175. ^ HMMWV, U.S. Army Fact Files
  176. ^ Abrams Archived 15 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Army Fact Files
  177. ^ Bradley, United States Army Fact Files
  178. ^ Stryker, U.S. Army Fact Files
  179. ^ M113, U.S. Army Fact Files
  180. ^ Paladin, Army.mil
  181. ^ MLRS, U.S. Army Fact Files
  182. ^ Apache, U.S. Army Fact Files
  183. ^ Blackhawk, U.S. Army Fact Files
  184. ^ Chinook, U.S. Army Fact Files
  185. ^ Stevenson, Beth (22 January 2015), "US Army continues to face financial challenge of rotary fleet maintenance", Flightglobal, Reed Business Information, archived from the original on 23 January 2015, retrieved 23 January 2015
  186. ^ "Jrn Judson (27 Aug 2021) US Army's recon, electronic warfare-capable aircraft flies for the first time". 27 August 2021.
  187. ^ Jahner, Kyle (7 August 2017). "Army to build dedicated drone runway at Fort Bliss". Army Times.
  188. ^ a b "U.S. Army to roll out new Army Greens uniform". Army.mil.
  189. ^ Joe Lacdan (August 13, 2018) Automated meal entitlement system, food trucks to improve Soldier dining experience Accomplishes paperwork reduction based on reading each soldier's Common Access Card at each use at DFAC.
  190. ^ NG, DHS Technologies to support SICPS/TMSS United Press International

Further reading

  • "Desert Storm/Shield Valorous Unit Award (VUA) Citations". US Army Center of Military History. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  • Bailey, Beth. America's Army: Making the All-Volunteer Force (2009)ISBN 0674035364
  • Bluhm, Jr, Raymond K. (Editor-in-Chief); Andrade, Dale; Jacobs, Bruce; Langellier, John; Newell, Clayton R.; Seelinger, Matthew (2004). U.S. Army: A Complete History (Beaux Arts ed.). Arlington, VA: The Army Historical Foundation. p. 744. ISBN 978-0-88363-640-4. {{cite book}}: |first= has generic name (help)
  • Chambers, John Whiteclay, ed. The Oxford Guide to American Military History (1999) online at many libraries
  • Clark, J. P. Preparing for War: The Emergence of the Modern U.S. Army, 1815–1917 (Harvard UP, 2017) 336 pp.
  • Coffman, Edward M. The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I (1998), a standard history
  • Kretchik, Walter E. U.S. Army Doctrine: From the American Revolution to the War on Terror (University Press of Kansas; 2011) 392 pages; studies military doctrine in four distinct eras: 1779–1904, 1905–1944, 1944–1962, and 1962 to the present.
  • Woodward, David R. The American Army and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2014). 484 pp. online review

External links

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Flag of the Republic of Montenegro (adopted on 13 July 2004) - RGB colours, official 1:2 dimensions and construction details based partly on the templates: Flag (Government of Montenegro) and Coat of arms (Government of Montenegro).
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Flag of Norway. The colors approximately correspond to Pantone 200 C (deep red) and 281 C (dark blue).
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The flag of Slovenia.
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20th CBRNE distinctive insignia.
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It is easy to put a border around this flag image
MajGenAide.jpg
Lapel insignia for the aide-de-camp to a U.S. Army Major General
45thIBCTSSI.png
The Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the 45th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (formerly 45th Infantry Division) of the United States Army.
226MnvrEnhance.jpg
This image shows a flag, a coat of arms, a seal or some other official insignia produced by the United States Army Institute of Heraldry. It is in the public domain but its use is restricted by Title 18, United States Code, Section 704 [1] and the Code of Federal Regulations (32 CFR, Part 507) [2], [3]. Permission to use these images in the USA for most commercial purposes must be obtained from The Institute of Heraldry prior to their use.
Thure de Thulstrup - L. Prang and Co. - Battle of Gettysburg - Restoration by Adam Cuerden.jpg

L. Prang & Co. print of the painting "Hancock at Gettysburg" by Thure de Thulstrup, showing Pickett's Charge. Restoration by Adam Cuerden.


Applications-graphics.svg This is a retouched picture, which means that it has been digitally altered from its original version. Modifications: This image, like many Thulstrup prints, was done on vellum, with a characteristic dappling effect when the light of the LoC's scan reflects off the dimples from the hair pores on the right and left edges. This is a highly distracting effect that required a fair bit of cleanup. Also, levels adjustments, etc..

N.B. No other files: They're too large to upload.
LtGenAide.jpg
Lapel insignia for the aide-de-camp to a U.S. Army Lieutenant General
US-DefenseThreatReductionAgency-Seal.svg
The seal of the United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The three arrows, adapted from the seal of the Department of Defense, represent the Departments of the Army, Navy, and the Air Force; they appear in parallel symbolizing unity and direction. For more information on the seal, see here.
27th Infantry Division SSI.svg
27th Infantry Division SSI
2010 Moscow Victory Day Parade-6.jpeg
(c) Kremlin.ru, CC BY 4.0
Military parade dedicated to the 65-year anniversary of Victory in Great Patriotic War.
75 Ranger Regiment Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.svg
075th Infantry Regiment (Ranger) Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
AideJCoSBC.gif
Insignia for Aide to Chairman Joint Chief of Staff
U.S. Army firefight in Kunar.jpg
U.S. Soldiers with 2nd Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division return fire during a firefight with Taliban forces in Barawala Kalay Valley in Kunar province, Afghanistan, March 31, 2011
79 Infantry Brigade Combat Team insignia.svg
The unit insignia of the 79 Infantry Brigade Combat Team of the US Army. SVG version of File:79ibct_ssi.jpg. Rasterized 19:58, 12 November 2011 (UTC) by Tim1357 talk.
SEAC-collar1.jpg
Collar brass of the Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Based upon the official drawing from the U.S. Army's Institute of Heraldry, then colourised.
3 Corps Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.svg
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the III Corps.

