Solid South

Arkansas voted Democratic in all 23 presidential elections from 1876 through 1964; other states were not quite as solid but generally supported Democrats for president.

The Solid South or Southern bloc was the electoral voting bloc of the states of the Southern United States for issues that were regarded as particularly important to the interests of Democrats in those states. The Southern bloc existed especially between the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and the passage of the Civil Rights Act in 1964. During this period, the Democratic Party controlled state legislatures; most local and state officeholders in the South were Democrats, as were federal politicians elected from these states. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, Southern Democrats disenfranchised blacks in all Southern states, along with a few non-Southern states doing the same as well. This resulted essentially in a one-party system, in which a candidate's victory in Democratic primary elections was tantamount to election to the office itself. White primaries were another means that the Democrats used to consolidate their political power, excluding blacks from voting in primaries.[1]

The "Solid South" is a loose term referring to the states that made up the voting bloc at any point in time. The Southern region as defined by U.S. Census comprises sixteen states plus Washington, D.C.—Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.[2] The idea of the Solid South shifted over time and did not always necessarily correspond to the census definition. After Reconstruction, all the former slave states were dominated by the Democratic Party for at least two decades. Delaware, the least secessionist slave state, was considered a reliable state for the Democratic Party,[3] as was Missouri, classified as a Midwestern state by the U.S. Census. From the early part of the 20th century on, Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and West Virginia ceased to be reliably Democratic (although West Virginia once again became a reliably Democratic state with the New Deal era).


United States during the Civil War. Blue represents free Union states, including those admitted during the war; light blue represents border states; red represents Confederate states. Unshaded areas were not states before or during the Civil War

At the start of the American Civil War, there were 34 states in the United States, 15 of which were slave states. Slavery was also legal in the District of Columbia. Eleven of these slave states seceded from the United States to form the Confederacy: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. The slave states that stayed in the Union were Maryland, Missouri, Delaware, and Kentucky, and they were referred to as the border states. In 1861, West Virginia was created out of Virginia, and admitted in 1863 and considered a border state. By the time the Emancipation Proclamation was made in 1863 Tennessee was already under Union control. Accordingly the Proclamation applied only to the 10 remaining Confederate states. Several of the border states abolished slavery before the end of the Civil War—Maryland in 1864,[4] Missouri in 1865,[5] one of the Confederate states, Tennessee in 1865,[6] West Virginia in 1865,[7] and the District of Columbia in 1862. However, slavery persisted in Delaware,[8] Kentucky,[9] and 10 of the 11 former Confederate states, until the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery throughout the United States on December 18, 1865.

Democratic dominance of the South originated in the struggle of white Southerners during and after Reconstruction (1865–1877) to reestablish white supremacy and disenfranchise black people. The U.S. government under the Republican Party had defeated the Confederacy, abolished slavery, and enfranchised black people. In several states, black voters were a majority or close to it. Republicans supported by black people controlled state governments in these states. Thus the Democratic Party became the vehicle for the white supremacist "Redeemers". The Ku Klux Klan, as well as other insurgent paramilitary groups such as the White League and Red Shirts from 1874, acted as "the military arm of the Democratic party" to disrupt Republican organizing, and intimidate and suppress black voters.[10]

By 1876, "Redeemer" Democrats had taken control of all state governments in the South. From then until the 1960s, state and local government in the South was almost entirely monopolized by Democrats. The Democrats elected all but a handful of U.S. Representatives and Senators, and Democratic presidential candidates regularly swept the region – from 1880 through 1944, winning a cumulative total of 182 of 187 states. The Democrats reinforced the loyalty of white voters by emphasizing the suffering of the South during the war at the hands of "Yankee invaders" under Republican leadership, and the noble service of their white forefathers in "the Lost Cause". This rhetoric was effective with many Southerners. However, this propaganda was totally ineffective in areas that had been loyal to the Union during the war, such as eastern Tennessee. Most of East Tennessee welcomed U.S. troops as liberators, and voted Republican even in the Solid South period.[11]

The "Solid South" from 1880–1912.

Even after white Democrats regained control of state legislatures, some black candidates were elected to local offices and state legislatures in the South. Black U.S. Representatives were elected from the South as late as the 1890s, usually from overwhelmingly black areas. Also in the 1890s, the Populists developed a following in the South, among poor white people who resented Democratic party establishment. Populists formed alliances with Republicans (including black Republicans) and challenged the Democratic bosses, even defeating them in some cases.[12]

To prevent such coalitions in the future and to end the violence associated with suppressing the black vote during elections, Southern Democrats acted to disfranchise both black people and poor white people. From 1890 to 1910, beginning with Mississippi, Southern states adopted new constitutions and other laws including various devices to restrict voter registration, disfranchising virtually all black and many poor white residents.[13] These devices applied to all citizens; in practice they disfranchised most black citizens and also "would remove [from voter registration rolls] the less educated, less organized, more impoverished whites as well – and that would ensure one-party Democratic rules through most of the 20th century in the South".[14][15] All the Southern states adopted provisions that restricted voter registration and suffrage, including new requirements for poll taxes, longer residency, and subjective literacy tests. Some also used the device of grandfather clauses, exempting voters who had a grandfather voting by a particular year (usually before the Civil War, when black people could not vote.)[16]

White Democrats also opposed Republican economic policies such as the high tariff and the gold standard, both of which were seen as benefiting Northern industrial interests at the expense of the agrarian South in the 19th century. Nevertheless, holding all political power was at the heart of their resistance. From 1876 through 1944, the national Democratic party opposed any calls for civil rights for black people. In Congress Southern Democrats blocked such efforts whenever Republicans targeted the issue.[17]

White Democrats passed "Jim Crow" laws which reinforced white supremacy through racial segregation.[18] The Fourteenth Amendment provided for apportionment of representation in Congress to be reduced if a state disenfranchised part of its population. However, this clause was never applied to Southern states that disenfranchised black residents. No black candidate was elected to any office in the South for decades after the turn of the century; and they were also excluded from juries and other participation in civil life.[13]

Democratic candidates won by large margins in the Southern states in every presidential election from the 1876 to 1948 except for 1928, when the Democratic candidate was Al Smith, a Catholic New Yorker; and even in that election, the divided South provided Smith with nearly three-fourths of his electoral votes. Scholar Richard Valelly credited Woodrow Wilson's 1912 election to the disfranchisement of black people in the South, and also noted far-reaching effects in Congress, where the Democratic South gained "about 25 extra seats in Congress for each decade between 1903 and 1953".[a][13]

In the Deep South (South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas), Democratic dominance was overwhelming, with 80%–90% of the vote, and only a tiny number of Republican state legislators or local officials. Mississippi and South Carolina were the most extreme cases – between 1900 and 1944, only in 1928 when the three subcoastal Mississippi counties of Pearl River, Stone and George went for Hoover did the Democrats lose even one of these two states' counties in any presidential election.[19] In the remaining states, the German-American Texas counties of Gillespie and Kendall, and a number of counties in Appalachian parts of Alabama and Georgia, would vote Republican in presidential elections through this period.[20] In the Upper South (Tennessee, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Virginia), Republicans retained a significant presence mainly in these remote Appalachian and Ozark regions which supported the Union during the Civil War,[20] even winning occasional governorships and often drawing over 40% in presidential votes.

