Textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan
Magnified view of a plain or tabby weave textile
Fabric shop in canal town Mukalla, Yemen
Late antique textile, Egyptian, now in the Dumbarton Oaks collection
Mrs. Condé Nast wearing a silk Fortuny tea gown

A textile[1] is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarns or threads, which are produced by spinning raw fibers (from either natural or synthetic sources) into long and twisted lengths.[2] Textiles are then formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, tatting, felting, bonding, or braiding these yarns together.

The related words "fabric"[3] and "cloth"[4] and "material" are often used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibers, including carpeting and geotextiles, which may not necessarily be used in the production of further goods, such as clothing and upholstery. A fabric is a material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, felting, stitching, crocheting or bonding that may be used in the production of further products, such as clothing and upholstery, thus requiring a further step of the production. Cloth may also be used synonymously with fabric, but often specifically refers to a piece of fabric that has been processed or cut.

Textiles made from Alpaca wool at the Otavalo Artisan Market in the Andes Mountains, Ecuador



The word 'textile' comes from the Latin adjective textilis, meaning 'woven', which itself stems from textus, the past participle of the verb texere, 'to weave'.[5] Originally applied to woven fabrics, the term "textiles" is now used to encompass a diverse range of materials, including fibres, yarns, and fabrics, as well as other related items.[6][7][8]


The word 'fabric' also derives from Latin, with roots in the Proto-Indo-European language. Stemming most recently from the Middle French fabrique, or 'building, thing made', and earlier from the Latin fabrica ('workshop; an art, trade; a skillful production, structure, fabric'), the noun fabrica stems from the Latin faber, or 'artisan who works in hard materials', which itself is derived from the Proto-Indo-European dhabh-, meaning 'to fit together'.[9]


The word 'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a 'cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around ones body', from the Proto-Germanic kalithaz, similar to the Old Frisian klath, the Middle Dutch cleet, the Middle High German kleit and the German kleid, all meaning 'garment'.[10]


The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of warp ikat in Southeast Asia, displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asia people of northwest Romblon.

The precursor of today's textiles includes leaves, barks, fur pelts, and felted cloths.[11]

The Banton Burial Cloth, the oldest existing example of warp ikat in Southeast Asia, displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines. The cloth was most likely made by the native Asian people of the northwest Romblon. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and perhaps much earlier, were probably made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the elements. At some point, people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles. The discovery of dyed flax fibers in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests that textile-like materials were made as early as the Paleolithic era.[12][13]

A weaving shed of the Finlayson & Co factory in Tampere, Finland in 1932[14]
Textile machinery at the Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd, Wales in the 1940s

The speed and scale of textile production have been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques.[15]


© Vyacheslav Argenberg / http://www.vascoplanet.com/, CC BY 4.0
Clothing made of textiles, Thailand

Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household, textiles are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, towels, coverings for tables, beds, and other flat surfaces, and in art. In the workplace, textiles can be used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, backpacks, tents, nets, handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites, sails, and parachutes; textiles are also used to provide strengthening in composite materials such as fibreglass and industrial geotextiles. Textiles are used in many traditional hand crafts such as sewing, quilting and embroidery.

Textiles produced for industrial purposes, and designed and chosen for technical characteristics beyond their appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles (such as implants), geotextile (reinforcement of embankments), agrotextiles (textiles for crop protection), protective clothing (such as clothing resistant to heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and bullet proof vests).

Due to the often highly technical and legal requirements of these products, these textiles are typically tested in order to ensure they meet stringent performance requirements. Other forms of technical textiles may be produced to experiment with their scientific qualities and to explore the possible benefits they may have in the future. Threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, when woven into fabric, have been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems", using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements to generate energy.[16][17]

Fiber sources and types

Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal (wool, silk), plant (cotton, flax, jute, bamboo), mineral (asbestos, glass fibre), and synthetic (nylon, polyester, acrylic, rayon). The first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibers made from petroleum. Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond.


Animal textiles are commonly made from hair, fur, skin or silk (in the case of silkworms).

