SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant

SARS-CoV-2 Variant
Delta
Scientifically accurate atomic model of the external structure of SARS-CoV-2. Each "ball" is an atom.
General details
WHO DesignationDelta
LineageB.1.617.2
First detectedIndia
Date reported2020 (2020)
StatusVariant of concern
Symptoms
Cases map
Countries with confirmed cases of Delta variant as of 10 August 2021 (GISAID)
Legend:
  10,000+ confirmed sequences
  5,000–9,999 confirmed sequences
  1,000–4,999 confirmed sequences
  100–999 confirmed sequences
  10–99 confirmed sequences
  1–9 confirmed sequence
  None or no data
SARS-CoV-2 variants

The Delta variant (B.1.617.2) is a variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. It was first detected in India in late 2020. The Delta variant was named on 31 May 2021 and had spread to over 179 countries by 22 November 2021. The World Health Organization (WHO) indicated in June 2021 that the Delta variant was becoming the dominant strain globally.[3]

It has mutations in the gene encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein[4] causing the substitutions T478K, P681R and L452R,[5][6] which are known to affect transmissibility of the virus as well as whether it can be neutralised by antibodies for previously circulating variants of the COVID-19 virus.[7] It is thought to be one of the most transmissible respiratory viruses known.[8] In August 2021, Public Health England (PHE) reported secondary attack rate in household contacts of non-travel or unknown cases for Delta to be 10.8% vis-à-vis 10.2% for the Alpha variant;[9] the case fatality rate for those 386,835 people with Delta is 0.3%, where 46% of the cases and 6% of the deaths are unvaccinated and below 50 years old.[10] Immunity from previous recovery[11][12] or COVID-19 vaccines are effective in preventing severe disease or hospitalisation from infection with the variant.[13]

On 7 May 2021, PHE changed their classification of lineage B.1.617.2 from a variant under investigation (VUI) to a variant of concern (VOC) based on an assessment of transmissibility being at least equivalent to B.1.1.7 (Alpha variant);[14] the UK's SAGE using May data estimated a "realistic" possibility of being 50% more transmissible.[15] On 11 May 2021, the WHO also classified this lineage VOC, and said that it showed evidence of higher transmissibility and reduced neutralisation. On 15 June 2021, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) declared Delta a variant of concern.[16]

The variant is thought to be partly responsible for India's deadly second wave of the pandemic beginning in February 2021.[17][18][19] It later contributed to a third wave in Fiji, the United Kingdom[20][21][22] and South Africa,[23] and the WHO warned in July 2021 that it could have a similar effect elsewhere in Europe and Africa.[24][23] By late July, it had also driven an increase in daily infections in parts of Asia,[25] the United States,[26] Australia, and New Zealand.[27] Yet another COVID variant, Omicron, followed.

Classification

The Delta variant has mutations in the gene encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein[4] causing the substitutions D614G, T478K, P681R and L452R.[28][6] It is identified as the 21A, 21I, and 21J clades under the Nextstrain phylogenetic classification system.[29]

Names

The virus has also been referred to by the term "Indian Variant"[30] as it was originally detected in India. However, the Delta variant is only one of three variants of the lineage B.1.617, all of which were first detected in India.[31] At the end of May 2021, the WHO assigned the label Delta to lineage B.1.617.2 after introducing a new policy of using Greek letters for variants of concern and variants of interest.[32]

Other sublineages of B.1.617

There are three sublineages of lineage B.1.617 categorised so far.

B.1.617.1 (Kappa variant) was designated a Variant Under Investigation in April 2021 by Public Health England. Later in April 2021, two other variants B.1.617.2 and B.1.617.3 were designated as Variants Under Investigation. While B.1.617.3 shares the L452R and E484Q mutations found in B.1.617.1, B.1.617.2 lacks the E484Q mutation. B.1.617.2 has the T478K mutation, not found in B.1.617.1 and B.1.617.3.[33][34] Simultaneously, the ECDC released a brief maintaining all three sublineages of B.1.617 as VOI, estimating that a "greater understanding of the risks related to these B.1.617 lineages is needed before any modification of current measures can be considered".[35]

Mutations

Defining mutations in the
SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant
GeneNucleotideAmino acid
ORF1bP314L
P1000L
SpikeG142D
T19R
R158G
L452R
T478K
D614G
P681R
D950N
E156del
F157del
MI82T
ND63G
R203M
D377Y
ORF3aS26L
ORF7aV82A
T120I
Sources: CDC[37] Covariants.org[38]

The Delta/ B.1.617.2 genome has 13 mutations (15 or 17 according to some sources, depending on whether more common mutations are included) which produce alterations in the amino-acid sequences of the proteins it encodes.[39]

The list of spike protein mutations is: 19R, (G142D), Δ156-157, R158G, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R, D950N according to GVN,[40] or T19R, G142D, del 156-157, R158G, L452R, T478K, D614G, P681R according to Genscript[41] Four of them, all of which are in the virus's spike protein code, are of particular concern:

