Train (clothing)

Court dress with long train. Portugal, c.1845.

In clothing, a train describes the long back portion of a robe, coat, cloak, skirt, overskirt, or dress that trails behind the wearer.

It is a common part of ceremonial robes in academic dress, court dress or court uniform. It is also a common part of a woman's formal evening gowns or wedding dresses.

Types of train

Fashion

Dress with a fishtail train, French, c. 1880. LACMA
Detail of the previous dress
  • Court train – Worn for formal court occasions, the court train had to fall in with strict dress codes which differed from court to court. For example, the French court code set in 1804 by Jean-Baptiste Isabey prescribed a four-inch maximum width for embroidered train borders for non-Royal wearers.[1] In Britain it was required to be three yards in length at the minimum.[2]
  • Double train – Two trains attached to the same dress, or a single train divided into two trains.
  • Fishtail train – A train popular at various times from the 1870s onwards, flaring out from midway down a close-fitting skirt.[3]
  • Demi-train – A short train formed by having the back of the garment slightly longer than the front.[4]

Wedding dress

Trains in modern (20th and 21st century) bridal wear have their own terminology:

  • Cathedral train – also known as a monarch train, this can measure up to eight feet (2.4 metres). A royal cathedral train is considered the longest, most formal train, measuring up to ten feet (3.0 metres) or more.[5][6]
  • Chapel train – a medium length train up to five feet (1.1 to 1.5 metres) long.[5]
  • Court train – in bridal terminology, a court train is a narrow train extending 1 metre behind.[5]
  • Sweep train – a short train that does not necessarily reach the floor.[5] It is so called because it might just sweep the ground.[6]
  • Watteau train – a modern version of the pleated backs (called 'Watteau pleats') seen in 18th century sack-back gowns.[5]

Brides of the Ndebele people of South Africa traditionally wear long beaded trains hung from the shoulder, known as nyoga (snake).[7]

Trains as part of uniform

The Lord Patten of Barnes, Chancellor of the University of Oxford, wearing his official academic dress as the university chancellor

Trains are a common feature of the Royal mantles of Kings and Princes, as well as the mantles of many chivalric orders.

Officers of older, traditional universities generally wear distinctive and more elaborate dress. The Chancellor and the Vice-Chancellor may wear a black damask lay type gown with a long train.[8][9][10] In France the train is now usually hooked to the inner side of the robe.

The Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, when robed, dresses like a High Court Judge with the distinction of a train to his scarlet robe.[11]

Lords Justices of Appeal, full ceremonial dress, 2013

Judges of the Court of Appeal wear the black silk damask gown, trained and heavily embellished with gold embroidery.

French court dress includes a train, now buttoned to the inside of the robe and suspended by fabric bands, a vestige of the former practice of lawyers carrying their trains.[12]

The Lord Chancellor, the Speaker of the House of Commons, and other high dignitaries also wear similar embroidered black robes with trains.[13]

The Lord Mayor of London also wears a robe with a train.[14]

A trained robe, the cappa magna (great cape) remains in use in the Catholic Church for certain ceremonial occasions. Cardinals, bishops, and certain other honorary prelates are entitled to wear the cappa magna, but within the territory of their jurisdiction.[15]

Eastern Orthodox bishops also traditionally use a cloak with a long train known as the Mandyas, which may have parallels with the development of the Catholic cappa magna.

Japanese court attire with train

For male peers, the Coronation robe is a cloak of crimson velvet extending to the feet, open in the front (with white silk satin ribbon ties) with train trailing behind.[16] The Parliament robe of a British peer is a full-length garment of scarlet wool with a collar of white miniver fur, cut long as a train, but this is usually kept hooked up inside the garment.[17]

Court dresses for women were commonly fifteen yards in length.[2] Court dresses for noble women sometimes had trains both behind and in front of the dress.[4]

Japanese Imperial court clothing, sokutai for men and jūnihitoe for women, both include a long train extending from the back of the robe. It remains in use with the Imperial Household of Japan for ceremonial occasions.[18]

History

Cartoon showing how trailing skirts can transmit diseases. Published in Puck, August 8, 1900.

