September 23

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September 23 in recent years
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  2014 (Tuesday)
  2013 (Monday)
  2012 (Sunday)

September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 99 days remain until the end of the year.

Events

Pre-1600

  • 38Drusilla, Caligula's sister who died in June, with whom the emperor is said to have an incestuous relationship, is deified.[1]
  • 1122Pope Callixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V agree to the Concordat of Worms to put an end to the Investiture Controversy.
  • 1338 – The Battle of Arnemuiden, in which a French force defeats the English, is the first naval battle of the Hundred Years' War and the first naval battle in which gunpowder artillery is used.[2]
  • 1409 – The Battle of Kherlen is the second significant victory over Ming dynasty China by the Mongols since 1368.
  • 1459 – The Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Wars of the Roses, is won by the Yorkists.[3]
  • 1561 – King Philip II of Spain issues cedula, ordering halt to colonizing efforts in Florida.[4]

1601–1900

  • 1641 – The Merchant Royal, carrying a treasure of over 100,000 pounds of gold (worth over £1 billion today), is lost at sea off Land's End.
  • 1642 – The first commencement exercises occur at Harvard College.
  • 1779American Revolution: John Paul Jones, naval commander of the United States, on board the USS Bonhomme Richard, wins the Battle of Flamborough Head.[5]
  • 1780 – American Revolution: British Major John André is arrested as a spy by American soldiers exposing Benedict Arnold's change of sides.
  • 1803Second Anglo-Maratha War: The Battle of Assaye is fought between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.[6]
  • 1806Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest of the United States.
  • 1821Tripolitsa, Greece, is captured by Greek rebels during the Greek War of Independence.
  • 1845 – The Knickerbockers Baseball Club, the first baseball team to play under the modern rules, is founded in New York.
  • 1846 – Astronomers Urbain Le Verrier, John Couch Adams and Johann Gottfried Galle collaborate on the discovery of Neptune.
  • 1868Grito de Lares ("Lares Revolt") occurs in Puerto Rico against Spanish rule.
  • 1884 – On the night of 23 to 24 September steamship Arctique runs aground near Cape Virgenes leading to the discovery of nearby placer gold and beginning the Tierra del Fuego gold rush.[7]
  • 1889Nintendo Koppai (Later Nintendo Company, Limited) is founded by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce and market the playing card game Hanafuda.
  • 1899 – The American Asiatic Squadron destroys a Filipino battery at the Battle of Olongapo.

1901–present

  • 1905 – Norway and Sweden sign the Karlstad Treaty, peacefully dissolving the Union between the two countries.
  • 1911 – Pilot Earle Ovington makes the first official airmail delivery in America under the authority of the United States Post Office Department.
  • 1913Roland Garros of France becomes the first to fly in an airplane across the Mediterranean (from St. Raphael in France to Bizerte, Tunisia).
  • 1932 – The unification of Saudi Arabia is completed.
  • 1938 – The Czechoslovak army is mobilized in response to the Munich Agreement.
  • 1942World War II: The Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins: U.S. Marines attack Japanese units along the Matanikau River.
  • 1943 – World War II: The Nazi puppet state known as the Italian Social Republic is founded.
  • 1950Korean War: The Battle of Hill 282 is the first US friendly-fire incident on British military personnel since World War II.
  • 1962 – The Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts opens in New York City.
  • 1973Argentine general election: Juan Perón returns to power in Argentina.
  • 1983Saint Kitts and Nevis joins the United Nations.
  • 1983 – Gulf Air Flight 771 is destroyed by a bomb, killing all 117 people on board.
  • 1986 – Houston Astros' Jim Deshaies sets a record, striking out the first eight batters he faces against the Los Angeles Dodgers.
  • 2002 – The first public version of the web browser Mozilla Firefox ("Phoenix 0.1") is released.
  • 2004 – Over 3,000 people die in Haiti after Hurricane Jeanne produces massive flooding and mudslides.
  • 2008 – Matti Saari kills ten people at a school in Finland before committing suicide.[8]
  • 2019 – The British travel company, Thomas Cook Group, declares bankruptcy, leaving employees without jobs and 600,000 customers stranded abroad. Hotels throughout the world are stuck with £338 million (U.S. $415 million) in unpaid bills.[9]