By the 1920s, as memories of the Civil War faded, the Solid South cracked slightly. For instance, a Republican was elected U.S. Representative from Texas in 1920, serving until 1932. The Republican national landslides in 1920 and 1928 had some effects. In the 1920 elections, Tennessee elected a Republican governor, elected Republicans to five of the state's ten U.S. House seats and became the first former Confederate state to vote for the Republican candidate for U.S. President since Reconstruction. However, with the Democratic national landslide of 1932, the South again became solidly Democratic.

In the 1930s, black voters outside the South largely switched to the Democrats, and other groups with an interest in civil rights (notably Jews, Catholics, and academic intellectuals) became more powerful in the party. This led to the national Democrats adopting a civil rights plank in 1948. A faction of Deep South Democrats bolted the party, and ran their own "Dixiecrat" presidential ticket, which carried four states: South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.[21] Even before then, a number of conservative Southern Democrats felt chagrin at the national party's growing friendliness to organized labor during the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration, and began splitting their tickets as early as the 1930s.

Southern demography also began to change. From 1910 through 1970, about 6.5 million black Southerners moved to urban areas in other parts of the country in the Great Migration, and demographics began to change Southern states in other ways. Florida began to expand rapidly, with retirees and other migrants from other regions becoming a majority of the population. Many of these new residents brought their Republican voting habits with them, diluting traditional Southern hostility to the Republicans. The Republican Party began to make gains in the South, building on other cultural conflicts as well. By the mid-1960s, changes had come in many of the southern states. Former Dixiecrat Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina changed parties in 1964; Texas elected a Republican Senator in 1961; Florida and Arkansas elected Republican governors in 1966. In the Upper South, where Republicans had always been a small presence, Republicans gained a few seats in the House and Senate.

Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the South was still overwhelmingly Democratic at the state level, with majorities in all state legislatures and most U.S. House delegations. Over the next thirty years, this gradually changed. Veteran Democratic officeholders retired or died, and older voters who were still rigidly Democratic also died off. There were also increasing numbers of migrants from other areas, especially in Florida, Texas, Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. As part of the "Republican Revolution" in the 1994 elections, Republicans captured a majority of House's southern seats for the first time. As of 2021, they account for a majority of each Southern state's House delegation apart from Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware.

Following the 2016 elections, when Republicans won the Kentucky House of Representatives, every state legislative chamber in the South had a Republican majority for the first time ever.[22] This would remain the case until Democrats regained both Houses of the Virginia Legislature in 2019.

Today, the South is considered a Republican stronghold at the state and federal levels. Some political experts identify a re-Southernization of politics and culture in the Clinton presidency coinciding with House and Senate leading positions held by southerners.

West Virginia

For West Virginia "reconstruction, in a sense, began in 1861".[23] Unlike the other border states West Virginia did not send the majority of its soldiers to the Union.[24] The prospect of those returning ex-Confederates prompted the Wheeling state government to implement laws that restricted their right of suffrage, practicing law and teaching, access to the legal system, and subjected them to "war trespass" lawsuits.[25] The lifting of these restrictions in 1871 resulted in the election of John J. Jacob, a Democrat, to the governorship. It also led to the rejection of the war-time constitution by public vote and a new constitution written under the leadership of ex-Confederates such as Samuel Price, Allen T. Caperton and Charles James Faulkner. In 1876 the state Democratic ticket of eight candidates were all elected, seven of whom were Confederate veterans.[26] For nearly a generation West Virginia was part of the Solid South.[27][28]

However, Republicans returned to power in 1896, controlling the governorship for eight of the next nine terms, and electing 82 of 106 U.S. Representatives. In 1932, as the nation swung to the Democrats, West Virginia became solidly Democratic. It was perhaps the most reliably Democratic state in the nation between 1932 and 1996, being one of just two states (along with Minnesota) to vote for a Republican president as few as three times in that interval. Moreover, unlike Minnesota (or other nearly as reliably Democratic states like Massachusetts and Rhode Island), it usually had a unanimous (or nearly unanimous) congressional delegation and only elected two Republicans as Governor (albeit for a combined 20 years between them). West Virginian voters shifted toward the Republican Party from 2000 onward, as the Democratic Party became more strongly identified with environmental policies anathema to the state's coal industry and with socially liberal policies, and it can now be called a solidly red state.[29][30]

Presidential voting

Missouri goes for Republican Theodore Roosevelt in the 1904 election. (Cartoon by John T. McCutcheon.)

The 1896 election resulted in the first break in the Solid South. Florida politician Marion L. Dawson, writing in the North American Review, observed: "The victorious party not only held in line those States which are usually relied upon to give Republican majorities ... More significant still, it invaded the Solid South, and bore off West Virginia, Maryland, and Kentucky; caused North Carolina to tremble in the balance and reduced Democratic majorities in the following States: Alabama, 39,000; Arkansas, 29,000; Florida, 6,000; Georgia, 49,000; Louisiana, 33,000; South Carolina, 6,000; and Texas, 29,000. These facts, taken together with the great landslide of 1894 and 1895, which swept Missouri and Tennessee, Maryland and Kentucky over into the country of the enemy, have caused Southern statesmen to seriously consider whether the so-called Solid South is not now a thing of past history".[31]

In the 1904 election, Missouri supported Republican Theodore Roosevelt, while Maryland awarded its electors to Democrat Alton Parker, despite Roosevelt's winning by 51 votes.[32]

By the 1916 election, disfranchisement of blacks and many poor whites was complete, and voter rolls had dropped dramatically in the South. Closing out Republican supporters gave a bump to Woodrow Wilson, who took all the electors across the South (apart from Delaware and West Virginia), as the Republican Party was stifled without support by African Americans.[13]

The 1920 election was a referendum on President Wilson's League of Nations. Pro-isolation sentiment in the South benefited Republican Warren G. Harding, who won Tennessee, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Maryland. In 1924, Republican Calvin Coolidge won Kentucky, Missouri, and Maryland; and in 1928, Herbert Hoover, perhaps benefiting from bias against his Democratic opponent Al Smith (who was a Roman Catholic and opposed Prohibition), won not only those Southern states that had been carried by either Harding or Coolidge (Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Maryland), but also won Florida, North Carolina, Texas, and Virginia, none of which had voted Republican since Reconstruction. He furthermore came within 2.5% of carrying the Deep South state of Alabama. (All of Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover carried the two Southern states that had supported Hughes in 1916, West Virginia and Delaware.)