Trains declined in popularity in the late nineteenth century when they were targeted by public health campaigns in Europe and the United States that argued they brought germs from the streets into the wearers' homes. The issue was the subject of a cartoon published in Puck in 1900 entitled "The Trailing Skirt: Death Loves a Shining Mark."[19]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "Court train (manteau de cour), ca. 1809". Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. October 2006. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  2. ^ a b Dress and Insignia Worn at His Majesty's Court. Various editions 1898-1937
  3. ^ Watt, Judith (2012). Fashion: The definitive history of costume and style (1. publ. ed.). London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 200. ISBN 9781405398794.
  4. ^ a b Cumming, Valerie; Cunnington, C. W.; Cunnington, P. E. (2010). The Dictionary of Fashion History. Berg. p. 208. ISBN 978-0857851437.
  5. ^ a b c d e Shimer, Elizabeth (2004). The wedding gown book: how to find the gown that perfectly fits your body, personality, style, and budget. Gloucester, Mass.: Quarry Books. p. 44. ISBN 1592530664. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  6. ^ a b Hagen, Shelly (2004). The everything wedding book: the ultimate guide to planning the wedding of your dreams (3rd ed.). Avon, Mass.: Adams Media. p. 117. ISBN 1593371268.
  7. ^ Brennan, Summer. "A Natural History of the Wedding Dress". JSTOR Daily.
  8. ^ The Oxford and Cambridge review, Volume 4. Oxford University. 1847. p. 530.
  9. ^ "Australian National University, Academic and Ceremonial Dress Order 2010". Federal Register of Legislation.
  10. ^ "National University of Ireland, Academic Dress Booklet" (PDF). Academic Dress of the NUI.
  11. ^ Dress worn at Court, 1921 edition.
  12. ^ Renard, Clement. "Dans le secret des robes noire des avocat". Le Parisien.
  13. ^ Campbell, Una (1989). Robes of the Realm. Michael O'Mara Books Ltd: London. pp. 53-54.
  14. ^ Weinreb, Ben and Hibbert, Christopher (1992). The London Encyclopaedia (reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 496.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  15. ^ FIU.edu
  16. ^ "No. 39709". The London Gazette. 2 December 1952. p. 6351.
  17. ^ Cox, Noel (1999). "The Coronation and Parliamentary Robes of the British Peerage." Arma, the Journal of the Heraldry Society of Southern Africa. Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 289–293. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
  18. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Sokutai
  19. ^ Emily Mullin (May 10, 2016). "How Tuberculosis Shaped Victorian Fashion". Smithsonian Magazine.
  20. ^ Ingrid Loschek Reclams Mode- und Kostümlexikon. Reclam, Stuttgart 1987,ISBN 3-15-010448-3, S. 156.
  • Black, J. Anderson and Madge Garland: A History of Fashion, Morrow, 1975.ISBN 0-688-02893-4
  • Payne, Blanche: History of Costume from the Ancient Egyptians to the Twentieth Century, Harper & Row, 1965. No ISBN for this edition; ASIN B0006BMNFS


Media files used on this page

The Trailing Skirt, Death Loves a Shining Mark.jpg
"The Trailing Skirt - Death Loves a Shining Mark." American satirical cartoon featuring the Grim Reaper following a maid brushing off a fashionable trailing skirt. The skirt, hung on a rack, is shown as a carrier of germs and microbes, including those causing typhoid fever, consumption, influenza. First published in Puck, August 8, 1900.
Woman's Dress LACMA M.2007.211.35 (6 of 7).jpg

