SARS-CoV-2 Lambda variant

Lambda variant, also known as lineage C.37, is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.[1] It was first detected in Peru in August 2020.[2] On 14 June 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) named it Lambda variant[1] and designated it as a variant of interest.[3] It has spread to at least 30 countries[4] around the world and is known to be more resistant to neutralizing antibodies compared to other strains.[5][6][7] There is evidence that suggests the Lambda variant is both more infectious and resistant to vaccines than the Alpha and/or Gamma variant.[8][9]

Mutations

The Lambda genome has the following amino acid mutations, all of which are in the virus's spike protein code: G75V, T76I, Δ246-252, L452Q, F490S, D614G and T859N.[10]

History

First samples of the Lambda variant were detected in Peru in August 2020[2] and by April 2021, over eighty percent of new cases of COVID-19 in Peru were from the new variant.[1][12] In mid-June 2021, 90.6% of new COVID-19 cases in Arequipa and 78.1% of new cases in Cusco were the Lambda variant, according to the Peruvian Ministry of Health.[13] By this time the Lambda variant had also spread throughout South America and was detected in twenty-nine countries in total, especially in Argentina, Chile and Ecuador.[12][14] The WHO designated the Lambda variant as a "variant of interest" on 14 June 2021.[1]

On 6 July 2021, Australia reported its first case of the Lambda variant in an overseas traveler who had been in a New South Wales quarantine hotel in April.[15]

On 19 July 2021, Texas reported its first case of the Lambda variant.[16] On 22 July 2021, Florida reported 126 cumulative confirmed cases of the Lambda variant.[17] On 28 July 2021, University of Miami researchers announced random sampling showed 3 percent of COVID-19 patients in Jackson Memorial Health System and at University of Miami’s UHealth Tower were infected with it.[18] On 5 August 2021, Louisiana reported its first case of the Lambda variant.[19]

On 7 August 2021, Japan confirmed its first case of the Lambda variant, with the infected person arriving in Japan from Peru on 20 July.[20]

On 15 August 2021, the Philippines confirmed its first case of the Lambda variant.[21]

Statistics

Cases by country (Updated as of 23 August 2021) GISAID[22]
CountryConfirmed casesCollection date
 Chile1,48913 July 2021
 United States8485 August 2021
 Peru1,48015 June 2021
 Ecuador19420 July 2021
 Mexico18914 July 2021
 Spain1247 July 2021
 Argentina11124 June 2021
 Germany8713 July 2021
 France5619 July 2021
 Colombia5129 June 2021
 Israel259 May 2021
  Switzerland825 July 2021
 Canada2621 June 2021
 The Netherlands311 July 2021
 Saint Kitts and Nevis106 June 2021
 Belgium223 July 2021
 United Kingdom810 July 2021
 Italy1226 June 2021
 Brazil721 June 2021
 India612 April 2021
 Denmark111 August 2021
 Sweden115 July 2021
 South Africa314 July 2021
 Portugal110 June 2021
 Qatar313 April 2021
 Latvia230 April 2021
 Aruba22 June 2021
 Bolivia12 June 2021
 Uruguay115 April 2021
 Australia13 April 2021
 Lithuania119 May 2021
 Norway17 July 2021
 Estonia11 April 2021
 Russia121 March 2021
 Finland131 May 2021
 Turkey18 February 2021
 Bangladesh120 March 2021
 Japan17 August 2021
 Philippines115 August 2021[23]
 Venezuela25 May 2021
 Mayotte115 July 2021
 El Salvador330 April 2021
 Guatemala13 July 2021
 Costa Rica420 July 2021
 World (44 countries)Total: 4,763Total as of 23 August 2021

