Treaty of Fond du Lac

The Treaty of Fond du Lac may refer to either of two treaties made and signed in Duluth, Minnesota between the United States and the Ojibwe (Chippewa) Native American peoples.

1826 Treaty of Fond du Lac

The first treaty of Fond du Lac was signed by Lewis Cass and Thomas L. McKenney for the United States and representatives of the Ojibwe of Lake Superior and the Mississippi on August 5, 1826, proclaimed on February 7, 1827, and codified in the United States Statutes at Large as 7 Stat. 290. The Ojibwe chiefs who were not in attendance to the First Treaty of Prairie du Chien agreed to its adhesion. The Ojibwe Nations granted to the United States the rights to minerals exploration and mining within Ojibwe lands located north of the Prairie du Chien Line. Provisions were also made for the Ojibwe living about Saint Mary's River. As addenda to this treaty, arrest warrants to certain individuals living outside the jurisdiction of the United States were issued and land grants to the Métis were made.

Signatories

#LocationRecorded nameName (Translation/"Alias")
01St. MarysShin-gau-ba Was-sinZhingaabewasin [a]
02St. MarysShe-wau-be-ke-toanZhiiwaabikitoon (Jingles)
03St. MarysWay-ish-kee
04St. MarysShee-gudMiishigaad (Hairy Leg)
05St. Croix BandPee-zhick-eeBizhiki (Buffalo)
06St. Croix BandNo-denNoodin (Wind) [b]
07St. Croix BandNa-gwun-a-beeNegwanebi ("Tallest" [Quill]feather)
08St. Croix BandKau-be-map-paGaa-biimabi (He that sits to the side/"Wet Mouth")
09St. Croix BandChau-co-peeZhaagobe (Six) ("Jack-O-Pa")
10St. Croix BandJau-beance[A]yaabens (Little Buck)
11St. Croix BandUl-tau-wau[c]Odaawaa (Trader/"Ottawa")
12St. Croix BandMy-een-gun-sheensMa'iinganzhiins (Little Bad-Wolf)
13St. Croix BandMoa-so-mo-neeMáza-máni (Ironwalker)[d]
14St. Croix BandMuck-u-day peenaasMakade-bines (Black Bird)
15St. Croix BandShee-wee-tau-gunZhiiwitaagan (Salt)
16La Pointe BandPee-xhick-eeBizhiki (Buffalo)
17La Pointe BandKee-mee-wunGimiwan (Rain)
18La Pointe BandKau-bu-zo-way
19La Pointe BandWy-au-wee-nind
20La Pointe BandPee-kwauk-wo-to-an-se-kayBikwaakodowaanzige (Ball of Dye)
21Lac Courte Oreilles BandPay-baum-ik-o-way
22Lac du Flambeau BandGitshee WaubeeshaansGichi-waabizhesh (Big Marten)
23Lac du Flambeau BandMoa-zo-neeMoozonii (Moose People)
24Lac du Flambeau BandGit-shee Mi-gee-zeeGichi-migizi (Great Eagle)
25Lac du Flambeau BandMi-zhau-quotMizhakwad (Clear Sky)
26OntonagonKeesh-kee-to-wugGiishkitawag (Cut Ear)
27OntonagonPee-nay-seeBinesi (Bird)
28OntonagonMau-tau-gu-mee
29OntonagonKwee-wee-zais-ishGwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy)
30Vermilion LakeAt-tick-o-ansAdikoons (Little Elk)
31Vermilion LakeGy-ut-shee-in-i-neeGayaachiinh-inini (Small Man)
32Vermilion LakeJauk-way[O]jaakwe (Has a Soul)
33Vermilion LakeMad-wag-ku-na-gee-zhig-waab
34Vermilion LakeJau-ko-gee-zhig-waish-kun
35Vermilion LakeNee-zbo-day[e]Niizhoode′ (Two-hearted)
36Vermilion LakeNun-do-chee-ais
37Vermilion LakeO-gee-mau-gee-gid
38Vermilion LakeAn-nee-mee-keesAnimikiins (Little Thunder)
39OntonagonKau-waish-kungGaaweshkaang (Moves Homeward)
40OntonagonMau-tau-gu-meeMadaagami (Choppy Waters)