  • D614G. The substitution at position 614, an aspartic acid-to-glycine substitution, is shared with other highly transmissible variants like Alpha, Beta and Gamma.[7]
  • T478K.[7][28] The exchange at position 478 is a threonine-to-lysine substitution.[42]
  • L452R. The substitution at position 452, a leucine-to-arginine substitution, confers stronger affinity of the spike protein for the ACE2 receptor[43] and decreased recognition capability of the immune system.[6][44]
  • P681R. The substitution at position 681, a proline-to-arginine substitution, which, according to William A. Haseltine, may boost cell-level infectivity of the variant "by facilitating cleavage of the S precursor protein to the active S1/S2 configuration".[45]

The E484Q mutation is not present in the B.1.617.2 genome.[45][46]

Lineages

As of August 2021, Delta variants have been subdivided in the Pango lineage designation system into variants from AY.1 to AY.28. However, there is no information on whether such classification correlates with biological characteristic changes of the virus.[47] It is said that, as of August 2021, AY.4 to AY.11 are predominant in the UK, AY.12 in Israel, AY.2, AY.3, AY.13, AY.14, AY.25 in the US, AY.20 in the US and Mexico, AY.15 in Canada, AY.16 in Kenya, AY.17 in Ireland and Northern Ireland, AY.19 in South Africa, AY.21 in Italy and Switzerland, AY.22 in Portugal, AY.24 in Indonesia, and AY.23 in Indonesia, Singapore, Japan, and South Korea.[48]

"Delta plus" variant

Delta with K417N originally corresponded to lineages AY.1 and AY.2,[49] subsequently also lineage AY.3,[50] and has been nicknamed "Delta plus" or "Nepal variant".[51] It has the K417N mutation,[52] which is also present in the Beta variant.[53] The exchange at position 417 is a lysine-to-asparagine substitution.[54]

As of mid-October 2021, the AY.3 variant accounted for a cumulative prevalence of approximately 5% in the United States, and 2% worldwide.[55] In mid-October the AY.4.2 Delta sublineage was expanding in England, and being monitored and assessed. It contains mutations A222V and Y145H in its spike protein,[56] not considered of particular concern. It has been suggested that AY.4.2 might be 10-15% more transmissible than the original Delta variant. Mid-October 2021, AY.4.2 accounted for an estimated 10% of cases, and has led to an additional growth rate rising to about 1% (10% of 10%) per generational time of five days or so. This additional growth rate would grow with increasing prevalence. Without AY.4.2 and no other changes, the number of cases in the UK would have been about 10% lower.[57] AY.4.2 grows about 15% faster per week.[58] In the UK it was reclassified as a "variant under investigation" (but not "of concern") in late October 2021.[59] In Denmark, after a drop in AY.4.2 cases, a new fast surge was detected and monitored, but was not yet considered a cause of concern.[60][61]

Symptoms

The most common symptoms may have changed from the most common symptoms previously associated with standard COVID-19. Infected people may mistake the symptoms for a bad cold and not realize they need to isolate. Common symptoms reported have been headaches, sore throat, a runny nose or a fever.[1][2] In the United Kingdom, when the Delta variant accounted for 91 percent of new cases, one study found that the most reported symptoms were headache, sore throat, and runny nose.[62]

Prevention

Summary of Vaccine Protection against Delta
(WHO's update, 24 August 2021[63])
Disease or infectionSevere: protection retained
Symptomatic: possibly reduced protection
Severe diseaseSteady: AstraZeneca-Vaxzevria(1), Moderna(1), Pfizer-BioNTech(2)
Symptomatic diseaseSteady to Neutral decrease: Pfizer-BioNTech(3)
Neutral decrease: Covaxin(1)
Neutral decreaseNeutral decrease: AstraZeneca-Vaxzevria(2)
InfectionNeutral decrease: AstraZeneca-Vaxzevria(1), Pfizer-BioNTech(1)
Symbols indicate the magnitude of vaccine effectiveness (VE) reduction. Note that VE reduction doesn't mean loss of protection, because original high protection rate (such as 95%) with some reduction (such as 10%) would still retain protection (such as 85%). Enclosed in parentheses is the number of studies supporting the indication. Studies vary in population, outcome definitions, study design, etc., which may explain differences in VE estimates for a product in different studies. Also, the reductions represent VE estimates and do not represent uncertainties around the estimates which may vary substantially across studies. The VE reductions should be interpreted with these limitations.

Steady: VE reduces <10%, or VE >90% without comparator
Neutral decrease: VE reduces between 10 to <20%

Neutral decreaseNeutral decrease: VE reduces between 20 to <30%
Effects on Neutralization (fully vaccinated)[64]
Steady to Neutral decrease: Anhui-ZIFIVAX(2), Covaxin(3)
Neutral decrease: Janssen(3), Moderna(3), Covishield(2)
Neutral decrease to Neutral decreaseNeutral decrease: AstraZeneca-Vaxzevria(4), Pfizer-BioNTech(8)
Neutral decreaseNeutral decrease:Moderna & Pfizer-BioNTech(1)*
Neutral decrease to Neutral decreaseNeutral decreaseNeutral decrease: Coronavac(2)
Symbols indicate the magnitude of neutralization reduction with full vaccination. Enclosed in parentheses is the number of studies supporting the indication.

Steady: Neutralization reduces <2-fold
Neutral decrease: Neutralization reduces 2 to <5-fold
Neutral decreaseNeutral decrease: Neutralization reduces 5 to <10-fold
Neutral decreaseNeutral decreaseNeutral decrease: Neutralization reduces ≥ 10-fold
* Moderna & Pfizer-BioNTech were evaluated together.