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2021-06-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ a b "Weekly epidemiological update on COVID-19 - 15 June 2021" (PDF) (44 ed.). World Health Organization. 15 June 2021. Retrieved 2021-08-16. Lambda has been associated with substantive rates of community transmission in multiple countries, with rising prevalence over time concurrent with increased COVID-19 incidence. The earliest sequenced samples were reported from Peru in August 2020.
  3. ^ "Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants". who.int. World Health Organization.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Updated frequently.
  4. ^ "Covid 19 coronavirus: Ultra-contagious Lambda variant detected in Australia". New Zealand Herald. 6 July 2021.
  5. ^ Kimura, Izumi; Kosugi, Yusuke; Wu, Jiaqi; Yamasoba, Daichi; Butlertanaka, Erika P.; Tanaka, Yuri L.; Liu, Yafei; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Kazuma, Yasuhiro; Nomura, Ryosuke; Horisawa, Yoshihito; Tokunaga, Kenzo; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Arase, Hisashi; Saito, Akatsuki; Nakagawa, So; Sato, Kei (28 July 2021). "SARS-CoV-2 Lambda variant exhibits higher infectivity and immune resistance". bioRxiv 10.1101/2021.07.28.454085.
  6. ^ "COVID-19: Lambda variant may be more resistant to vaccines than other strains". World Is One News. 6 July 2021.
  7. ^ "Lambda variant: What is the new strain of Covid detected in the UK?". The Independent. 6 July 2021.
  8. ^ Mohammadi, Mehrdad; Shayestehpour, Mohammad; Mirzaei, Hamed (2021-07-01). "The impact of spike mutated variants of SARS-CoV2 [Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Lambda] on the efficacy of subunit recombinant vaccines". The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 25 (4): 101606. doi:10.1016/j.bjid.2021.101606. ISSN 1413-8670. PMC 8367756. PMID 34428473.
  9. ^ Acevedo, Mónica L.; Alonso-Palomares, Luis; Bustamante, Andrés; Gaggero, Aldo; Paredes, Fabio; Cortés, Claudia P.; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo (2021-07-01). "Infectivity and immune escape of the new SARS-CoV-2 variant of interest Lambda": 2021.06.28.21259673. doi:10.1101/2021.06.28.21259673. S2CID 235689169. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ Robertson, Sally (27 June 2021). "Lambda lineage of SARS-CoV-2 has potential to become variant of concern". news-medical.net. Retrieved 2021-07-05. The Lambda variant also contained a novel deletion (Δ246-252) and multiple nonsynonymous mutations (G75V, T76I, L452Q, F490S, D614G, and T859N) in the gene that encodes the viral spike protein.
  11. ^ "Spike Variants: Lambda variant, aka B.1.1.1". covdb.stanford.edu. Stanford University Coronavirus Antiviral & Resistance Database. 1 July 2021. Retrieved 2021-07-05.
  12. ^ a b "WHO reports on Lambda: the new variant of COVID-19 that is affecting South America". Entrepreneur. 2021-06-17. Retrieved 2021-06-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ Acosta, Sebastián (2021-06-16). "Coronavirus en Perú | Minsa: El 90,6 % de los contagios en Arequipa se deben a la variante Lambda" [Coronavirus in Peru | Minsa: 90.6% of infections in Arequipa are due to the Lambda variant]. RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  14. ^ Mendez, Rich (2021-06-16). "WHO says delta Covid variant has now spread to 80 countries and it keeps mutating". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-06-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. ^ "Covid-19 Australia: Strain more transmissible than Delta hits Australia". News.com.au. 6 July 2021.
  16. ^ EDT, Khaleda Rahman On 7/20/21 at 7:09 AM (2021-07-20). "Lambda COVID variant detected in Texas hospital". Newsweek. Retrieved 2021-07-22.
  17. ^ "US, South American researchers monitoring Lambda COVID-19 variant as cases surge". Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  18. ^ "New evidence shows the COVID-19 Delta variant rapidly rising". news.miami.edu. Retrieved 2021-07-29.
  19. ^ WBRZ. "First cases of COVID Lambda variant reported in North Louisiana". WBRZ. Retrieved 2021-08-06.
  20. ^ "Japan confirms first case of lambda variant infection". The Japan Times. 2021-08-07. Retrieved 2021-08-07.
  21. ^ Garcia, Ma. Angelica (August 15, 2021). "First lambda variant case detected in the Philippines". GMA News. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
  22. ^ "GISAID - hCov19 Variants". www.gisaid.org. Retrieved 2021-08-23.
  23. ^ Press Release (August 15, 2021). "DOH, UP-PGC, and UP-NIH confirm additional COVID-19 variant cases including first case of Lambda variant". Department of Health, Government of the Philippines.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

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Each separate locus (amorphous blob) is an atom of:

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