  • Wool refers to the hair of the domestic sheep or goat, which is distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and tightly crimped, and the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin (sometimes called wool grease), which is waterproof and dirtproof.[18] The lanolin and other contaminants are removed from the raw wool before further processing.[19] Woollen refers to a yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibers which have been combed to be parallel.
    • Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, and camel hair, generally used in the production of coats, jackets, ponchos, blankets, and other warm coverings.
    • Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, and mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Used in the production of sweaters and scarfs.
  • Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm which is spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main types of the silk: 'mulberry silk' produced by the Bombyx Mori, and 'wild silk' such as Tussah silk (wild silk). Silkworm larvae produce the first type if cultivated in habitats with fresh mulberry leaves for consumption, while Tussah silk is produced by silkworms feeding purely on oak leaves. Around four-fifths of the world's silk production consists of cultivated silk.[20] Silk production consists of pillow covers, dresses, tops, skirts, bed sheets, curtains.


Close-up view of a Barong Tagalog made with piña fiber in the Philippines

Grass, rush, hemp, and sisal are all used in making rope. In the first two, the entire plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibres from the plant are utilized. Coir (coconut fibre) is used in making twine, and also in floormats, doormats, brushes, mattresses, floor tiles, and sacking.

  • Straw and bamboo are both used to make hats. Straw, a dried form of grass, is also used for stuffing, as is kapok.
  • Fibres from pulpwood trees, cotton, rice, hemp, and nettle are used in making paper.
  • Cotton, flax, jute, hemp, modal and even banana[21] and bamboo fibre are all used in clothing. Piña (pineapple fibre) and ramie are also fibres used in clothing, generally with a blend of other fibres such as cotton. Nettles have also been used to make a fibre and fabric very similar to hemp or flax. The use of milkweed stalk fibre has also been reported, but it tends to be somewhat weaker than other fibres like hemp or flax.
  • The inner bark of the lacebark tree is a fine netting that has been used to make clothing and accessories as well as utilitarian articles such as rope.
  • Seaweed is used in the production of textiles: a water-soluble fibre known as alginate is produced and is used as a holding fibre; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is dissolved, leaving an open area.
  • Rayon is a manufactured fabric derived from plant pulp. Different types of rayon can imitate feel and texture of silk, cotton, wool, or linen.

Fibres from the stalks of plants, such as hemp, flax, and nettles, are also known as 'bast' fibres. Hemp Fiber is yellowish-brown fiber made from the hemp plant. The fiber characteristics are coarser, harsher, strong and lightweight. Hemp fiber is used primary to make twine, rope and cordage.[22]


  • Asbestos and basalt fibre are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting and adhesives, "transite" panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets.
  • Glass fibre is used in the production of ironing board and mattress covers, ropes and cables, reinforcement fibre for composite materials, insect netting, flame-retardant and protective fabric, soundproof, fireproof, and insulating fibres. Glass fibres are woven and coated with Teflon to produce beta cloth, a virtually fireproof fabric which replaced nylon in the outer layer of United States space suits since 1968.
  • Metal fibre, metal foil, and metal wire have a variety of uses, including the production of cloth-of-gold and jewellery. Hardware cloth (US term only) is a coarse woven mesh of steel wire, used in construction. It is much like standard window screening, but heavier and with a more open weave.

Minerals and natural and synthetic fabrics may be combined, as in emery cloth, a layer of emery abrasive glued to a cloth backing. Also, "sand cloth" is a U.S. term for fine wire mesh with abrasive glued to it, employed like emery cloth or coarse sandpaper.


A variety of contemporary fabrics. From the left: evenweave cotton, velvet, printed cotton, calico, felt, satin, silk, hessian, polycotton
Woven tartan of Clan Campbell, Scotland
Embroidered skirts by the Alfaro-Nùñez family of Cochas, Peru, using traditional Peruvian embroidery methods[23]
A fabric tunnel in Moulvibazar District, Bangladesh.

Synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing, as well as the manufacture of geotextiles. Synthetic fibers are those that are chemically constructed, therefore are unsustainable.