41Snake RiverWay-mit-te-goashWemitigoozh (Frenchman)
42Snake RiverIsk-quag-wun-aa-beeIshkwaagwanebi (End [Quill]feather)
43Snake RiverMee-gwun-ausMiigwanens (Little Feather)
44Lac du Flambeau BandPa-moos-sayBemose (Walking)
45Lac du Flambeau BandMay-tau-koos-ee-gayMetaakozige ([Smokes] Pure Tobacco) [f]
46Rainy LakeAa-nub-kum-ig-ish-kunk[g]Aanakamigishkaang ([Traces of] Foot Prints [upon the Ground])
47Sandy Lake BandO-sau-mem-i-keeOzaawinimikii (Yellow Thunder)
48Sandy Lake BandGit-shee Way-mir-tee-go-ost[h]Gichi-wemitigoozh (Big Frenchman)
49Sandy Lake BandPaa-shu-nin-leel[i]Beshaa-inini (Striped-man)
50Sandy Lake BandWau-zhus-ko-kokWazhashkokon (Muskrat's Liver)
51Sandy Lake BandNit-um-o-gau-bow-eeNetamigaabawi (Stands First)
52Sandy Lake BandWat-tapWadab (Spunk)
53Fond du Lac BandShin-goopZhingob (Spruce)
54Fond du Lac BandMon-e-to-gee-zi-so-ansManidoo-giiziswens (Little Sun-Spirit)
55Fond du Lac BandMong-a-zidMaangozid (Loon's Foot)
56Fond du Lac BandMa-ne-to-gee-zhigManidoo-giizhig (Sky Spirit)
57Fond du Lac BandO-jau-nee-mau-son
58Fond du Lac BandMis-kwau-taisMiskwaades ([Painted] Turtle)
59Fond du Lac BandNau-bu-nay-ger-zhigNabane-giizhig (One-side of the Sky)
60Fond du Lac BandUn-nau-wau-bun-daunAanawaabandan (Look in Despair)
61Fond du Lac BandPau-tau-bay
62Fond du Lac BandMi-gee-seeMigizi (Eagle)
63OntonagonWaub-ish-kee-pee-naasWaabishki-bines (White Bird)
64OntonagonTweesh-tweesh-kee-wayJwiichwiishkiwenh (Plover)
65OntonagonKun-de-kundOkandikan (Bouy)
66OntonagonO-guh-bay-au-nuh-quot-way-beeOgabe-aanakwadwebi (Sit Upon The Cloud's End)
67OntonagonPay-bau-mau-singBebaamaasing (Blown About)
68OntonagonKeesh-kee-munGiishkimon (Whetstone/"Sharpened Knife")
69Crow Wing RiverMau-gu-gau-bo-wie
70Crow Wing RiverPu-dudPítad (Muskrat's Liver)[j]
71Crow Wing RiverNaug-du-nosh[k]Naaganaash (Leads by the Wind)
72Crow Wing RiverO-zhus-kuck-oenWazhashkokon (Muskrat's Liver)
73Crow Wing RiverWaub-o-geeWaabojiig (White Fisher)
74Crow Wing RiverSaw-ba-nosh
75Crow Wing RiverKee-way-denGiiwedin (North [Wind])
76Crow Wing RiverGit-shee-mee-win-i-nee
77Crow Wing RiverWy-nu-nee
78Crow Wing RiverO-bu-mau-gee-zhig
79Crow Wing RiverPay-bou-mid-gee-wungBebaamijiwang (Meandering Current)
80Crow Wing RiverMau-gee-gau-bouMaajigaabawi (Starts to Stand/"Stepping Ahead")
81Crow Wing RiverPay-bau-mo-gee-zhigBebaamogiizhig (Sky Rambling)
82Crow Wing RiverKau-be-map-paGaa-bimabi (He that sits to the side)
83Crow Wing RiverWay-mit-te-goa-zhuWemitigoozhi (Frenchman)
84Crow Wing RiverOn-ju-pe-naasAanji-bines (Changing Bird)
85Crow Wing RiverMad-way-os-sinMadwewasin (Hears Stones)

1847 Treaty of Fond du Lac

Land ceded by the treaty of Fond du Lac in 1847, designated 268 (green) on the map.

The second treaty of Fond du Lac was signed by Issac A. Verplank and Henry Mower Rice for the United States and representatives of the Ojibwe of Lake Superior and the Mississippi on August 2, 1847, proclaimed on April 7, 1848, and codified as 9 Stat. 904. This treaty ceded lands in a triangular area west of the Mississippi River, bounded by the Prairie du Chien Line, Mississippi River, Crow Wing River and Long Prairie River.