Births

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1901Jaroslav Seifert, Czech poet and journalist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1986)
  • 1902Su Buqing, Chinese mathematician and academic (d. 2003)
  • 1903Cec Fifield, Australian rugby league player and coach (d. 1957)
  • 1904Arthur Folwell, English-Australian rugby league player, coach, and administrator (d. 1966)
  • 1906Charles Ritchie, Canadian diplomat, High Commission of Canada to the United Kingdom (d. 1995)
  • 1907Tiny Bradshaw, American singer-songwriter and pianist (d. 1958)
  • 1907 – Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza (d. 1976)
  • 1908Ramdhari Singh Dinkar, Indian poet, academic, and politician (d. 1974)
  • 1909Lorenc Antoni, Kosovo-Albanian composer and conductor (d. 1991)
  • 1910Jakob Streit, Swiss anthroposophist and author (d. 2009)
  • 1911Frank Moss, American lawyer and politician (d. 2003)
  • 1912Ghulam Mustafa Khan, Pakistani linguist, author, and critic (d. 2005)
  • 1912 – Tony Smith, American sculptor and educator (d. 1980)
  • 1913Carl-Henning Pedersen, Danish painter and sculptor (d. 2007)
  • 1915Julius Baker, American flute player and educator (d. 2003)
  • 1915 – Clifford Shull, American physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2001)
  • 1916Aldo Moro, Italian academic and politician, 39th Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1978)
  • 1917Santo, Mexican Luchador enmascarado, film actor, and folk icon (d. 1984)
  • 1917 – Asima Chatterjee, Indian chemist (d. 2006)
  • 1920Mickey Rooney, American actor, singer, director, and producer (d. 2014)
  • 1923Mohamed Hassanein Heikal, Egyptian journalist (d. 2016)
  • 1923 – Vello Helk, Estonian-Danish historian and author (d. 2014)
  • 1924Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Cardenal, Nicaraguan journalist and publisher (d. 1978)
  • 1925Denis C. Twitchett, English historian and scholar (d. 2006)
  • 1926André Cassagnes, French toy maker, created the Etch A Sketch (d. 2013)
  • 1926 – John Coltrane, American saxophonist and composer (d. 1967)
  • 1928Frank Foster, American saxophonist and composer (d. 2011)
  • 1928 – Roger Grimsby, American journalist and actor (d. 1995)
  • 1930Sehba Akhtar, Pakistani poet and songwriter (d. 1996)
  • 1930 – Colin Blakely, Northern Irish actor (d. 1987)
  • 1930 – Ray Charles, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and actor (d. 2004)
  • 1931Hilly Kristal, American businessman, founded CBGB (d. 2007)
  • 1931 – Stan Lynde, American author and illustrator (d. 2013)
  • 1931 – Gerald Merrithew, Canadian educator and politician (d. 2004)
  • 1932Georg Keßler, German footballer and manager
  • 1933Lloyd J. Old, American immunologist and academic (d. 2011)
  • 1934Per Olov Enquist, Swedish journalist, author, and playwright (d. 2020)
  • 1935Prem Chopra, Pakistani-Indian actor
  • 1935 – Les McCann, American soul-jazz singer and pianist
  • 1935 – Ron Tindall, English-Australian footballer, cricketer, and manager (d. 2012)
  • 1936George Eastham, English footballer
  • 1936 – Valentín Paniagua, Peruvian lawyer and politician, 91st President of Peru (d. 2006)
  • 1936 – Sylvain Saudan, Swiss skier
  • 1936 – Tareq Suheimat, Jordanian physician, general, and politician (d. 2014)
  • 1937Jacques Poulin, Canadian author and translator
  • 1938Romy Schneider, Austrian-French actress (d. 1982)
  • 1939Henry Blofeld, English cricketer and journalist
  • 1939 – Roy Buchanan, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1988)
  • 1939 – Joan Hanham, Baroness Hanham, English politician
  • 1939 – Sonny Vaccaro, American businessman
  • 1940Michel Temer, Brazilian lawyer and politician, 25th Vice President of Brazil
  • 1940 – Dick Thornett, Australian rugby player and water polo player (d. 2011)