  • Polyester fibre is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with fibres such as cotton.
  • Aramid fibre (e.g. Twaron) is used for flame-retardant clothing, cut-protection, and armour.
  • Acrylic is a fibre used to imitate wools,[24] including cashmere, and is often used in replacement of them.
  • Nylon is a fibre used to imitate silk; it is used in the production of pantyhose. Thicker nylon fibres are used in rope and outdoor clothing.
  • Olefin fibre is a fibre used in activewear, linings, and warm clothing. Olefins are hydrophobic, allowing them to dry quickly. A sintered felt of olefin fibres is sold under the trade name Tyvek.
  • Ingeo is a polylactide fibre blended with other fibres such as cotton and used in clothing. It is more hydrophilic than most other synthetics, allowing it to wick away perspiration.
  • Lurex is a metallic fibre used in clothing embellishment.
  • Milk proteins have also been used to create synthetic fabric. Milk or casein fibre cloth was developed during World War I in Germany, and further developed in Italy and America during the 1930s.[25] Milk fibre fabric is not very durable and wrinkles easily, but has a pH similar to human skin and possesses anti-bacterial properties. It is marketed as a biodegradable, renewable synthetic fibre.[26]
  • Carbon fibre is mostly used in composite materials, together with resin, such as carbon fibre reinforced plastic. The fibres are made from polymer fibres through carbonization.

Blends (Blended textiles)

Fabric or yarn produced with a combination of two or more types of different fibers, or yarns to obtain desired traits. Blending is possible at various stages of textile manufacturing. Final composition is liable for the properties of the resultant product. Natural and Synthetic fibers are blended to overcome disadvantage of single fiber properties and to achieve better performance characteristics and aesthetic effects such as devoré, heather effect, cross dyeing and stripes pattern etc. Clothing woven from a blend of cotton and polyester can be more durable and easier to maintain than material woven solely from cotton. Other than sharing functional properties, blending makes the products more economical.[27][28]

Union or Union fabrics is the 19th century term for blended fabrics. It is no longer used.[29] ''Mixture'' or ''Mixed cloth'' is another term used for blended cloths when different types of yarns are used in warp and weft sides.[30][31]

Blended textiles are not new.

  • Mashru was a 16th-century fabric, is one of the earliest forms of "mixed cloth," a material composed of silk and cotton.[32]
  • Siamoise was a 17th century cotton and linen material.[33]


Fiber composition[34] the fiber blend composition of mixtures of the fibers,[35] is an important criterion to analyze the behavior, properties such as functional aspects, and commercial classification of the merchandise.[36][37][38]

The most common blend is cotton and polyester. Regular blended fabric is 65% Polyester and 35% Cotton. It is called a ''reverse blend'' if the ratio of cotton predominates—the percentage of the fibers changes with the price and required properties.

Blending adds value to the textiles; it helps in reducing the cost (Artificial fibers are less expensive than natural fibers) and adding advantage in properties of the final product.[39][40] For instance, a small amount of spandex adds stretch to the fabrics.[41] Wool can add warmth.[42]

Production methods

Top five exporters of textiles—2013
($ billion)
  • Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer threads (called the warp) with a set of crossing threads (called the weft). This is done on a frame or machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanized.
  • Knitting, looping, and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a knitting needle, needle, or on a crochet hook, together in a line. The processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while looping and crocheting never have more than one active loop on the needle. Knitting can be performed by machine, but crochet can only be performed by hand.[44]
  • Spread tow is a production method where the tow fibres are spread into thin tapes, and then the tapes are woven as warp and weft. This method is mostly used for composite materials; spread tow fabrics can be made in carbon, aramid and other fibres.
  • Braiding or plaiting involves intertwining threads together into cloth. Knotting involves tying threads together and is used in making tatting and macrame.
  • Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing alongside any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine.
  • Carpets, rugs, velvet, velour, and velveteen, referred to as pile fabrics, are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile.
  • Non-woven textiles are manufactured by the bonding of fibres to make fabric. Bonding may be thermal, mechanical, chemical, or adhesives can be used.
  • Felting involves applying pressure and friction to a mat of fibres, working and rubbing them together until the fibres become interlocked and tangled, forming a nonwoven textile. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool.
  • Barkcloth is made by pounding bark until it is soft and flat.