WHO has not issued preventative measures against Delta specifically; non-pharmaceutical measures recommended to prevent wild type COVID-19 should still be effective. These would include washing hands, wearing a mask, maintaining distance from others, avoiding touching the mouth, nose or eyes, avoiding crowded indoor spaces with poor ventilation especially where people are talking, going to get tested if one develops symptoms and isolating if one becomes sick.[65] Public Health authorities should continue to find infected individuals using testing, trace their contacts, and isolate those who have tested positive or been exposed.[66] Event organizers should assess the potential risks of any mass gathering and develop a plan to mitigate these risks.[67] See also Non-pharmaceutical intervention (epidemiology).

ICMR found that convalescent sera of the COVID-19 cases and recipients of Bharat Biotech's BBV152 (Covaxin) were able to neutralise VUI B.1.617 although with a lower efficacy.[68]

Anurag Agrawal, the director of the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), said the study on the effectiveness of the available vaccines on lineage B.1.617 suggests that post-vaccination, the infections are milder.[69]

Anthony Fauci, the Chief Medical Advisor to the President of the United States, has also expressed his confidence regarding the preliminary results. In an interview on 28 April, he said:

This is something where we're still gaining data daily. But the most recent data was looking at convalescent sera of COVID-19 cases and people who received the vaccine used in India, the Covaxin. It was found to neutralise the 617 variants.[70]

Another study by the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad found Covishield (Oxford–AstraZeneca) vaccinated sera offers protection against lineage B.1.617.[71]

A study conducted by the Public Health England, has found that compared to those who were unvaccinated those who were vaccinated with either the Pfizer-BioNTech or AstraZeneca-Oxford had 33% less instances of symptomatic disease caused by the variant after the first dose. Among those who were two weeks after the receiving their second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine 88% less subjects had symptomatic disease from the Delta variant versus those that were unvaccinated. Among those who were two weeks after the receiving their second dose of the AstraZeneca-Oxford vaccine 60% less subjects had symptomatic disease from the Delta variant versus those that were unvaccinated.[72][73]

A study by a group of researchers from the Francis Crick Institute, published in The Lancet, shows that humans fully vaccinated with the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine are likely to have more than five times lower levels of neutralizing antibodies against the Delta variant compared to the original COVID-19 strain.[74][75]

In June 2021, Public Health England announced it had conducted a study which found that after two shots, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and the AstraZeneca vaccine are respectively 96% and 92% effective at preventing hospitalisation from the Delta variant.[76][77]

On July 3, researchers from the universities of Toronto and Ottawa in Ontario, Canada, released a preprint study suggesting that the Moderna vaccine may be effective against death or hospitalization from the Delta variant.[78]

In a study of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura in July 2021 found the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine vaccine caused seroconversion in 95% of individuals studied that had received both doses of the vaccine. The rate was higher in 20-39 age group (98.9%) but slightly lower in the over 60 age group (93.3%). Neutralising antibodies were present among 81.25% of the vaccinated individuals studied.[79][80]

On 29 June 2021, the director of the Gamaleya Institute, Denis Logunov, said that Sputnik V is about 90% effective against the Delta variant.[81]

On July 21, researchers from Public Health England published a study finding that the Pfizer vaccine was 93.7% effective against symptomatic disease from Delta after 2 doses, while the Astrazeneca vaccine was 67% effective.[82]

On August 2, several experts expressed concern that achieving herd immunity may not currently be possible because the Delta variant is transmitted among those immunized with current vaccines.[83]

On August 10, a study showed that the full vaccination coverage rate is correlated inversely to the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant mutation frequency in 16 countries (R-squared=0.878). Data strongly indicates that full vaccination against COVID-19 may slow down virus evolution.[84]

Treatment

In vitro experiments suggest that bamlanivimab may not be effective against Delta on its own.[85] At high enough concentrations, casirivimab, etesevimab and imdevimab appear to still be effective. A preprint study suggests that sotrovimab may also be effective against Delta.[86] Doctors in Singapore have been using supplemental oxygen, remdesivir and corticosteroids on more Delta patients than they did on previous variants.[87]

Epidemiology

Summary of impacts for Delta*
(WHO's update, 24 August 2021[63])
TransmissibilityIncreased transmissibility and secondary attack rate, similar transmissibility between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals.
VirulenceIncreased risk of hospitalization
ReinfectionDecreased neutralizing activity
DiagnosticsNo impacts yet reported
* Generalized finding compared to other strains, based on evidence including non-peer-reviewed publications.