  • 1941George Jackson, American activist and author, co-founded the Black Guerrilla Family (d. 1971)
  • 1941 – Simon Nolet, Canadian ice hockey player and coach
  • 1941 – Norma Winstone, English singer-songwriter
  • 1942Sila María Calderón, Puerto Rican-American businesswoman and politician, 12th Secretary of State of Puerto Rico
  • 1942 – Colin Low, Baron Low of Dalston, Scottish scholar and politician
  • 1942 – David Renneberg, Australian cricketer
  • 1943Julio Iglesias, Spanish singer-songwriter
  • 1943 – Marty Schottenheimer, American football player and coach (d. 2021)
  • 1944Eric Bogle, Scottish-Australian singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1944 – Richard Lambert, English journalist and academic
  • 1945Ron Bushy, American drummer
  • 1945 – Igor Ivanov, Russian politician and diplomat, Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • 1945 – Alan Old, English rugby player
  • 1946Franz Fischler, Austrian politician
  • 1946 – Bernard Maris, French economist and journalist (d. 2015)
  • 1946 – Genista McIntosh, Baroness McIntosh, English politician
  • 1946 – Davorin Popović, Bosnian singer-songwriter (d. 2001)
  • 1946 – Anne Wheeler, Canadian director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1947Christian Bordeleau, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1947 – Mary Kay Place, American actress
  • 1947 – Neal Smith, American drummer and songwriter
  • 1948Dan Toler, American guitarist (d. 2013)
  • 1949Floella Benjamin, Trinidadian-English actress, academic, and politician
  • 1949 – Bruce Springsteen, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1949 – Kostas Tournas, Greek singer-songwriter
  • 1950George Garzone, American saxophonist and educator
  • 1951Steven Springer, American guitarist and songwriter (d. 2012)
  • 1952Mark Bego, American author
  • 1952 – Anshuman Gaekwad, Indian cricketer
  • 1952 – Dennis Lamp, American baseball player
  • 1952 – Jim Morrison, American baseball player and manager
  • 1953Nicholas Witchell, English journalist
  • 1954Charlie Barnett, American actor (d. 1996)
  • 1954 – Cherie Blair, English lawyer and academic
  • 1956Peter David, American author, actor, and screenwriter
  • 1956 – Tom Hogan, Australian cricketer
  • 1956 – Paolo Rossi, Italian footballer (d. 2020)
  • 1957Rosalind Chao, American actress
  • 1958Danielle Dax, English singer-songwriter and producer
  • 1958 – Khaled El Sheikh, Bahraini singer-songwriter
  • 1958 – Tony Fossas, Cuban-American baseball player and coach
  • 1958 – Marvin Lewis, American football player and coach
  • 1958 – Larry Mize, American golfer
  • 1959Jason Alexander, American actor, singer, and voice artist
  • 1959 – Frank Cottrell-Boyce, English author and screenwriter
  • 1959 – Hans Nijman, Dutch mixed martial artist and wrestler (d. 2014)
  • 1959 – Chris O'Sullivan, Australian rugby league player
  • 1959 – Martin Page, English singer-songwriter, bass player, and producer
  • 1959 – Elizabeth Peña, American actress (d. 2014)
  • 1959 – Karen Pierce, English diplomat
  • 1960Kurt Beyer, American wrestler
  • 1960 – Luis Moya, Spanish race car driver
  • 1961Chi McBride, American actor
  • 1961 – William C. McCool, American commander, pilot, and astronaut (d. 2003)
  • 1962Deborah Orr, Scottish journalist (d. 2019)[13]
  • 1963Anne-Marie Cadieux, Canadian actress, director, and screenwriter
  • 1963 – Alex Proyas, Egyptian-Australian director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1964Clayton Blackmore, Welsh footballer and manager
  • 1964 – Josefa Idem, German-born Italian kayaker[14]
  • 1964 – Koshi Inaba, Japanese singer-songwriter
  • 1964 – Larry Krystkowiak, American basketball player and coach
  • 1964 – Katie Mitchell, English director and producer
