Turtle Mountain (plateau)

Turtle Mountain
Turtle Mountain State Recreational Forest Near International Peace Garden, North Dakota - 30105213178.jpg
View across Turtle Mountain in Turtle Mountain State Forest, North Dakota
Map showing the location of Turtle Mountain
Map showing the location of Turtle Mountain
Map showing the location of Turtle Mountain
Map showing the location of Turtle Mountain
Location in Manitoba, Canada
LocationNorth Dakota (U.S.) and Manitoba (Canada)
Coordinates48°58′00″N 100°07′30″W / 48.96667°N 100.12500°W / 48.96667; -100.12500Coordinates:48°58′00″N 100°07′30″W / 48.96667°N 100.12500°W / 48.96667; -100.12500
Elevation600 metres (1,969 ft)

Turtle Mountain, or the Turtle Mountains, is an area in central North America, in the north-central portion of the U.S. state of North Dakota and southwestern portion of the Canadian province of Manitoba, approximately 100 km south of the city of Brandon on provincial highway 10. It is a plateau 2,000 ft (600 m) above sea level, 300 ft to 400 ft (90 m to 120 m) above the surrounding countryside, extending 20 mi (32 km) from north to south and 40 mi (64 km) from east to west. Rising 1,031 feet, North Dakota's most prominent peak, Boundary Butte, is located at the western edge of the plateau.

It has timber, numerous lakes, and small deposits of low-grade manganese. One of the largest lakes in the Turtle Mountains is Lake Metigoshe, which straddles the international border, with about one-eighth of the lake in Canada. The region is home to Turtle Mountain Provincial Park, a state park, two historic sites, and various hunting and fishing opportunities.

Turtle Mountain is the traditional territory of the Plains Ojibwe, as well as part of the Métis homeland.[1] Rapid colonization and settlement in the 19th century, along with the establishment of a firm border between Canada and the United States, displaced many Indigenous peoples to and from the region.[1] Some identify as the Turtle Mountain Chippewa, who are federally recognized and whose reservation is in the valley on the southeastern edge of the plateau.

History

The Plains Ojibwe have a long established history in the Turtle Mountain region and the surrounding area.[1] East of Turtle mountain at Pembina lived one Ojibwe group, as well as a number of Métis families. The Métis hunted and fished in the Turtle Mountains and increasingly moved westward from Pembina in search of declining buffalo populations.[2] When the federal government agreed that Pembina would be a part of the United States in 1818, the Métis living there, along with a number of Chippewa with kinship ties to the Métis, and some Ojibwe claimed land near Turtle Mountain.[2] The federal government recognized and designated this group the Pembina Band, but this did not include all the Ojibwe peoples already established at Turtle Mountain. The misidentification of all Ojibwe as part of the Pembina Band has prevented their full assertion of rights.[1] Throughout the 19th century, the Pembina band was broken up and dispossessed of their lands as the government opened up the area for settlement.[2] Among these groups are the Turtle Mountain Chippewa, and the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa.

Environment

Mixedwood forest wetland in Turtle Mountain Provincial Park, Manitoba

Wildlife

The Turtle Mountain area is covered by deciduous forest. Woodland overstory species are primarily green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), Manitoba maple (Acer negundo), American elm (Ulmus americana), paper birch (Betula papyrifera), bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa), and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera). Common shrubs in the forest understory include beaked hazel (Corylus cornuta), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia), nannyberry (Viburnum lentago), dogwood (Cornus sericea), highbush cranberry (Viburnum trilobum) and pincherry (Prunus pensylvanica). The area near Mary Lake includes the spotted coralroot orchid (Corallorhiza maculata) and calypso orchid (Calypso bulbosa). Turtle Mountain is home to moose (Alces alces), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), beaver (Castor canadensis), raccoon (Procyon lotor) and mink (Neogale vison), as well as birds like loons (Gavia sp.), great blue heron (Ardea herodias herodias), black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), the double-crested cormorant (Nannopterum auritum) and red-necked grebes (Podiceps grisegena). The abundant small lakes support painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens), and the barred tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium).[3][4][5]

Coal mining

Following the discovery of coal in 1879 there was coal mining in the Turtle Mountains near Old Deloraine town site in Manitoba and along ravines on the western flank of Turtle Mountain. The Lennox mine opened in 1883 and mining continued intermittently at the Voden, McArthur, McKay, and Manitoba Coal Company mines until 1908. When higher quality coal was found elsewhere and the Trans-Canada Railway was built, the mines closed. Small scale coal mining was revived during the Depression because Turtle Mountain lignite was cheaper than higher coal grades from Saskatchewan. Peak annual production of the McArthur, Henderson, Deep Ravine, Salter, Powne, and Deloraine Coal Company mines averaged over 1000 tons each. However, the Salter and Henderson mines produced 95% of Manitoba's coal over a span of about eight years. The last mine closed in 1943 due to labour shortages during World War II and changed economic conditions.[6][7][8][9] The old Deloraine town site is now covered by a man-made lake, made when the Turtle-Head Dam was built.