Summary

A blue caltrop with three points that lie on a circle of 1 1/2 inch radius with a white triangle in the center with points that lie on a circle of 3/8 inch radius. The design is enclosed by a 1/8 inch Army green border.

Symbolism

The triangular design represents the numerical designation of the corps. The blue and white are the authorized colors used in distinguishing flags to represent corps.

Background

The shoulder sleeve insignia was approved by the Adjutant General, American Expeditionary Force on December 3, 1918. It was approved by the War Department on June 17, 1922.
USA - Army Medical Veterinary.png
United States Army Veterinarian collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
Exercise Desert Rock I (Buster-Jangle Dog) 003.jpg
Nevada Test Site, November 2, 1951. Soldiers watching the Buster-Jangle Dog nuclear test, as part of exercise Desert Rock I.
US Army O2 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army First Lieutenant, on the Army greens uniform
82 ABD SSI.svg
82nd Airborne Division Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Soldiers of 1890.jpg
These are US soldiers taking a break for a photograph while burying the dead at Wounded Knee.
United States Space Command emblem 2019.png
The logo of United States Space Command – unified command of the US Department of Defense
Armor-Branch-Insignia.png
US Army Armor Branch Insignia
US Army O11 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army General of the Army, on the Army greens uniform
US Army O3 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Captain, on the Army greens uniform
Destroyed Iraqi tank TF-41.jpg
Author/Creator: Fury 1991, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
Patrol in Iraq, March 2008.jpg
U.S. Army Pfc. Angel Marrero, assigned to 2nd Platoon, Bravo Battery, 5th Battalion, 25th Field Artillery Regiment, 4th Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division, conducts a patrol in Karadah, Iraq, on March 19, 2008.
USA - Quartermaster Corps Branch Insignia.png
United States Army Quartermaster Corps collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
Seal of the United States Northern Command.png
The official seal of United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM). From Crest & Heraldry:
The eagle symbolizes our great nation and our alertness, ready to defend our homeland. The olive branch symbolizes peace. The group of 13 arrows symbolizes war and represents the first 13 states. The eagle's head is turned toward the olive branch, indicating our desire for peace.
The shield symbolizes a warrior's primary piece of defensive equipment. The 13 alternating red and white bars on the shield represent the 13 original colonies. The chief, in blue, holds 13 six-pointed stars, a reference to the six-pointed design from General George Washington's personal flag.
A depiction of Northern Command's area of responsibility (AOR) is in the background, shielded by the eagle. On the AOR are three stars, a remembrance of each of the sites of the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks. The stars are gold, a symbol of those who lost their lives. The gold star accorded the rightful honor and glory to the person for his offering of supreme sacrifice for his country.
The five stars at the top of the crest represent the five services: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corp, and Coast Guard. The stars are eight-pointed, representing the eight points on a compass and symbolizing our mission to counter the global threat of terrorism. The stars are lined up over the AOR, depicting the umbrella of protection that USNORTHCOM provides North America.
The outside rings of red, blue, and red with the white lettering of the command's name represent the colors of the nation and national flag.
4th Infantry Division SSI.svg
4th Infantry Division shoulder insignia :
I created this work during the course of my official duties. As a United States Army soldier, it is considered the work of the United States Federal Government, and as such is in the public domain. -- Steven Williamson (HiB2Bornot2B) - talk 15:49, 26 July 2007 (UTC)
Army-USA-OR-04a (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Corporal, on the Army greens uniform
USA - Army Medical Specialist Corps.png
United States Army Service Corps Branch Insignia
UNITED STATES ARMY SOUTH SSI.svg
United States Army South Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Seal of the United States Department of Homeland Security.svg
Seal of the United States Department of Homeland Security. A graphically styled American eagle appears in a circular blue field. The eagle's outstretched wings break through an inner red ring into an outer white ring that contains a circular placement of the words "U.S. DEPARTMENT OF" in the top half and "HOMELAND SECURITY" in the bottom half. The outer white ring has a silvery gray border. As in The Great Seal, the eagle’s left claw holds an olive branch with 13 leaves and 13 seeds while the right claw grasps 13 arrows. Centered on the eagle's breast is a shield divided into three sections containing elements that represent the homeland "from sea to shining sea." The top element, a dark blue sky, contains 22 stars representing the original 22 agencies and bureaus that have come together to form the department. The left shield element contains white mountains behind a green plain underneath a light blue sky. The right shield element contains four wave shapes representing the oceans, lakes and waterways alternating light and dark blue separated by white lines.
USA - Inspector General Branch Insignia.png
United States Army Inspector General Branch Insignia. Made with Photoshop.
US-TRANSCOM-Emblem.svg
Seal of the United States Transportation Command (TRANSCOM or USTRANSCOM). The seal or emblem was originally prepared and approved on June 26, 1987.
USArmy 39th Inf Brig Patch.svg
39th Infantry Brigade Combat Team Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
USA - Army Immaterial Command Insignia.png
United States Army Immaterial Command collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
U.S. Soldiers at Bougainville (Solomon Islands) March 1944.jpg
U.S. Army soldiers on Bougainville (one of the Solomon Islands) in World War II. Japanese forces tried infiltrating the U.S. lines at night; at dawn, the U.S. soldiers would clear them out. In this picture, infantrymen are advancing in the cover of an M4 Sherman tank.
USA SEAC (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman, on the Army greens uniform
Arlington National Cemetery Seal.png
U.S. Military's Arlington National Cemetery Seal
Flickr - DVIDSHUB - Operation in Nahr-e Saraj (Image 5 of 7).jpg
Author/Creator: DVIDSHUB, Licence: CC BY 2.0