Al Smith had received serious backlash as a Catholic in the largely Protestant South in 1928, losing several states in the Outer South, only managing to hold Arkansas outside the Deep South. Smith had also nearly lost Alabama, which he held by 3%, which had Hoover won, would have physically split the Solid South.

The South appeared "solid" again during the period of Roosevelt's political dominance, as his welfare programs and military buildup invested considerable money in the South, benefiting many of its citizens, including during the Dust Bowl.

Democratic President Harry S. Truman's support of the civil rights movement, combined with the adoption of a civil rights plank in the 1948 Democratic platform, prompted many Southerners to walk out of the Democratic National Convention and form the Dixiecrat Party. This splinter party played a significant role in the 1948 election; the Dixiecrat candidate, Strom Thurmond, carried Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and his native South Carolina.

In the elections of 1952 and 1956, the popular Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, commander of the Allied armed forces during World War II, carried several Southern states, with especially strong showings in the new suburbs. Most of the Southern states he carried had voted for at least one of the Republican winners in the 1920s, but in 1956, Eisenhower carried Louisiana, becoming the first Republican to win the state since Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876. The rest of the Deep South voted for his Democratic opponent, Adlai Stevenson.

In the 1960 election, the Democratic nominee, John F. Kennedy, continued his party's tradition of selecting a Southerner as the vice presidential candidate (in this case, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas). Kennedy and Johnson, however, both supported civil rights. In October 1960, when Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested at a peaceful sit-in in Atlanta, Georgia, Kennedy placed a sympathetic phone call to King's wife, Coretta Scott King, and Kennedy's brother Robert F. Kennedy helped secure King's release. King expressed his appreciation for these calls. Although King made no endorsement, his father, who had previously endorsed Republican Richard Nixon, switched his support to Kennedy.

Because of these and other events, the Democrats lost ground with white voters in the South, as those same voters increasingly lost control over what was once a whites-only Democratic Party in much of the South. The 1960 election was the first in which a Republican presidential candidate received electoral votes from the former Confederacy while losing nationally. Nixon carried Virginia, Tennessee, and Florida. Though the Democrats also won Alabama and Mississippi, slates of unpledged electors, representing Democratic segregationists, awarded those states' electoral votes to Harry Byrd, rather than Kennedy.

The parties' positions on civil rights continued to evolve in the run up to the 1964 election. The Democratic candidate, Johnson, who had become president after Kennedy's assassination, spared no effort to win passage of a strong Civil Rights Act of 1964. After signing the landmark legislation, Johnson said to his aide, Bill Moyers: "I think we just delivered the South to the Republican Party for a long time to come."[33] In contrast, Johnson's Republican opponent, Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona, voted against the Civil Rights Act, believing it enhanced the federal government and infringed on the private property rights of businessmen. Goldwater did support civil rights in general and universal suffrage, and voted for the 1957 Civil Rights Act (though casting no vote on the 1960 Civil Rights Act), as well as voting for the 24th Amendment, which banned poll taxes as a requirement for voting. This was one of the devices that states used to disfranchise African Americans and the poor.

That November, Johnson won a landslide electoral victory, and the Republicans suffered significant losses in Congress. Goldwater, however, besides carrying his home state of Arizona, carried the Deep South: voters in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina had switched parties for the first time since Reconstruction. Goldwater notably won only in Southern states that had voted against Republican Richard Nixon in 1960, while not winning a single Southern state which Nixon had carried. Previous Republican inroads in the South had been concentrated on high-growth suburban areas, often with many transplants, as well as on the periphery of the South.

According to a quantitative analysis for the National Bureau of Economic Research, racism played a central role in the decline in relative white Southern Democratic identification.[34]

"Southern strategy": end of Solid South

In the 1968 election, Richard Nixon saw the cracks in the Solid South as an opportunity to tap into a group of voters who had historically been beyond the reach of the Republican Party. With the aid of Harry Dent and South Carolina Senator Strom Thurmond, who had switched to the Republican Party in 1964, Nixon ran his 1968 campaign on states' rights and "law and order". As a key component of this strategy, he selected as his running mate Maryland Governor Spiro Agnew.[35] Liberal Northern Democrats accused Nixon of pandering to Southern whites, especially with regard to his "states' rights" and "law and order" positions, which were widely understood by black leaders to legitimize the status quo of Southern states' discrimination.[36] This tactic was described in 2007 by David Greenberg in Slate as "dog-whistle politics".[37] According to an article in The American Conservative, Nixon adviser and speechwriter Pat Buchanan disputed this characterization.[38][39]

The independent candidacy of George Wallace, former Democratic governor of Alabama, partially negated Nixon's Southern Strategy.[40] With a much more explicit attack on integration and black civil rights, Wallace won all but two of Goldwater's states (the exceptions being South Carolina and Arizona) as well as Arkansas and one of North Carolina's electoral votes. Nixon picked up Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Oklahoma, Kentucky, Missouri, and Delaware. The Democrat, Hubert Humphrey, won Texas, heavily unionized West Virginia, and heavily urbanized Maryland. Writer Jeffrey Hart, who worked on the Nixon campaign as a speechwriter, said in 2006 that Nixon did not have a "Southern Strategy", but "Border State Strategy" as he said that the 1968 campaign ceded the Deep South to George Wallace. Hart suggested that the press called it a "Southern Strategy" as they are "very lazy".[41]

The 1968 election had been the first election in which both the Upper South and Deep South bolted from the Democratic party simultaneously. The Upper South had backed Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956, as well as Nixon in 1960. The Deep South had backed Goldwater just four years prior. Despite the two regions of the South still backing different candidates, Wallace in the Deep South and Nixon in the Upper South, only Texas and West Virginia had held up against the majority Nixon-Wallace vote for Humphrey. By 1972, Nixon had swept the South altogether, Outer and Deep South alike, marking the first time in American history a Republican won every Southern state.

At the 1976 election, Jimmy Carter, a Southern governor, gave Democrats a short-lived comeback in the South, winning every state in the old Confederacy except for Virginia, which was narrowly lost. However, in his unsuccessful 1980 re-election bid, the only Southern states he won were his native state of Georgia, West Virginia, and Maryland. The year 1976 was the last year a Democratic presidential candidate won a majority of Southern electoral votes. The Republicans took all the region's electoral votes in the 1984 election and every state except West Virginia in 1988.