Climate

Climate Station in Southern Manitoba, Canada.

Climate data for Turtle Mountain Station 6
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)6.0
(42.8)
15.5
(59.9)
19.5
(67.1)
33.0
(91.4)
36.5
(97.7)
38.0
(100.4)
37.5
(99.5)
41.0
(105.8)
34.5
(94.1)
33.0
(91.4)
22.0
(71.6)
8.5
(47.3)
41.0
(105.8)
Average high °C (°F)−9.4
(15.1)
−6.2
(20.8)
0.5
(32.9)
11.9
(53.4)
19.3
(66.7)
23.1
(73.6)
25.8
(78.4)
25.7
(78.3)
19.6
(67.3)
11.3
(52.3)
−0.3
(31.5)
−7.5
(18.5)
9.5
(49.1)
Daily mean °C (°F)−14.6
(5.7)
−11.7
(10.9)
−4.8
(23.4)
5.2
(41.4)
12.0
(53.6)
16.6
(61.9)
19.0
(66.2)
18.4
(65.1)
12.6
(54.7)
4.9
(40.8)
−5.1
(22.8)
−12.4
(9.7)
3.4
(38.1)
Average low °C (°F)−19.7
(−3.5)
−17.1
(1.2)
−10.2
(13.6)
−1.6
(29.1)
4.6
(40.3)
10.0
(50.0)
12.2
(54.0)
11.1
(52.0)
5.5
(41.9)
−1.4
(29.5)
−9.8
(14.4)
−17.2
(1.0)
−2.8
(27.0)
Record low °C (°F)−43.0
(−45.4)
−43.0
(−45.4)
−36.5
(−33.7)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−14.0
(6.8)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.5
(36.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
−6.5
(20.3)
−23.5
(−10.3)
−33.0
(−27.4)
−41.5
(−42.7)
−43.0
(−45.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches)19.0
(0.75)
14.7
(0.58)
25.5
(1.00)
26.1
(1.03)
61.2
(2.41)
85.6
(3.37)
82.0
(3.23)
66.7
(2.63)
41.5
(1.63)
37.3
(1.47)
24.3
(0.96)
21.2
(0.83)
504.9
(19.88)
Average rainfall mm (inches)0.0
(0.0)
0.5
(0.02)
6.1
(0.24)
15.4
(0.61)
56.6
(2.23)
85.6
(3.37)
82.0
(3.23)
66.7
(2.63)
41.1
(1.62)
28.7
(1.13)
4.5
(0.18)
1.1
(0.04)
388.0
(15.28)
Average snowfall cm (inches)19.1
(7.5)
14.2
(5.6)
19.2
(7.6)
10.6
(4.2)
4.6
(1.8)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.3
(0.1)
8.7
(3.4)
19.9
(7.8)
20.3
(8.0)
116.9
(46.0)
Source: Environment Canada[10]

Communities in the area

  • Belcourt, North Dakota
  • Boissevain, Manitoba
  • Bottineau, North Dakota
  • Deloraine, Manitoba
  • Dunseith, North Dakota
  • East Dunseith, North Dakota
  • Green Acres, North Dakota
  • Rolla, North Dakota
  • St. John, North Dakota
  • Shell Valley, North Dakota

Counties and Rural Municipalities

  • Bottineau County, North Dakota
  • Rolette County, North Dakota
  • Rural Municipality of Morton, Manitoba
  • Rural Municipality of Turtle Mountain, Manitoba
  • Rural Municipality of Winchester, Manitoba

Parks

  • International Peace Garden
  • Lake Metigoshe State Park
  • Rabb Lake National Wildlife Refuge
  • School Section Lake National Wildlife Refuge
  • Turtle Mountain Provincial Park
  • William Lake Provincial Park
  • Willow Lake National Wildlife Refuge

Notable sites

References

  1. ^ a b c d Richotte Jr., Keith (2017). Claiming Turtle Mountain's Constitution: The History, Legacy, and Future of a Tribal Nation's Founding Documents. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
  2. ^ a b c Brown, J.; Peterson, Jacqueline Louise (1985). The New Peoples: Being and Becoming Métis in North America, (Manitoba studies in native history. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.
  3. ^ Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship: Turtle Mountain Provincial Park
  4. ^ Turtle Mountain provincial Park Management Plan. Manitoba Natural Resources, 1985. 37 pages.
  5. ^ Nature North: Manitoba Herps Atlas [accessed January 1, 2014]
  6. ^ Manitoba Heritage Council
  7. ^ Bannatyne, B.B. 1978. Summary of available data on lignite deposits. Turtle Mountain, Manitoba (with a note on other occurrences in the Province). Manitoba Mineral Resources Division. Economic Geology Report 77/1, 55 p.
  8. ^ Bannatyne, B.B. 1979. Lignite in Manitoba. Manitoba Mines & Energy, Educational Series ES79-1. 7 pp.
  9. ^ Turtle Mountain - Souris Plains Heritage Association: Turtle Mountain coal Mining
  10. ^ "Turtle Mountain Station 6". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 (in English and French). Environment Canada. Retrieved September 12, 2015.

