Shoulder pads (fashion)

Jazz singer Ann Hathaway, wearing a coat with shoulder pads, walking on Washington Square, New York, 1947

Shoulder pads are a type of fabric-covered padding used in men's and women's clothing to give the wearer the illusion of having broader and less sloping shoulders. In the beginning, shoulder pads were shaped as a semicircle or small triangle, and were stuffed with wool, cotton or sawdust. They were positioned at the top of the sleeve, to extend the shoulder line. A good example of this is their use in "leg o' mutton" sleeves, or the smaller puffed sleeves which were revived at this time, and were based on styles from the 1890s. In men's styles, shoulder pads are often used in suits, jackets and overcoats, usually sewn at the top of the shoulder and fastened between the lining and the outer fabric layer. In women's clothing, their inclusion depends by the fashion taste of the day. Although from a non-fashion point of view they are generally for people with narrow or sloping shoulders, there are also quite a few cases in which shoulder pads will be necessary for a suit or blazer in order to compensate for certain fabrics' natural properties, most notably suede blazers, due to the weight of the material. They were popular additions to clothing (particularly business clothing) during the 1940s, 1980s, early 1990s, late 2000s and early 2010s.

1930 to 1945

Shoulder pads originally became popular for women in the 1930s when fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli included them in her designs of 1931. The following year Joan Crawford wore them in the film "Letty Lynton"[1] in a dress designed by costume designer, Adrian. This dress was widely copied and sold in Macy's department stores, helping to popularize the look.[2]

After World War II began in 1939, women's fashions became increasingly militarised. Jackets, coats, and even dresses in particular were influenced by masculine styles and shoulder pads became bulkier and were positioned at the top of the shoulder to create a solid look. In 1945, Joan Crawford wore a fur coat with wide, exaggerated shoulders also designed by Adrian in the film Mildred Pierce.

Soon the style was universal, found in all garments excepting lingerie but tapering off later in the decade after the war was over and women yearned for a softer, more feminine look.

In men's fashion, zoot suits had own share of popularity. Basically, a zoot suit is based on "regular" 2-piece suit, yet one or two sizes larger, so it was supposed to be padded "like a lunatic's cell".

During this period, stiff, felt-covered cotton batting was the material used for most shoulder pads, a combination that didn't hold its shape very well when washed.[3]

1945 to 1970

During the late 1940s to about 1951, some dresses featured a soft, smaller shoulder pad with so little padding as to be barely noticeable. Its function seems to have been to slightly shape the shoulder line.

By the 1950s, shoulder pads appeared only in jackets and coats—not in dresses, knitwear or blouses as they had previously during the heyday of the early 1940s. By the early 1960s, these slowly became less noticeable and midway through the decade, shoulder pads had disappeared.

1970s

Shoulder pads made their next appearance in women's clothing in the early 1970s, through the influence of British fashion designer Barbara Hulanicki and her label Biba. Biba produced designs influenced by the styles of the 1930s and 1940s, and so a soft version of the shoulder pad was revived. Ossie Clark was another London designer using shoulder pads at the time. A couple of Paris designers also presented padded shoulders during the early 1970s, leading designer Yves Saint Laurent in his 1940s-inspired couture collections of 1970 and 1971[4] and Thierry Mugler, who would become very prominent in the 1980s, in his first, almost unheralded collection in 1971.[5] Though worn by fashion groupies in London and Paris, these styles did not reach mainstream acceptance – Saint Laurent's forties-revival attempts in particular were widely criticized,[6][7] and so the popularity was relatively short lived, with designers showing and the public preferring the relaxed, natural clothing styles typical of the times,[8][9] a norm that would last through the mid-1970s.