France, Limoges, circa 1880
Costumes; principal attire (entire body)
Silk plain weave (taffeta) with silk ribbon and silk-knotted trim
Center back length: 75 in. (190.5 cm)
Purchased with funds provided by Suzanne A. Saperstein and Michael and Ellen Michelson, with additional funding from the Costume Council, the Edgerton Foundation, Gail and Gerald Oppenheimer, Maureen H. Shapiro, Grace Tsao, and Lenore and Richard Wayne (M.2007.211.35)
Costume and Textiles
Bride 1920s.jpg
Bride Peggy Fish wearing a satin and net bridal dress with ruche-trimmed neckline and dropped waist that makes a deep V, extending to form a ruche-trimmed cutaway skirt that flares open to reveal the legs; satin strapped slippers; triangular-shaped piece of starched Russian lace forms the front of the tulle headdress. --- Image by Cond
Fashion Plate (Court Dress) LACMA M.83.161.213.jpg

England, London, September 1, 1822
Prints; engravings
Hand-colored engraving on paper
Gift of Charles LeMaire (M.83.161.213)
Costume and Textiles
Bishop Irenaeus (Ćirić).jpg
Bishop Irinej (Ćirić)
John Charles Spencer, Viscount Althorp, 3rd Earl Spencer (1782-1845) by Henry Pierce Bone.jpg
John Charles Spencer, Viscount Althorp, 3rd Earl Spencer (1782-1845), as Chancellor of the Exchequer, full length in Chancellor's robes over black mourning suit, standing beside a George II giltwood console table from Spencer House draped with green cloth, his right hand resting on a document entitled 'Amendment of the Poor Laws', large leather-bound books and folio propped against table leg, inkwell, salt cellar and quill on silver stand on table, red curtain, pillar and curtain interior; landscape background
  • signed and dated on the spine of the largest leather-bound book '1835. HPBone' (lower left), and signed, dated and fully inscribed on the counter-enamel 'John Charles Earl Spencer Viscount Althorp, later Chancellor of the Exchequer London Feby. 1835 Painted from Life by Henry Pierce Bone Enamel Painter to Her Majesty and their Royal Highnesses the Duchess of Kent & Princess Victoria'
  • Portrait painted from life
Izabel Bavor.jpg
Isabeau de Bavière
Cardeal franc rodé.jpg
Author/Creator: James Bradley, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Franc Cardinal Rodé wearing the winter Cappa magna
George Wyatt Truscott Vanity Fair 4 November 1908.JPG
Caricature of Alderman Sir George Wyatt Truscott (1857-1941) (from 1909 Baron Truscott of Oakleigh), Lord Mayor of London.
Liv med släp till brud- och hovpresentationsklänning, Storbritannien - Livrustkammaren - 13441.tif
Formsytt liv i åtta stycken av benvit atlas. Fyra tvärgående veck som ser ut som ett bälte i nederkant som avslutas baktill med rynkor. En dekorsprund mitt fram, med samma textil innanför, som övriga livet. Sprundet har tre dekorsömmar, eventuellt kråkspark. Vid rund ringning kantad med vit tunn textil, eventuellt silkestyll. På högra axeln finns en kvist med vita och gula orangeblommor och liljekonvaljer med gröna blad, av vax och textil. På vänstra axeln en vit tofs av fjäder.

Stora, korta puffärmar som nedtill avslutas med en dragsko. Sidenband i kanalen, bredd: 10 mm. Ärmarna fodrade med vit linnelärft.

Snörning bak med 13 par tränsade hål. Livet är styvat runt om med nio skenor. Vaddering klädd i vit sidentaft över bysten mitt fram, 95 mm bred. Livet fodrat med vit linnelärft. Dragsko i linningen med sidenband, bredd: 11 mm. Bandet knutet i en rosett mitt fram och oknutet mitt bak. Fastsytt vitt sidenband på insidan, runt om midjan, bredd: 25 mm. Två hyskor på insidan bak i gulmetall, 45 mm från nederkanten, på var sida om snörningen bak. Grövre sidenband på vänstra bakstyckets nedre del, med metallskodd ände i vitmetall. Bandets bredd: 13 mm, längd: 1417 mm.