According to the oral histories of the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe, representatives from the Ho-Chunk Nation negotiated with the Lake Superior and Mississippi Chippewas before treaty discussions with the United States took place to guarantee the safety of the Ho-Chunk Nation which was about to be displaced from the Neutral Ground with the admission of much of Iowa Territory into the Union as the State of Iowa, in their Treaty of Washington (1846). The Ho-Chunk were supposed to be removed to the land ceded by the two 1847 Ojibwe treaties along the Long Prairie River (now in Minnesota). Many refused. Some fled to Wisconsin and some to Nebraska. The balance were removed to Minnesota in 1848 and a second removal occurred in 1850 which brought in another portion of the Ho-Chunk to the area. Due to frequent skirmishes by Ojibwe and Dakota bands against one another the Ho-Chunk could not avoid being attacked at times. The Ho-Chunk were unhappy with the land and were eventually relocated to an area near the Blue Earth River in southern Minnesota in 1855. After the Dakota rose up against whites in 1862 and the U.S.-Dakota war caused depopulation of southern Minnesota, many remaining Minnesota citizens were in no mood to allow the Ho-Chunk Nation to remain in the state, despite their neutrality during the hostilities. The Winnebago subsequently ceded their Minnesota lands to the United States per Treaty of Washington (1865) for relocation to South Dakota and then Nebraska. Meanwhile, the Ojibwe land ceded in 1847 remained in U.S. government hands and was eventually opened up to white settlement.

Signatories

#LocationRecorded NameName (Translation/"Alias")Title
1Crow WingKai-ah-want-e-da[l]Gaa-dawaabide (Cracked Tooth/"Broken Tooth")2d chief
2Gull LakeWaub-o-jceg[m]Waabojiig (White Fisher)1st chief
3Crow WingUt-tom-auhOdaawaa (Ottawa)1st warrior
4Crow WingShen-goobZhingob (Spruce)1st warrior
5Gull LakeQue-wish-an-sishGwiiwizhenzhish (Bad Boy)1st warrior
6Crow WingMaj-c-gah-bon[n]Maajigaabaw (Start to Stand)2d warrior
7Crow WingKag-gag-c-we-guon[o]Gaagaagiwigwan (Raven's Feather)warrior
8Crow WingMab uk-um-ig[p]Waabakamig (White Ground)warrior
9Sandy Lake BandNag-aun-cg-a-bon[q]Naagaanigaabaw (Stand in Front)2d chief
10Sandy Lake BandWan-jc-ke-shig-uk[r]Wenji-giizhigak (From the Sky)chief
11Sandy Lake BandKow-az-rum-ig-ish-kung[s][I]kaadekamigishkang (Earth Opens)warrior
12La Pointe BandKe-che-wask-keenkGichi-weshkiinh (Great Renewer)1st chief
13St. Croix LakeGab-im-ub-beGaa-biimabi (He that sits to the side/"Wet Mouth")chief
14Pelican LakesKee-che-waub-ish-ashGichi-waabizhesh (Big Marten)1st chief
15Pelican LakesNig-gigNigig (Otter)2d chief
16Lac du Flambeau BandUd-c-kum-ag[t]Adikameg (Whitefish)2d chief
17La Pointe BandTa-che-go-onk[u]Jechiikwii'o (Snipe)3d chief
18La Pointe BandMuk-no-a-wuk-und[v]Makadewaanakwad (Black Cloud)warrior
19St. Croix BandO-sho-gazAshagens (Little Heron)warrior
20La Pointe BandA-dow-c-re-shig[w]Edaawi-giizhig (Both Ends of the Sky)warrior
21La Pointe BandKeesh-ri-tow-ng[x]Giishkitawag (Cut Ear)1st warrior
22Rice Lake BandI-aub-ansAyaabens (Little Buck)chief
23La Pointe BandTug-wany-am-az[y]Dagwagaane (Two Lodges Meet)2d chief
24Ontonagon BandO-rum-de-kun[z]Okandikan (Bouy)chief
25OntonagonKeesh-re-tow-no[aa]Giishkitawag (Cut Ear)2d chief
26PokegamaMaj-c-wo-we-clung[ab]Maajiwewidang (Starts Speaking)2d chief
27PokegamaKe-che-wa-mib-co-osk[ac]Gichi-wemitigoozh (Big Frenchman)1st chief
28Fond du Lac BandMongo-o-sitMaangozid (Loon's Foot)3d chief
29Fond du Lac BandMug-un-ub[ad]Naagaanab (Foremost Sitter)2d chief
30Fond du Lac BandAn-im-as-ungEnimaasing (Sails Away)1st warrior
31Chippewa RiverWaub-ish-asheWaabizheshi (Marten)1st chief
32Chippewa RiverMake-cen-gun[ae]Ma'iingan (Wolf)2d chief
33Lac Courte Oreilles BandKee-wan-see[A]kiwenzii (Old Man)chief
34Puk-wa-wunTen-as-see[af]Binesi (Bird)chief
35Lac Courte Oreilles BandNag-an-isNaagaaniz (Leader)2d chief
36Puk-wa-wunKe-chi-in-in-eGichi-inini (Big Man)1st warrior
37Turtle PortageKe-che-now-uj-c-nimGichi-naawajiwan (Big Midst the Rapids)chief
38Lac du Flambeau BandBus-e-guin-jisBazigwinjiz (Arise)warrior
39Fond du Lac BandShin-goobZhingob (Spruce)1st chief
40Grand Portage BandShay-u-ash-cens[ag]Zhaaganaashiins (Little Englishman)1st chief
41Grand Portage BandUd-ik-onsAdikoons (Little Elk)2d chief
42La Pointe BandMe-zyeMizay (Eel)4th chief
43L'Anse BandDavid King1st chief
44L'Anse BandMa-tak-o-se-gaMetaakozige ([Smokes] Pure Tobacco)1st warrior
45L'Anse BandAssurcens[ah]Asiniins (Little Rock)2d warrior
46L'Anse BandPeter Marksmanchief
47Alexander Corbinchief
48William W. W. WarrenWilliam W. Warren1st chief
49Jno. Pta. RellengerJean-Baptise Reyergé
50Charles Charlo
51Lac Courte Oreilles Half-breedsBattiste GauthierBaptiste GauthierChief
52La Pointe Band Half-breedsVincent RoyChief
53La Pointe Band Half-breedsJohn Btse. CadotteJean-Baptise CadotteWarrior
54La Pointe Band Half-breedsLemo Sayer2d chief
55La Pointe Band Half-breedsJhn. Btse. RoyJean-Baptise RoyWarrior
56La Pointe Band Half-breedsMichel Bas-he-na
57La Pointe Band Half-breedsLueson GodinLuizon Godin
58La Pointe Band Half-breedsJohn Sayer
59La Pointe Band Half-breedsLueson CorbinChief
60La Pointe, WisconsinWm. W. WarrenWilliam W. Warrenwitness/interpreter
61La Pointe, WisconsinChas. H. OakesCharles H. Oakeswitness
62Rochester, New YorkRoswell Hartwitness
63Batavia, New YorkHenry Evanswitness
64A. MorrisonAllan Morrisonwitness
65S. HoversSmith Hoverswitness
66Mamoci M. Samuelwitness
67Henry Blatchfordwitness/interpreter
68William A. Aitkenwitness
69Julius Ombrianwitness

