States and union territories of India

States and union territories of India
CategoryFederated states
LocationRepublic of India
Number28 States
8 Union territories
PopulationsStates: Sikkim – 610,577 (lowest)
Uttar Pradesh – 199,812,341 (highest)
Union Territories: Lakshadweep – 64,473 (lowest)
Delhi – 16,787,941 (highest)
AreasStates: Goa – 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi) (smallest)
Rajasthan – 342,269 km2 (132,151 sq mi) (largest)
Union territories: Lakshadweep – 32 km2 (12 sq mi) (smallest)
Ladakh – 59,146 km2 (22,836 sq mi) (largest)
Government
Subdivisions

India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories,[1] with a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions.

History

Administrative divisions of India in 1951

Pre-independence

The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] The British Raj mostly retained the administrative structure of the preceding Mughal Empire. India was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies), directly governed by the British, and princely states, which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

1947–1950

Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States".[13] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states:

States reorganisation (1951–1956)

Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State.[14]

The French enclave of Chandernagore was transferred to West Bengal in 1954. In the same year Pondicherry, comprising the former French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karikal, Yanaon and Mahé, was transferred to India; this became a union territory in 1962.[15]

Also in 1954, pro-India forces liberated the Portuguese-held enclaves of Dadrá and Nagar Aveli, declaring the short-lived de facto state of Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli. In 1961, India annexed it as the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli.[16][17][18][19]

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states.[20]

As a result of this act:

Post-1956

Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act.[21] The former Union Territory of Nagaland achieved statehood on 1 December 1963.[22] The Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh.[23] The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana.[24][25]

Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1969. The north-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.[26] Mysore State was renamed Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished.[27] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while erstwhile union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu's northern exclaves Damão and Diu became a separate union territory as Daman and Diu.[28]

In November 2000, three new states were created, namely:

Pondicherry was renamed Puducherry in 2007 and Orissa was renamed Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 from ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh.[33][34]

In August 2019, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, which contains provisions to reorganise the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two union territories; Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, effective from 31 October 2019.[35] Later that year in November, the Government of India introduced legislation to merge the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli into a single union territory to be known as Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, effective from 26 January 2020.[36][37][38]