Långt släp fäst mitt bak vid axlarna med rak avslutning. Släpet av benvit sidenrips, eventuellt moaré. Släpet fodrat med benvit, mycket tät sidenkypert. I hörnen sitter handtag av benvitt sidenband, bredd: 62 mm, längd: 246 mm. Släpet dekorerat längs hela vänstra ytterkanten med ett band av samma vita tunna textil som i livets ringning. Bandet har fyra knutna strödda rosor. Bandets bredd: 65 mm. Släpets högra ytterkant dekorerad, 1140 mm från axeln, med liljekonvalslingor av textil i vitt, gult och grönt. Dekorens längd: 1500 mm. I slingans nederkant två, långa, dubbelvikta sidenband, bredd: 65 mm. Fållen verkar vara vadderad runt om.
Legal Service for Wales 2013 (162).JPG
Author/Creator: FruitMonkey, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The Legal Service for Wales at Llandaff Cathedral. 13 October 2013
Legal Service for Wales 2013 (180).JPG
Author/Creator: FruitMonkey, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The Legal Service for Wales at Llandaff Cathedral. 13 October 2013
Dainagon Kinto beside a Waterfall LACMA M.2006.136.240.jpg

early 1840s
Series: Hundred Poets, One Poem Each
Prints; woodcuts
Color woodblock print
Image: 13 5/8 x 9 3/8 in. (35 x 24 cm); Sheet: 14 x 9 3/8 in. (35.56 x 24 cm)
The Joan Elizabeth Tanney Bequest (M.2006.136.240)
Japanese Art
Chris Patten.jpg
© Pruneau / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Lord Patten of Barnes, Chancellor of the University of Oxford, exiting the Sheldonian theatre and passing between Hertford college and the Bodleian library after Encaenia 2009
Pauline Bonaparte princesse Borghese.jpg
Pauline Bonaparte suo jure Duchess of Guastalla and Princess Borghese as the wife of Camillo Borghese, 6th Prince of Sulmona, and Napoleon's younger sister
Clothes.jpg
1. Egyptian man, 2. Egyptian woman, 3. Ancient greek woman wearing a peplos, 4. Greek man shown in "chiton", 5. Greek woman during Hellenistic period, 6. Noble roman in tunic, 7. Roman woman during the time of the roman empire, 8. Byzantine emperor Justinian, 9. Byzantine empress Theodora, 10. Frankish nobleman, 11. Frankish lady, 12. German nobleman 13th century, 13. German lady of nobility 13th century, 14. Titled young lady (1400), 15. Titled young man (1400), 16. Gentleman of Burgundy, 17. Gentleman of Burgundy, 18. Lady of Burgundy and 19. Nurnberg Citizen (1500).
Woman's Dress LACMA M.2007.211.35 (4 of 7).jpg

France, Limoges, circa 1880
Costumes; principal attire (entire body)
Silk plain weave (taffeta) with silk ribbon and silk-knotted trim
Center back length: 75 in. (190.5 cm)
Purchased with funds provided by Suzanne A. Saperstein and Michael and Ellen Michelson, with additional funding from the Costume Council, the Edgerton Foundation, Gail and Gerald Oppenheimer, Maureen H. Shapiro, Grace Tsao, and Lenore and Richard Wayne (M.2007.211.35)
Costume and Textiles
Woman's Dress Ensemble LACMA M.2007.211.941a-e (11 of 13).jpg

Portugal, circa 1845
Costumes; principal attire (entire body)
a) Silk satin with metallic-thread embroidery and silk net (tulle) trim; b-c) Silk satin with metallic-thread embroidery
a) Bodice center back length: 10 1/8 in. (25.72 cm); b) Petticoat center back length: 44 in. (111.76 cm); c) Train: 120 x 54 in. (304.8 x 137.16 cm); d) Fancy dress bodice center back length: 14 1/2 in. (36.83 cm); e) Standing Whisk (Medici) Collar: 15 x 17 in. (38.1 x 43.18 cm)
Purchased with funds provided by Suzanne A. Saperstein and Michael and Ellen Michelson, with additional funding from the Costume Council, the Edgerton Foundation, Gail and Gerald Oppenheimer, Maureen H. Shapiro, Grace Tsao, and Lenore and Richard Wayne (M.2007.211.941a-e)
Costume and Textiles