A double ikat weaving made by the Tausug people from Sulu, made of banana leaf stalk fiber (Abacá)

Textiles are often dyed, with fabrics available in almost every colour. The dyeing process often requires several dozen gallons of water for each pound of clothing.[45] Coloured designs in textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours (tartan or Uzbek Ikat), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric (embroidery), creating patterns by resist dyeing methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest (tie-dyeing), drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them (batik), or using various printing processes on finished fabric. Woodblock printing, still used in India and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least 220 CE in China. Textiles are also sometimes bleached, making the textile pale or white.

Eisengarn, meaning "iron yarn" in English, is a light-reflecting, strong material invented in Germany in the 19th century. It is made by soaking cotton threads in a starch and paraffin wax solution. The threads are then stretched and polished by steel rollers and brushes. The end result of the process is a lustrous, tear-resistant yarn which is extremely hardwearing.[46][47]

Since the 1990s, with advances in technologies such as permanent press process, finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free.[48] More recently, nanomaterials research has led to additional advancements, with companies such as Nano-Tex and NanoHorizons developing permanent treatments based on metallic nanoparticles for making textiles more resistant to things such as water, stains, wrinkles, and pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.[49]

Textiles receive a range of treatments before they reach the end-user. From formaldehyde finishes (to improve crease-resistance) to biocidic finishes and from flame retardants to dyeing of many types of fabric, the possibilities are almost endless. However, many of these finishes may also have detrimental effects on the end user. A number of disperse, acid and reactive dyes, for example, have been shown to be allergenic to sensitive individuals.[50] Further to this, specific dyes within this group have also been shown to induce purpuric contact dermatitis.[51]

Although formaldehyde levels in clothing are unlikely to be at levels high enough to cause an allergic reaction,[52] due to the presence of such a chemical, quality control and testing are of utmost importance. Flame retardants (mainly in the brominated form) are also of concern where the environment, and their potential toxicity, are concerned.[53] Testing for these additives is possible at a number of commercial laboratories, it is also possible to have textiles tested according to the Oeko-tex certification standard, which contains limits levels for the use of certain chemicals in textiles products.