Current proposals

States and Union territories

States

StateISO 3166-2:INVehicle
code
ZoneCapitalLargest cityStatehoodPopulation
(census 2011)
Area
(km2)
Official
languages[39]
Additional official
languages[39]
Andhra PradeshIN-APAPSouthernAmaravatiVisakhapatnam1 November 195649,506,799160,205Telugu
Arunachal PradeshIN-ARARNorth-EasternItanagar20 February 19871,383,72783,743English
AssamIN-ASASNorth-EasternDispurGuwahati26 January 195031,205,57678,550AssameseBengali, Bodo
BiharIN-BRBREasternPatna26 January 1950104,099,45294,163HindiUrdu
ChhattisgarhIN-CTCGCentralRaipur[a]1 November 200025,545,198135,194ChhattisgarhiHindi, English
GoaIN-GAGAWesternPanajiVasco da Gama30 May 19871,458,5453,702KonkaniMarathi
GujaratIN-GJGJWesternGandhinagarAhmedabad1 May 196060,439,692196,024Gujarati
HaryanaIN-HRHRNorthernChandigarhFaridabad1 November 196625,351,46244,212HindiPunjabi[40][41]
Himachal PradeshIN-HPHPNorthernShimla (Summer)
Dharamshala (Winter)[42]
Shimla25 January 19716,864,60255,673HindiSanskrit[43]
JharkhandIN-JHJHEasternRanchiJamshedpur15 November 200032,988,13474,677HindiAngika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Bhumij, Ho, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali, Urdu[44][45]
KarnatakaIN-KAKASouthernBangalore1 November 195661,095,297191,791Kannada
KeralaIN-KLKLSouthernThiruvananthapuram1 November 195633,406,06138,863MalayalamEnglish[46]
Madhya PradeshIN-MPMPCentralBhopalIndore26 January 195072,626,809308,252Hindi
MaharashtraIN-MHMHWesternMumbai (Summer)
Nagpur (Winter)[47][48]
Mumbai1 May 1960112,374,333307,713Marathi
ManipurIN-MNMNNorth-EasternImphal21 January 19722,855,79422,347MeiteiEnglish
MeghalayaIN-MLMLNorth-EasternShillong21 January 19722,966,88922,720EnglishKhasi[b]
MizoramIN-MZMZNorth-EasternAizawl20 February 19871,097,20621,081English, Hindi, Mizo
NagalandIN-NLNLNorth-EasternKohimaDimapur1 December 19631,978,50216,579English
OdishaIN-ORODEasternBhubaneswar26 January 195041,974,218155,820Odia
PunjabIN-PBPBNorthernChandigarhLudhiana1 November 196627,743,33850,362Punjabi
RajasthanIN-RJRJNorthernJaipur26 January 195068,548,437342,269HindiEnglish
SikkimIN-SKSKNorth-EasternGangtok16 May 1975610,5777,096English, NepaliBhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil NaduIN-TNTNSouthernChennai1 November 195672,147,030130,058TamilEnglish
TelanganaIN-TGTSSouthernHyderabad[c]2 June 201435,193,978[49]114,840[49]TeluguUrdu[50]
TripuraIN-TRTRNorth-EasternAgartala21 January 19723,673,91710,492Bengali, English, Kokborok
Uttar PradeshIN-UPUPCentralLucknow26 January 1950199,812,341243,286HindiUrdu
UttarakhandIN-UTUKCentralBhararisain (Summer)
Dehradun (winter)[51]
Dehradun9 November 200010,086,29253,483HindiSanskrit[52]
West BengalIN-WBWBEasternKolkata26 January 195091,276,11588,752Bengali, Nepali[d]Hindi, Odia, Punjabi, Santali, Telugu, Urdu

Union territories

Union territoryISO 3166-2:INVehicle
code
ZoneCapitalLargest cityUT establishedPopulationArea
(km2)
Official
languages
Additional official
languages
Andaman and Nicobar IslandsIN-ANANSouthernPort Blair1 November 1956380,5818,249HindiEnglish
ChandigarhIN-CHCHNorthernChandigarh1 November 19661,055,450114English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and DiuIN-DHDDWesternDaman26 January 2020586,956603Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, English
DelhiIN-DLDLNorthernNew DelhiDelhi1 November 195616,787,9411,490Hindi, EnglishPunjabi, Urdu[53]
Jammu and KashmirIN-JKJKNorthernSrinagar (Summer)[54][55]
Jammu (Winter)[55][56]
Srinagar31 October 201912,258,43342,241Kashmiri, Dogri, Urdu, Hindi, English
LadakhIN-LALANorthernLeh (Summer)
Kargil (Winter)[57]
Leh31 October 2019290,49259,146Hindi, English
LakshadweepIN-LDLDSouthernKavaratti1 November 195664,47332Malayalam, English
PuducherryIN-PYPYSouthernPuducherry16 August 19621,247,953492Tamil, EnglishTelugu, Malayalam, French

Autonomous areas

The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India allows for the formation of autonomous councils to administer areas which have been given autonomy within their respective states.[58] Most of these autonomous areas are located in Northeast India.

Former states

MapStateCapitalYearsPresent-day state(s)
Ajmer in India (1951).svgAjmer StateAjmer1950–1956Rajasthan
Andhra-India 1953.svgAndhra StateKurnool1953–1956Andhra Pradesh
Bhopal in India (1951).svgBhopal StateBhopal1949–1956Madhya Pradesh
Bilaspur in India (1951).svgBilaspur StateBilaspur1950–1954Himachal Pradesh
Bombay in India (1951).svgBombay StateBombay1950–1960Maharashtra, Gujarat, and partially Karnataka
Coorg in India (1951).svgCoorg StateMadikeri1950–1956Karnataka
Punjab, India (1956-1966).pngEast PunjabShimla (1947–1953)
Chandigarh (1953–1966)
1947–1966Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Chandigarh UT
Hyderabad in India (1951).svgHyderabad StateHyderabad1948–1956Telangana, and partially Maharashtra and Karnataka
Jammu and Kashmir in India (de-facto) (claims hatched).svg
Jammu and KashmirSrinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
1952–2019Jammu and Kashmir UT and