  • 1964 – Julian Parkhill, English biologist and academic
  • 1964 – Bill Phillips, American businessman and author
  • 1965Mark Woodforde, Australian tennis player and sportscaster
  • 1966Pete Harnisch, American baseball player and coach
  • 1967Hilary Andersson, American-English journalist
  • 1967 – Chris Wilder, English footballer and manager
  • 1968Yvette Fielding, English actress and producer
  • 1968 – Adam Price, Welsh politician
  • 1969Donald Audette, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1969 – Patrick Fiori, French singer-songwriter
  • 1969 – Tapio Laukkanen, Finnish race car driver
  • 1969 – Rod Pampling, Australian golfer
  • 1969 – Jan Suchopárek, Czech footballer and manager
  • 1970Adrian Brunker, Australian rugby player
  • 1970 – Lucia Cifarelli, American singer-songwriter and keyboard player
  • 1970 – Ani DiFranco, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1970 – Giorgos Koltsidas, Greek footballer
  • 1971Moin Khan, Pakistani cricketer and coach
  • 1971 – Eric Montross, American basketball player and sportscaster
  • 1971 – Sean Spicer, 30th White House Press Secretary
  • 1972Sarah Bettens, Belgian singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1972 – Alistair Campbell, Zimbabwean cricketer
  • 1972 – Jermaine Dupri, American rapper and producer
  • 1972 – Karl Pilkington, English actor and producer
  • 1973Ingrid Fliter, Argentinian pianist
  • 1973 – Vangelis Krios, Greek footballer and coach
  • 1974Ben Duckworth, Australian rugby league player
  • 1974 – Matt Hardy, American wrestler
  • 1975Layzie Bone, American rapper
  • 1975 – Kim Dong-moon, South Korean badminton player
  • 1975 – Chris Hawkins, English journalist and producer
  • 1975 – Eric Miller, Irish rugby player, footballer, and coach
  • 1976Sarah Blasko, Australian singer-songwriter and producer
  • 1976 – Robert James-Collier, English actor[15]
  • 1976 – Valeriy Sydorenko, Ukrainian boxer
  • 1976 – Volodymyr Sydorenko, Ukrainian boxer
  • 1977Matthieu Descoteaux, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1977 – Dmitri Kulikov, Estonian footballer
  • 1977 – Fabio Ongaro, Italian rugby player
  • 1977 – Brett Prebble, Australian jockey
  • 1977 – Rachael Yamagata, American singer-songwriter and pianist
  • 1978Benjamin Curtis, American guitarist, drummer, and songwriter (d. 2013)
  • 1978 – Anthony Mackie, American actor
  • 1979Ricky Davis, American basketball player
  • 1979 – Bryant McKinnie, American football player
  • 1979 – Fábio Simplício, Brazilian footballer
  • 1979 – Lote Tuqiri, Fijian-Australian rugby player
  • 1980Matt White, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1980 – Liz Murray, American inspirational speaker
  • 1981Robert Doornbos, Dutch race car driver
  • 1981 – Natalie Horler, German singer
  • 1981 – Helen Richardson-Walsh, English field hockey player
  • 1982Mait Künnap, Estonian tennis player
  • 1982 – Shyla Stylez, Canadian pornographic actress (d. 2017)
  • 1983Shane del Rosario, American mixed martial artist and kick-boxer (d. 2013)
  • 1983 – Joffrey Lupul, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1983 – Regan Smith, American race car driver
  • 1984Patrick Ehelechner, German ice hockey player
  • 1984 – Matt Kemp, American baseball player
  • 1984 – Anneliese van der Pol, Dutch-American entertainer[16]
  • 1985Lukáš Kašpar, Czech ice hockey player
  • 1986Martin Cranie, English footballer
  • 1988Juan Martín del Potro, Argentinian tennis player[17]
  • 1988 – Yannick Weber, Swiss ice hockey player
  • 1989Brandon Jennings, American basketball player
  • 1989 – Taniela Lasalo, Australian rugby league player
  • 1991Lee Alexander, Scottish footballer[18]
  • 1991 – Melanie Oudin, American tennis player[19]
  • 1994Lee Mi-joo, South Korean singer and entertainer[20]