An Afghan and coalition security force conduct room searches in which they detained eight suspected insurgents during an operation to arrest a Taliban leader in Nahr-e Saraj district, Helmand province, Afghanistan, Aug. 14, 2012. (Photo by U.S. Army Spc Justin Young) 55th Combat Camera Date Taken:08.14.2012 Location:NAHR-E SARAJ DISTRICT, AF

www.dvidshub.net/image/661576/operation-nahr-e-saraj#.UFD...
US Army logo.svg
The official logo of the United States Army (USA). It can be seen on the official United States Army website in September 2001.
US Army Reserve Command SSI.svg
United States Army Reserve Command (USARC) SSI, Shoulder Sleeve Insignia, Shoulder Patch
34th 'Red Bull' Infantry Division SSI.svg
34th Infantry Division Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Mark of the United States Army.svg
Service mark of the US Army
USA - Engineer Branch Insignia.png
United States Army Engineer Branch Insignia. Made with Photoshop.
USMA SSI.png
U. S. Military Academy Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
USA - Army Field Artillery Insignia.png
United States Army Field Artillery collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
Rangers from the 75th Ranger Regiment fast-rope from an MH-47 Chinook during a capabilities exercise.jpg
Rangers from the 75th Ranger Regiment fast-rope from an MH-47 Chinook during a capabilities exercise for the Joint Civilian Orientation Conference at Fort Bragg, N.C. on April 28, 2010.
DakToVietnam1966.jpg
Dak To, South Vietnam. An infantry patrol moves up to assault the last Viet Cong position after an attempted overrun of the artillery position by the Viet Cong during Operation Hawthorne.
Army-USA-OR-06 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Staff sergeant, on the Army greens uniform
Army-USA-OR-09c (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Sergeant major, on the Army greens uniform
32nd infantry division shoulder patch.svg
32nd Infantry Division should patch
Ramadi august 2006 patrol.jpg
U.S. Army Pfc. Jacob Paxson and Pfc. Antonio Espiricueta, both from Company B ("Death Dealers"), 2nd Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment, attached to Task Force 1st Battalion, 35th Armored Regiment, 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division, provide security from a street corner during a foot patrol in Tameem, Ramadi, Iraq,
1 Cav Shoulder Insignia.svg
US 1st Cavalry Division

SHOULDER SLEEVE INSIGNIA

  • Description: On a yellow triangular Norman shield with rounded corners 5 1/4 inches in height overall, a black diagonal stripe extending over the shield from upper left to lower right and in the upper right a black horse's head cut off diagonally at the neck all within a 1/8 inch green border.
  • Symbolism: Yellow, the traditional cavalry color, and the horse's head refer to the division's original cavalry structure. Black, symbolic of iron, alludes to the transition to tanks and armor. The black diagonal stripe represents a sword baldric and is a mark of military honor; it also implies movement "up the field" and thus symbolizes aggressive elan and attack. The one diagonal bend, as well as the one horse's head, also alludes to the division's numerical designation.
  • Background: The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally approved January 3, 1921 with several variations in colors of the bend and horse's head to reflect the subordinate elements of the division. The current design was authorized for wear by all subordinate elements of the division on December 11, 1934 and previous authorization for the variations was cancelled.
32aamdc.svg
This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Adobe Illustrator.
Branch insignia, Aide to Vice Chief, National Guard Bureau.jpg
Branch insignia, Aide to Vice Chief, National Guard Bureau
DISA Seal.png
Official Seal of the Defense Information Systems Agency
United States Army 3rd Infantry Division SSI (1918-2015).svg
3rd Infantry Division Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Branch insignia, Aide to Chief, National Guard Bureau.jpg
Branch insignia, Aide to Chief, National Guard Bureau
Yankee Division.svg
I created this work during the course of my official duties. As a United States Army soldier, it is considered the work of the United States Federal Government, and as such is in the public domain. -- Steven Williamson (HiB2Bornot2B) - talk 03:38, 26 July 2007 (UTC)
Seal of the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency.svg
Seal of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA).
Organization of U.S. Space Force.png
This image represents the placement of the United States Space Force in the greater Department of Defense
US Army tanks face off against Soviet tanks, Berlin 1961.jpg
US Army tanks face off against Soviet armor at Checkpoint Charlie, Berlin, October 1961.
Coat of arms of the Allied Land Command.svg
Coat of arms of the Allied Land Command
Bataille Yorktown.jpg
Storming of redoubt#10 during the Siege of Yorktown.
Seal of the United States Strategic Command.svg
USSTRATCOM emblem, converted to SVG at http://www.vectormagic.com/ and cleaned up in Inkscape.
AMC shoulder insignia.svg
U.S. Army Materiel Command shoulder sleeve insignia from [1]
Chaplain Candidate Branch Insignia.png
Over the lower corners of an open book, two laurel branches crossed at the stems overall a shepherd’s crook, all gold. The insignia is 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height and 1 1/4 inches (3.18 cm) in width. The book represents regulations, while the laurel sprays symbolize the honors received in the administration of military regulations. The shepherd’s crook represents the spiritual nature of the regulations.
Aide-de-camp insignia for VP aide.gif
Insignia for an aide-de-camp to the Vice President of the United States
AideSecyDefenseBC.gif
Insignia for Aide to Secretary of Defense
Yudh Abhyas 2015 Soldiers familiarize with INSAS 1B1.jpg
U.S. Soldiers with the 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division and Indian Army soldiers with the 6th Battalion of the Kumaon Regiment, fire each other’s weapons during Yudh Abhyas 15 at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Wash., Sept. 12.
USA - Army Medical Specialist.png
United States Army Medical Specialist collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
29th Infantry Brigade SSI.svg

Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the 29th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United States).

Description
  • On a white shield with arched top and bottom, 2 inches (5.08cm) in width, a blue barbed cross, in base two wavy bars - red and blue conjoined but separated from the cross, and bordered by a white fimbriation 1/16 inch (.16cm) wide all within a 1/8 inch (.32cm) blue border.
Symbolism
  • The colors blue and white are used for Infantry. The blue cross is suggested by Hawaii's nickname "Crossroads of the Pacific," and the barbed ends represent the protective mission of the Brigade. The red and blue conjoined bars in conjunction with the white appear on the Hawaiian Flag, and also on the Hawaiian Coat of Arms. The bars are wavy to allude to the geographical location of Hawaii as being overseas from the continental United States.
Background
  • The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally approved for the 29th Infantry Brigade on 16 May 1968. It was redesignated for the 29th Infantry Brigade Combat Team with the description and symbolism updated on 18 December 2007.
101st-Airborne-Soldiers-build-elite-Iraqi-force-with-Ranger-Training-7-480x319.jpg
Author/Creator: 1st Lt. Daniel Johnson/Released), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
A trainer with Company A, 1st Battalion 502nd Infantry Regiment, Task Force Strike, 101st Airborne Division assists Iraqi army ranger students during a room clearing drill at Camp Taji, Iraq July 18, 2016.
Army-USA-OR-03 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Private first class, on the Army greens uniform
USA - Logistics Branch Insignia.png
United States Army Logistics Branch Insignia. Made with Photoshop.
At close grips2.jpg

LOC caption : "At close grips with the Hun, we bomb the corkshaffer's, etc." Two United States soldiers run past the remains of two German soldiers toward a bunker.

Note that this may well be a staged propaganda image. Also note the British style webbing and possible SMLE rifle. It is possible that the men photographed in this image are in fact British, not American.
USAADA-BRANCH.svg
This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Adobe Illustrator.
MEDCOM.png
U.S. Army Medical Command Patch
V Corps.svg
Bade of the V Corps (US)
US Army O1 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Second Lieutenant, on the Army greens uniform
Seal of the United States Africa Command.svg
Seal of the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM)
Flag of the United States Secretary of the Army.svg
Flag of the Secretary of the United States Army
Army-USA-OR-04b (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Specialist, on the Army greens uniform
US Army O5 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Lieutenant Colonel, on the Army greens uniform
1 CAV DIV charge.jpg
Following the casing of the brigade, battalion and division colors, soldiers assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division Horse Detachment perform a cavalry charge accompanied by a helicopter flyover performed by the 1st Cavalry Division Air Cavalry Brigade on Fort Hood's Cooper Field, Texas, Dec. 12, 2008. U.S. Army photo by Pfc. Phillip Turner
Army-USA-OR-09a (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Sergeant Major of the Army, on the Army greens uniform
Seal of the U.S. National Security Agency.svg
The seal of the U.S. National Security Agency. The first use was in September 1966, replacing an older seal which was used briefly. For more information, see here and here.
United States Army Military District of Washington CSIB.svg
United States Army Military District of Washington Insignia
TRADOC patch.svg

U.S. Army Training And Doctrine Command Shoulder Sleeve Insignia

Blazon

  • Description: A disc 2 1/2 inches (6.35cm) in diameter overall consisting of three vertical stripes of equal width of blue, yellow and scarlet, the blue to the left, all within a 1/8 inch (.32cm) Army green border.