The signatory headmen were the following:

#LocationRecorded NameName (Translation/"Alias")Title
01Trout LakeKe-nesh-te-noGinishtinoo (Cree)chief
02Lac du Flambeau BandMah-shahMaazhaa (Perhaps)1st warrior
03Red Cedar LakeI-oush-ou-c-ke-shik[ai]Ayaazhawi-giizhig (Crossing Sky)chief
04Mille Lacs IndiansMah-ko-dahMakode' (Bear's Heart)1st warrior
05Mille Lacs IndiansPe-tudPítad[aj] (Muskrat's Liver)1st chief
06Mille Lacs IndiansAunch-e-be-nasAanji-bines (Changing Bird)2d warrior
07Red Cedar LakeMish-in-nack-in-ugoMishiinimakinaakoo (Mackinacker)warrior
08Sandy Lake BandGah-nin-dum-a-win-so[ak]Gaa-nandawaawinzo (He that Gathers Berries/"le Brocheux")1st chief
09Sandy Lake BandMis-quod-aseMiskwaadesi (Painted Turtle)warrior
10Sandy Lake BandNa-tum-e-gaw-bowNetamigaabaw (Stands First)2d chief
11Sandy Lake BandI-ah-be-dua-we-dungAyaabidwewidang (Constantly Speak)warrior
12PokegamaBi-a-jigBayezhig (Lone Man)1st chief
13Mississippi Half-breedsJoseph Montre1st chief
14Wm. W. WarrenWilliam W. Warrenwitness/interpreter
15Peter Marksmanwitness/interpreter
16Smith Hoverswitness