For fall 1978, however, designers in all fashion capitals would suddenly endorse wide, padded shoulders across the board, introducing the broad-shouldered styles that would characterize the 1980s.[10][11][12][13][14] Yves Saint Laurent would be the first to introduce the trend this time,[15] showing a handful of padded-shoulder jackets over slim trousers in a January, 1978, collection, a couple of months before the rest of the fashion world took it up, when there would be two distinct versions of it. The first, favored by Saint Laurent, Karl Lagerfeld for Chloé, Thierry Mugler, Claude Montana, Pierre Cardin, Jean-Claude de Luca, Anne Marie Beretta, France Andrevie,[16] and a number of others, was an explicit but exaggerated 1940s-revival silhouette based largely on tailored suits and dresses, though more a slim-skirted haute couture forties look than the flared-skirt, World World II Utility Suit-inspired shapes flirted with by Saint Laurent in the early seventies. This first version was referred to as retro and included 1940s accessories,[17][18] some mid-20th-century sci-fi looks,[19][20] and military influences.[21] The second was a more contemporary sportswear look in which shoulder pads were added to easy but slimmed-down casualwear, favored by designers like Perry Ellis,[22][23] Norma Kamali,[24] and Giorgio Armani.[25]

This time, the shoulder pads used, even when enormous, were much lighter and held their shape better than the ones used in the 1940s, now most often made of foam and other lightweight, well-shaped, moldable materials.[26] As shoulder pads hadn't been this common in womenswear in decades, some in the fashion industry worried that the tailoring skills necessary for them had been lost.[27] Initially, this big change from the natural shoulder of the sixties and seventies would seem extreme[28] (and it often was,[29][30] with Pierre Cardin[31] and Claude Montana[32] even showing pagoda shoulders that echoed Piguet's 1936 paddle-shaped shoulders[33]), but subdued versions of the new line were accepted by the public[34] and the padded-shoulder look was so strongly insisted on by designers starting in fall 1978 that by the mid-1980s, it would be ubiquitous among women on the street.[35]

Standard, mass-market menswear during the 1970s continued to feature standard, unobtrusive shoulder pads shaping suits and sport jackets, but more high fashion menswear basically followed the same trajectory as high fashion womenswear, with a delay of about a season or two. Thus, there was a removal of shoulder pads and other internal structuring during the easy, oversized, unconstructed Big Look era of the mid-seventies, spearheaded in womenswear by Kenzo Takada in 1974[36][37] and in menswear by Giorgio Armani a couple of years later.[38] When high fashion womenswear reverted to highly structured garments with big shoulder pads for fall of 1978, high fashion menswear followed suit the following year,[39] with even Armani adding unusually pronounced shoulder pads to his men's jackets,[40][41] a trend thst would continue during the following decade.

1980s

The early 1980s continued a trend begun in the late 1970s toward a resurgence of interest in the ladies' evening wear styles of the early 1940s, with peplums, batwing sleeves and other design elements of the times reinterpreted for a new market.[42][43][44][45][46] The shoulder pad helped define the silhouette[47] and continued to be made in the cut foam versions introduced in the fall 1978 collections,[48] especially in well-cut suits reminiscent of the World War II era. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was internationally noted for her adoption of these fashions, though they were already very common at the time.[49][50] Before too long, these masculinized shapes were adopted by women seeking success in the corporate world and became an icon of women's attempts to smash the glass ceiling, a mission that was also aided by their notable appearance in the TV series Dynasty.[51]

As the decade wore on, shoulder pads became the defining fashion statement of the era, known as power dressing and bestowing the perception of status and position onto those who wore them. Even the most exaggerated shoulder pad sizes from the fall 1978 introduction of the trend became accepted and even ubiquitous among the public by the mid-eighties.[52] Every garment from the brassiere upwards would come with its own set of shoulder pads, with women frequently layering one shoulder-padded garment atop another, a trend begun by designer Perry Ellis in 1978.[53] To prevent excessive shoulder padding, velcro was sewn onto the pads so that the wearer could choose how many sets to wear.[54] By the end of the era, some mass-market shoulder pads were the size of dinner plates, as large as the most exaggerated of the high fashion Thierry Mugler[55] and Claude Montana[56] pads shown at the fall 1978 start of the era.

