Southeast Europe

Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe (SEE) is a geographical subregion of Europe, consisting primarily of the Balkans. Sovereign states and territories that are included in the region are, in alphabetical order: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia (alternatively placed in Central Europe), Cyprus (alternatively placed in West Asia), Greece, Kosovo,[a] Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania (alternatively placed in Central Europe), Serbia, and Turkey (alternatively placed in West Asia). Sometimes, Moldova (alternatively placed in Eastern Europe) and Slovenia (alternatively placed in Central Europe) are also included. The largest city of the region is Istanbul, followed by Bucharest, Sofia, Belgrade, and Athens.

There are overlapping and conflicting definitions of the region, due to political, economic, historical, cultural, and geographical considerations.


The first known use of the term "Southeast Europe" was by Austrian researcher Johann Georg von Hahn (1811–1869) as a broader term than the traditional Balkans,[1] a concept based on the boundaries of the Balkan Peninsula (the countries that have been described as being entirely within the Balkan region are: Albania, Kosovo,[a] Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and North Macedonia[2]).

Geographical Southeast Europe

Countries that are geographically, at least partially, described to be within the region are as follows:[3]

CIA World Factbook

Regions of Europe based on CIA World Factbook. Southeastern Europe in brown

In the CIA World Factbook, the description of each country includes information about "Location" under the heading "Geography", where the country is classified into a region. The following countries are included in their classification "Southeast Europe":[11]

  • Albania
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Kosovo
  • Montenegro
  • North Macedonia
  • Romania
  • Serbia
  • Turkey (East Thrace)

In this classification, Slovenia is included in Central Europe,[12] Greece in Southern Europe,[13] and Moldova in Eastern Europe.[14]

Notable views

  • The Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe (SPSEE) included Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia as member partners.
  • The South-East European Cooperation Process (SEECP) includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey as member partners.
  • The Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) includes Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey as member partners.
  • The EU-co-funded South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme[15] includes the whole territory of Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy and Ukraine as part of the "programme area".[16]
  • Studies of the World Bank treat Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Moldova, North Macedonia, Romania and Serbia as the eight South Eastern European countries (SEE8).[17]
  • A 2006 publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) and Council of Europe Development Bank (CEB) listed Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, North Macedonia, Moldova, Romania and Serbia and Montenegro as 'south-eastern European countries'.[18]
  • The World Bank does not include the EU countries in its reports, and lists only Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia (SEE6).[19]
  • UNHCR's Regional Office in South Eastern Europe[20] currently lists Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Montenegro as part of 'South Eastern Europe'.

See also


  1. ^ a b c The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, it is formally recognised as an independent state by 97 UN member states (with another 15 recognising it at some point but then withdrawing recognition), while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.


  1. ^ Hösch, Nehring, Sundhaussen (Hrsg.), Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas, S. 663,ISBN 3-8252-8270-8
  2. ^ Istituto Geografico De Agostini, L'Enciclopedia Geografica – Vol.I – Italia, 2004, Ed. De Agostini p.78
  3. ^ a b Jelavich 1983a, p. 1-3.
  4. ^ Armstrong, Werwick. Anderson, James (2007). "Borders in Central Europe: From Conflict to Cooperation". Geopolitics of European Union Enlargement: The Fortress Empire. Routledge. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-134-30132-4.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  5. ^ Andrew Geddes, Charles Lees, Andrew Taylor : "The European Union and South East Europe: The Dynamics of Europeanization and multilevel governance", 2013, Routledge
  6. ^ Klaus Liebscher, Josef Christl, Peter Mooslechner, Doris Ritzberger-Grünwald : "European Economic Integration and South-East Europe: Challenges and Prospects", 2005, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
  7. ^ Which Continent – Is Cyprus in Europe or Asia?, Sporcle, December 21, 2018
  8. ^ Is Cyprus in Europe or Asia?, World Atlas, August 8, 2019
  9. ^ Cyprus: In Europe, In Limbo, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, December 3, 2018
  10. ^ "A List of Countries That Make up the Balkan Peninsula".
  11. ^ CIA. "The World Factbook".
  12. ^ "Slovenia". CIA.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ "Greece". CIA.
  14. ^ "Moldova". CIA.
  15. ^ "South-East Europe". Archived from the original on 2008-05-01. Retrieved 2019-01-07.
  16. ^ "Programme summary", South East Europe (SEE): Operational Programme, South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme, 28 November 2013, p. 6
  17. ^ Harry G. Broadman (2004). Building Market Institutions in South Eastern Europe: Comparative Prospects for Investment and Private Sector Development. World Bank Publications. p. xviii. ISBN 978-0-8213-5776-7.
  18. ^ World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; Council of Europe Development Bank (2006). Health and Economic Development in South-eastern Europe. World Health Organization. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-92-890-2295-8.
  19. ^ "South East Europe Regular Economic Report". World Bank.
  20. ^ "Regional Office in South Eastern Europe - Global Focus".


Further reading

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North America (orthographic projection)
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The topography of the Balkan Peninsula, as defined by the Danube-Sava-Kupa line.
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Subregions of Europe (The World Factbook)
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  Southeastern Europe
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  Northwest Africa
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  Northern Asia
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  Middle East