Treaty 9

Treaty 9
The James Bay Treaty (Treaty No. 9)
James Bay Treaty.jpg
The first page of the written document of The James Bay Treaty (Treaty No. 9).
Signed12 July 1905 - 28 July 1930
Parties
LanguageEnglish

Treaty No. 9 (also known as The James Bay Treaty) is a numbered treaty first signed in 1905-1906 between Anishinaabe (Algonquin and Ojibway) and Omushkegowuk Cree communities and the Canadian Crown, which includes both the government of Canada and the government of the province of Ontario. It is commonly known as the "James Bay Treaty," since the eastern edge of the treaty territory is the shore of James Bay in Northern Ontario.

By the early 1900s, both federal and provincial governments were interested in taking control of lands around the Hudson and James Bay watersheds in northern Ontario - traditionally home to Cree, Oji-Cree, and Ojibway peoples.

After nearly a year of delay from Ontario,[1] in May 1905 both governments began negotiating in the terms of the treaty's written document. Although ratification of the treaty required the agreement of Indigenous peoples living in the territory, none of the Omushkegowuk and the Anishinaabe communities expected to sign were involved in creating the terms of the written document, nor were the terms permitted to change during the treaty expedition.[2]

One First Nations community in the bordering Abitibi region of northwestern Quebec is included in this treaty. Further adhesions involving Ojibway and Swampy Cree communities were signed in 1929 and 1937.

Timeline

  • 29 June 1905: Duncan C. Scott and Samuel Stewart are appointed as treaty commissioners by the Government of Canada. Daniel G. MacMartin is appointed as commissioner by the province of Ontario. They would jointly conduct signing ceremonies with First Nations communities on a set route through the proposed treaty territory.
  • 3 July 1905: Agreement between province of Ontario and the federal Canadian government in support of Treaty 9.
  • 12 July 1905: Osnaburgh (Mishkeegogamang First Nation) signing
  • 19 July 1905: Fort Hope (Eabametoong First Nation) signing
  • 25 July 1905: Marten Falls (Marten Falls First Nation) signing
  • 3 August 1905: Fort Albany (Fort Albany First Nation) signing
  • 9 August 1905: Moose Factory signing
  • 21 August 1905: New Post (Taykwa Tagamou Nation) signing
  • 7 June 1906: Abitibi (Wahgoshig First Nation) signing
  • 20 June 1906: Matachewan signing
  • 7 July 1906: Mattagami (Mattagami First Nation) signing
  • 16 July 1906: Flying Post (Flying Post First Nation) signing
  • 19 July 1906: Fort Hope (Eabametoong First Nation) signing
  • 25 July 1906: Brunswick House (Brunswick House First Nation) signing
  • 9 August 1906: Long Lake (Long Lake 58 First Nation) signing
  • 5 July 1929: Big Trout Lake (Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug First Nation) signing
  • 18 July 1930: Windigo River signing
  • 25 July 1930: Fort Severn (Fort Severn First Nation) signing
  • 28 July 1930: Winisk (Weenusk First Nation) signing
  • 1995: Diaries kept by Daniel G. MacMartin, treaty commissioner for the Government of Ontario when the agreement was signed in 1905, are discovered as mislabelled by researchers at Queen's University Archives.

List of the Treaty 9 First Nations

Treaty 9 challenge

The personal diaries of Daniel G. MacMartin, treaty commissioner for the Government of Ontario, written more than 100 years ago but rediscovered by historians at Queen's University Archives, supported oral histories passed down by Indigenous Elders that the agreements spoken by commissioners at the treaty signings did not reflect the written document.[3] The unearthing of this additional primary source evidence triggered a legal challenge for mining access on First Nations land. MacMartin's diary suggested "First Nation leaders may have been misled by government negotiators as they were signing Treaty No. 9, says Murray Klippenstein, legal representative for Mushkegowuk Council."[4]

Documentary film

The James Bay Treaty is the subject of a 2014 documentary film by Alanis Obomsawin, entitled Trick or Treaty?[5][6]

See also

Further reading

  • Long, John (19 November 2010). Treaty No. 9: Making the Agreement to Share the Land in Far Northern Ontario in 1905. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0773537613.
  • Morrison, James (8 January 2009). "Treaty Research Report - Treaty No. 9 (1905-1906)". Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 4 May 2020.

References

  1. ^ Morrison, James (8 January 2009). "Treaty Research Report - Treaty No. 9 (1905-1906)". Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  2. ^ Morrison, James (8 January 2009). "Treaty Research Report - Treaty No. 9 (1905-1906)". Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  3. ^ https://guides.library.queensu.ca/treaty-recognition-week-2018-treaty-9/macmartin-diaries
  4. ^ Ron Grech, The Daily Press (7 January 2011). "Treaty challenge". The Sudbury Star. Sudbury, Ontario and Timmins, Ontario.
  5. ^ Ravindran, Manori (10 September 2014). "TIFF '14: Revisiting history with "Trick or Treaty?"". Reelscreen. Brunico Communications. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  6. ^ Ahearn, Victoria (3 September 2014). "First Nations doc maker Alanis Obomsawin mourns loss of Trick or Treaty? star". The Canadian Press. CBC News. Retrieved 17 September 2014.

External links

Media files used on this page

MAYA-g-log-cal-D10-Ok.svg
Vector drawing of Mayan glyph.
Maple Leaf (from roundel).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
roundel adopted by Royal Canadian Air Force, from 1946 to 1965.
James Bay Treaty.jpg
The James Bay Treaty (Treaty 9)