1990s

The shoulder pad fashion carried over from the late 1980s with continued popularity in the early 1990s, but the wearer's tastes were changing due to the backlash against 1980s culture. Some designers continued to produce ranges featuring shoulder pads into the mid-1990s, as shoulder pads were prominent in women's formal suits, and matching top-bottom attire, highly exampled in earlier episodes of The Nanny from 1993 and 1994. But as the decade wore on, the styles were outdated and were shunned by young and fashion-conscious wearers. Appearances were reduced to smaller, subtler versions augmenting the shoulder lines of jackets and coats.

2000s and 2010s

The late 2000s and early 2010s saw the resurgence of shoulder pads. Many young women imitated pop artists, mainly Lady Gaga and Rihanna, who were known for their use of shoulder pads in their stylistic outfits. There was a large presence of shoulder pads on many runways, in fashion designer collections, and a revival of 1980s trends became mainstream among many people who were interested in them. By the 2009-2010 seasons, shoulder pads had made their way back into the mainstream market.[57] By 2010 many retailers like Wal-Mart had shoulder pads on at least half of all women's tops and blouses.[58]

The late 2010s saw another resurgence of shoulder pads. With the rise of the Me Too movement and other female empowerment movements, the increase of women being elected to political positions, and a continuing revival of 1980s trends, many are opting to wear clothes with shoulder pads.[59][60]