Transmissibility

UK scientists have said that the Delta variant is between 40% and 60% more transmissible than the previously dominant Alpha variant, which was first identified in the UK (as the Kent variant).[88] Given that Alpha is already 150% as transmissible as the original SARS-CoV-2 strain that emerged in late 2019 in Wuhan,[88] and if Delta is 150% as transmissible as Alpha, then Delta may be 225% as transmissible as the original strain.[89] BBC reported that  – basic reproduction number, or the expected number of cases directly generated by one case in a population where all individuals are susceptible to infection – for the first detected SARS-CoV-2 virus is 2.4-2.6, whereas Alpha's reproduction number is 4-5 and Delta's is 5–9.[90][91] These basic reproduction numbers can be compared to MERS (0.29-0.80[92]), seasonal influenza (1.2-1.4[93]), Ebola (1.4-1.8[94]), common cold (2-3[95]), SARS (2–4[96]), smallpox (3.5-6[97]), and chickenpox (10-12[98]). Due to Delta's high transmissibility even those that are vaccinated are vulnerable,[99] albeit to a lesser extent.[73]

A study[100] published online (not peer-reviewed) by Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention may partly explain the increased transmissibility: people with infection caused by Delta had 1,000 times more copies of the virus in the respiratory tracts than those with infection caused by variants first identified in the beginning of the pandemic; and it took on average 4 days for people infected with Delta for the virus to be detectable compared to 6 days with initially identified variants.[101][102]

Surveillance data from the U.S., Germany and the Netherlands indicates the Delta variant is growing by about a factor of 4 every two weeks with respect to the Alpha variant.[103][104][105]

In India, the United Kingdom,[106] Portugal,[107] Russia,[108] Mexico, Australia, Indonesia,[109] South Africa, Germany,[110] Luxembourg,[111] the United States,[112] the Netherlands,[113] Denmark,[114] France[115] and probably many other countries, the Delta variant had become the dominant strain by July 2021. Depending on country, there is typically a lag from a few days to several weeks between cases and variant reporting. As of July 20, this variant had spread to 124 countries,[64] and WHO had indicated that it was becoming the dominant strain, if not one already.[116]

In the Netherlands, the virus was still able to propagate significantly in the population with over 93.4% of blood donors being tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after week 28, 2021. Many people there are not fully vaccinated, so those antibodies would have been developed from exposure to the wild virus or from a vaccine.[117][118] Similar high seroimmunity levels occur in the United Kingdom in blood donors and general surveillance.[119][120][121]

A preprint found that the viral load in the first positive test of infections with the variant was on average ∼1000 times higher than with compared infections during 2020.[122][123] Preliminary data from a study with 100,000 volunteers in the UK from May to July 2021, when Delta was spreading rapidly, indicates that vaccinated people who test positive for COVID-19, including asymptomatic cases, have a lower viral load in average. Data from the US, UK, and Singapore indicate that vaccinated people infected by Delta may have viral loads as high as unvaccinated infected people, but might remain infectious for a shorter period.[124]

Infection age groups

Surveillance data from the Indian government's Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) shows that around 32% of patients, both hospitalised and outside hospitals, were aged below 30 in the second wave compared to 31% during the first wave, among people aged 30–40 the infection rate stayed at 21%. Hospitalisation in the 20-39 bracket increased to 25.5% from 23.7% while the 0-19 range increased to 5.8% from 4.2%. The data also showed a higher proportion of asymptomatic patients were admitted during the second wave, with more complaints of breathlessness.[125]

Virulence

A few early studies suggest the Delta variant causes more severe illness than other strains.[126] On 7 June 2021, researchers at the National Centre for Infectious Diseases in Singapore posted a paper suggesting that patients testing positive for Delta are more likely to develop pneumonia and/or require oxygen than patients with wild type or Alpha.[127] On June 11, Public Health England released a report finding that there was "significantly increased risk of hospitalization" from Delta as compared with Alpha;[128] the risk was approximately twice as high for those infected with the Delta variant.[129] On June 14, researchers from Public Health Scotland found that the risk of hospitalization from Delta was roughly double that of from Alpha.[130] On July 7, a preprint study from epidemiologists at the University of Toronto found that Delta had a 120% greater – or more than twice as large – risk of hospitalization, 287% greater risk of ICU admission and 137% greater risk of death compared to non-variant of concern strains of SARS-COV-2.[131] However, on July 9, Public Health England reported that the Delta variant in England had a case fatality rate (CFR) of 0.2%, while the Alpha variant's case fatality rate was 1.9%, although the report warns that "case fatality rates are not comparable across variants as they have peaked at different points in the pandemic, and so vary in background hospital pressure, vaccination availability and rates and case profiles, treatment options, and impact of reporting delay, among other factors."[132] James McCreadie, a spokesperson for Public Health England, clarified "It is too early to assess the case fatality ratio compared to other variants."[133]

A Canadian study released on 5 October 2021 revealed that the Delta variant caused a 108 percent rise in hospitalization, 235 percent increase in ICU admission, and a 133 percent surge in death compared to other variants. is more serious and resulted in an increased risk of death compared to previous variants, odds that are significantly decreased with immunization.[134][135]

Statistics

The chance of detecting a Delta case varies significantly, especially depending on a country's sequencing rate (less than 0.05% of all COVID-19 cases have been sequenced in the lowest-sequencing countries to around 50 percent in the highest).[136][137]

By 22 June 2021, more than 4,500 sequences of the variant had been detected in about 78 countries.[138][139][140] Reported numbers of sequences in countries with detections are:

