The military situation as of 6 April 2022, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Controlled by Ukraine
Occupied by Russia and pro-Russian forces
For a more detailed map, see the Russo-Ukrainian War detailed map
For countries supporting Ukraine during the 2022 invasion, see 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
|Commanders and leaders|
For details of strengths and units involved at key points in the war, see:
* Combatants of the war in Donbas
* Order of battle for the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
|Casualties and losses|
|2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine for casualties resulting from the 2022 invasion.|
The Russo-Ukrainian War[e] is an ongoing war between Russia (together with pro-Russian separatist forces) and Ukraine.[f] It began in February 2014 following the Ukrainian Revolution of Dignity, and initially focused on the status of Crimea and parts of the Donbas, internationally recognised as part of Ukraine. The first eight years of the conflict included the Russian annexation of Crimea (2014) and the war in Donbas (2014–present) between Ukraine and Russian-backed separatists, as well as naval incidents, cyberwarfare, and political tensions. Following a Russian military build-up on the Russia–Ukraine border from late 2021, the conflict expanded significantly when Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022.
Following the Euromaidan protests and a revolution resulting in the removal of pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych in February 2014, pro-Russian unrest erupted in parts of Ukraine. Russian soldiers without insignia took control of strategic positions and infrastructure in the Ukrainian territory of Crimea, and seized the Crimean Parliament. Russia organized a widely criticised referendum, whose outcome was for Crimea to join Russia. It then annexed Crimea. In April 2014, demonstrations by pro-Russian groups in the Donbas region of Ukraine escalated into a war between the Ukrainian military and Russian-backed separatists of the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk republics.
In August 2014, unmarked Russian military vehicles crossed the border into the Donetsk republic. An undeclared war began between Ukrainian forces on one side, and separatists intermingled with Russian troops on the other, although Russia attempted to hide its involvement. The war settled into a static conflict, with repeated failed attempts at a ceasefire. In 2015, the Minsk II agreements were signed by Russia and Ukraine, but a number of disputes prevented them being fully implemented. By 2019, 7% of Ukraine was classified by the Ukrainian government as temporarily occupied territories, while the Russian government had indirectly acknowledged the presence of its troops in Ukraine.
In 2021 and early 2022, there was a major Russian military build-up around Ukraine's borders. NATO accused Russia of planning an invasion, which it denied. Russian President Vladimir Putin criticized the enlargement of NATO as a threat to his country and demanded Ukraine be barred from ever joining the military alliance. He also expressed Russian irredentist views, questioned Ukraine's right to exist, and stated wrongfully that Ukraine was created by Soviet Russia. On 21 February 2022, Russia officially recognised the two self-proclaimed separatist states in the Donbas, and openly sent troops into the territories. Three days later, Russia invaded Ukraine. Much of the international community has condemned Russia for its actions in post-revolutionary Ukraine, accusing it of breaking international law and violating Ukrainian sovereignty. Many countries implemented economic sanctions against Russia, Russian individuals, or companies, especially after the 2022 invasion.
Post-Soviet context and Orange Revolution
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1991, Ukraine and Russia maintained close ties. In 1994, Ukraine agreed to accede to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as a non-nuclear-weapon state. Former Soviet nuclear weapons in Ukraine were removed from Russia and dismantled. In return, Russia, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (US) agreed to uphold the territorial integrity and political independence of Ukraine through the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances. In 1999, Russia was one of the signatories of the Charter for European Security, which "reaffirmed the inherent right of each and every participating State to be free to choose or change its security arrangements, including treaties of alliance, as they evolve."  In the years after the dissolution of the USSR, several former Eastern Bloc countries joined NATO, partly in response to regional security threats involving Russia such as the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, the War in Abkhazia (1992–1993) and the First Chechen War (1994–1996). Russian leaders described this expansion as a violation of Western powers' informal assurances that NATO would not expand eastward.
