Treaty of La Pointe

Symbolic 1849 petition attributed to Chief Buffalo protesting the violation of the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe

The Treaty of La Pointe may refer to either of two treaties made and signed in La Pointe, Wisconsin between the United States and the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Native American peoples. In addition, the Isle Royale Agreement, an adhesion to the first Treaty of La Pointe, was made at La Pointe.

1842 Treaty of La Pointe

Map showing the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe land cession area of what now is Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior, Wisconsin and Michigan.

The first treaty of La Pointe was signed by Robert Stuart for the United States and representatives of the Ojibwe Bands of Lake Superior and the Mississippi River on October 4, 1842 and proclaimed on March 23, 1843, encoded into the laws of the United States as 7 Stat. 591. By this treaty, the Ojibwa ceded extensive tracts of land that are now parts of the states of Wisconsin and Michigan, specifically the latter's Upper Peninsula.

The Webster-Ashburton Treaty was signed on August 9, 1842, between Great Britain and the United States, officially ending their boundary dispute on what now is the Arrowhead Region of Minnesota, as well as settling other claims. This news did not reach the United States parties to the La Pointe Treaty negotiation. Consequently, the Grand Portage Band, then considered to be in Canadian British territory, was not invited to join the signing of this treaty. It is now considered to occupy territory in the United States.

In 1844, the United States and Grand Portage Band signed the Isle Royale Agreement as an adhesion to this treaty.

As determined subsequently by the United States Supreme Court, the signatory tribes retain hunting, fishing and gathering rights on their former lands in this region. In addition, the Supreme Court held that the treaty obligated the United States to provide reservations for peoples of the signatory bands. For instance, it acquired land in the 1930s for the Bay Mills Indian Community, whose people had historically long been located on Lake Superior in Michigan.

Signatories

The Ojibwe treaty signatories were:

#LocationRecorded NameName (Translation/"Alias")Title
1Crow Wing RiverPo go ne gi shikBagonegiizhig (Hole in the Day)1st chief
2Crow Wing RiverSon go com ickZoongakamig (Firm Ground)2d chief
3Sandy Lake BandKa non do ur uin zoGaa-nandawaawinzo (He that Gathers Berries/"le Brocheux")1st chief
4Sandy Lake BandNa tum e gaw bonNetamigaabawi (Stands First)2d chief
5Gull LakeUa bo jigWaabojiig1st chief
6Gull LakePay pe si gon de bayBebiizigindibe (Curly Head)2d chief
7Red Ceder LakeKui ui sen shisGwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy)1st chief
8Red Ceder LakeOtt taw wanceOdaawaans (Little Ottawa)2d chief
9PokegamaBai ie jigBayezhig (Lone Man)1st chief
10PokegamaShow ne awZhooniyaa (Silver)2d chief
11Wisconsin RiverKi uen ziAkiwenzii (Old Man)1st chief
12Wisconsin RiverWi aw bis ke kut te wayWayaabishkigoodewe (Has a White Skirt)2d chief
13Lac du Flambeau BandA pish ka go giApishkaagaagi (Magpie/"White Crow")1st chief
14Lac du Flambeau BandMay tock cus e quayMetaakozige ([Smokes] Pure Tobacco)2d chief
15Lac du Flambeau BandShe maw gon eZhimaagani (Lance)2d chief
16Lake BandsKi ji ua be she shiGichi-waabizheshi (Big Marten)1st chief
17Lake BandsKe kon o tumGeganoodam (Intercessor)2d chief
18Fond du Lac BandShin goobZhingob (Balsam)1st chief
19Fond du Lac BandNa gan nabNaagaanab (Foremost Sitter)2d chief
20Fond du Lac BandMong o zetMaangozid (Loon's Foot)2d chief
21La Pointe BandGitchi waiskyGichi-weshkiinh (Great-renewer/"Buffalo")1st chief
22La Pointe BandMi ziMizay (Eel)2d chief
23La Pointe BandTa qua gone eDagwagaane2d chief
24OntonagonO kon di kanOkandikan (Bouy)1st chief
25OntonagonKis ke taw wacGiishkitawag (Cut Ear)2d chief
26L'AnsePe na shiBineshiinh (Bird)1st chief
27L'AnseGuck we san sishAkakwijenzhish (Bad Little Groundhog)2d chief
28Lac Vieux Desert BandKa she osh eGezhiiyaashi (Sails Fast)1st chief
29Lac Vieux Desert BandMedge waw gwaw wot[1]Bimijiwaagaakwad (Oblique-edged Ax)2d chief
30Mille Lacs IndiansNe qua ne beNegwanebi ([Quill]feather)1st chief
31Mille Lacs IndiansUa shash ko kumWazhashkokon (Muskrat's Liver)2d chief
32Mille Lacs IndiansNo dinNoodin (Wind)2d chief
33St. Croix BandBe zhi kiBizhiki (Buffalo)1st chief
34St. Croix BandKa bi na beGaa-biimabi (He that sits to the side/"Wet mouth")2d chief
35St. Croix BandAi aw bensAyaabens (Little Buck)2d chief
36Snake RiverSha go biZhaagobe (Six)1st chief
37Chippewa RiverUa be she shiWaabizheshi (Marten)1st chief
38Chippewa RiverQue way zhan sisGwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy)2d chief
39Lac Courte Oreilles BandNe na nang ebNenaa'angebi (Beautifying Bird)1st chief
40Lac Courte Oreilles BandBe bo kon uen2d chief
41Lac Courte Oreilles BandKi uen ziAkiwenzii (Old Man)2d chief
Name given in Dakota.