Ladakh UT

Kutch in India (1951).svgKutch StateBhuj1947–1956Gujarat
Madhya Bharat in India (1951).svgMadhya BharatIndore (Summer)
Gwalior (Winter)
1948–1956Madhya Pradesh
Madras in India (1951).svgMadras StateMadras1950–1969Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and partially Karnataka and Kerala
Mysore in India (1951).svgMysore StateBangalore1947–1973Karnataka
PEPSU in India (1951).svgPatiala and East Punjab States UnionPatiala1948–1956Punjab and Haryana
Saurashtra in India (1951).svgSaurashtraRajkot1948–1956Gujarat
Travancore-Cochin in India (1951).svgTravancore–CochinTrivandrum1949–1956Kerala and partially Tamil Nadu
Vindhya Pradesh in India (1951).svgVindhya PradeshRewa1948–1956Madhya Pradesh

Former union territories

MapNameZoneCapitalAreaUT establishedUT disestablishedNow part of
IN-AR.svgArunachal PradeshNorth-EasternItanagar83,743 km2 (32,333 sq mi)21 January 197220 February 1987As an Indian state
IN-DN.svgDadra and Nagar HaveliWesternSilvassa491 km2 (190 sq mi)11 August 196126 January 2020Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory
IN-DD.svgDaman and DiuWesternDaman112 km2 (43 sq mi)30 May 198726 January 2020Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory
IN-GDD.svgGoa, Daman and DiuWesternPanaji3,814 km2 (1,473 sq mi)19 December 196130 May 1987Goa state and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu union territory
IN-HP.svgHimachal PradeshnorthernShimla55,673 km2 (21,495 sq mi)1 November 195625 January 1971As an Indian state
IN-MN.svgManipurNorth-EasternImphal22,327 km2 (8,621 sq mi)1 November 195621 January 1972As an Indian state
IN-MZ.svgMizoramNorth-EasternAizawl21,087 km2 (8,142 sq mi)21 January 197220 February 1987As an Indian state
IN-NL.svgNagalandNorth-EasternKohima16,579 km2 (6,401 sq mi)29 November 19571 December 1963As an Indian state
IN-TR.svgTripuraNorth-EasternAgartala10,491.65 km2 (4,050.85 sq mi)1 November 195621 January 1972As an Indian state

Responsibilities and authorities

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State.[59]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Naya Raipur is planned to replace Raipur as the capital city of Chhattisgarh.
  2. ^ Khasi language has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya.
  3. ^ Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014.[60][61][62] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[63] The Government of Andhra Pradesh and the Andhra Pradesh Legislature completed the process of relocating to temporary facilities in the envisaged new capital city Amaravati in early 2017.
  4. ^ Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district.

References

  1. ^ DelhiAugust 5. "States and Union Territories". Know India Programme. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  2. ^ Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-048369-9.
  3. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4.
  4. ^ Romila Thapar (1966). A History of India: Part 1. [Harmondsworth] Penguin Books.
  5. ^ V.D. Mahajan (2007). History of medieval India (10th ed.). New Delhi: S Chand. pp. 121, 122. ISBN 978-8121903646.
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  7. ^ Gupta Dynasty – MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009.
  8. ^ "India – Historical Setting – The Classical Age – Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
  9. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-19-560686-7.
  10. ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate to the Mughals. p. 202.
  11. ^ "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  12. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. Vol. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press.
  13. ^ "Article 1". Constitution of India. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012.
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External links