See also

References

  1. ^ Amy De La Haye 1988, Fashion Source Book, London, Quarto Publishing, 69,ISBN 0-356-15928-0
  2. ^ "Adrian, The Hatmaker's Son Who Dressed America - New England Historical Society". www.newenglandhistoricalsociety.com. Retrieved 2018-08-15.
  3. ^ McEvoy, Marion (1978-11-12). "Where the Pads Come From". The New York Times: 240. Retrieved 2021-11-21. In the 40's,...shoulder pads were almost always made of stiff cotton batting and covered with felt....The pads looked great until the dress or coat was washed, in which case there were noticeable lumps and bumps.
  4. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1970". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. pp. 316, 317. ISBN 0-670-80172-0.
  5. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1971". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 322. ISBN 0-670-80172-0.
  6. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1970-07-24). "Saint Laurent, Ungaro and Dior: Many Styles, No New Look". The New York Times: 37. Retrieved 2021-12-03. Yves Saint Laurent was good for a few laughs...An obvious tart...sashayed through the salon. She represented the spirit of the nineteen-forties....The first spurts of laughter were followed by nervous reflection....Was Saint Laurent making fun of the nineteen-forties–or the audience? Or was the whole collection one big parody of fashion?
  7. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1971-02-02). "Now Why Are They Throwing Brickbats at Saint Laurent?". The New York Times: 42. Retrieved 2021-12-03. Yves Saint Laurent['s]...spring collection...recalled the terrible time of collaborationists in France, bombings in London and wartime austerity in the United States....The forties trend is...inescapable in the Saint Laurent clothes. His shoulders may not be the widest in Paris, but they seemed so.
  8. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1976-01-01). "70's Fashion: Sportswear at the Summit". The New York Times: 36. Retrieved 2021-12-10. [T]he 1970's will be marked by clothes divided into many easy pieces that can be added to or subtracted from, according to the weather, personal preferences and the feeling of the moment.... Construction will continue to be simplified so that clothes become increasingly less bulky and more flowing. The style of the 1970's is low on artifice, high on a natural look. Casual is the operative word.
  9. ^ Mount, jr., Roy (1979-01-01). "Fashion". The New York Times: 18. Retrieved 2021-12-08. In the 1970's...[s]portswear emerged as the dominant theme, implying a relaxed fit and considerable versatility, since most clothes were made in interchangeable parts....For a number of years, it offered a serviceable way of dressing, geared to active women's lives, adjusting to vagaries of climate, adapting easily to travel requirements. As the sportswear onslaught continued, clothes lost their linings and interfacings, becoming softer, looser, less structured. Almost everything became as comfortable to wear as a sweater.
  10. ^ Larkin, Kathy (1979-01-01). "Fashion". 1979 Collier's Yearbook Covering the Year 1978. Crowell-Collier Publishing Company. pp. 249–252. In women's fashion, 1978 was a year of great change. It began with women submerged under layers of soft shapeless clothing...But the year ended with the same women shedding layers to emerge with a revamped fashion silhouette reminiscent of the 1940's, a look characterized by broad, even padded shoulders, tight waistlines, and shorter, straighter skirts....[D]esigners in Milan, Paris, and New York showed fall ready-to-wear collections that almost simultaneously reached the same conclusion....broad-shouldered fashions, the pared-down look of fewer layers, and the neater waist...huge shoulders, puffed sleeves to emphasize width further...[T]he fashion message was clear: Broad shoulders were in.
  11. ^ Sweetinburgh, Thelma (1979-01-01). "Fashion and Dress (1978)". 1979 Britannica Book of the Year. New York, New York, USA: Encyclopedia Britannica. p. 378. ISBN 9780852293621. As fall approached, broader shoulders and slimmer hips conferred a trapezoid shape reminiscent of the 1940s...A major silhouette change in 1978 emphasized a broadened shoulder...
  12. ^ Donovan, Carrie (1978-11-12). "Why the Big Change Now". The New York Times: 226. Retrieved 2021-11-15. Fashion this fall has taken a dramatic new turn. Line, cut and shape are all controlled by the new wide shoulder.
  13. ^ McEvoy, Marian (1978-11-12). "Where the Pads Come From". The New York Times: 240. The return of shoulder pads is the big news this fall.
  14. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1978-04-11). "Shaking Fashion". The New York Times: 30. What thousands of fashion followers are muttering as they crisscross [Paris] to see the new fashions for fall and winter...is 'shoulders, shoulders, shoulders'.
  15. ^ Donovan, Carrie (1978-11-12). "Why the Big Change Now". The New York Times: SM226. Retrieved 2021-11-15. Yves Saint Laurent — the most influential fashion designer in the world — is being credited with starting this fall's dramatic shift of silhouette....What Saint Laurent sprang on the fashion world last January when he introduced man‐tailored suit jackets with shoulders squared out with padding...has now become staple fashion in Italy, France and America. As if by magic, wider-shouldered and leaner‐lined clothes have shown up everywhere at every price level. Fashion has taken a new turn.
  16. ^ Duka, John (1978-11-13). "Paris is Yesterday". New York. 11 (46): 112. Retrieved 2021-12-11. At Andrevie...shoulders were almost three feet wide.