External links

Media files used on this page

Usa edcp location map.svg
Author/Creator: Uwe Dedering, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Location map of the USA (without Hawaii and Alaska).

EquiDistantConicProjection:
Central parallel:

* N: 37.0° N

Central meridian:

* E: 96.0° W

Standard parallels:

* 1: 32.0° N
* 2: 42.0° N

Made with Natural Earth. Free vector and raster map data @ naturalearthdata.com.

Formulas for x and y:

x = 50.0 + 124.03149777329222 * ((1.9694462586094064-({{{2}}}* pi / 180))
      * sin(0.6010514667026994 * ({{{3}}} + 96) * pi / 180))
y = 50.0 + 1.6155950752393982 * 124.03149777329222 * 0.02613325650382181
      - 1.6155950752393982  * 124.03149777329222 *
     (1.3236744353715044  - (1.9694462586094064-({{{2}}}* pi / 180)) 
      * cos(0.6010514667026994 * ({{{3}}} + 96) * pi / 180))
Parkland, Turtle Mountain Provincial Park, Manitoba.jpg
Author/Creator: Ken Lund, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Turtle Mountain Provincial Park is a provincial park located in the southwestern portion of the Canadian province of Manitoba. Within it are the Adam Lake and Max Lake campgrounds. The park is known for its bike trails, fishing, back country cabins and canoe routes. The park is very popular with families and outdoor enthusiasts.

The park is named after the numerous painted turtles found in the area. The turtles can be seen throughout the warmer months sun bathing near permanent ponds or lakes in the park. In late spring and early summer the females can be seen laying eggs in sandy soil throughout the park.[citation needed] The turtles live in the shallow lakes in the park.

Turtle Mountain Provincial Park was designated a provincial park by the Government of Manitoba in 1961. The park is 186 square kilometres (72 sq mi) in size. The park is considered to be a Class II protected area under the IUCN protected area management categories.

It is adjacent to the international border between Canada and the United States. Its southeast corner is adjacent to the International Peace Garden which is located in both Manitoba and the U.S. state of North Dakota. To the east is the William Lake Provincial Park, home to the William Lake Campground, and the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. To the north is the town of Boissevain, with the city of Brandon farther north. Most of the park is situated in the southwesternmost section of the Municipality of Boissevain – Morton, while the rest of it lies in the southeast corner of the Municipality of Deloraine – Winchester.

The park is nearly coterminous with the slightly larger Turtle Mountain Provincial Forest. The only difference is a small section of the forest lying east of Manitoba Highway 10 at the southeast corner of the forest (near the International Peace Garden), which is outside the park's territory.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turtle_Mountain_Provincial_Park

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...
Canada location map 2.svg
Author/Creator: MapGrid, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Location map of Canada with all five Great Lakes shown in full.
Turtle Mountain State Recreational Forest Near International Peace Garden, North Dakota - 30105213178.jpg
Author/Creator: Ken Lund, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Turtle Mountain, or the Turtle Mountains, is an area in central North America, in the north-central portion of the U.S. state of North Dakota and southwestern portion of the Canadian province of Manitoba, approximately 100 km south of the city of Brandon on provincial highway 10. It is a plateau 2,000 ft (600 m) above sea level, 300 ft to 400 ft (90 m to 120 m) above the surrounding countryside, extending 20 mi (32 km) from north to south and 40 mi (64 km) from east to west. Rising 1,031 feet, North Dakota's most prominent peak, Boundary Butte, is located at the western edge of the plateau.

It has timber, numerous lakes, and small deposits of low-grade manganese. One of the largest lakes in the Turtle Mountains is Lake Metigoshe, which straddles the international border, with about one-eighth of the lake in Canada. The region is home to Turtle Mountain Provincial Park, a state park, two historic sites, and various hunting and fishing opportunities.

Turtle Mountain is the traditional territory of the Plains Ojibwe, as well as part of the Métis homeland. Rapid colonization and settlement in the 19th century, along with the establishment of a firm border between Canada and the United States, displaced many Indigenous peoples to and from the region.[1] Some identify as the Turtle Mountain Chippewa, who are federally recognized and whose reservation in the valley on the southeastern edge of the plateau.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turtle_Mountain_(plateau)

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_...