Treaty adhesion:

#LocationRecorded NameName (Translation/"Alias")Title
01Snake RiverNo-dinNoodin (Wind)chief
02William A. AitkinWilliam A. Aitkenwitness
03R. B. CarltonReubin B. Carltonwitness

Treaty adhesion approval:

#LocationRecorded NameName (Translation/"Alias")Title
01Po-go-ne-gi-shikBagonegiizhig (Hole in the Day)
02William AitkinWilliam A. Aitkenwitness
03D. T. Sloanwitness

Notes

  1. ^ Portraited by Bird as "SHIN-GA-BA-W'OSSIN or IMAGE STONE"
  2. ^ Portraited by Bird as "NO-TIN"
  3. ^ "Ul-tau-wau" should be "Ut-tau-wau"
  4. ^ Name given in Dakota language
  5. ^ "Nee-zbo-day" should be "Nee-zho-day"
  6. ^ Portraited by Bird as "META-KOOSEGA or PURE TOBACCO"
  7. ^ "Aa-nub-kum-ig-ish-kunk" should be "Aa-nuh-kum-ig-ish-kunk"
  8. ^ "Git-shee Way-mir-tee-go-ost" should be "Git-shee Way-mit-tee-go-osh"
  9. ^ "Paa-shu-nin-leel" should be "Paa-shu-in-in-ee."
  10. ^ Name given in Dakota language
  11. ^ "Naug-du-nosh" should be "Naug-au-nosh"
  12. ^ "Kai-ah-want-e-da" should be "Kat-ah-waub-e-da"
  13. ^ "Waub-o-jceg" should be "Waub-o-jeeg"
  14. ^ "Maj-c-gah-bon" should be "Maj-e-gah-boh"
  15. ^ "Kag-gag-c-we-guon" should be "Kag-gag-e-we-guon"
  16. ^ "Mab uk-um-ig" should be "Wab-uk-um-ig"
  17. ^ "Nag-aun-cg-a bon" should be "Nag-aun-eg-a-bow"
  18. ^ "Wan-jc-ke-shig-uk" should be "Wan-je-ke-shig-uk"
  19. ^ "Kow-az-rum-ig-ish-kung" should be "Kow-day-cum-ig-ish-kung"
  20. ^ "Ud-c-kum-ag" should be "Ud-e-kum-ag"
  21. ^ "Ta-che-go-onk" should be "Ja-che-gee-uh"
  22. ^ "Muk-no-a-wuk-und" should be "Muk-ud-a-un-uk-wud"
  23. ^ "A-dow-c-re-shig" should be "A-dow-e-ke-shig"
  24. ^ "Keesh-ri-tow-ng" should be "Keesh-ki-tow-ug"
  25. ^ "Tug-wany-am-az" should be "Tug-waug-aun-ay"
  26. ^ "O-rum-de-kun" should be "O-kun-de-kun"
  27. ^ "Keesh-re-tow-no" should be "Keesh-ke-tow-uc"
  28. ^ "Maj-c-wo-we-clung" should be "Maj-e-wa-we-dung"
  29. ^ "Ke-che-wa-mib-co-osk" should be "Ke-che-wa-mi-te-co-osh"
  30. ^ "Mug-un-ub" should be "Nug-un-ub"
  31. ^ "Make-cen-gun" should be "Mah-een-gun"
  32. ^ "Ten-as-see" should be "Pen-as-see"
  33. ^ "Shay-u-ash-cens" should be "Shag-un-ash-eens"
  34. ^ "Assurcens" should be "Asseneens"
  35. ^ "I-oush-ou-c-ke-shik" should be "I-aush-au-e-ke-shik"
  36. ^ Name given in Dakota language
  37. ^ "Gah-nin-dum-a-win-so" should be "Gah-nin-duw-a-win-so"

External links

Media files used on this page

Treaty of Fond du Lac 1847.png
Details from 18th Annual Report, Plate 104—Minnesota, 1: Map of w:Treaty of Fond du Lac, with w:Mississippi Chippewa and w:Lake Superior Chippewa (9 Stat. 904), signed on August 2, 1847 at w:Duluth, Minnesota (designated 268 on the map) and w:Treaty of Leech Lake, with w:Pillager Band of Chippewa Indians (9 Stat. 908), signed on August 21, 1847 (designated 269 on the map).[1]