Deaths

Pre-1600

1601–1900

  • 1605Pontus de Tyard, French priest and poet (b. 1521)
  • 1675Valentin Conrart, French author, founded the Académie française (b. 1603)
  • 1728Christian Thomasius, German jurist and philosopher (b. 1655)
  • 1738Herman Boerhaave, Dutch botanist and physician (b. 1668)
  • 1764Robert Dodsley, English poet and playwright (b. 1703)
  • 1773Johan Ernst Gunnerus, Norwegian bishop and botanist (b. 1718)
  • 1789John Rogers, American lawyer and politician (b. 1723)
  • 1835Vincenzo Bellini, Italian composer (b. 1801)
  • 1851Émilie Gamelin, Canadian nun, founded the Sisters of Providence (b. 1800)[21]
  • 1846John Ainsworth Horrocks, English-Australian explorer (b. 1818)
  • 1850José Gervasio Artigas, Uruguayan general and politician (b. 1764)
  • 1870Prosper Mérimée, French archaeologist and historian (b. 1803)
  • 1871Louis-Joseph Papineau, Canadian lawyer and politician (b. 1786)
  • 1873Jean Chacornac, French astronomer (b. 1823)
  • 1877Urbain Le Verrier, French mathematician and astronomer (b. 1811)
  • 1889Wilkie Collins, English novelist, short story writer, and playwright (b. 1824)
  • 1900William Marsh Rice, American businessman, founded Rice University (b. 1816)