See also


  1. ^ "Textile". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 2011-11-09. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
  2. ^ "An Introduction to Textile Terms" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2006. Retrieved August 6, 2006.
  3. ^ "Definition of FABRIC". Archived from the original on 2017-10-19. Retrieved 2017-10-18.
  4. ^ "Cloth". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 2012-06-06. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
  5. ^ "Textile". The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 2012-05-25.
  6. ^ Kadolph, Sara J. (1998). Textiles. Internet Archive. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Merrill. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-13-494592-7.
  7. ^ Joseph, Marjory L. (1977). Introductory textile science. Internet Archive. New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-03-089970-6.
  8. ^ "textile | Description & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2021-08-19.
  9. ^ Harper, Douglas. "fabric". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  10. ^ Harper, Douglas. "cloth". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  11. ^ Weibel, Adèle Coulin (1952). Two thousand years of textiles; the figured textiles of Europe and the Near East. Internet Archive. New York, Published for the Detroit Institute of Arts [by] Pantheon Books. p. 27.
  12. ^ Balter, M. (2009). "Clothes Make the (Hu) Man". Science. 325 (5946): 1329. doi:10.1126/science.325_1329a. PMID 19745126.
  13. ^ Kvavadze, E.; Bar-Yosef, O.; Belfer-Cohen, A.; Boaretto, E.; Jakeli, N.; Matskevich, Z.; Meshveliani, T. (2009). "30,000-Year-Old Wild Flax Fibers". Science. 325 (5946): 1359. Bibcode:2009Sci...325.1359K. doi:10.1126/science.1175404. PMID 19745144. S2CID 206520793. Supporting Online Material Archived 2009-11-27 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Doria-archive of the Finnish National Library
  15. ^ Ul-Islam, Shahid; Butola, B. S., eds. (2018). Advanced Textile Engineering Materials. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-119-48785-2.
  16. ^ Keim, Brandon (February 13, 2008). "Piezoelectric Nanowires Turn Fabric Into Power Source". Wired News. CondéNet. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
  17. ^ Yong Qin, Xudong Wang & Zhong Lin Wang (October 10, 2007). "Letter/abstract: Microfibre–nanowire hybrid structure for energy scavenging". Nature. 451 (7180): 809–813. Bibcode:2008Natur.451..809Q. doi:10.1038/nature06601. PMID 18273015. S2CID 4411796. cited in"Editor's summary: Nanomaterial: power dresser". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. February 14, 2008. Archived from the original on February 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-13.
  18. ^ Vatin Nikolai Ivanovich, Alexandr A. Berlin, Roman Joswik (2015). Engineering Textiles. Apple Academic Press. p. 142. ISBN 9781498706032.
  19. ^ Arno Cahn, Edward C. Leonard, Edward George Perkins (1999). Proceedings of the World Conference on Palm and Coconut Oils for the 21st Century. AOCS Press. p. 115. ISBN 9780935315998.
  20. ^ Trevisan, Adrian. "Cocoon Silk: A Natural Silk Architecture". Sense of Nature. Archived from the original on 2012-05-07.
  21. ^ Hendrickx, Katrien (2007). The Origins of Banana-fibre Cloth in the Ryukyus, Japan. Leuven University Press. p. 188. ISBN 9789058676146. Archived from the original on March 27, 2018.
  22. ^ Cohen, Allen (11 November 2011). J.J. Pizzuto's Fabric Science (tenth ed.). Fairchild Books. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-60901-380-6.
  23. ^ Art-Gourds.com Archived 2008-10-13 at the Wayback Machine Traditional Peruvian embroidery production methods
  24. ^ Hammerskog, Paula; Wincent, Eva (2009). Swedish Knits: Classic and Modern Designs in the Scandinavian Tradition. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-60239-724-8. acrylic fiber used to imitate wools.
  25. ^ Euroflax Industries Ltd. "Euroflaxx Industries (Import of Textiles)" Archived 2010-01-13 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Fonte, Diwata (August 23, 2005). "Milk-fabric clothing raises a few eyebrows". The Orange County Register. Archived from the original on May 1, 2015. Retrieved 2009-10-21.
  27. ^ Barnett, Anne (1997). Examining Textiles Technology. Heinemann Educational. p. 51. ISBN 9780435421045.
  28. ^ Gulrajani, M. L. (1981). Blended Textiles : Papers of the 38th All India Textile Conference, an International Conference, November 18-20th ... Bombay. Textile Association.
  29. ^ Montgomery, Florence M. (1984). Textiles in America 1650-1870 : a dictionary based on original documents, prints and paintings, commercial records, American merchants' papers, shopkeepers' advertisements, and pattern books with original swatches of cloth. Internet Archive. New York ; London : Norton. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-393-01703-8.
  30. ^ Kadolph, Sara J. (1998). Textiles. Internet Archive. Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Merrill. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-13-494592-7.