  17. ^ Sweetinburgh, Thelma (1979). "Fashion and Dress". 1979 Britannica Book of the Year: Events of 1978. New York, New York, USA: Encyclopedia Britannica. pp. 378–379. ISBN 9780852293621. Designer after designer showed...the 'retro' look...of the 1940's....From the old days of Hollywood came puffed sleeves,...hats and veils,...rolled or pompadoured hairstyles of the 1940s,...seamed hose,...and even gloves.
  18. ^ Duka, John (1978-11-13). "Paris is Yesterday". New York. 11 (46): 112. Retrieved 2021-12-11. Lagerfeld...has brought back the Merry Widow corselet, whalebone stays and all.
  19. ^ Duka, John (1978-11-13). "Paris is Yesterday". New York. 11 (46): 111–112. Retrieved 2021-12-11. On the Flash Gordon side of French ready-to-wear Retro are such designers as Claude Montana, Thierry Mugler, and France Andrevie....At Montana, it took the form of...Italian fascist gone science-fiction fantasy....At Mugler,...a big-shouldered Flash Gordon jacket...
  20. ^ "Fashion View". The New York Times: SM6. 1979-12-30. Retrieved 2021-12-10. ...Claude Montana's Mongolian Martian Look and Thierry Mugler's Star Trekesque gigantic shoulders....
  21. ^ Larkin, Kathy (1979). "Fashion". 1979 Collier's Yearbook Covering the Year 1978. Crowell-Collier Publishing Company. p. 252. Designers everywhere were also being influenced by the World War II era in another way, as clothes took on a military look....[A]ccessories like World War Ii infantry caps, military ribbons, and bandolier belts abounded.
  22. ^ Donovan, Carrie (1978-11-06). "The New Look, Hit or Miss?". The New York Times: 58. Retrieved 2021-12-10. ...Perry Ellis’s breezy designs with exaggerated, almost pillow‐padded shoulders...
  23. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1978-04-25). "Ellis Joins Blass in Fashion's Firmament". The New York Times: 42. Retrieved 2021-12-10. ...[T]he Ellis clothes...look absolutely comfortable and relaxed...Shoulders are padded...Mr. Ellis said he had no compunctions about adding padded coat to padded jacket to padded sweater.
  24. ^ Duka, John (1978-07-11). "Norma Kamali is Heading Out on Her Own". The New York Times: C2. Retrieved 2021-12-10. Norma Kamali...has become famous for her parachute dresses, sexy, shirred bathing suits, pegged, draped skirts...and...padded shoulders.
  25. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1978-04-04). "In Milan, the Classic Prevailed Over the Romantic". The New York Times: 28. Retrieved 2021-12-10. Armani's...gift for fall is a long jacket suit with military shoulders...It accompanies pants, skirts or culottes and it sometimes has epaulets....[S]oftening agents take the curse off the military look....It has broad, padded shoulders...
  26. ^ McEvoy, Marian (1978-11-12). "Where the Pads Come From". The New York Times: 240. Today, shoulder pads are...often constructed of foam, nonwoven polyester filler, reprocessed cotton felt, ozite and sanforized or nylon thread...The result is a pad which retains its shape and doesn't disintegrate when washed....Average weight is about one ounce.
  27. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1978-04-04). "In Milan, the Classic Prevailed Over the Romantic". The New York Times: 28. Retrieved 2021-12-10. Bergdorf Goodman's Leonard Hanken...remark[ed], 'We'll have to train a whole new generation of tailors to put in shoulder pads properly. It's a lost art'.
  28. ^ Donovan, Carrie (1978-11-12). "Why the Big Change Now". The New York Times: 226. Retrieved 2021-11-15. Saint Laurent['s]...man‐tailored suit jackets with shoulders squared out with padding...looked not only boldly aggressive but startling and totally unexpected...
  29. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1979". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 364. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. A hard, constructed, uncompromising silhouette prevailed: padded shoulders, sometimes three feet wide...
  30. ^ McEvoy, Marian (1978-11-12). "Where the Pads Come From". The New York Times: 240. [Shoulder pad manufacturer Harold] Lopato picks up what looks like a hunk of mattress stuffing...'This,' he pronounces proudly, 'is our three-inch-thick shoulder pad which we worked out with [designer] Bill Kaiserman.'
  31. ^ Hyde, Nina S. (1979-10-21). "Fashion From Paris". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2021-12-19. [B]ig pagoda shoulders...were [Cardin's] favorite silhouette...last March.
  32. ^ Taylor, Angela (1979-09-07). "Claude Montana's Space-Age Styles Touch Down on West 54th Street". The New York Times: A16. Retrieved 2021-12-18. [Montana's] shoulders...turned up at the ends, like pagoda roofs.
  33. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1936". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 142. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. ...Piguet's [shoulders] were shaped like canoe paddles, rising nearly to the ears.
  34. ^ Donovan, Carrie (1978-11-06). "The New Look, Hit of Miss?". The New York Times: 58. Retrieved 2021-12-10. [T]he new look took — mostly in the less extreme versions, but with a few surprises. Broader shoulders have been accepted, up to a point.
  35. ^ McColl, Patricia (1985-03-17). "Paris Takes a Wide View". The New York Times: 69. ...[S]houlders [are] now [1985] proportioned to sports-page, rather than fashion-page, dimensions...Customers...don't seem to be bothered by the exaggerated shoulders. After all, they make the waist and hips look smaller.
  36. ^ Salmans, Sandra (1974-08-25). "Seventh Avenue". The New York Times: 96. Retrieved 2021-12-10. ...[T]he Big Look...was pioneered in Paris a year ago by Kenzo Takada...with absurdly large skirts and coats....[T]he look features long skirts, dropped shoulders, dolman sleeves and large armholes, blouson jackets, blowing capes, and loose dresses–all laid on with layers of fabric.