Symbolism

  1. The shoulder sleeve insignia was formerly that of the Replacement and School Command, World War II, which was charged with the responsibility of training Army personnel.
  2. The three stripes are in the colors of, and refer to, the basic combat arms; they also refer to the components of the "One Army" concept: Active Army, Army Reserve and Army National Guard.

Background

  1. The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally approved for the Replacement and School Command on 1943-03-22.
  2. It was reassigned to the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command on 1973-07-01.
  3. (TIOH Dwg. No. A-1-558)
Abrams in formation.jpg
M1A1 Abrams main battle tanks of the 3rd Armored Division move out on a mission during Operation Desert Storm. An M2/M3 Bradley can be seen in background.
33rd Infantry Division SSI.svg
I created this work during the course of my official duties. As a United States Army soldier, it is considered the work of the United States Federal Government, and as such is in the public domain. -- Steven Williamson (HiB2Bornot2B) - talk 14:22, 6 August 2007 (UTC)
United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command Logo.svg
United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command Logo
2020 Army Greens Uniform.png
2020 Army Service Uniform - Army Greens
Army-USA-OR-05 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Sergeant, on the Army greens uniform
US-Cavalry-Branch-Insignia.png
US Cavalry Branch Insignia
USAMPC-Branch-Insignia.png
US Army Military Police Branch Insignia
USA - Special Forces Branch Insignia.png
United States Army Special Forces Branch Insignia collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
Lapel insignia of an aide-de-camp to a U.S. Army Brigadier General.jpg
Lapel insignia for the aide-de-camp to a U.S. Army Brigadier General
Army-USA-OR-07 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Sergeant first class, on the Army greens uniform
USA - Civil Affairs.png
United States Army Civil Affairs collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
US Army O9 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Lieutenant General, on the Army greens uniform
Army mil-54118-2009-10-27-091030big.jpg
Special Forces Soldiers from the 3rd Special Forces Group patrol a field in the Gulistan district of Farah, Afghanistan with Afghan National Army commandos from the 207th Kandak, April 12.
USA - Army Medical Dental.png
United States Army Dental insignia. Made with Photoshop.
67th Infantry Brigade SSI.svg
67th Infantry Brigade shoulder sleeve insignia. Representation of U.S. Army insignia, ineligible for copyright
US-NationalGeospatialIntelligenceAgency-2008Seal.svg
New (2008) seal of the United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. This new version is the same as the previous version except it has a different inscription. For more information, see here.
INDOPACOM Emblem 2018.png
Official Seal of the U.S. Indo-Pacific Command
Army-USA-OR-08a (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army First sergeant, on the Army greens uniform
US Army O4 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Major, on the Army greens uniform
Iraq Campaign streamer.svg
Iraq Campaign streamer
25th Infantry Division CSIB.svg
25th Infantry Division Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
US Army Special Operations Command SSI.svg
Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the United States Army Special Operations Command.

Description: On a red stylized spearhead with a 1/8 inch red border, 3 1/2 inches in height and 2 inches in width overall, a black Fairbairn-Sykes dagger. A black tab with "AIRBORNE" in red letters is attached above the insignia.

Symbolism: The stylized spearhead alludes to the shoulder sleeve insignia worn by the lst Special Service Forces and signifies the heritage and traditions that the US Army Special Operations Command will perpetuate. The unsheathed black dagger symbolizes total military preparedness and has long been associated with Army special operation forces. The airborne tab designates the command's airborne status.

Background: The shoulder sleeve insignia was approved effective 1 December 1989.
Cid patch color.jpg
Full color USACIDC patch
11th Airborne Division Insignia 2022.png
The official insignia for the 11th Airborne Division. The Army will re-designate U.S. Army Alaska and two Alaska-based brigade combat teams this summer as the 11th Airborne Division Headquarters and the 1st and 2nd Brigade Combat Teams, 11th Airborne Division. This re-designation is an outgrowth of the Army’s January 2021 Arctic Strategy and sets us on the path towards a force that is more appropriately manned, trained, and equipped for the Arctic environment.
US Army O10 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army General, on the Army greens uniform
US Army ASAALT Insignia.svg
Shoulder Insignia for ASAALT
Aide VJCoS BC.png
U.S. Army aide-de-camp insignia to the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chief of Staff
Vietnam Service Streamer vector.svg
Author/Creator: EclecticArkie, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Campaign streamer for the U.S. Vietnam Service Medal
1-175 INF Trains at Fort Dix.jpg
U.S. Army Soldiers from Charlie and Delta Company, 1st Battalion, 175th Infantry Regiment, Maryland Army National Guard combine efforts July 24, 2007, during a joint urban cordon and search exercise as part of the army readiness and training evaluation program in the mock city of Balad at Fort Dix, N.J. the Soldiers are preparing for a scheduled deployment to Iraq.
USA - Army Medical Nurse.png
United States Army Nurse Corps collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
Army-USA-OR-02 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Private, on the Army greens uniform
53rd Infantry Brigade SSI.svg

Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the 53rd Infantry Brigade.