Treaty area boundary adjustments

In Michigan, no boundary adjustments have been made.

In Wisconsin, for regulatory purposes, the southeastern boundaries of the 1842 treaty-area have been adjusted to follow distinct landmarks such as roads and streams. Furthermore, in Wisconsin, with consent of the property-owner and with tribally issued license, all treaty rights of hunting, fishing and gathering may be exercised by the members of the signatory bands.

In Minnesota, no boundary adjustments have been made. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources have been mainly concerned over hunting regulations as related to this treaty. Minnesota does not acknowledge the 1842 land cession area as giving the tribes privilege over Minnesota's own claim over Lake Superior. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources approved an extension of the 1854 Treaty of La Pointe tribal fishing rights for the Grand Portage Band over a portion of the state's Lake Superior claims.

1844 Isle Royale Agreement

Map showing the 1844 Webster-Ashburton Treaty area of what now is Minnesota, the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe area, and their overlap over Isle Royale, which precipitated the need for the Isle Royale Agreement.

The Isle Royale Agreement is an adhesion to the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe, conducted at La Pointe, Wisconsin Territory on August 20, 1844. Commissioner Robert Stuart again represented the United States. The Grand Portage Band was using the resources on Isle Royale and believed it and they were in British territory. After boundary clarification was settled via the Webster Ashburton Treaty of 1842, the Grand Portage Band signed the Isle Royale Agreement with the United States as a treaty adhesion. The 1842 treaty signatories re-affirmed their treaty.