  37. ^ Mulvagh, Jane (1988). "1974". Vogue History of 20th Century Fashion. London, England: Viking, the Penguin Group. p. 337. ISBN 0-670-80172-0. Kenzo anticipated a major change this winter by creating a full, circular skirt, easily caught by the wind...The replacement of the short, kicky skirt by the longer, fuller style was the most important change in the silhouette...The new coat and cape shapes were also looser, fuller and longer – the hemline was anywhere from 3 inches below the knee to the ankle. This voluminous, unconstructed style was christened the 'Big Look'.
  38. ^ La Ferla, Ruth (1990-10-21). "Fashion: Sizing Up Giorgio Armani". The New York Times: 55. Retrieved 2021-12-10. [Armani's] career has been punctuated by a series of radical gestures, beginning with the unconstructed blazer of the mid-1970's - his epochal creation....The blazer, a calculatedly rumpled affair, featured sloping shoulders, narrow lapels, baggy pockets and an attenuated line. More importantly, it was endowed with a mobility previously unknown in men's suit jackets, except on Savile Row. It had the kind of comfort found only in sports clothing, which he achieved in part by stripping out much of its cumbersome lining and padding.
  39. ^ Alexander, Ron (1979-09-16). "Shoulder It, Men: Padding is Back". The New York Times: CN21. Retrieved 2021-12-10. Even men who shrug at fashion will probably find themselves in jackets with padded shoulders this fall. Broad shoulders are back...Calvin Klein['s]...shoulders are broad, not extreme, but there is definite padding....Pierre Cardin refers to his new silhouette as 'an upside-down triangle',...designing clothes with broader shoulders...Yves Saint Laurent...is building [shoulders] up again....Bill Kaiserman advocates...'strong but not extreme' shoulders....Lee Wright designs...clothing...inspired by the Italian V-silhouette...
  40. ^ Russell, Mary (1979-03-04). "Men's Fashion". The New York Times: SM19. Retrieved 2021-12-10. Armani's 1979 jackets are wide at the shoulder with a narrowing at the waist and low button closing.
  41. ^ La Ferla, Ruth (1990-10-21). "Fashion: Sizing Up Giorgio Armani". The New York Times: 55. Retrieved 2021-12-10. At the end of the 1970's, Armani altered his style dramatically. Taking his design cues from Hollywood costumes of the 1930's and 40's, he widened the lapels of his suits and extended and padded the shoulders.
  42. ^ Katan, V. "Women's Shoulder Pads". Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  43. ^ Larkin, Kathy (1979). "Fashion". 1979 Collier's Yearbook Covering the Year 1978. Crowell-Collier Publishing Company. pp. 249–252. (see previous Larkin citation)
  44. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1978-12-29). "This Season, Jackets Shape Up Shorter". The New York Times: A15. Retrieved 2021-12-08. Shoulders tend to be padded now or given greater width through puffs at the top of the sleeves...And the peplum jacket is reappearing...It's part of fashion's retro mood that...echoes...the 1940's.
  45. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1979-04-10). "Impresarios of Fashion Preside at Les Halles". The New York Times: C12. Retrieved 2021-12-08. Karl Lagerfeld['s]...jackets have peplums that jut out from sharply belted waistlines.
  46. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1979-07-25). "Paris: A Peplum and Puffed Sleeve Revival". The New York Times: C16. Retrieved 2021-12-08. The shape that Paris couturiers seem to have agreed upon for fall is the tightly fitted jacket with a small peplum...[w]ith puffed-top, leg-of-mutton sleeves
  47. ^ McColl, Patricia (1985-03-17). "Paris Takes a Wide View". The New York Times: 69. Retrieved 2021-12-08. ...Karl Lagerfeld pronounces, 'Shoulders are the roof of a house'.
  48. ^ McEvoy, Marian (1978-11-12). "Where the Pads Come From". The New York Times: 240. Retrieved 2021-11-15. (see previous McEvoy citations)
  49. ^ "Shoulder pads: A history". The Independent.
  50. ^ "Style Icon: Margaret Thatcher". oxfordstudent.com.
  51. ^ Amy De La Haye 1988, Fashion Source Book, London, Quarto Publishing, 170,ISBN 0-356-15928-0
  52. ^ McColl, Patricia (1985-03-17). "Paris Takes a Wide View". The New York Times: 69. Retrieved 2021-11-15. (see previous McColl citation)
  53. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1978-04-25). "Ellis Joins Blass in Fashion's Firmament". The New York Times: 42. Retrieved 2021-12-10. Mr. Ellis said he had no compunctions about adding padded coat to padded jacket to padded sweater.
  54. ^ "Shoulder Pads". V&A Explore the Collections. Retrieved 2021-12-11.
  55. ^ Morris, Bernadine (1979-04-09). "Paris Fashions Unveiled in Super Bowl Style". The New York Times: D8. Retrieved 2021-12-08. Montana and Mugler both pioneered the giant shoulder‐pad movement last year [1978]...
  56. ^ McColl, Patricia (1985-03-17). "Paris Takes a Wide View". The New York Times: 69. Retrieved 2021-11-15. As for Claude Montana, who is to big shoulders what Alexander Graham Bell is to the telephone, fashion is simple: 'Shoulders forever,' he says.
  57. ^ "Poof! Shoulder pads puff back". New York Daily News.
  58. ^ Glamour Magazine. "Trend Alert: Shoulder Pads Are Back!". Glamour.
  59. ^ "Our Favorite Throwback Trend Has a History of Female Empowerment". Coveteur. 2019-04-04. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
  60. ^ Kim, Leena (2020-11-09). "Long Live Alexis Carrington: Dynasty Shoulders Are Back!". Town & Country. Retrieved 2020-12-19.