Description
  • On a silhouetted right cylinder 3 inches (7.62cm) high and 2 inches (5.08cm) wide divided vertically blue and red within a 1/8 inch (.32cm) yellow border a yellow ray issuing 1/8 inch (.32cm) from the lower border and terminating in the upper corners, overall a black Morion with yellow delineation.
Symbolism
  • The shape of the insignia is the distinctive shape used for Brigades. Yellow is for Armor; blue and red refer to the Brigade's Infantry and Artillery components. The Morion is a type of head covering adapted from the Moors by Spain. It refers to the Spanish discoverers of Florida.
Background
  • The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally approved on 4 Dec 1964 for the 53d Armored Brigade. It was redesignated for the 53rd Infantry Brigade on 25 Jul 1968.
138FABdeSSI.png
138th Field Artillery Brigade shoulder sleeve insignia
130FABdeSSI.svg
This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Adobe Illustrator.
US Army O7 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Brigadier General, on the Army greens uniform
10th Mountain Division SSI.svg

Shoulder sleeve patch of the U.S. 10th Mountain Division The 10th Mountain shoulder patch consists of a white-bordered powder keg. The powder keg is in blue and, superimposed on it are two red bayonets crossed so as to form the Roman numeral “X”. The bayonets represent the Infantry and the numerical designation of the Division. This is the Shoulder Sleeve Insignia; the Distinctive Unit Insignia can be found at Image:10th Mountain Division-distinctive unit insignia.jpeg.

On a blue powder keg-like background, with a white border, two bayonets in saltire throughout scarlet fimbriated white. The blue background and the bayonets are symbolic of infantry while the position of the bayonets in saltire simulates the numerical designation of the organization.
Battle of New Orleans.jpg
General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his makeshift defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders. (The Highlanders are incorrectly depicted wearing kilts and feather bonnets as the 93rd Highlanders for this campaign had been ordered to wear tartan trousers and plain bonnets - in fact the uniforms shown are more Victorian in style than Georgian. See, "Historical Records of the 93rd Sutherland Highlanders", Roderick Hamilton Burgoyne, London, 1883.
173Airborne Brigade Shoulder Patch.png
Shoulder Patch of 173rd Airborne Brigade
Aide UnderSec-Army BC.png
U.S. Army aide-de-camp insignia to the Under Secretary of the Army
USA - Army Medical Corps.png
United States Army Medical Corps collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
Seal of the United States Cyber Command.svg
Official seal for United States Cyber Command
197th FA Brigade patch.png
http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/FA/197th%20Field%20Artillery%20Brigade.htm Distinctive Unit Insignia of the 197th Field Artillery Brigade, NH National Guard
USA - Psych Ops Branch Insignia.png
United States Army Psych Ops collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
U.S. Army Special Operations Aviation Command SSI (2013-2015).png
U.S. Army Special Operations Aviation Command Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
28th Infantry Division SSI (1918-2015).svg
28th Infantry Division Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
USA - Army Infantry Insignia.png
United States Army Infantry collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
Ordnance Branch Insignia.svg
US Army Ordnance Branch Insignia
Official CENTCOM Seal.png
The Official CENTCOM Seal
Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army.svg
Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army
3dACRSSI.PNG
3rd Armored Regiment Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
AidePOTUSBC.gif
Insignia for Aide to President of the United States
Emblem of the United States Navy.svg
Official emblem of the U.S. Navy.
AideCoSArmyBC.gif
Insignia for Aide to Chief of Staff, Army
116th Cavalry Brigade CSIB.svg
This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Adobe Illustrator.
1st Army.svg
1st US Army Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
256 INF BRGDE SSI.svg
256th Infantry Brigade SSI.
86th BCT (MTN).jpg
86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team logo
Sma-bos.jpg
Collar Branch of Service insignia for Sergeant Major of the Army
Seal of the United States Space Force.svg
Seal of the United States Space Force.
Streamer CW.PNG
Civil War streamer, Union unit variant
U.S. I Corps CSIB.svg
1st Corps Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Field flag of the United States Army.svg
It is easy to put a border around this flag image
41st Infantry Division SSI.svg
41st Infantry Division SSI
Army goes rolling along.ogg
Army goes rolling along / Edmund Gruber [sound recording]
INSCOM.svg
Author/Creator: MrInfo2012, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The Insignia of United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM)
57th Field Artillery Brigade SSI.svg
57th Field Artillery Brigade Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
115FABdeSSI.png
115th Field Artillery Brigade shoulder sleeve insignia
Emblem of the United States Marine Corps.svg
Emblem of the United States Marine Corps. This differs from the official seal in the inscription.
The first of two Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) interceptors is launched during a successful intercept test - US Army.jpg
The first of two Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) interceptors is launched during a successful intercept test. The test, conducted by Missile Defense Agency (MDA), Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Operational Test Agency, Joint Functional Component Command for Integrated Missile Defense, and U.S. Pacific Command, in conjunction with U.S. Army Soldiers from the Alpha Battery, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment, U.S. Navy sailors aboard the guided missile destroyer USS Decatur (DDG-73), and U.S. Air Force airmen from the 613th Air and Operations Center resulted in the intercept of one medium-range ballistic missile target by THAAD, and one medium-range ballistic missile target by Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD). The test, designated Flight Test Operational-01 (FTO-01), stressed the ability of the Aegis BMD and THAAD weapon systems to function in a layered defense architecture and defeat a raid of two near-simultaneous ballistic missile targets
Aide VCoS-Army BC.png
U.S. Army aide-de-camp insignia to the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army
United States Army 1st Armored Division CSIB.svg
US Army 1st Armored Division Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Acquisition-Corps-Branch-In.png
US Army Acquisition Corps Branch Insignia
US Army O6 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Colonel, on the Army greens uniform
United States Army North CSIB.svg
Fifth Army Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
81st ABCT Unit Insignia.svg
Author/Creator: Userjacob, Licence: CC0
81st Armored Brigade Combat Team shoulder sleeve insignia. On a white square with rounded corners 2 1/4 inches (5.72cm) overall the Pacific Northwest Indian (Haida, Kwakiutl, Nootka) symbol of a raven in black, red and white all within a 1/8 inch (.32cm) red border. The shoulder sleeve insignia was approved on 27 May 1970.
JFKSWCS SSI.gif
John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School SSI from [1]
AideSecyArmyBC.gif
Insignia for Aide to Secretary of the Army
2nd Infantry Division SSI (full color).svg
  • Upon a five pointed white star whose points lie in the circumference of an imaginary circle 3-1/2 inches (8.89 cm) in diameter a Native American's head with war bonnet in profile, face red, bonnet blue with outline of feathers in blue.
  • The star to be superimposed upon a black shield, of dimensions such that the points of the star shall lie at a distance of 1/8 inch (.32 cm) from the perimeter.

