Tributary

The Nam Khan flows into the Mekong at Luang Prabang in Laos.

A tributary,[1] or affluent,[2] is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake.[3] A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean.[4] Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. The Irtysh is a chief tributary of the Ob river and is also the longest tributary river in the world with a length of 4,248 km (2,640 mi). The Madeira River is the largest tributary river by volume in the world with an average discharge of 31,200 m3/s (1.1 million cu ft/s).

A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet, usually refers to the joining of tributaries.

The opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream.[5] Distributaries are most often found in river deltas.

Terminology

Looking downstream, the Shenandoah River (bottom right) meets the Potomac River which flows from bottom left to top right, so the Shenandoah is a right tributary of the Potomac, not a left tributary.

"Right tributary" and "left tributary" (or "right-bank tributary" and "left-bank tributary") are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream (in the direction the water current of the main stem is going).[6]

An "early tributary" is a tributary that joins the main stem river closer to the main river's source than its end. Similarly, a "late tributary" joins the main river much further downstream, closer to the main river's end point.

In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks. These are typically designated by compass direction. For example, the American River in California receives flow from its North, Middle, and South forks. The Chicago River's North Branch has the East, West, and Middle Fork; the South Branch has its South Fork, and used to have a West Fork as well (now filled in).

Forks are sometimes designated as right or left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary which is called Right Fork Steer Creek.

Ordering and enumeration

Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river. The Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second, third and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being typically the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary.[6]

Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "tributary". PhysicalGeography.net, Michael Pidwirny & Scott Jones, 2009. Viewed 17 September 2012.
  2. ^ "affluent". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Viewed 30 September 2008.
  3. ^ "Definition of TRIBUTARY". Merriam-Webster.
  4. ^ Krebs, Robert E. (2003). The Basics of Earth Science. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-31930-3.
  5. ^ "opposite to a tributary". PhysicalGeography.net, Michael Pidwirny & Scott Jones, 2009. Viewed 17 September 2012.
  6. ^ a b Bisson, Peter and Wondzell, Steven. "Olympic Experimental State Forest Synthesis of Riparian Research and Monitoring", United States Forest Service, p. 15 (1 December 2009).

Media files used on this page

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Map showing the Benue River drainage basin.
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This is a map of the Liao River drainage basin.
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Mouth of Nam Khan
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This is a map of the Amazon River drainage basin.
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This is a map of the Jialing River drainage basin.
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The confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers, at Harpers Ferry 35px. Aerial view looking east towards Maryland, with the CSX RR bridge crossing the river.
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Map of the Huai River, whose watershed drains much of eastern China between the Yellow River (Huang He) and Chang Jiang (Yangtze River), eventually flowing into the Yangtze—Chang Jiang.
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Map of the Wabash River watershed with the Vermilion River highlighted (including the Salt, Middle, and North forks).
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Map showing the Mekong River and tributaries
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Map of the Yamuna River, a tributary of the Ganges in northern India
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stream in the redwoods: stream in Muir Woods