In the 1992 election and 1996, when the Democratic ticket consisted of two Southerners, (Bill Clinton and Al Gore), the Democrats and Republicans split the region. In both elections, Clinton won Arkansas, Louisiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, Missouri, Maryland, and Delaware, while the Republican won Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and Oklahoma. Bill Clinton won Georgia in 1992, but lost it in 1996 to Bob Dole. Conversely, Clinton lost Florida in 1992 to George Bush, but won it in 1996.

In 2000, however, Gore received no electoral votes from the South, even from his home state of Tennessee, apart from heavily urbanized and uncontested Maryland and Delaware. The popular vote in Florida was extraordinarily close in awarding the state's electoral votes to George W. Bush. This pattern continued in the 2004 election; the Democratic ticket of John Kerry and John Edwards received no electoral votes from the South apart from Maryland and Delaware, even though Edwards was from North Carolina, and was born in South Carolina. However, in the 2008 election, Barack Obama won the former Republican strongholds of Virginia and North Carolina as well as Florida; Obama won Virginia and Florida again in 2012 and lost North Carolina by only 2.04 percent. In 2016, Hillary Clinton won only Virginia while narrowly losing Florida and North Carolina. And in 2020, Joe Biden won Virginia, a growing stronghold for Democrats, and narrowly won Georgia, while narrowly losing Florida and North Carolina.

While the South was shifting from the Democrats to the Republicans, the Northeastern United States went the other way. The Northeastern United States is defined by the US Census Bureau as Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and the New England States. Well into the 1980s, much of the Northeast--in particular the heavily suburbanized states of New Jersey and Connecticut, and the rural states of northern New England--were strongholds of the Republican Party. The Democratic Party made steady gains there, however, and from 1992 through 2012, all nine Northeastern states, from New Jersey to Maine, voted Democratic, with the exception of New Hampshire's plurality for George W. Bush in 2000.

"Southern strategy" today

Although Republicans gradually began doing better in presidential elections in the South starting in 1952, Republicans did not finish taking over Southern politics at the nonpresidential level until the elections of November 2010. Today, the South is dominated by Republicans at both the state and presidential level. Republicans now control 21 of the 22 legislative bodies in the former Confederacy, the sole exceptions being the Virginia Senate. Between the defeats of Georgia Representative John Barrow, Arkansas Senator Mark Pryor and Louisiana Senator Mary Landrieu in 2014 and the election of Alabama Senator Doug Jones in 2017, there were no white Democratic members of Congress from the states that voted for George Wallace in 1968. Until November 2010, Democrats had a majority in the Alabama, North Carolina, Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana Legislatures, a majority in the Kentucky House of Representatives and Virginia Senate, a near majority of the Tennessee House of Representatives, and a majority of the U.S. House delegations from Arkansas, North Carolina, Mississippi, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as near-even splits of the Georgia and Alabama U.S. House delegations.

However, during the 2010 midterm elections, Republicans swept the South, successfully reelecting every Senate incumbent, electing freshmen Marco Rubio in Florida and Rand Paul in Kentucky, and defeating Democratic incumbent Blanche Lincoln in Arkansas for a seat now held by John Boozman. In the House, Republicans reelected every incumbent except for Joseph Cao of New Orleans, defeated several Democratic incumbents, and gained a number of Democratic-held open seats. They won the majority in the congressional delegations of every Southern state. Every Solid South state, with the exceptions of Arkansas, Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia, also elected or reelected Republicans governors. Most significantly, Republicans took control of both houses of the Alabama and North Carolina State Legislatures for the first time since Reconstruction, with Mississippi and Louisiana flipping a year later during their off-year elections. Even in Arkansas, the GOP won three of six statewide down-ballot positions for which they had often not fielded candidates until recently; they also went from eight to 15 out of 35 seats in the State Senate and from 28 to 45 out of 100 in the State House of Representatives. In 2012, the Republicans finally took control of the Arkansas State Legislature and the North Carolina Governorship, leaving West Virginia as the last Solid South state with the Democrats still in control of the state legislature, as well as the governorship. In 2014, though, both houses of the West Virginia legislature were finally taken by the GOP, and most other legislative chambers in the South up for election that year saw increased GOP gains. Arkansas' governorship finally flipped GOP in 2014 when incumbent Mike Beebe was term-limited, as did every other statewide office not previously held by the Republicans. Many analysts believe the so-called "Southern Strategy" that has been employed by Republicans since the 1960s is now virtually complete, with Republicans in firm, almost total, control of political offices in the South. However, the Louisiana governorship was won by John Bel Edwards in 2015, and Jim Hood won a fourth term as Mississippi Attorney General the same year, making them the only Southern Democratic statewide executive officials. Hood retired in 2019 to mount an unsuccessful run for Governor of Mississippi, and was succeeded by Republican Lynn Fitch, while Edwards was reelected as Governor of Louisiana.

The biggest exception to this trend has been the state of Virginia. It got an earlier start in the trend towards the Republican Party than the rest of the region. It voted Republican for president in eleven of the twelve elections between 1952 and 1996, while no other Southern state did so more than nine times (that state, Florida, is the other potential exception to the trend, but to a significantly lesser extent). Moreover, it had a Republican Governor more often than not between 1970 and 2002, and Republicans held at least half the seats in the Virginia congressional delegation from 1968 to 1990 (although the Democrats had a narrow minority throughout the 1990s), while with single-term exceptions (Alabama from 1965–1967, Tennessee from 1973–1975, and South Carolina from 1981–1983) and the exception of Florida (which had its delegation turn majority-Republican in 1989) Democrats held at least half the seats in the delegations of the rest of the Southern states until the Republican Revolution of 1994. However, thanks in large part to massive population growth in Northern Virginia and the orientation of that population with the political ideologies of the solidly Democratic Northeast, the Democratic party has won nearly every major statewide race since 2005, with the exceptions being the gubernatorial races in 2009 and 2021.[42]

Solid South in presidential elections

While Republicans occasionally won southern states in elections in which they won the presidency in the Solid South, it was not until 1960 that a Republican carried one of these states while losing the national election.

Presidential votes in southern states since 1876
YearAlabamaArkansasFloridaGeorgiaKentuckyLouisianaMississippiNorth CarolinaOklahomaSouth CarolinaTennesseeTexasVirginiaWest Virginia
1876TildenTildenHayes[b]TildenTildenHayes[b]TildenTildenNo election[c]Hayes[b]TildenTildenTildenTilden
1880HancockHancockHancockHancockHancockHancockHancockHancockNo electionHancockHancockHancockHancockHancock
1884ClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandNo electionClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandCleveland
1888ClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandNo electionClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandCleveland
1892ClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandNo electionClevelandClevelandClevelandClevelandCleveland
1896BryanBryanBryanBryanMcKinleyBryanBryanBryanNo electionBryanBryanBryanBryanMcKinley
1900BryanBryanBryanBryanBryanBryanBryanBryanNo electionBryanBryanBryanBryanMcKinley
1904ParkerParkerParkerParkerParkerParkerParkerParkerNo electionParkerParkerParkerParkerRoosevelt
YearAlabamaArkansasFloridaGeorgiaKentuckyLouisianaMississippiNorth CarolinaOklahomaSouth CarolinaTennesseeTexasVirginiaWest Virginia
Democratic Party nominee
Republican Party nominee
Third-party nominee or write-in candidate

Bold denotes candidates elected as president

South in gubernatorial elections

Officials who acted as governor for less than ninety days are excluded from this chart. This chart is intended to be a visual exposition of party strength in the solid south and the dates listed are not exactly precise. Governors not elected in their own right are listed in italics.