Symbolism:

  • The star has played an important part in our history from the days of the Colonies to the present time.
  • The Native signifies the first and original American.
  • These devices were originally established by the division to use as vehicle markings and to identify the vehicles as all American.

Background:

  • The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally authorized for the 2d Division on 6 Nov 1918, officially announced by The Adjutant General letter, 21 Jun 1922, amended to correct the description on 7 Nov 1927 and redesignated for the 2d Infantry Division on 1 Aug 1942.

Work of Federal Government

I created this work during the course of my official duties. As a United States Army soldier, it is considered the work of the United States Federal Government, and as such is in the public domain. -- Steven Williamson (HiB2Bornot2B) - talk 20:26, 26 July 2007 (UTC)
Seal of the United States Department of the Navy.svg
*Description: On a circular background of fair sky and moderate sea with land in sinister base, a tri-mast square rigged ship under way before a fair breeze with after top-sail furled, commission pennant atop the foremast, National Ensign atop the main, and the commodore's flag atop the mizzen. In front of the ship a luce-type anchor inclined slightly bendwise with the crown resting on the land and, in front of the shank and in back of the dexter fluke, an American bald eagle rising to sinister regarding to dexter, one foot on the ground, the other resting on the anchor near the shank; all in proper colors. The whole within a blue annulet bearing the inscription "Department of the Navy" at the top and "United States of America" at the bottom, separated on each side by a mullet and within a rim in the form of a rope; inscription, rope, mullet, and edges of annulet all gold. *Background: The policy for use of the Navy seal and emblem is contained in SECNAV Instr 5030.4 and SECNAV Instr 5030.6. The seal design was approved by the President of the United States by Executive Order 10736 dated October 23, 1957. Request for use of the Navy emblem should be submitted in writing to Defense Printing Service, ATTN: DPSMO, 8725 John Kingman Rd Suite 3239, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6220. The telephone number is (703) 767-4218. 1879 version here: http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/54900/54985/54985_seal_navy.htm
1st US Infantry Division.svg
1st Infantry Division Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Streamer MW.PNG
Mexican War streamer
Wayne Downing funeral honor guard.jpg
U.S. Army Rangers with the 75th Ranger Regiment make up the "honor platoon" in a funeral procession to the gravesite of Gen. (retired) Wayne A. Downing during his internment service at West Point, NY, Sept. 27, 2007.
USA - Army Finance Corps.png
United States Army Finance Corps collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
US Army Security Force Assistance Brigade SSI.png
U.S. Army's Security Force Assistance Brigades shoulder sleeve insignia (SSI)