#Recorded NameName (Translation/"Alias")Location
01Wab-ish-gag-gang-e[2]Waabishkaagaagi (White Crow)Lac du Flambeau Band
02She-mang-un-ishZhimaaganish (Lance)Lac du Flambeau Band
03KnistenoGinishtinoo (Cree)Lac du Flambeau Band
04Ude-kum-agAdikameg (Whitefish)Lac du Flambeau Band
05Now-uj-e-wunNaawajiwan (Middle of the Current)Lac du Flambeau Band
06Medge-wok-gok-wudBimijiwaagaakwad (Oblique-edged Ax)Lac du Flambeau Band
07Ah-mon-seAamoons (Wasp)Lac du Flambeau Band
08San-gan-e-mayLac du Flambeau Band
09Ke-che-wais-keenhGichi-weshkiinh (Great-renewer/"le Bœuf")La Pointe Band
10Tug-wug-aun-eDagwagaaneLa Pointe Band
11Mis-ia[3]Mizay (Eel)La Pointe Band
12Muk-ud-a-be-naseMakade-bines (Black Bird)La Pointe Band
13Ke-che-waub-e-sash-eGichi-waabizheshi (Big Marten)Pelican Lake
14Nig-gigNigig (Otter)Pelican Lake
15Osh-kau-bay-wisOshkaabewis (Waiter)Wisconsin River
16Kay-she-aushGezhiiyaashi (Sails Fast)Lac Vieux Desert Band
17Rim-idj-wang-auk-wad[4]Bimijiwaagaakwad (Oblique-edged Ax)Lac Vieux Desert Band
18Bin-ash-eenBineshiinh (Bird)L'Anse
19Ke-nen-anceL'Anse
20Bug-um-aug-unBagamaagan (War-club)L'Anse
21Shin-goopZhingob (Spruce)Fond du Lac Band
22Nug-un-ubNaagaanab (Foremost Sitter)Fond du Lac Band
23Mon-go-sitMaangozid (Loon's Foot)Fond du Lac Band
24Kah-rum-dum-ah-winso[5]Gaa-nandawaawinzo (He that Gathers Berries/"le Brocheux")Sandy Lake Band
25Win-je-ke-shik-ukWenji-giizhigak (Whence from the Sky)Sandy Lake Band
26Bug-on-a-ke-shingBagonegiizhig (Hole in the Day)Crow Wing
27Song-uk-um-igZoongakamig (Firm Ground)Crow Wing
28I-ansh-ow-eke-shik[6]Aayaazhawi-giizhig (Crossing Sky)Red Cedar Lake
29Otto-wanceOdaawaans (Little Ottawa)Red Cedar Lake
30Waub-o-geegWaabojiig (White Fisher)Gull Lake
31Na-quon-abeNegwanebi (["Tallest" Quill]feather)Mille Lacs Band
32Be-dudPítad (Muskrat's Liver)Mille Lacs Band
33No-dinNoodin (Wind)Mille Lacs Band
34Shin-e-yahZhooniyaa (Silver)Pokegama
35Boin-anceBwaanens (Little Sioux)Pokegama
36Kow-e-tas-sySt. Croix Band
37Ah-cab-ay[7]Ayaabe[ns] ([Little] Buck)St. Croix Band
38Ke-che-no-dinGichi-noodin (Big Wing)St. Croix Band
39Gah-be-mah-beGaa-biimabi (He that sits to the side/"Wet Mouth")St. Croix Band
40Waub-e-sash-eWaabizheshi (Marten)Chippewa River
41Que-we-san-sishGwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy)Chippewa River
42Mah-een-gunMa'iingan (Wolf)Chippewa River
43Ke-wan-seAkiwenzii (Old Man)Lac Courte Oreilles Band
44Ke-che-be-nas-syGichi-binesi (Big Bird)Lac Courte Oreilles Band
45Omad-ag-um-eOmadaagamii (Choppy Waters)Lake Chetac
46Nay-nuk-aung-abeNenaa'angebi (Beautifying Bird)Lake Chetac
47Ka-kakeGegek (Hawk)Lake Chetac
48Ky-aush-ke-bar[8]Gayaashkobaa (Gull-narrows)Lake Chetac
49Shag-un-aush-eensZhaaganaashiins (Little Englishman)Grand Portage Band
50Ad-dik-onsAdikoons (Little Reindeer)Grand Portage Band

Name given in Dakota

  • Wm. McDonald
  • Jno. Hulbert
  • Clement H Beaulieu
  • Chas. H. Oakes
  • J Russell
  • Jas. P. Hays, United States Indian Sub-Agent
  • Wm. W. Warren, Interpreter

1854 Treaty of La Pointe

Land ceded in 1854 in the Treaty of La Pointe, designated 332 (pink) on the map.

The second treaty of La Pointe was signed by Henry C. Gilbert and David B. Herriman for the United States and representatives of the Ojibwe of Lake Superior and the Mississippi on September 30, 1854, proclaimed on January 29, 1855, and codified as 10 Stat. 1109. The treaty ceded all of the Lake Superior Ojibwe lands to the United States in the Arrowhead Region of Northeastern Minnesota, in exchange for reservations for the Lake Superior Ojibwe in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota. The signatory tribes retain hunting, fishing and gathering right within this region. The portions left unceded were given claims to the Mississippi Ojibwe. The Indian reservations established under this treaty are:

along with general land grants to the Metis.

Mole Lake and St. Croix Bands lost their federal recognition due to not being included in this treaty. Mole Lake Band and St. Croix Band's eastern half in Wisconsin re-gained their federal recognition under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, but the St. Croix Band's western half in Minnesota are not independently recognized and are considered part of the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe.

Signatories

The Ojibwe treaty signatories were:

#LocationRecorded NameName (Translation/"Alias")Title
1La Pointe BandKe-che-waish-keGichi-weshkiinh (Great-renewer/"Buffalo")1st chief
2La Pointe BandChay-che-que-ohJechiikwii'o (Snipe)2d chief
3La Pointe BandA-daw-we-ge-zhickEdawi-giizhig (Each Side of the sky)2d chief
4La Pointe BandO-ske-naw-wayOshkinawe (Youth)2d chief
5La Pointe BandMaw-caw-day-pe-nay-seMakade-binesi (Black Bird)2d chief
6La Pointe BandNaw-waw-naw-quotNaawaanakwad (Middle of the Cloud)headman
7La Pointe BandKe-wain-zeenceAkiwenziins (Old Man)headman
8La Pointe BandWaw-baw-ne-me-keWaabanimikii (White Thunderer)2d chief
9La Pointe BandPay-baw-me-sayBebaamise (Soarer)2d chief
10La Pointe BandNaw-waw-ge-waw-noseNaawajiwanose (Walks through the Middle of the Current)2d chief
11La Pointe BandMaw-caw-day-waw-quotMakade-anaakwad (Black Cloud)2d chief
12La Pointe BandMe-she-naw-wayMizhinawe (Disciple)2d chief
13La Pointe BandKey-me-waw-naw-umGimiwana'am (Canoes in the Rain)headman
14La Pointe BandShe-gogZhigaag (Skunk)headman
15Ontonagon BandO-cun-de-cunOkandikan (Buoy)1st chief
16Ontonagon BandWaw-say-ge-zhickWaase-giizhig (Clear Sky)2d chief
17Ontonagon BandKeesh-ke-taw-wugGiishkitawag (Cut Ear)headman
18L'Anse BandDavid King1st chief
19L'Anse BandJohn Southwindheadman
20L'Anse BandPeter Marksmanheadman
21L'Anse BandNaw-taw-me-ge-zhickNetamigiizhig (First Sky)2d chief
22L'Anse BandAw-se-neeceAsiniins (Little Rock)headman
23Lac Vieux Desert BandMay-dway-aw-sheMedweyaashi (Sound by the Wind)1st chief
24Lac Vieux Desert BandPosh-quay-ginBashkwegin (Leather)2d chief
25Grand Portage BandShaw-gaw-naw-sheenceZhaaganaashiins (Little Englishman)1st chief
26Grand Portage BandMay-mosh-caw-woshMemashkawaash (Strong Wind)headman
27Grand Portage BandAw-de-konseAdikoons (Little Reindeer)2d chief
28Grand Portage BandWay-we-ge-wamheadman
29Fond du Lac BandShing-goopeZhingob (Balsam)1st chief
30Fond du Lac BandMawn-go-sitMaangozid (Loon's Foot)2d chief
31Fond du Lac BandMay-quaw-me-we-ge-zhickMekwamiiwi-giizhig (Icy Day)headman
32Fond du Lac BandKeesh-kawkheadman
33Fond du Lac BandCaw-taw-waw-be-dayGaa-dawaabide (Cracked Tooth/"Broken Tooth")headman
34Fond du Lac BandO-saw-geeOzaagii (Sauk)headman
35Fond du Lac BandKe-che-aw-ke-wain-zeGichi-akiwenzii (Big Old Man)headman
36Fond du Lac BandNaw-gaw-nubNaagaanab (Foremost Sitter)2d chief
37Fond du Lac BandAin-ne-maw-sungEnimaasing (Sails Away)2d chief
38Fond du Lac BandNaw-aw-bun-wayheadman
39Fond du Lac BandWain-ge-maw-tubWenji-maadab (Where He Moves From Sitting)headman
40Fond du Lac BandAw-ke-wain-zeenceAkiwenziins (Little Old Man)headman
41Fond du Lac BandShay-way-be-nay-seAzhewe-binesi (Ingressive Bird)headman
42Fond du Lac BandPaw-pe-ohBaabii'o (Awaits)headman
43Lac Courte Oreilles BandAw-ke-wain-zeAkiwenzii (Old Man)1st chief
44Lac Courte Oreilles BandKey-no-zhanceGinoozhens (Little Jack Fish)1st chief
45Lac Courte Oreilles BandKey-che-pe-nay-seGichi-binesi (Big Bird)2d chief
46Lac Courte Oreilles BandKe-che-waw-be-shay-sheGichi-waabizheshi (Big Marten)2d chief
47Lac Courte Oreilles BandWaw-be-shay-sheenceWaabizheshiins (Little Marten)headman
48Lac Courte Oreilles BandQuay-quay-cubGwekwekab (Turns Around Sitting)headman
49Lac Courte Oreilles BandShaw-waw-no-me-tayZhaawano-mide (Southern Medicine)headman
50Lac Courte Oreilles BandNay-naw-ong-gay-beNenaa'angebi (Dressing Bird)1st chief
51Lac Courte Oreilles BandO-zhaw-waw-sco-ge-zhickOzhaawashko-giizhig (Blue Sky)2d chief
52Lac Courte Oreilles BandI-yaw-banseAyaabens (Little Buck)2d chief
53Lac Courte Oreilles BandKe-che-e-nin-neGichi-inini (Big Man)headman
54Lac Courte Oreilles BandHaw-daw-gaw-meNaadagaame (Paddle to Shore)headman
55Lac Courte Oreilles BandWay-me-te-go-sheWemitigoozhi (Frenchman)headman
56Lac Courte Oreilles BandPay-me-ge-wungBemijiwang (Swift Current)headman
57Lac du Flambeau BandAw-mo-seAamoons (Wasp)1st chief
58Lac du Flambeau BandKe-nish-te-noGinishtinoo (Cree)2d chief
59Lac du Flambeau BandMe-gee-seeMigizi (Eagle)2d chief
60Lac du Flambeau BandKay-kay-co-gwaw-nay-aw-sheGekekogwaneyaashi (Blown Hawk-feather)headman
61Lac du Flambeau BandO-che-chogOjichaag (Soul)headman
62Lac du Flambeau BandNay-she-kay-gwaw-nay-beNezhikegwanebi (Lone Wing-feather)headman
63Lac du Flambeau BandO-scaw-bay-wisOshkaabewis (Waiter)1st chief
64Lac du Flambeau BandQue-we-zanceGwiiwizens (White Fish)2d chief
65Lac du Flambeau BandNe-gigNigig (Otter)2d chief
66Lac du Flambeau BandNay-waw-che-ge-ghick-may-beheadman
67Lac du Flambeau BandQuay-quay-ke-cahGwekwekikaa (Keeps Turning)headman
68Bois Forte BandKay-baish-caw-daw-way(Clear Round the Prairie)1st chief
69Bois Forte BandWay-zaw-we-ge-zhick-way-skingWezaawi-giizhigweshking (Sky-Yellower)headman
70Bois Forte BandO-saw-we-pe-nay-sheOzaawi-bineshiinh (Yellow Bird)headman
71Mississippi BandsQue-we-san-seGwiiwizensi (Boy/"Hole in the Day")head chief
72Mississippi BandsCaw-nawn-daw-waw-win-zoGaa-nandawaawinzo (Ripe-Berry Hunter)1st chief
73Mississippi BandsWaw-bow-jiegWaabojiig (White Fisher)2d chief
74Mississippi BandsOt-taw-wawOdaawaa (Ottawa)2d chief
75Mississippi BandsQue-we-zhan-cisGwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy)2d chief
76Mississippi BandsBye-a-jickBayezhig (Lone Man)2d chief
77Mississippi BandsI-yaw-shaw-way-ge-zhickAayaazhawi-giizhig (Crossing Sky)2d chief
78Mississippi BandsMaw-caw-dayMakode' (Bear's Heart)2d chief
79Mississippi BandsKe-way-de-no-go-nay-beGiiwedinogwanebi (Northern Feather)2d chief
80Mississippi BandsMe-squaw-daceMiskwaadesi (Painted Turtle)headman
81Mississippi BandsNaw-gaw-ne-gaw-boNaagaanigaabaw (Standing Ahead)headman
82Mississippi BandsWawm-be-de-yeaheadman
83Mississippi BandsWaish-keyWeshki (New One)headman
84Mississippi BandsCaw-way-caw-me-ge-skungGaawekamigishkaang (Return Through the Ground)headman
85Mississippi BandsMy-yaw-ge-way-we-dunMayaajiiwewidang (One who carries the Voice)2d chief