Cases by country
Country/AreaConfirmed cases (PANGOLIN)[141]
as of 19 December
Confirmed cases (GISAID)[138]
as of 23 November
Cases (other sources)
as of 19 January 2022
First detectionLast detection
 United Kingdom985,491826,4651,625,557[142]22 February 2021
 United States1,099,811947,47299.4% of cases[143]23 February 2021
 Canada78,41262,008196,866[144]15 March 2021
 Germany150,416117,5131 March 2021
 Denmark138,33689,7068 March 2021
 Japan86,38370,97386,037[145] [146]28 March 2021
 France75,22470,82221 February 2021
 Turkey54,13450,5785[147]28 April 2021
 Fiji-50747,639 [148][149][150]19 April 2021
 India45,63845,0555 October 2020
  Switzerland48,30438,00329 March 2021
 Sweden46,01837,77326 March 2021
 Belgium37,33431,61125 March 2021
 Italy33,64229,2822 April 2021
 Spain30,61828,25722 April 2021
 The Netherlands33,12827,8706 April 2021
 Australia23,69622,71525,750[151]16 March 2021
 Ireland22,42521,06126 February 2021
 Brazil27,73317,9871051 [152][153]20 May 2021[154][155][156][157][158]
 Mexico20,23017,7105 April 2021
 Slovenia16,33413,43920 April 2021
 Israel15,78712,25941[159][160][161]16 April 2021
 Norway15,71612,1301[162]15 April 2021
 Portugal12,98411,9835 April 2021
 South Africa2,58210,6194[163]30 April 2021
 Poland16,48410,32016[164]26 April 2021
 Lithuania8999,0701[165]17 June 2021
 Finland1,5708,7332,876[166][167][168][169]18 March 2021
 Czech Republic11,2258,48724 April 2021
 Singapore2,7277,51026 February 2021
 Slovakia3537,14615 June 2021
 Philippines8703,2208,612[170][171]11 May 2021
 South Korea7066,49726 March 2021
 Croatia4796,16511 June 2021
 Chile645,85813 June 2021
 Luxembourg1,1535,51515 April 2021
 Indonesia1,6234,9803 April 2021
 Romania2944,65526 April 2021
 Bulgaria2314,6145 April 2021
 Russia1,4684,29516[172]21 April 2021
 Thailand2364,2932[173]24 April 2021
 Iceland-3,76730 August 2021
 Malaysia1463,62410 April 2021
 Austria1,5783,62217 April 2021
 New Zealand922,844107[174][175]9 March 2021
 Estonia-2,74021 July 2021
 Greece172,64223 March 2021
 Peru62,58010 June 2021
 Bahrain1172,0135 April 2021
 Nigeria361,7951[176]7 August 2021
 Kenya2561,7005[176][177]17 July 2021
 Aruba901,59216 April 2021
 Vietnam541,41412[178][179]18 April 2021
 Puerto Rico-1,3609 September 2021
 Qatar1211,34319 April 2021
 Bangladesh2831,2739[180][181]28 April 2021
 Sint Maarten-1,23119 March 2021
 Ecuador891,02320 July 2021
 Sri Lanka1179841[182]30 April 2021
 Colombia-9743 July 2021
 Botswana1969122[183]28 April 2021
 Gibraltar-8485 September 2021
 Kosovo-8342 May 2021
 Reunion547544 May 2021
 Cambodia1717335 April 2021
 Papua New Guinea-71710 August 2021
 Costa Rica356897 July 2021
 Pakistan4967616 May 2021
 China8653624 April 2021
 Maldives652531 July 2021
 Ghana10152220 April 2021
 Curacao-46723 April 2021
 Bonaire-45813 July 2021
 Bosnia and Herzegovina3143026 July 2021
 Ethiopia-42416 August 2021
 Seychelles-40730 September 2021
 Argentina43852[184]24 April 2021
 Martinique836510 August 2021
 Guadeloupe-36210 March 2021
 Jordan536021 April 2021
 Uganda1343401[185]26 March 2021
 Zambia8232629 May 2021
 Gambia4231612 July 2021
 Mozambique-31416 July 2021
 Guatemala430229 July 2021
 Rwanda912839 July 2021
 Cameroon-28228 September 2021
 Georgia1927215 May 2021
 French Guiana5326422 July 2021
 U.S. Virgin Islands-24718 August 2021
   Nepal1002389[186]28 April 2021
 DR Congo192285[176]3 May 2021
 Malawi521330 April 2021
 Kuwait1081915 June 2021
 Montenegro-1788 August 2021
 Ukraine1317024 June 2021
 Kazakhstan-16719 August 2021
 Oman815917 May 2021
 Angola615914 January 2021
 Hong Kong1531022 April 2021
 Suriname-1503 August 2021
 Morocco31382[187]3 May 2021
 Togo-13031 July 2021
 Trinidad and Tobago-1143 August 2021
 Namibia-110June 2021
 Paraguay41008 July 2021
 Belize-9830 June 2021
 Egypt-9815 July 2021
 Zimbabwe-9626 July 2021
 Liechtenstein-9515 July 2021
 Senegal13936 May 2021
 Republic of Congo-8715 July 2021
 Västra Götaland-8619 July 2021
 Eswatini-8126 July 2021
 Lebanon-803 July 2021
 Latvia227327 May 2021
 Monaco347015 May 2021
 Mauritius15678 May 2021
 Malta426323 June 2021
 Guinea-Bissau-623 November 2021
 Burundi35731 May 2021
 Antigua and Barbuda-576 August 2021
 Liberia-5610 July 2021
 Armenia-505 August 2021
 Uzbekistan3047(number unreported)[188]25 June 2021
 Benin-4723 July 2021
 North Macedonia63811 July 2021
 The Bahamas-388 August 2021
 Cayman Islands-3730 July 2021
 Myanmar12331 June 2021
 Serbia5336 July 2021
 Timor-Leste-3312[189]8 August 2021
 South Sudan-297 June 2021
 United Arab Emirates-2823 June 2021
 Brunei-2817 August 2021
 Gabon-272 August 2021
 Mayotte-2721 October 2021
 Algeria17256[190]28 July 2021
 Andorra-2517 July 2021
 Barbados32324 May 2021
 Sierra Leone-228 September 2021
 Iran11213[191]11 May 2021
 Burkina Faso-2121 April 2021
 Crimea-211 July 2021
 Afghanistan-2024 May 2021
 Northern Mariana Islands2197 July 2021
 Central African Republic-1714 August 2021
 Taiwan31514 June 2021
 Guam-1426 April 2021
 Dominican Republic-143 May 2021
 Hungary--14[192]22 July 2021
 Equatorial Guinea-1430 August 2021
 Iraq21327 April 2021
 Moldova11116 July 2021
 Albania111113 July 2021
 Comoros-1126 October 2021
 Jamaica-1023 July 2021
 Anguilla-820 April 2021
 Saint Lucia-726 July 2021
 Montserrat-71 August 2021
 Saint Barthelemy-717 August 2021
 British Virgin Islands-527 July 2021
 Cyprus-14[193]19 May 2021
 Turks and Caicos Islands-412 July 2021
 Azerbaijan-214 July 2021
 Honduras-231 July 2021
 El Salvador-22 August 2021
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines-28 August 2021
 Mali-211 August 2021
 Saudi Arabia-29 September 2021
 Haiti-1(number unreported)[188]27 July 2021
 Panama-11[194]29 April 2021
 Tunisia-121 May 2021
 Södermanland-17 July 2021
 Venezuela-17 July 2021
 Mongolia-123 September 2021
 Kyrgyzstan--(number unreported)[188]16 May 2021[188]
 World (178 countries)Total: 3,119,592
(solely B.1.617.2)
Total: 2,768,050
(B.1.617.2+AY.1+AY.2+AY.3)
Total: 1,862,122