  31. ^ Fairchild's dictionary of textiles. Internet Archive. New York, Fairchild Publications. 1959. p. 355.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  32. ^ Indian Journal of History of Science. National Institute of Sciences of India. 1982. p. 120.
  33. ^ Montgomery, Florence M. (1984). Textiles in America 1650-1870 : a dictionary based on original documents, prints and paintings, commercial records, American merchants' papers, shopkeepers' advertisements, and pattern books with original swatches of cloth. Internet Archive. New York ; London : Norton. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-393-01703-8.
  34. ^ Kumar, Raj; Srivastava, H.C. (1980-06-01). "Analysis of Fiber Blends. Part II. Determination of Blend Composition by Moisture Regain". Textile Research Journal. 50 (6): 359–362. doi:10.1177/004051758005000607. ISSN 0040-5175. S2CID 136831481.
  35. ^ "ASTM D629 - 15 Standard Test Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Textiles". www.astm.org. Retrieved 2021-05-24.
  36. ^ Effect of fiber content ''Fiber content is a significant consideration for the design with polymer reinforced composites, as it controls the mechanical, thermomechanical, and tribological performance. Therefore, for particular applications, it is important to identify how the polymer composite behavior reacts with the fiber content under given operating circumstances.'' https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/fiber-content
  37. ^ ''An analysis such as this permits evaluation of fiber properties which are important in such more ubtle characteristics as ... that there are many reasons why different fibers are blended which include both economic and performance factors .'' Page 517https://www.google.co.in/books/edition/Mechanical_Engineering/xhArAQAAMAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=&printsec=frontcover
  38. ^ Franck, R. R. (2001-10-29). Silk, Mohair, Cashmere and Other Luxury Fibres. Elsevier. p. 230. ISBN 978-1-85573-759-4.
  39. ^ Joseph, Marjory L. (1992). Joseph's introductory textile science. Internet Archive. Fort Worth : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-03-050723-6.
  40. ^ ''polyester - andcotton - blend clothing has advantages over all - cotton garments . For one thing , polyester , which is man - made , costs less than cotton , which grows naturally , but is expensive to ...'' Page 79 https://www.google.co.in/books/edition/Improving_Reading_Comprehension_Skills/20gN3AousRAC?hl=en&gbpv=1&bsq=frontcover
  41. ^ Stauffer, Jeanne (2004). Sewing Smart with Fabric. DRG Wholesale. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-59217-018-0.
  42. ^ Mendelson, Cheryl (2005-05-17). Home Comforts: The Art and Science of Keeping House. Simon and Schuster. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-7432-7286-5.
  43. ^ "India overtakes Germany and Italy, is new world No. 2 in textile exports". The Times of India. June 3, 2014. Archived from the original on 2015-02-15. Retrieved 2015-02-03.
  44. ^ Rowe, Ann Pollard (1997). Looping and Knitting. Washington, D.C.: The Textile Museum. p. 2.
  45. ^ Green Inc. Blog "Cutting Water Use in the Textile Industry." Archived 2009-07-24 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times. July 21, 2009. July 28, 2009.
  46. ^ Industriegeschichte aus dem Bergischen land (in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016)
  47. ^ WDR digit project. Eisengarnfabrikation in Barmen. Archived 2016-11-28 at the Wayback Machine (Video (16 min) in German). (Accessed: 27 November 2016).
  48. ^ "What makes fabric "wrinkle-free"? Is it the weave or a special type of fiber?". Ask.yahoo.com. 2001-03-15. Archived from the original on 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  49. ^ "The Materials Science and Engineering of Clothing". Tms.org. Archived from the original on 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  50. ^ Lazarov, A (2004). "Textile dermatitis in patients with contact sensitization in Israel: A 4-year prospective study". Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 18 (5): 531–7b. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.00967.x. PMID 15324387. S2CID 8532195.
  51. ^ Lazarov, A; Cordoba, M; Plosk, N; Abraham, D (2003). "Atypical and unusual clinical manifestations of contact dermatitis to clothing (textile contact dermatitis): Case presentation and review of the literature". Dermatology Online Journal. 9 (3): 1. doi:10.5070/D30KD1D259. PMID 12952748.
  52. ^ Scheman, AJ; Carroll, PA; Brown, KH; Osburn, AH (1998). "Formaldehyde-related textile allergy: An update". Contact Dermatitis. 38 (6): 332–6. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1998.tb05769.x. PMID 9687033. S2CID 32650590.
  53. ^ Alaee, M; Arias, P; Sjödin, A; Bergman, A (2003). "An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release" (PDF). Environment International. 29 (6): 683–9. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00121-1. PMID 12850087. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-28.