Notes

  1. ^ "Medge waw gwaw wot" should be "Be medge waw gauc wot"
  2. ^ "Wab-ish-gag-gang-e" should be "Wab-ish-gag-gaug-e"
  3. ^ "Mis-ia" should be "Mis-ai"
  4. ^ "Rim-idj-wang-auk-wad" should be "Bim-idj-waug-auk-wad"
  5. ^ "Kah-rum-dum-ah-winso" should be "Kah-nun-du-wah-winso"
  6. ^ "I-ansh-ow-eke-shik" should be "I-aush-ow-eke-shik"
  7. ^ "Ah-cab-ay" should be "Ah-eab-ay"
  8. ^ "Ky-aush-ke-bar" should be "Ky-aush-ko-bar"

External links

Media files used on this page

Chief Buffalo's Petition 1849 originally of birch bark.jpg
Symbolic Petition of Chippewa Chiefs, presented at Washington, January 28, 1849, headed by Oshcabawis of Monomonecau, Wis.
IsleRoyaleAgreement.jpg
Map of Lake Superior region showing the 1842 Webster-Ashburton Treaty area and the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe area, their overlap over Isle Royale, which precipitated the need for the 1844 Isle Royale Agreement with the adhesion of the Grand Portage Band to the 1842 Treaty of La Pointe.
Treaty of La Pointe 1854 MN.png
Details from 18th Annual Report, Plate 104—Minnesota, 1: Map of w:Treaty of La Pointe#1854 Treaty of La Pointe signed on September 30, 1854 at La Pointe, Wisconsin (designated 332 on the map).