The 2004 Ukrainian presidential election was controversial. During the election campaign, opposition candidate Viktor Yushchenko was poisoned by TCDD dioxin; he later implicated Russian involvement. In November, Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych was declared the winner, despite allegations of vote-rigging by election observers. During a two-month period which became known as the Orange Revolution, large peaceful protests successfully challenged the outcome. After the Supreme Court of Ukraine annulled the initial result due to widespread electoral fraud, a second round re-run was held, bringing to power Yushchenko as president and Yulia Tymoshenko as prime minister, and leaving Yanukovych in opposition. The Orange Revolution is often grouped together with other early-21st century protest movements, particularly within the former USSR, known as colour revolutions. According to Anthony Cordesman, Russian military officers viewed such colour revolutions as an attempt by the US and European states to destabilise neighbouring countries and undermine Russia's national security. Russian President Vladimir Putin accused organisers of the 2011–2013 Russian protests of being former advisors to Yushchenko, and described the protests as an attempt to transfer the Orange Revolution to Russia. Rallies in favour of Putin during this period were called "anti-Orange protests".
At the 2008 Bucharest summit, Ukraine and Georgia sought to join NATO. The response among NATO members was divided; Western European countries opposed offering Membership Action Plans (MAP) in order to avoid antagonising Russia, while US President George W. Bush pushed for their admission. NATO ultimately refused to offer Ukraine and Georgia MAPs, but also issued a statement agreeing that "these countries will become members of NATO". Putin voiced strong opposition to Georgia and Ukraine's NATO membership bids. By January 2022, the possibility of Ukraine joining NATO remained remote.
Euromaidan, Revolution of Dignity, and pro-Russian unrest
In 2009, Yanukovych announced his intent to again run for president in the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election, which he subsequently won. In November 2013, a wave of large, pro-European Union (EU) protests erupted in response to Yanukovych's sudden decision not to sign the EU–Ukraine Association Agreement, instead choosing closer ties to Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union. The Ukrainian parliament had overwhelmingly approved of finalizing the agreement with the EU. Russia had put pressure on Ukraine to reject it.
Following months of protests as part of the Euromaidan movement, on 21 February 2014 Yanukovych and the leaders of the parliamentary opposition signed a settlement agreement that called for early elections. The following day, Yanukovych fled from the capital ahead of an impeachment vote that stripped him of his powers as president.
On 27 February, an interim government was established and early presidential elections were scheduled. The following day, Yanukovych resurfaced in Russia and in a press conference declared that he remained the acting president of Ukraine, just as Russia was beginning its overt military campaign in Crimea. Leaders of Russian-speaking eastern regions of Ukraine declared continuing loyalty to Yanukovych, causing the 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine. On 23 February, the parliament adopted a bill to repeal the 2012 law which gave Russian language an official status. The bill was not enacted, however, the proposal provoked negative reactions in the Russian-speaking regions of Ukraine, intensified by Russian media saying that the ethnic Russian population were in imminent danger.
On 27 February, Berkut special police units from Crimea and other regions of Ukraine, which had been dissolved on 25 February, seized checkpoints on the Isthmus of Perekop and Chonhar peninsula. According to Ukrainian MP Hennadiy Moskal, former chief of the Crimean police, these Berkut had armored personnel carriers, grenade launchers, assault rifles, machine guns, and other weapons. Since then, they have controlled all land traffic between Crimea and continental Ukraine. On 7 February 2014, a leaked audio revealed that United States Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Victoria Nuland in Kyiv, was weighing in on the make-up of the next Ukrainian government. Nuland told United States Ambassador Geoffrey Pyatt that she did not think Vitaly Klitschko should be in a new government. The audio clip was first posted on Twitter by Dmitry Loskutov, an aide to Russian Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin.