Media files used on this page

Flag of India.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence:
IN-GDD.svg
Author/Creator: Filpro, Soumya-8974, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Location of Goa, Daman and Diu in India after Punjab-Haryana split.
Madras in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: Milenioscuro, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Localisation of Madras state in India, 1951.
Hyderabad in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: Furfur, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Localisation of Hyderabad State in India, 1951.
Rajya Sabha June 2020.Svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-4.0
Bilaspur in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: Own work, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Localisation of Bilaspur State in India, 1951.
Jammu and Kashmir in India (de-facto) (claims hatched).svg
Author/Creator: TUBSEmail Silk.svg Gallery, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Location of state XY (see filename) in India
Madhya Bharat in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Localisation of Madhya Bharat state in India, 1951.
Andhra-India 1953.svg
Author/Creator: Furfur, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Localisation of Andhra state in India, 1953-56.
Emblem of India.svg
The National Emblem of India is derived from the time of the Emperor Ashoka. The emblem is a replica of the Lion of Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. The Lion Capital was erected in the third century BC by Emperor Ashoka to mark the spot where Buddha first proclaimed his gospel of peace and emancipation to the four quarters of the universe. The national emblem is thus symbolic of contemporary India’s reaffirmation of its ancient commitment to world peace and goodwill. The four lions(one hidden from view ) – symbolising power, courage and confidence- rest on a circular abacus. The abacus is girded by four smaller animals—Guardians of the four directions: The Lion of the North, The Horse of the West, The Bull of the South and The Elephant of the East. The abacus rests on a lotus in full bloom, exemplifying the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration. The motto 'Satyameva Jayate' inscribed below the emblem in Devanagari script means 'truth alone triumphs'.
IN-TR.svg
Author/Creator: फ़िलप्रो (Filpro), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Location of Tripura in India.
IN-DD.svg
Author/Creator: फ़िलप्रो (Filpro), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Location of Daman and Diu in India.
Mysore in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: Milenioscuro, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Localisation of Mysore State in India, 1951.
IN-MN.svg
Author/Creator: फ़िलप्रो (Filpro), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Location of Manipur in India.
IN-MZ.svg
Author/Creator: फ़िलप्रो (Filpro), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Location of Mizoram in India.
India Administrative Divisions 1951.svg
Author/Creator: Andhrapur, Licence: CC0
India Administrative Divisions in 1951. This map, which shows administrative divisions of India in 1951, makes some big mistakes. First, this map shows Sikkim as a part of India. Sikkim was a sovereign state from 1642 to 1975; Sikkim is a state of India from 1975. Thus, this map should show Sikkim as a sovereign state as same as China, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan, Myanmar and Sri Lanka near India. Second, this map shows Bangladesh as a sovereign state. East Pakistan was a part of Pakistan from 14 August 1947, when Pakistan became independent from British India, to 16 December 1971, when Pakistan officially recognized the independence of Bangladesh. Thus, this map should change Bangladesh into East Pakistan, and show East Pakistan as a part of Pakistan.
IN-AR.svg
Author/Creator: फ़िलप्रो (Filpro), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Location of Arunachal Pradesh in India.
Coorg in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: Milenioscuro, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Localisation of Coorg State in India, 1951.
PEPSU in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Localisation of Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) in India, 1951.
IN-NL.svg
Author/Creator: फ़िलप्रो (Filpro), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Location of Nagaland in India.
Saurashtra in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Localisation of Saurashtra state in India, 1951.
Travancore-Cochin in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Localisation of Travancore-Cochin state in India, 1951.
IN-HP.svg
Author/Creator: फ़िलप्रो (Filpro), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Location of Himachal Pradesh in India.
Bombay in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Localisation of Bombay State in India, 1951.
Kutch in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Localisation of Kutch state in India, 1951.
Bhopal in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Localisation of Bhopal state in India, 1951.
Ajmer in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Localisation of Ajmer State in India, 1951.
India-locator-map-blank.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Vindhya Pradesh in India (1951).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Localisation of Vindhya Pradesh state in India, 1951.
Punjab, India (1956-1966).png
Author/Creator: Filpro, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
The Punjab state in India from 1956 to 1966.
IN-DN.svg
Author/Creator: फ़िलप्रो (Filpro), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Location of Dadra and Nagar Haveli in India.