SSI design: The shoulder sleeve is a shield with a sword, spearhead and stars. The Tab will have the word "ADVISOR" on it. The advisor tab is a unit tab, not a skill tab. The specialized advisor mission is the reason for the tab. The shape of the shield and sword are modeled after the Military Assistance Command-Vietnam (MAC-V) insignia to convey a similar mission and heritage. The arrowhead shape alludes to leadership and direction, as well as rapid deployability. The sword conveys force, whether it be offense, defense or assistance. The thirteen stars reflect the "Glory" crest in the coat of arms of the United and symbolize the thirteen original states and the Army Mission patch worn by Military Assistance Advisory Groups. The colors red and blue denote security and authority. The color white highlights the uniqueness of the brigades and their specialized missions. The color gold exemplifies excellence and expertise.
USA - Transportation Corps Branch Insignia.png
United States Army Transportation Corps collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
AdjGenBC.svg
US Army Adjutant General Branch Insignia
35th Infantry Division SSI.svg
35th Infantry Division Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Army-USA-OR-09b (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Command sergeant major, on the Army greens uniform
US-CentralSecurityService-Seal.svg
Seal of the United States Central Security Service, part of the National Security Agency. The seal dates from 1996. The five-pointed gold mullet is a symbol of ideologies representing the services' common beliefs. Between each point of the mullet is a symbol of the four cryptologic service elements and the American eagle as blazoned on the NSA emblem. The emblems appear in the following order from the upper right: United States Marine Corps; Army Intelligence and Security Command; National Security Agency; Air Intelligence Agency; and the Naval Security Group. Each are equally balanced around a five point star on which is centered the symbol of NSA/CSS, who "provides the funding, direction, and guidance to all of America's SIGINT activities". For more information, see here. The blue background of the CSS emblem represents fidelity and steadfastness.
142FABdeSSI.svg
US Army 142nd Field Artillery Brigade Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Flag of the Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army.svg
Flag of the Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army
Streamer RW.PNG
Revolutionary War streamer
Streamer W1812.PNG
War of 1812 Streamer
XVIII Airborne Corps CSIB.svg
;Description
  • Issuing from the sinister side of a 2-1/4 inch white square, flat side up, a blue dragon’s head all within a 1/8 inch blue border. (The dragon’s tongue points to dexter base corner.) Immediately above and touching the insignia a blue arc tab 11/16 inch in width, 2 1/2 inches in length containing white letters "AIRBORNE" 5/16 inch in height.
Symbolism
  • The dragon’s head is representative of cunning, endurance and ferocity against enemies and is symbolic of the strategy and powerful attack of the Corps, Also known as the 'Gaggin Dragon'.
Background
  • Originally approved 15 Feb 1944 and subsequently amended to include the Airborne Tab on 1 May 1950.
US Army Cyber Branch Insignia.png
Drawing of the U.S. Army's Cyber Branch Insignia
GenAide.jpg
Lapel insignia for the aide-de-camp to a U.S. Army General
USEUCOM.svg
United States European Command emblem
Eighth United States Army CSIB.svg
Eighth Army Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
US278ACRSSI.svg
*On a disc 2⅝ inches (6.67cm) in diameter a white-edged blue triskelion with lower leg vertical between three white five-pointed stars on a green background all inclosed by a ⅛ inch (0.32cm) white border.

Symbolism

  • The green background with three stars refers to the hickory tree crest of the Tennessee ARNG.
  • The wavy blue three-armed partition represents the coming together of the Holston and the French Broad Rivers to form the beginning of the Tennessee River in Knoxville, where the regiment's headquarters is located.

Background

  • The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally approved for the 278th Infantry Brigade on 19 March 1974.
  • It was redesignated for the 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment on 19 August 1977.
- US Army Institute of Heraldry
US Army O8 (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Major General, on the Army greens uniform
GA-Aide.GIF
Insignia for an aide to the United States General of the Army (depreciated title)
PublicAffairsBC.svg
US Army Public Affairs branch insignia
149th Armored Brigade CSIB.svg
149th Armored Brigade Shoulder Sleeve Insignia.[1].
3rd ID M1A1 Abrams TC and Gunner 2008.jpg
U.S. Army Sgt. Rice and Spc. Mike Seif, 3rd Infantry Division, both in an M1A1 Abrams tank equipped with a recently updated tank urban survivability kit, conduct a counter improvised explosive device mission in Baghdad, Iraq, Dec. 22, 2007. (U.S. Army photo by Spc. Luke Thornberry) (Released) (Released to Public)
Surface Deployment and Distribution Command SSI.svg

Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the Surface Deployment and Distribution Command.

Description
  • On a green disc with a 1/8 inch (.32 cm) white border 2 inches (5.08 cm) in diameter overall, a white broad arrow, point up.
Symbolism
  • The green disc represents the "Go" signal used for traffic control of land transport. It is symbolic of the Command's "Can Do", "Go" attitude in the control of traffic, land transportation and common-user ocean terminal service. The arrow alludes to the military auspices of the organization and to the speed with which it accomplishes its mission. The three prongs represent the three military departments of the Department of Defense and the joint aspects of its responsibilities and manning.
Background
  • The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally approved for the Military Traffic Management and Terminal Service on 1965-08-17. It was redesignated for the Military Traffic Management Command on 1974-12-10. The insignia was redesignated effective 2004-01-01, for the Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command, with the description updated.
USA - Army General Staff Branch Insignia.png
United States Army General Staff collar brass. Made with Photoshop.
DA Pam 10-1 Figure 1-1.png
Figure 1-1: Army Organizations Execute Specific Functions and Assigned Missions
Flag of the Sergeant Major of the United States Army.svg
Sergeant Major of the Army Flag The flag, approved by the Chief of Staff, Army on 22 Mar 99, background is divided diagonally from lower hoist to upper fly with scarlet above white. Centered on the flag is the insignia for the Sergeant Major of the Army in full color. The fringe is yellow; the cords and tassels are scarlet and white.
Army Futures Command SSI.png
Army Futures Command Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
Seal of the Defense Logistics Agency.png
Seal of the Defense Logistics Agency
Army-USA-OR-08b (Army greens).svg
Rank insignia for a United States Army Master sergeant, on the Army greens uniform
MI Corps Insignia.svg
Branch insignia of the Military Intelligence Corps
76th IBCT shoulder sleeve insignia.jpg
United States Army 76th Infantry Brigade Combat Team shoulder sleeve insignia (shoulder patch)