Russian bases in Crimea
At the onset of its conflict, Russia had roughly 12,000 military personnel in the Black Sea Fleet, located in several localities throughout Crimean peninsula like Sevastopol, Kacha, Hvardiiske, Simferopol Raion, Sarych, and several others. The disposition of the Russian armed forces in Crimea was not disclosed clearly to the public which led to several incidents like the 2005 conflict near Sarych cape lighthouse. Russian presence was allowed by the basing and transit agreement with Ukraine. According to the agreements Russian military component in Crimea was constrained, including a maximum of 25,000 troops, the requirement to respect the sovereignty of Ukraine, honor its legislation and not interfere in the internal affairs of the country, and show their "military identification cards" when crossing the international border and their operations beyond designated deployment sites were permitted only after coordination with the competent agencies of Ukraine. Early in the conflict, the agreement's sizeable troop limit allowed Russia to significantly reinforce its military presence under the plausible guise of security concern, deploy special forces and other required capabilities to conduct the operation in Crimea.
According to the original treaty on division of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet signed in 1997, Russia was allowed to have its military bases in Crimea until 2017, after which it had to evacuate all its military units including its portion of the Black Sea Fleet out of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol. A Russian construction project to re-home to fleet in Novorossiysk launched in 2005 and was expected to be fully completed by 2020; as of 2010, the project faced major budget cuts and construction delays. On 21 April 2010, former Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych signed a new deal known as the Kharkiv Pact, to resolve the 2009 Russia–Ukraine gas dispute; it extended the stay until 2042 with an option to renew and in return receiving some discount on gas delivered from Russian.
The Kharkiv Pact was rather an update to complex of several fundamental treaties that were signed in 1990s between prime ministers of both countries Viktor Chernomyrdin (Russia) and Pavlo Lazarenko (Ukraine), and presidents Boris Yeltsin (Russia) and Leonid Kuchma (Ukraine). The Constitution of Ukraine, whilst having a general prohibition of a deployment of foreign bases on the country's soil, originally also had a transitional provision, which allowed the use of existing military bases on the territory of Ukraine for the temporary stationing of foreign military formations; this permitted Russian military to keep its basing in Crimea as an "existing military base". The constitutional provision on "[pre]-existing bases" was revoked in 2019, when Russia had already annexed Crimea and withdrew from the basing treaties unilaterally.
This section may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (October 2021)
2014 Russian annexation of Crimea
On 20 February 2014, Russia began its annexation of Crimea. On 22 and 23 February, Russian troops and special forces began moving into Crimea through Novorossiysk. On 27 February, Russian forces without insignias began their advance into the Crimean Peninsula. They took hold of strategic positions and captured the Crimean Parliament, raising a Russian flag. Security checkpoints were used to cut the Crimean Peninsula off from the rest of Ukraine and to restrict movement within the territory.
In the following days, Russian soldiers secured key airports and a communications center. Russian cyberattacks shut down websites associated with the Ukrainian Government, news media, and social media. Cyberattacks also enabled Russian access to the mobile phones of Ukrainian officials and members of parliament over the next few days—some of which had their phones disabled as a result—further severing lines of communication.
On 1 March, the Russian legislature approved the use of armed forces, leading to an influx of Russian troops and military hardware into the peninsula. In the following days, all remaining Ukrainian military bases and installations were surrounded and besieged, including the Southern Naval Base. After Russia formally annexed the peninsula on 18 March, Ukrainian military bases and ships were stormed by Russian forces. On 24 March, Ukraine ordered troops to withdraw; by 30 March, all Ukrainian forces had left the peninsula.
On 15 April, the Ukrainian parliament declared Crimea a territory temporarily occupied by Russia. After the annexation, the Russian government increased its military presence in the region and leveraged nuclear threats to solidify the new status quo on the ground. Russian president Vladimir Putin said that a Russian military task force would be established in Crimea. In November, NATO stated that it believed Russia was deploying nuclear-capable weapons to Crimea.