The parties are as follows:  Democratic (D),  Farmers' Alliance (FA),  Prohibition (P),  Readjuster (RA),  Republican (R).

Governors of southern states since 1877
YearAlabamaArkansasFloridaGeorgiaKentuckyLouisianaMississippiNorth CarolinaOklahomaSouth CarolinaTennesseeTexasVirginiaWest Virginia
1877George S. Houston (D)William Read Miller (D)George F. Drew (D)Alfred H. Colquitt (D)James B. McCreary (D)Francis T. Nicholls (D)John M. Stone (D)[l]Zebulon Baird Vance (D)Unorganized territoryWade Hampton III (D)James D. Porter (D)Richard B. Hubbard (D)[m]James L. Kemper (D)Henry M. Mathews (D)
1878Frederick W. M. Holliday (D)
1879Rufus W. Cobb (D)Thomas Jordan Jarvis (D)William Dunlap Simpson (D)[m]Albert S. Marks (D)Oran M. Roberts (D)
1880Luke P. Blackburn (D)Louis A. Wiltz (D)[n]Thomas Bothwell Jeter (D)
1881Thomas James Churchill (D)William D. Bloxham (D)Samuel D. McEnery (D)Johnson Hagood (D)Alvin Hawkins (R)Jacob B. Jackson (D)
1882Robert Lowry (D)Hugh Smith Thompson (D)[o]William E. Cameron (RA)
1883Edward A. O'Neal (D)James Henderson Berry (D)Henry Dickerson McDaniel (D)William B. Bate (D)John Ireland (D)
1884J. Proctor Knott (D)
1885Simon Pollard Hughes, Jr. (D)Edward A. Perry (D)Alfred Moore Scales (D)(D)Emanuel Willis Wilson (D)[p]
1886Fitzhugh Lee (D)
1887Thomas Seay (D)John B. Gordon (D)Robert Love Taylor (D)Lawrence Sullivan Ross (D)
1888Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. (D)Francis T. Nicholls (D)
1889James Philip Eagle (D)Francis P. Fleming (D)Daniel Gould Fowle (D)
1890John M. Stone (D)Governors of Oklahoma Territory

(appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the Senate)

