Solidago rigida

Solidago rigida
Solidago rigida (4991314459).jpg
S. rigida subsp. humilis
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom:Plantae
Clade:Tracheophytes
Clade:Angiosperms
Clade:Eudicots
Clade:Asterids
Order:Asterales
Family:Asteraceae
Genus:Solidago
Section:S. sect. Ptarmicoidei
Species:
S. rigida
Binomial name
Solidago rigida
L. 1753
Synonyms[1]
Synonymy
  • Aster rigidus (L.) Kuntze 1891 not L. 1753
  • Oligoneuron grandiflorum (Raf.) Small
  • Oligoneuron rigidum (L.) Small
  • Solidago grandiflora Raf.
  • Aster jacksonii Kuntze, syn of subsp. glabrata
  • Leioligo corymbosa (Elliott) Raf., syn of subsp. glabrata
  • Oligoneuron corymbosum (Elliott) Small, syn of subsp. glabrata
  • Oligoneuron jacksonii (Kuntze) Small, syn of subsp. glabrata
  • Solidago corymbosa Elliott 1823 not Poir. 1817, syn of subsp. glabrata
  • Solidago jacksonii (Kuntze) Fernald, syn of subsp. glabrata
  • Oligoneuron bombycinum Lunell, syn of subsp. humilis
  • Oligoneuron canescens Rydb., syn of subsp. humilis
  • Solidago bombycina (Lunell) Friesn., syn of subsp. humilis
  • Solidago bombycinum (Lunell) Friesner, syn of subsp. humilis
  • Solidago canescens (Rydb.) Friesner, syn of subsp. humilis
  • Solidago parvirigida Beaudry, syn of subsp. humilis

Solidago rigida, known by the common names stiff goldenrod and stiff-leaved goldenrod, is a North American plant species in the aster family (Asteraceae). It has a widespread distribution in Canada and the United States, where it is found primarily east of the Rocky Mountains.[2] It is typically found in open, dry areas associated with calcareous or sandy soil. Habitats include prairies, savannas, and glades.[3]

Description

Soliadgo rigida is a tall, leafy perennial. Its leathery leaves are large for a goldenrod, reaching3–6 cm (1+142+14 in) wide and8–20 cm (3+147+34 in) long. It produces heads of yellow flowers in the late summer and fall.[3] Its fruit is a wind-dispersed achene.

Subspecies

Subspecies[1][3]
  • Solidago rigida subsp. glabrata (E.L.Braun) S.B.Heard & Semple – southeastern + south-central U.S.
  • Solidago rigida subsp. humilis (Porter) S.B.Heard & Semple – central + western Canada, central + western United States as far west as the Rocky Mountains
  • Solidago rigida subsp. rigidaOntario, central + eastern U.S.

Conservation

This species is considered by NatureServe to be globally "secure" (G5), which is the lowest level of conservation concern assigned.[4] However, it is known to be rare on the local level, due to its declining grassland habitat. It is listed as endangered in Connecticut,[5] New Jersey and Pennsylvania. It is listed as endangered and extirpated in Maryland, as threatened in New York, and as historical in Rhode Island.[6]

Native American ethnobotany

The Ojibwe use a decoction of root as an enema,[7] and take an infusion of the root to treat "stoppage of urine".[8] The Meskwaki make the flowers into a lotion and use them on bee stings and for swollen faces.[9]

References

  1. ^ a b "Solidago rigida". The Global Compositae Checklist (GCC) – via The Plant List.
  2. ^ "Solidago rigida". County-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  3. ^ a b c Semple, John C.; Cook, Rachel E. (2006). "Solidago rigida". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.). Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 20. New York and Oxford – via eFloras.org, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  4. ^ Oligoneuron rigidum NatureServe
  5. ^ "Connecticut's Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Species 2015". State of Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection Bureau of Natural Resources. Retrieved 19 January 2018. (Note: This list is newer than the one used by plants.usda.gov and is more up-to-date.)
  6. ^ "Oligoneuron rigidum". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  7. ^ Densmore, Frances, 1928, Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians, SI-BAE Annual Report #44:273-379, page 364 (Note: This source comes from the Native American ethnobotany database (http://naeb.brit.org/) which lists the plant as Oligoneuron rigidum var. rigidum. Accessed 19 January 2018
  8. ^ Densmore, Frances, 1928, Uses of Plants by the Chippewa Indians, SI-BAE Annual Report #44:273-379, page 348 (Note: This source comes from the Native American ethnobotany database (http://naeb.brit.org/) which lists the plant as Oligoneuron rigidum var. rigidum. Accessed 19 January 2018
  9. ^ Smith, Huron H., 1928, Ethnobotany of the Meskwaki Indians, Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 4:175-326, page 217218 (Note: This source comes from the Native American ethnobotany database (http://naeb.brit.org/) which lists the plant as Oligoneuron rigidum var. rigidum. Accessed 19 January 2018

Media files used on this page

Solidago rigida glabrata.jpg
Solidago rigida ssp. glabrata, dry limestone barren along roadside near Hymes Knob. Lewis County, Kentucky.
Solidago rigida (4991314459).jpg
Author/Creator: Matt Lavin from Bozeman, Montana, USA, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Some plants of Solidago rigida will lose the basal leaf bunch during the late season probably due to dessication.