1901–present

  • 1913Donato Álvarez, Argentinian general (b. 1825)
  • 1917Werner Voss, German lieutenant and pilot (b. 1897)
  • 1929Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, Austrian-German chemist, physicist, and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1865)
  • 1939Sigmund Freud, Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist (b. 1856)
  • 1939 – Francisco León de la Barra, Mexican politician and diplomat, interim president, 1911 (b. 1863)[22]
  • 1940Hale Holden, American businessman (b. 1869)
  • 1943Elinor Glyn, English author, screenwriter, and producer (b. 1864)
  • 1944Jakob Schaffner, Swiss author and critic (b. 1875)
  • 1950Sam Barry, American basketball player and coach (b. 1892)
  • 1958Jacob Nicol, Canadian publisher, lawyer, and politician (b. 1876)
  • 1967Stanislaus Zbyszko, Polish wrestler and strongman (b. 1879)
  • 1968Pio of Pietrelcina, Italian priest and saint (b. 1887)
  • 1971James Waddell Alexander II, American mathematician and topologist (b. 1888)
  • 1973Pablo Neruda, Chilean poet and diplomat, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1904)
  • 1974Cliff Arquette, American actor and comedian (b. 1905)
  • 1974 – Robbie McIntosh, Scottish drummer (b. 1950)
  • 1978Lyman Bostock, American baseball player (b. 1950)
  • 1979Catherine Lacey, English actress (b. 1904)
  • 1981Chief Dan George, Canadian actor, author, and poet (b. 1899)
  • 1987Bob Fosse, American actor, dancer, choreographer, and director (b. 1927)
  • 1988Tibor Sekelj, Hungarian-Serbian explorer and author (b. 1912)
  • 1992Ivar Ivask, Estonian poet and scholar (b. 1927)
  • 1992 – Glendon Swarthout, American author and academic (b. 1918)
  • 1992 – James Van Fleet, American general (b. 1892)
  • 1994Jerry Barber, American golfer (b. 1916)
  • 1994 – Robert Bloch, American author and screenwriter (b. 1917)
  • 1994 – Madeleine Renaud, French actress (b. 1900)
  • 1997Natalie Savage Carlson, American author (b. 1906)
  • 1998Ray Bowden, English footballer (b. 1909)
  • 1998 – Mary Frann, American actress (b. 1943)
  • 1999Ivan Goff, Australian-American screenwriter and producer (b. 1910)
  • 2000Aurelio Rodríguez, Mexican baseball player and manager (b. 1947)
  • 2000 – Carl Rowan, American journalist and author (b. 1925)
  • 2000 – Raoul Berger, American attorney and law professor (b. 1901)
  • 2001Ron Hewitt, Welsh footballer (b. 1928)
  • 2003Yuri Senkevich, Russian physician and journalist (b. 1937)
  • 2004Billy Reay, Canadian-American ice hockey player and coach (b. 1918)
  • 2005Filiberto Ojeda Ríos, Puerto Rican activist (b. 1933)
  • 2006Malcolm Arnold, English trumpet player and composer (b. 1921)
  • 2006 – Etta Baker, American singer and guitarist (b. 1913)
  • 2008Peter Leonard, Australian journalist (b. 1942)
  • 2008 – Loren Pope, American journalist and author (b. 1910)
  • 2009Paul B. Fay, American sailor and politician, United States Secretary of the Navy (b. 1918)
  • 2010Malcolm Douglas, Australian hunter and television host (b. 1941)
  • 2012Henry Champ, Canadian journalist and academic (b. 1937)
  • 2012 – Pavel Grachev, Russian general and politician, 1st Minister of Defence for Russia (b. 1948)
  • 2012 – Roberto Rodríguez, Venezuelan baseball player and coach (b. 1941)
  • 2012 – Corrie Sanders, South African boxer (b. 1966)
  • 2012 – Sam Sniderman, Canadian businessman, founded Sam the Record Man (b. 1920)
  • 2013Abdel Hamid al-Sarraj, Syrian colonel and politician (b. 1925)
  • 2013 – Gil Dozier, American captain, lawyer, and politician (b. 1934)
  • 2013 – Ruth Patrick, American botanist and immunologist (b. 1907)
  • 2014A. W. Davis, American basketball player and coach (b. 1943)
  • 2014 – Irven DeVore, American anthropologist and biologist (b. 1934)
  • 2014 – Don Manoukian, American football player and wrestler (b. 1934)
  • 2014 – Al Suomi, American ice hockey player and referee (b. 1913)
  • 2015Dayananda Saraswati, Indian monk and philosopher (b. 1930)
  • 2018Charles Kuen Kao, Hong Kong-American-British electrical engineer and physicist (b. 1933)[23]
  • 2018 – Gary Kurtz, American film producer (b. 1940)[24]
  • 2018 – Jane Fortune, American author, journalist, and philanthropist (b.1942)[25]
  • 2020Juliette Gréco, French singer and actress (b. 1927)[26]
  • 2021John Elliott, Australian businessman (b. 1941)[27]
  • 2021 – Nino Vaccarella, Italian racing driver (b. 1933)[28]