Philip W. McKinney (D)Aretas B. Fleming (D)[q]
1891Thomas G. Jones (D)William J. Northen (D)Thomas Michael Holt (D)John P. Buchanan (D)Jim Hogg (D)
1892John Y. Brown (D)Murphy J. Foster (D)
1893William Meade Fishback (D)Henry L. Mitchell (D)Elias Carr (D)Peter Turney (D)William A. MacCorkle (D)
1894Charles Triplett O'Ferrall (D)
1895William C. Oates (D)James Paul Clarke (D)William Yates Atkinson (D)Charles A. Culberson (D)
1896William O. Bradley (R)Anselm J. McLaurin (D)
1897Joseph F. Johnston (D)Daniel Webster Jones (D)William D. Bloxham (D)Daniel Lindsay Russell (R)Robert Love Taylor (D)George W. Atkinson (R)
1898James Hoge Tyler (D)
1899Allen D. Candler (D)Benton McMillin (D)Joseph D. Sayers (D)
1900[r]William Wright Heard (D)Andrew H. Longino (D)
J. C. W. Beckham (D)[s]
1901William J. Samford (D)[n]Jeff Davis (D)William S. Jennings (D)Charles Brantley Aycock (D)Albert B. White (R)
William D. Jelks (D)[t][u]
1902Andrew Jackson Montague (D)
1903Joseph M. Terrell (D)James B. Frazier (D)[v]S. W. T. Lanham (D)
1904Newton C. Blanchard (D)James K. Vardaman (D)
1905Napoleon B. Broward (D)Robert Broadnax Glenn (D)John I. Cox (D)[w]William M. O. Dawson (R)
1906Claude A. Swanson (D)
1907B. B. Comer (D)(D)M. Hoke Smith (D)Charles N. Haskell (D)Malcolm R. Patterson (D)Thomas Mitchell Campbell (D)
1908Augustus E. Willson (R)Jared Y. Sanders, Sr. (D)Edmond Noel (D)
1909Albert W. Gilchrist (D)George Washington Donaghey (D)Joseph M. Brown (D)William Walton Kitchin (D)William E. Glasscock (R)
1910William Hodges Mann (D)
1911Emmet O'Neal (D)[x]Lee Cruce (D)Ben W. Hooper (R)Oscar Branch Colquitt (D)
1912James B. McCreary (D)Luther E. Hall (D)Earl L. Brewer (D)
1913(D)[y]Park Trammell (D)John M. Slaton (D)Locke Craig (D)Henry D. Hatfield (R)
1914George Washington Hays (D)[z]Henry Carter Stuart (D)
1915Charles Henderson (D)Nathaniel E. Harris (D)R. L. Williams (D)Tom C. Rye (D)James E. Ferguson (D)[aa]
1916Augustus O. Stanley (D)[ab]Ruffin G. Pleasant (D)Theodore G. Bilbo (D)
1917Charles Hillman Brough (D)Sidney Johnston Catts (P)Hugh M. Dorsey (D)Thomas Walter Bickett (D)William P. Hobby (D)[s]John J. Cornwell (D)
1918Westmoreland Davis (D)
1919Thomas Kilby (D)James D. Black (D)[m]James B. A. Robertson (D)A. H. Roberts (D)
1920Edwin P. Morrow (R)John M. Parker (D)Lee M. Russell (D)
1921Thomas Chipman McRae (D)Cary A. Hardee (D)Thomas W. Hardwick (D)Cameron Morrison (D)Alfred A. Taylor (R)Pat Morris Neff (D)Ephraim F. Morgan (R)
1922Elbert Lee Trinkle (D)
1923William W. Brandon (D)Clifford Walker (D)Jack C. Walton[ac]Austin Peay (D)[ad]
1924William J. Fields (D)Henry L. Fuqua (D)[n]Henry L. Whitfield (D)[n]Martin E. Trapp (D)[m]
1925Tom Jefferson Terral (D)John W. Martin (D)Angus Wilton McLean (D)Miriam A. Ferguson (D)Howard M. Gore (R)
1926Oramel H. Simpson (D)[m]Harry F. Byrd (D)
1927Bibb Graves (D)John Ellis Martineau (D)[ae]Lamartine G. Hardman (D)Dennis Murphree (D)[m]Henry S. Johnston (D)[af]Dan Moody (D)
1928Harvey Parnell (D)[s]Flem D. Sampson (R)Huey Long (D)Theodore G. Bilbo (D)Henry Hollis Horton (D)[ag]
1929Doyle E. Carlton (D)Oliver Max Gardner (D)William J. Holloway (D)[m]William G. Conley (R)
1930John Garland Pollard (D)
1931Benjamin M. Miller (D)Richard Russell, Jr. (D)William H. Murray (D)Ross S. Sterling (D)
1932Ruby Laffoon (D)Alvin Olin King (D)[ah]Martin Sennett Conner (D)
1933Junius Marion Futrell (D)David Sholtz (D)Eugene Talmadge (D)Oscar K. Allen (D)[n]John C.B. Ehringhaus (D)Harry Hill McAlister (D)Miriam A. Ferguson (D)Herman G. Kump (D)
1934George C. Peery (D)
1935Bibb Graves (D)Ernest W. Marland (D)James V. Allred (D)
1936Happy Chandler (D)[ai]James A. Noe(D)Hugh L. White
1937Carl Edward Bailey (D)Fred P. Cone (D)Eurith D. Rivers (D)Clyde R. Hoey (D)Gordon Browning (D)Homer A. Holt (D)
1938James H. Price (D)
1939Frank M. Dixon (D)Keen Johnson (D)[s]Leon C. Phillips (D)Prentice Cooper (D)W. Lee O'Daniel (D)[aj]
1940Sam H. Jones (D)Paul B. Johnson, Sr. (D)[n]
1941Homer Martin Adkins (D)Spessard Holland (D)Eugene Talmadge (D)J. Melville Broughton (D)Matthew M. Neely (D)
1942Coke R. Stevenson (D)[s]Colgate Darden (D)
1943Chauncey Sparks (D)Ellis Arnall (D)Dennis Murphree (D)[m]Robert S. Kerr (D)
1944Simeon S. Willis (R)Jimmie Davis (D)Thomas L. Bailey (D)[n]
1945Benjamin Travis Laney (D)Millard F. Caldwell (D)R. Gregg Cherry (D)Jim Nance McCord (D)Clarence W. Meadows (D)
1946Fielding L. Wright (D)[s]William M. Tuck (D)
1947Jim Folsom (D)Melvin E. Thompson (D)Roy J. Turner (D)Beauford H. Jester (D)[ak]
1948Earle C. Clements (D)[ab]Earl Long (D)
1949Sid McMath (D)Fuller Warren (D)Herman Talmadge (D)W. Kerr Scott (D)Gordon Browning (D)Allan Shivers (D)[s]Okey L. Patteson (D)
1950John S. Battle (D)
1951Gordon Persons (D)Lawrence W. Wetherby (D)[s]Johnston Murray (D)
1952Robert F. Kennon (D)Hugh L. White (D)
1953Francis Cherry (D)Daniel T. McCarty (D)[n]William B. Umstead (D)[n]Frank G. Clement (D)William C. Marland (D)
1954Charley Eugene Johns (D)[al]Luther Hodges (D)[s]Thomas Bahnson Stanley (D)
1955Jim Folsom (D)Orval Faubus (D)LeRoy Collins (D)Marvin Griffin (D)Raymond D. Gary (D)
1956Happy Chandler (D)Earl Long (D)James P. Coleman (D)
1957Price Daniel (D)Cecil H. Underwood (R)
1958J. Lindsay Almond (D)
1959John Malcolm Patterson (D)Ernest Vandiver (D)J. Howard Edmondson (D)Buford Ellington (D)
1960Bert T. Combs (D)Jimmie Davis (D)Ross Barnett (D)
1961C. Farris Bryant (D)Terry Sanford (D)William Wallace Barron (D)
1962Albertis S. Harrison, Jr. (D)
1963George Wallace (D)Carl Sanders (D)Henry Bellmon (R)Frank G. Clement (D)John Connally (D)
1964Edward T. Breathitt (D)John McKeithen (D)Paul B. Johnson, Jr. (D)
1965W. Haydon Burns (D)Dan K. MooreRobert Evander McNair (D)[s]Hulett C. Smith (D)
1966Mills E. Godwin, Jr. (D)
1967Lurleen Wallace (D)[n]Winthrop Rockefeller (R)Claude R. Kirk, Jr. (R)Lester Maddox (D)Dewey F. Bartlett (R)Buford Ellington (D)
1968Louie B. Nunn (R)John Bell Williams (D)
1969Albert Brewer (D)[m]Robert W. Scott (D)Preston Smith (D)Arch A. Moore, Jr. (R)
1970A. Linwood Holton, Jr. (R)
1971George Wallace (D)Dale Bumpers (D)Reubin Askew (D)Jimmy Carter (D)David Hall (D)John C. West (D)Winfield Dunn (R)
1972Wendell H. Ford (D)[ab]Edwin Edwards (D)Bill Waller (D)
1973James Holshouser (R)Dolph Briscoe (D)
1974Mills E. Godwin, Jr. (R)
1975David Pryor (D)George Busbee (D)Julian Carroll (D)[s]David L. Boren (D)James B. Edwards (R)Ray Blanton (D)
1976Cliff Finch (D)
1977James B. Hunt, Jr. (D)Jay Rockefeller (D)
1978John N. Dalton (R)
1979Fob James (D)Bill Clinton (D)Bob Graham (D)George Nigh (D)Richard Riley (D)Lamar Alexander (R)Bill Clements (R)
1980John Y. Brown, Jr. (D)Dave Treen (R)William Winter (D)
1981Frank D. White (R)
1982Chuck Robb (D)
1983George Wallace (D)Bill Clinton (D)[am]Joe Frank Harris (D)Mark White (D)
1984Martha Layne Collins (D)Edwin Edwards (D)William Allain (D)
1985James G. Martin (R)Arch A. Moore, Jr. (R)
1986Gerald L. Baliles (D)
1987H. Guy Hunt (R)[an]Bob Martinez (R)Henry Bellmon (R)Carroll A. Campbell, Jr. (R)Ned McWherter (D)Bill Clements (R)
1988Wallace G. Wilkinson (D)Buddy Roemer (D/R)[ao]Ray Mabus (D)
1989Gaston Caperton (D)
1990Douglas Wilder (D)
1991Lawton Chiles (D)Zell Miller (D)David Walters (D)Ann Richards (D)
1992Brereton Jones (D)Edwin Edwards (D)Kirk Fordice (R)
1993Jim Folsom, Jr. (D)[m]Jim Guy Tucker (D)[s][ap]James B. Hunt, Jr. (D)
1994George Allen (R)
1995Fob James (R)Frank Keating (R)David Beasley (R)Don Sundquist (R)George W. Bush (R)[am]
1996Paul E. Patton (D)Murphy J. Foster, Jr. (R)
1997Mike Huckabee (R)[s]Cecil H. Underwood (R)
1998Jim Gilmore (R)
1999Don Siegelman (D)Jeb Bush (R)Roy Barnes (D)Jim Hodges (D)
2000Ronnie Musgrove (D)
2001Mike Easley (D)Rick Perry (R)[s]Bob Wise (D)
2002Mark Warner (D)
2003Bob Riley (R)Sonny Perdue (R)Brad Henry (D)Mark Sanford (R)Phil Bredesen (D)
2004Ernie Fletcher (R)Kathleen Blanco (D)Haley Barbour (R)
2005Joe Manchin (D)[aq]
2006Tim Kaine (D)
2007Mike Beebe (D)Charlie Crist (R/I)[ar]
2008Steve Beshear (D)Bobby Jindal (R)
2009Beverly Perdue (D)
2010Bob McDonnell (R)
2011Robert Bentley (R) [as]Rick Scott (R)Nathan Deal (R)Mary Fallin (R)Nikki Haley (R)Bill Haslam (R)Earl Ray Tomblin (D)[at]
2012Phil Bryant (R)
2013Pat McCrory (R)
2014Terry McAuliffe (D)
2015Asa Hutchinson (R)Greg Abbott (R)
2016Matt Bevin (R)John Bel Edwards (D)
2017Kay Ivey (R) [au]Roy Cooper (D)Henry McMaster (R)Jim Justice (D/R)[av]
2018Ralph Northam (D)
2019Ron DeSantis (R)Brian Kemp (R)Kevin Stitt (R)Bill Lee (R)
2020Andy Beshear (D)Tate Reeves (R)
2022Glenn Youngkin (R)
YearAlabamaArkansasFloridaGeorgiaKentuckyLouisianaMississippiNorth CarolinaOklahomaSouth CarolinaTennesseeTexasVirginiaWest Virginia