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(Portrait of Ann Hathaway, Washington Square, New York, N.Y., ca. May 1947) (LOC) (5306387953) (cropped).jpg

Gottlieb, William P., 1917-, photographer.

[Portrait of Ann Hathaway, Washington Square, New York, N.Y., ca. May 1947]

1 negative : b&w ; 3 1/4 x 4 1/4 in.

Notes: Gottlieb Collection Assignment No. 545 Purchase William P. Gottlieb Forms part of: William P. Gottlieb Collection (Library of Congress).

Subjects: Hathaway, Ann Women jazz musicians--1940-1950. Jazz singers--1940-1950.

Format: Portrait photographs--1940-1950. Film negatives--1940-1950.

Rights Info: Mr. Gottlieb has dedicated these works to the public domain, but rights of privacy and publicity may apply. lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/html/gottlieb/gottlieb-copyrig...

Repository: (negative) Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Washington D.C. 20540 USA, hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

Part Of: William P. Gottlieb Collection (DLC) 99-401005

General information about the Gottlieb Collection is available at lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/html/gottlieb/gottlieb-home.html

Persistent URL: hdl.loc.gov/loc.music/gottlieb.12371

Call Number: LC-GLB13- 1237

Public domain This work is from the William P. Gottlieb collection at the Library of Congress. Rights and restrictions.
In accordance with the wishes of William Gottlieb, the photographs in this collection entered into the public domain on February 16, 2010.
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