History

The first cases of the variant outside India were detected in late February 2021, including the United Kingdom on 22 February, the United States on 23 February and Singapore on 26 February.[195][39][138]

British scientists at Public Health England redesignated the B.1.617.2 variant on 7 May 2021 as "variant of concern" (VOC-21APR-02),[196] after they flagged evidence in May 2021 that it spreads more quickly than the original version of the virus.[20] Another reason was that they identified 48 clusters of B.1.617.2, some of which revealed a degree of community transmission.[197][198] With cases from the Delta variant having risen quickly, British scientists considered the Delta variant having overtaken the Alpha variant as the dominant variant of SARS-CoV-2 in the UK in early June 2021.[199] Researchers at Public Health England later found that over 90% of new cases in the UK in the early part of June 2021 were the Delta variant; they also cited evidence that the Delta variant was associated with an approximately 60% increased risk of household transmission compared to the Alpha variant.[200]

Canada's first confirmed case of the variant was identified in Quebec on 21 April 2021, and later the same day 39 cases of the variant were identified in British Columbia.[201] Alberta reported a single case of the variant on 22 April 2021.[202] Nova Scotia reported two Delta variant cases in June 2021.[203]

Fiji also confirmed its first case of the variant on 19 April 2021 in Lautoka, and has since then climbed up to 47,000 cases and counting.[204] The variant has been identified as a super-spreader and has led to the lockdowns of five cities (Lautoka, Nadi, Suva, Lami and Nausori), an area which accounts for almost two-thirds of the country's population.

On 29 April 2021, health officials from Finland's Ministry of Social Affairs and Health (STM) and the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) reported that the variant had been detected in three samples dating back to March 2021.[166]

The Philippines confirmed its first two cases of the variant on 11 May 2021, despite the imposed travel ban of the country from the nations in the Indian subcontinent (except for Bhutan and Maldives). Both patients have no travel history from India for the past 14 days, but instead from Oman and UAE.[205]

North Macedonia confirmed its first case of the variant on 7 June 2021 after a person who was recovering from the virus in Iraq was transported to North Macedonia. In a laboratory test, the variant was detected in the person. On 22 June 2021, the country reported its second case of the Delta variant in a colleague of the first case who had also been in Iraq and who subsequently developed symptoms.[206]

The detection of B.1.617 was hampered in some countries by a lack of specialised kits for the variant and laboratories that can perform the genetic test.[207][208] For example, as of 18 May, Pakistan had not reported any cases, but authorities noted that 15% of COVID-19 samples in the country were of an "unknown variant"; they could not say if it was B.1.617 because they were unable to test for it. Other countries had reported travellers arriving from Pakistan that were infected with B.1.617.[207]

In June 2021, scientist Vinod Scaria of India's Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology highlighted the existence of the B.1.617.2.1 variant, also known as AY.1 or Delta plus, which has an additional K417N mutation compared to the Delta variant.[52] B.1.617.2.1 was detected in Europe in March 2021, and has since been detected in Asia and America.[52]