See also


  1. ^ Despite the South's excessive representation relative to voting population, the Great Migration did cause Mississippi to lose Congressional districts following the 1930 and 1950 Censuses, whilst South Carolina and Alabama also lost Congressional seats after the former Census and Arkansas following the latter.
  2. ^ a b c Electoral votes awarded by the Electoral Commission
  3. ^ Oklahoma was not a state until 1907 and did not vote in presidential elections until 1908
  4. ^ One of Tennessee's electoral votes went to Strom Thurmond.
  5. ^ One of Alabama's electoral votes went to Walter B. Jones.
  6. ^ Five of Alabama's electoral votes went to John F. Kennedy.
  7. ^ One of Oklahoma's electoral votes went to Harry F. Byrd.
  8. ^ One North Carolina Republican elector switched his vote to Wallace.
  9. ^ One Virginia Republican elector switched his vote to John Hospers.
  10. ^ One West Virginia Democratic elector switched her vote to Lloyd Bentsen.
  11. ^ One Texas Republican elector switched their vote to John Kasich, and another cast his vote for Ron Paul.
  12. ^ Since both the Governor and Lieutenant Governor had been impeached, the former resigning and the latter being removed from office, Stone, as president of the Senate, was next in line for the governorship. Filled unexpired term and was later elected in his own right.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Died in office.
  15. ^ Resigned upon appointment as Assistant Secretary of the Treasury.
  16. ^ Did not run for re-election in 1888, but due to the election's being disputed, remained in office until February 6, 1890.
  17. ^ Elected in 1888 for a term beginning in 1891, an election dispute prevented Fleming from taking office until February 6, 1890
  18. ^ William S. Taylor (R) was sworn in and assumed office, but the state legislature challenged the validity of his election, claiming ballot fraud. William Goebel (D), his challenger in the election, was shot on January 30, 1900. The next day, the legislature named Goebel governor. However, Goebel died from his wounds three days later.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n As lieutenant governor, acted as governor for unexpired term and was subsequently elected in his own right.
  20. ^ As President of the state Senate, filled unexpired term and was subsequently elected in his own right.
  21. ^ Gubernatorial terms were increased from two to four years during Jelks' governorship; his first term was filling out Samford's two-year term, and he was elected in 1902 for a four-year term.
  22. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate. March 21, 1905
  23. ^ As Speaker of the Senate, ascended to the governorship.
  24. ^ The elected governor, Hoke Smith, resigned to take his elected seat in the United States Senate. John M. Slaton, president of the senate, served as acting governor until Joseph M. Brown was elected governor in a special election.
  25. ^ The elected Governor, Joseph Taylor Robinson, resigned on March 8, 1913 to take an elected seat in the United States Senate. President of the state Senate William Kavanaugh Oldham acted as governor for six days before a new Senate President was elected. Junius Marion Futrell, as the new president of the senate, acted as governor until a special election.
  26. ^ Elected in a special election.
  27. ^ Resigned on the initiation of impeachment proceedings. Aug. 25, 1917.
  28. ^ a b c Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  29. ^ Impeached and removed from office. November 19, 1923
  30. ^ Died in his third term of office. October 2, 1927.
  31. ^ Resigned to be a judge on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Arkansas.
  32. ^ Impeached and removed from office. March 21, 1929
  33. ^ As Speaker of the Senate, ascended to the governorship. Subsequently elected for two full terms.
  34. ^ Paul N. Cyr was lieutenant governor under Huey Long and stated that he would succeed Long when Long left for the Senate, but Long demanded Cyr forfeit his office. King, as president of the state Senate, was elevated to lieutenant governor and later governor.
  35. ^ Resigned to take an appointed seat in the United States Senate.
  36. ^ Resigned upon victory in the Democratic primary for the United States Senate, August 4, 1941.
  37. ^ Died in office. July 11, 1949
  38. ^ As President of the state Senate, filled unexpired term.
  39. ^ a b Resigned upon election to the Presidency of the United States.
  40. ^ Removed from office upon being convicted of illegally using campaign and inaugural funds to pay personal debts; he was later pardoned by the state parole board based on innocence.
  41. ^ Elected as a Democrat in 1987 but switched to Republican in 1991.
  42. ^ Resigned after being convicted of mail fraud in the Whitewater scandal.
  43. ^ Resigned to take an elected seat in the U.S. Senate. November 15, 2010
  44. ^ Elected as a Republican, Crist switched his registration to independent in April 2010.
  45. ^ Resigned April 10, 2017.
  46. ^ As president of the Senate, served as acting governor until he won a special election in 2011.
  47. ^ As Lieutenant Governor, succeeded to governorship upon resignation of Robert Bentley on April 10, 2017.
  48. ^ Elected as a Democrat, Justice switched his registration to Republican in August 2017.