Further reading

  • Fisher, Nora (1994). Rio Grande Textiles (Paperbound ed.). Museum of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0890132666. Introduction by Teresa Archuleta-Sagel. 196 pages with 125 black and white as well as colour plates. Fisher is Curator Emirta, Textiles & Costumes of the Museum of International Folk Art.
  • Good, Irene (2006). "Textiles as a Medium of Exchange in Third Millennium B.C.E. Western Asia". In Mair, Victor H. (ed.). Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. pp. 191–214. ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4.
  • Arai, Masanao (Textile Industry Research Institute of Gunma). "From Kitsch to Art Moderne: Popular Textiles for Women in the First Half of Twentieth-Century Japan" (Archive). Textile Society of America Symposium Proceedings. Textile Society of America, January 1, 1998.
  • Postrel, Virginia (10 Nov 2020). The Fabric of Civilization: How Textiles Made the World (Hardcover ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books. ISBN 978-1541617605.

Media files used on this page

Author/Creator: Dan Polansky based on work currently attributed to Wikimedia Foundation but originally created by Smurrayinchester, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
A logo derived from File:WiktionaryEn.svg, a logo showing a 3 x 3 matrix of variously rotated tiles with a letter or character on each tile. The derivation consisted in removing the tiles that form the background of each of the shown characters. File:WiktionaryEn.svg is under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike, created by Smurrayinchester, and attributed to Wikimedia Foundation. This is the version without the wordmark.
MacLachlan hunting tartan (D. W. Stewart).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
A representation of the Maclachlan hunting tartan. This tartan is the oldest tartan to bear the name MacLachlan. This tartan is referred to as the Old MacLachlan, MacLachlan, and Hunting MacLachlan. This sett was first published in Old & Rare Scottish Tartans by D. W. Stewart in 1893.
Thread count: Y6, W4, Bk32, G32, Y6, W4, R48.
Sources: MacLachlan Clan Tartan WR1710 MacLachlan Hunting Tartan
Tablecloth romanian 1full view.jpg
Author/Creator: The original uploader was Paulnasca at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY 2.5
Traditional tablecloth made in Maramures, Romania.
Author/Creator: Foto:Damast. User Damast on sv.wikipedia, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Double ikat weaving from Sulu, Philippines, East-West Center.JPG
Author/Creator: Hiart, Licence: CC0
Double ikat weaving from Sulu, Philippines, banana leaf stalk fiber (abacá), 20th century, East-West Center
Jute nahtlos.png
Author/Creator: SoylentGreen, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Hessian Fabric made seamless. It will serve to create a normal map in Blender.
Karachi - Pakistan-market.jpg
Author/Creator: Steve Evans from Bangalore, India, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Sunday textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan.
Author/Creator: Edal Anton Lefterov, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Magnified textile
Banton Burial Cloth.JPG
Author/Creator: Joannerfabregas, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Banton Cloth or Banton Burial Cloth
Author/Creator: Грищук Юрий Николаевич, г.Одесса, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Al Mukalla. Yemen. - The small tissue shop behind the mosque in the Old Town.
Plevna-sali 1932.jpg
Original caption: One of Finlayson's weavingsheds
A weavingshed of Finlayson & Co in Tampere, Finland. At that time, the Finlayson cotton mill employed ove 5.000 people.
Barong Up Close.jpg
Author/Creator: Paulo Ordoveza, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Barong Tagalog made of piña cloth
Conde nast fortuny.jpg
Clarisse Coudert. "Mrs. Condé Nast wearing one of the famous Fortuny tea gowns. This one has no tunic but is finely pleated, in the Fortuny manner, and falls in long lines, closely following the figure, to the floor. Observe the decorative value of the long string of beads."
Scene with Fabric Tunnel - Srimangal - Sylhet Division - Bangladesh (12904860703).jpg
Author/Creator: Adam Jones from Kelowna, BC, Canada, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Scene with Fabric Tunnel - Srimangal - Sylhet Division - Bangladesh
Swedish weaving.jpg
Author/Creator: User Damast on sv.wikipedia, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Detalj med en mönsterrapport upphämta. Detalj från denna bild
Textile machinery at Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd (1293828).jpg
Author/Creator: Percy Benzie Abery , Licence: CC0
Abstract: Textile machinery at Cambrian Factory, Llanwrtyd
Batik Indonesia.jpg
Author/Creator: MartijnL, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0 nl
Batik cloth purchased in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Chiang Mai, Thailand, Colorful clothing.jpg
© Vyacheslav Argenberg / http://www.vascoplanet.com/, CC BY 4.0
Colorful clothing, Asian textiles. Chiang Mai, Thailand.
photograph of ancient textile of Zeus in the form of a bull carrying away the maid Europa. Textile fragment currently in Dumbarton Oaks Museum, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
Author/Creator: Cochas, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
A sample of traditional Peruvian embroidery by the Alfaro-Nùñez family of Cochas.