On 9 July 2021, Public Health England issued Technical Briefing 18 on SARS-CoV-2 variants, documenting 112 deaths among 45,136 UK cases of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant with 28 days follow-up with a fatality rate of 0.2%.[209] Briefing 16 notes that "[M]ortality is a lagged indicator, which means that the number of cases who have completed 28 days of follow up is very low – therefore, it is too early to provide a formal assessment of the case fatality of Delta, stratified by age, compared to other variants."[210] Briefing 18 warns that "Case fatality is not comparable across variants as they have peaked at different points in the pandemic, and so vary in background hospital pressure, vaccination availability and rates and case profiles, treatment options, and impact of reporting delay, among other factors."[209] The most concerning issue is the logistic growth rate of 0.93/week relative to Alpha. This means that per week, the number of Delta samples/cases is growing by a factor of exp (0.93)=2.5 with respect to the Alpha variant. This results, under the same infection prevention measures, in a much greater case load over time until a large fraction of people have been infected by it.[211][212]

Government responses

After the rise in cases from the second wave, at least 20 countries imposed travel bans and restrictions on passengers from India in April and May. UK prime minister Boris Johnson cancelled his visit to India twice, while Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga postponed his April trip.[213][214][215]

In May 2021, residents of two tower blocks in Velbert, Germany, were quarantined after a woman in the building tested positive for the Delta variant.[216]

In May, Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal said that a new coronavirus variant from Singapore was extremely dangerous for children and could result in a third wave in India.

From 16 May to 13 June 2021, as well as 22 July 2021 to 10 August 2021; Singapore entered lockdowns, known as "Phase 2 Heightened Alert", similar to 2020.

On 14 June, the British prime minister Boris Johnson announced that the proposed end of all restrictions on 21 June in the United Kingdom was delayed for up to four weeks and vaccination roll-out was accelerated following concerns over the Delta variant, which accounted for the vast majority (90%) of new infections.[217] UK scientists have said that the Delta variant is between 40% and 60% more transmissible than the previously dominant Alpha variant, which was first identified in the UK (as the Kent variant).[218]

On 23 June, the province of Ontario in Canada accelerated 2nd dose vaccine appointments for people living in Delta hot spots such as Toronto, Peel and Hamilton.[219]

On 25 June, Israel restored their mask mandate citing the threat of Delta.[220]

On 28 June, Sydney and Darwin went back into lockdown because of Delta outbreaks.[221] South Africa banned indoor and outdoor gatherings apart from funerals, imposed a curfew, and banned the sale of alcohol.[222]

On 3 July, the islands of Bali and Java in Indonesia went into emergency lockdown.[223]

On 8 July, Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga announced that Tokyo would once again enter a state of emergency, and that most spectators would be barred from attending the Olympics set to start there on 23 July.[224]

On 9 July, Seoul, South Korea ramped up restrictions urging people to wear masks outdoors, and limiting the size of gatherings.[225]

On 12 July, French President Emmanuel Macron announced that all health care workers will need to be vaccinated by 15 September and that France will start using health passports to enter bars, cafés, restaurants and shopping centres from August.[226]

Los Angeles announced it will require masks indoors starting 17 July 2021.[227]

The United Kingdom lifted most COVID-19 restrictions on 19 July, despite a surge in cases as the Delta variant became dominant. The government cited the protection and wide coverage of the COVID-19 vaccination programme, although health experts expressed concern at the move.[228][229]

On 23 July, Vietnam extended its lockdown of Ho Chi Minh City to 1 August, and announced lockdown restrictions would be put in place in Hanoi, affecting a third of the country's population. The Delta variant had brought upon the country's largest outbreak to date, after mostly successful containment measures throughout 2020.[230][231]

On 17 August, New Zealand went into an alert level 4 lockdown, following a positive case being reported in Auckland. More cases soon followed in the Coromandel Peninsula.[232] This was the first reported community transmission case in the country in 170 days (since February 2021).[233]