Holidays and observances

References

  1. ^ Legrand, Jacques (1989). Chronicle of the World. Ecam Publication. p. 210. ISBN 0-13-133463-8.
  2. ^ Castex, Jean-Claude (2004). Dictionnaire des batailles navales franco-anglaises. Presses de l'Université Laval. p. 21. ISBN 9782763780610.
  3. ^ Edward Hall. The Union of The Noble and Illustre Famelies of Lancastre & Yorke (1548; reprinted as Hall's Chronicle 1809; quoted in English Heritage Battlefield Report: Blore Heath 1459)
  4. ^ Daniel, Clifton (1989). Chronicle of America. Chronicle publication. p. 31. ISBN 0-13-133745-9.
  5. ^ Thomas, Ewan (2010), John Paul Jones: Sailor, Hero, Father of the American Navy, Simon and Schuster, p. 170, ISBN 978-1-451-60399-6
  6. ^ Naravane, M.S. (2014). Battles of the Honorable East India Company. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 69–71. ISBN 9788131300343.
  7. ^ Martinic Beros, Mateo (2003). "La minería aurífera en la región austral americana (1869-1950)". Historia (in Spanish). 36. doi:10.4067/S0717-71942003003600009.
  8. ^ "Finnish college gunman kills 10". BBC News. 23 September 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  9. ^ Rebecca Taylor (Sep 25, 2019), "Thomas Cook: Hotels 'angry' over millions owed in collapse - with one due £2.5m", Sky, retrieved Sep 29, 2019
  10. ^ "BBC - History - Augustus". BBC. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  11. ^ Commire, Anne, ed. (2000). Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. Waterford: Yorkin Publications, Gale Group. p. 364. ISBN 978-0-78764-065-1.
  12. ^ Damon Greenleaf Douglas (1962). John Loudon McAdam, His Contributions to Highway Technology. Cornell Univ. p. 36.
  13. ^ "Remembering Deborah Orr, the columnist whose writing was charged with energy and integrity". The Independent. 22 October 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  14. ^ "Josefa Idem". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  15. ^ My life in Downton Abbey by former Huddersfield student Rob James-Collier, YorkshireLive, 30 OCT 2012.
  16. ^ "TV.com Biography". TV.com. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  17. ^ "Juan Martin del Potro". ATP. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  18. ^ "Lee Alexander - Player Profile - Football". Eurosport UK. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  19. ^ "Melanie Oudin". WTA. Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  20. ^ "Lovelyz - About". Lovelyz Official Website. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  21. ^ Halpenny, Francess G.; Hamel, Jean (1990). Dictionary of Canadian Biography / Dictionaire Biographique du Canada: Volume VII, 1836 - 1850. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p. 1033. ISBN 978-0-80203-461-8.
  22. ^ "Francisco León de la Barra" (in Spanish). Presidentes.mx. Retrieved May 28, 2019.
  23. ^ "Physics Nobel laureate Charles Kao dies after long battle with Alzheimer's". The Standard. 2018-09-24.
  24. ^ "Gary Kurtz". www.bafta.org. 20 November 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  25. ^ "Jane Fortune, an author and philanthropist who championed women artists, has died at 76". Artsy News. Retrieved 2018-09-26.
  26. ^ "Obituary: Juliette Gréco dies aged 93". BBC News. 2020-09-23. Retrieved 2020-10-23.
  27. ^ "Long-time Carlton president John Elliott dead aged 79". Fox Sports. 23 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  28. ^ Tobin, Dominic (September 23, 2021). "Targa Florio hero Nino Vaccarella dies aged 88". MotorSport. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  29. ^ Cooper, J. C. (2013). Dictionary of Christianity. Abingdon, Oxon. p. 2. ISBN 9781315074047.
  30. ^ "Bisexuality Day Celebrated". Long Beach Post News. Retrieved 2020-09-07.
  31. ^ "Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 19 December 2017". eSubscription to United Nations Documents. Retrieved 2020-09-23.

External links