  1. ^ Dewey W. Grantham, The Life and Death of the Solid South: A Political History (1992).
  2. ^ "US Census Region Map" (PDF).
  3. ^ Jordan, David M. (1988). Winfield Scott Hancock: A Soldier's Life. Indiana University Press. p. 305.
  4. ^ "Archives of Maryland Historical List: Constitutional Convention, 1864". November 1, 1864. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
  5. ^ "Missouri abolishes slavery". January 11, 1865. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
  6. ^ "Tennessee State Convention: Slavery Declared Forever Abolished". NY Times. January 14, 1865. Retrieved 2012-11-18.
  7. ^ "On this day: 1865-FEB-03". Retrieved 2012-11-18.
  8. ^ "Slavery in Delaware". Retrieved 2012-11-18.
  9. ^ Lowell Hayes Harrison and James C. Klotter (1997). A new history of Kentucky. p. 180. ISBN 978-0813126210. In 1866, Kentucky refused to ratify the 13th Amendment. It did ratify it in 1976.
  10. ^ George C. Rable, But There Was No Peace: The Role of Violence in the Politics of Reconstruction (1984), p. 132
  11. ^ Gordon B. McKinney, Southern Mountain Republicans, 1865–1900: Politics and the Appalachian Community (1998)
  12. ^ C. Van Woodward, The Origins of the New South, 1877–1913 (1951) pp 235–90
  13. ^ a b c d Richard M. Valelly, The Two Reconstructions: The Struggle for Black Enfranchisement University of Chicago Press, 2009, pp. 146–147
  14. ^ Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000, p.10, Accessed 10 Mar 2008
  15. ^ Glenn Feldman, The Disenfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004, pp. 135–136
  16. ^ Michael Perman.Struggle for Mastery: Disenfranchisement (sic) in the South, 1888–1908 (2001), Introduction
  17. ^ Jeffery A. Jenkins, Justin Peck, and Vesla M. Weaver. "Between Reconstructions: Congressional Action on Civil Rights, 1891–1940." Studies in American Political Development 24#1 (2010): 57–89. online
  18. ^ Connie Rice: Top 10 Election Myths to Get Rid Of : NPR The situation in Louisiana was an example—see John N. Pharr, Regular Democratic Organization#Reconstruction & aftermath, and the note to Murphy J. Foster (who served as governor of Louisiana from 1892 to 1900).
  19. ^ Presidential election of 1900 – Map by Counties (and subsequent years)
  20. ^ a b Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016
  21. ^ Kari A. Frederickson, The Dixiecrat Revolt and the End of the Solid South, 1932–1968 (2001).
  22. ^ "Moving Ahead: What Election 2016 Meant for State Legislatures".
  23. ^ Foner, Eric, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877, Harper Collins, 2002, p. 38
  24. ^ Snell, Mark A., West Virginia and the Civil War. History Press, 2011, p. 28
  25. ^ Bastress, Robert M., The West Virginia State Constitution, Oxford Univ. Press, 2011, p. 21
  26. ^ Ambler, Charles Henry, A History of West Virginia, Prentice-Hall, 1937, p. 376.
  27. ^ Williams, John Alexander, West Virginia, a History, W. W. Norton, 1984, p. 94
  28. ^ Herbert, Hilary Abner Why the Solid South? Or, Reconstruction and Its Results, R. H. Woodward, 1890, pp. 258–284
  29. ^ Tumulty, Karen (26 October 2013). "A Blue State's Road to Red". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  30. ^ Woodruff, Betsy (29 October 2014). "Goodbye West Virginia". Slate. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  31. ^ Dawson, Marion L.,Will the South Be Solid Again?, The North American Review, Volume 164, 1897, pp. 193–198 [1]
  32. ^ Too Close to Call: Presidential Electors and Elections in Maryland, featuring the Presidential Election of 1904. Archives of Maryland Documents for the Classroom.
  33. ^ Second Thoughts: Reflections on the Great Society New Perspectives Quarterly, Winter 1987
  34. ^ Rosenberg, Paul (December 8, 2015), "The South won the Civil War: White men, racial resentment, and how the Bitter Minority came to rule us all", Salon
  35. ^ "Nation: SPIRO AGNEW: THE KING'S TASTER". Time. 1969-11-14. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2021-10-17.
  36. ^ Johnson, Thomas A. (August 13, 1968). "Negro Leaders See Bias in Call Of Nixon for 'Law and Order'". The New York Times. p. 27. Retrieved 2008-08-02.(subscription required)
  37. ^ Greenberg, David (November 20, 2007). "Dog-Whistling Dixie: When Reagan said "states' rights," he was talking about race". Slate. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012.
  38. ^ "Nixon in Dixie", The American Conservative magazine
  39. ^ Ted Van Dyk. "How the Election of 1968 Reshaped the Democratic Party", Wall Street Journal, 2008
  40. ^ Childs, Marquis (June 8, 1970). "Wallace's Victory Weakens Nixon's Southern Strategy". The Morning Record.
  41. ^ Hart, Jeffrey (2006-02-09). The Making of the American Conservative Mind (television). Hanover, New Hampshire: C-SPAN.
  42. ^ Farnswoth, Stephen and Hanna, Stephen (16 November 2012). "Why Virginia's purple is starting to look rather blue". Washington Post. Retrieved 24 July 2016.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

Further reading

  • Feldman, Glenn (2015). The Great Melding: War, the Dixiecrat Rebellion, and the Southern Model for America's New Conservatism. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
  • Feldman, Glenn (2013). The Irony of the Solid South: Democrats, Republicans, and Race, 1864-1944. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
  • Frederickson, Kari A. (2001). The Dixiecrat Revolt and the End of the Solid South, 1932–1968. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Grantham, Dewey W. (1992). The Life and Death of the Solid South. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky.
  • Herbert, Hilary A., et al. (1890). Why the Solid South? Or, Reconstruction and Its Results. Baltimore, MD: R. H. Woodward & Co.
  • Sabato, Larry (1977). The Democratic Party Primary in Virginia: Tantamount to Election No Longer. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia.

Media files used on this page

Solid South 1880 to 1912.jpg
The U.S. political region known as the "Solid South" and the voting in presidential elections from 1880-1912.
DemocraticSolidSouth 1876-1964.png
(c) Nbpolitico at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0
A map of the states of the "Democratic Solid South" showing their voting patterns from 1876 through 1964.
Political cartoon from 1904 US Presidential election. "The Mysterious Stranger". Depicts the state of Missouri leaving the "Solid South" (Democratic) to join the states voting Republican.