See also

Notes

References

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Flag of Austria with the red in the Austrian national colours which was official ordered within the Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) in the characteristic “Pantone 032 C” (since May 2018 the Red is ordered in the characteristic “Pantone 186 C”.)
Flag of New Zealand.svg
Flag of New Zealand. Specification: http://www.mch.govt.nz/nzflag/description.html , quoting New Zealand Gazette, 27 June 1902.
Flag of Estonia.svg
Flag of Estonia 7:11, blue PANTONE 285C.
Flag of Greece.svg
Flag of Greece (since 1978) and Naval Ensign of Greece (since 1828)
Flag of Aruba.svg
The flag of Aruba
Flag of Ecuador.svg
Made by author of Xramp, first uploaded by Denelson83 as Flag of Ecuador.svg, modifications by Husunqu.
Flag of Gibraltar.svg
Flag of Gibraltar
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg
Flag of Papua New Guinea
Colours: Pantone 186 C for red and 116 C for yellow
Flag of Maldives.svg
Flag of Maldives. The colours used are Pantone 186 C for red and Pantone 348 C for green.
Flag of Curaçao.svg
The flag of Curaçao is a blue field with a horizontal yellow stripe slightly below the midline and two white, five-pointed stars in the canton. The geometry and colors are according to the description at Flags of the World.
Flag of Ethiopia.svg
Flag of Ethiopia
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg
The national flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Created according to the 2006 constitution : Son emblème est le drapeau bleu ciel, orné d’une étoile jaune dans le coin supérieur gauche et traversé en biais d’une bande rouge finement encadrée de jaune. (Its symbol is a sky blue flag, decorated with a yellow star in the upper left corner and crossed in the diagonal by a red strip with thin yellow borders) It seems to be identical, except for a lighter field hue, to the 1966–1971 flag.
Flag of Montenegro.svg
Flag of the Republic of Montenegro (adopted on 13 July 2004) - RGB colours, official 1:2 dimensions and construction details based partly on the templates: Flag (Government of Montenegro) and Coat of arms (Government of Montenegro).
Flag of Namibia.svg
Flag of Namibia
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg
Flag of Liechtenstein
Flag of Senegal.svg
Flag of Senegal
Flag of Iran.svg
Flag of Iran. The tricolor flag was introduced in 1906, but after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the Arabic words 'Allahu akbar' ('God is great'), written in the Kufic script of the Qur'an and repeated 22 times, were added to the red and green strips where they border the white central strip and in the middle is the emblem of Iran (which is a stylized Persian alphabet of the Arabic word Allah ("God")).
The official ISIRI standard (translation at FotW) gives two slightly different methods of construction for the flag: a compass-and-straightedge construction used for File:Flag of Iran (official).svg, and a "simplified" construction sheet with rational numbers used for this file.
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg
The proportions of this flag are 3:2; however, there is no official definition for the correct proportions and also 5:3 is widely used.
Flag of Guam.svg
The flag of Guam, courtesy an e-mail from the author of xrmap. Modifications by Denelson83.
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg
The flag of the Dominican Republic has a centered white cross that extends to the edges. This emblem is similar to the flag design and shows a bible, a cross of gold and 6 Dominican flags. There are branches of olive and palm around the shield and above on the ribbon is the motto "Dios,Patria!, Libertad" ("God, Country, Freedom") and to amiable freedom. The blue is said to stand for liberty, red for the fire and blood of the independence struggle and the white cross symbolized that God has not forgotten his people. "Republica Dominicana". The Dominican flag was designed by Juan Pablo Duarte, father of the national Independence of Dominican Republic. The first dominican flag was sewn by a young lady named Concepción Bona, who lived across the street of El Baluarte, monument where the patriots gathered to fight for the independence, the night of February 27th, 1844. Concepción Bona was helped by her first cousin María de Jesús Pina.
Flag of Albania.svg
Flag of Albania
Flag of Jamaica.svg
Flag of Jamaica. “The sunshine, the land is green, and the people are strong and bold” is the symbolism of the colours of the flag. GOLD represents the natural wealth and beauty of sunlight; GREEN represents hope and agricultural resources; BLACK represents the strength and creativity of the people. The original symbolism, however, was "Hardships there are, but the land is green, and the sun shineth", where BLACK represented the hardships being faced.
Flag of Anguilla.svg
Flag of Anguilla (adopted on 30 May 1990) - RGB colours, 1:2 dimensions and construction details based partly on the templates: Flag of Anguilla – A Brief History
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands
Flag of Haiti.svg
The national and official state flag of Haiti; arms obtained from http://www.webchantier.com/. The civil flag can be found at here.
WHO Rod.svg
The rod of Asclepius as depicted in the WHO logo.
UKOpenGovernmentLicence.svg
Author/Creator:

HMSO

, Licence: PD

Open Data Licence Logo as used in the United Kingdom

Sida-aids.png
Author/Creator: User:FoeNyx © 2004 (artistic illustration), Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
VIH - HIV / SIDA - AIDS viruses.
SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant.svg
Author/Creator: Stanford HIVDB Team, PhiLiP, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Amino acid mutations of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant plotted on a genome map of SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on Spike.
Södermanland vapen.svg
(c) Lokal_Profil, CC BY-SA 2.5
This coat of arms was drawn based on its blazon which – being a written description – is free from copyright. Any illustration conforming with the blazon of the arms is considered to be heraldically correct. Thus several different artistic interpretations of the same coat of arms can exist. The design officially used by the armiger is likely protected by copyright, in which case it cannot be used here.
Individual representations of a coat of arms, drawn from a blazon, may have a copyright belonging to the artist, but are not necessarily derivative works.
Västra Götalands län vapenflagga.svg
(c) Lokal_Profil, CC BY-SA 2.5
This coat of arms was drawn based on its blazon which – being a written description – is free from copyright. Any illustration conforming with the blazon of the arms is considered to be heraldically correct. Thus several different artistic interpretations of the same coat of arms can exist. The design officially used by the armiger is likely protected by copyright, in which case it cannot be used here.
Individual representations of a coat of arms, drawn from a blazon, may have a copyright belonging to the artist, but are not necessarily derivative works.
Decrease Neutral.svg
Author/Creator: Appaches, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Diminution neutre
Delta Variant countries.svg
Author/Creator: TapticInfo, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
  10000+ confirmed cases
  5000 - 9999 confirmed cases
  1000 - 4999 confirmed cases
  100 - 999 confirmed cases
  10 - 99 confirmed cases
  1 - 9 confirmed cases
  No confirmed cases, no population, or no data available
Flag of Rwanda.svg
Flag of Rwanda. The flag ratio is 2:3 with the stripes being 2:1:1. Colors are the following officially: Pantone 299 C 2X (blue), RAL 6029 (green), RAL 1023 (yellow) and RAL 1003 (golden yellow). (As of 03/08/2010, the only color used is the Pantone 299 C, which is from here. The rest of the colors are RAL shades from here.)