2014–2015 war in Donbas
The initial protests across southern and eastern Ukraine were largely native expressions of discontent with the new Ukrainian government. Russian involvement at this stage was limited to voicing support for the demonstrations, and the emergence of the separatists in Donetsk and Luhansk began as a small fringe group of protesters, independent of Russian control. Russia would go on to take advantage of this, however, to launch a co-ordinated political and military campaign against Ukraine, as part of the broader Russo-Ukrainian War. Putin gave legitimacy to the nascent separatist movement when he described the Donbas as part of the historic "New Russia" (Novorossiya) region, and issued a statement of bewilderment as how the region had ever become part of Ukraine in 1922 with the foundation of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
When the Ukrainian authorities cracked down on the pro-Russian protests and arrested local separatist leaders in early March, these were replaced by people with ties to the Russian security services and interests in Russian businesses, probably by order of Russian intelligence. By April 2014, Russians citizens had taken control of the separatist movement, and were supported by volunteers and materiel from Russia, including Chechen and Cossack militants. According to DPR insurgent commander Igor Girkin, without this support in April, the movement would have fizzled out, as in it did in Kharkiv and Odessa. The disputed referendum on the status of Donetsk Oblast was held on 11 May.
These demonstrations, which followed the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, and which were part of a wider group of concurrent pro-Russian protests across southern and eastern Ukraine, escalated into an armed conflict between the Russia-backed separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics (DPR and LPR respectively), and the Ukrainian government. The SBU claimed key commanders of the rebel movement during the beginning of the conflict, including Igor Strelkov and Igor Bezler were Russian agents. The prime minister of Donetsk People's Republic from May to August 2014 was a Russian citizen Alexander Borodai.
From August 2014 all top positions in Donetsk and Luhansk have been held by Ukrainian citizens. Russian volunteers are reported to make up from 15% to 80% of the combatants, with many claimed to be former military personnel. Recruitment for the Donbas insurgents was performed openly in Russian cities using private or voyenkomat facilities, as was confirmed by a number of Russian media.
Economic and material circumstances in Donbas had generated neither necessary nor sufficient conditions for a locally rooted, internally driven armed conflict. The role of the Kremlin's military intervention was paramount for the commencement of hostilities.
In late March, Russia continued the buildup of military forces near the Ukrainian eastern border, reaching 30–40,000 troops by April. The deployment was likely used to threaten escalation and stymie Ukraine's response to unfolding events. Concerns were expressed that Russia may again be readying an incursion into Ukraine following its annexation of Crimea. This threat forced Ukraine to divert force deployment to its borders instead of the conflict zone.
In April, armed conflict begins in eastern Ukraine between Russian-backed separatist forces and Ukrainian government. The separatists declared the People's Republics of Donetsk and Luhansk. From 6 April, Militants occupied government buildings in many cities, as well as, taking control of border crossings to Russia, transport hubs, broadcasting center, and other strategic infrastructure. Faced with continued expansion of separatist territorial control, on 15 April the Ukrainian interim government launched an "Anti-Terrorist Operation" (ATO), however, Ukrainian military and security services were poorly prepared and ill-positioned and the operation quickly stalled.
By the end of April, the Ukrainian Government announced it had no full control of the provinces of Donetsk and Luhansk, being on "full combat alert" against a possible Russian invasion and reinstatement of conscription to the armed forces. Through May, Ukrainian campaign focused on containing the separatists by securing key positions around the ETO zone to position the military for a decisive offensive against the rebel enclave once Ukraine's national mobilization complete.
As conflict between the separatists and the Ukrainian government escalated in May, Russia began to employ a "hybrid approach", deploying a combination of disinformation tactics, irregular fighters, regular Russian troops, and conventional military support to support the separatists and destabilise the Donbas region. The First Battle of Donetsk Airport that followed the Ukrainian presidential elections marked a turning point in conflict; it was the first battle between the separatists and the Ukrainian government that involved large numbers of Russian volunteers.: 15 According to the Ukrainian government, at the height of the conflict in the summer of 2014, Russian paramilitaries were reported to make up between 15% to 80% of the combatants. From June Russia trickled in arms, armor, and munitions to the separatist forces.
By the end of July, they were pushing into Donetsk and Luhansk cities, to cut off supply routes between the two, isolating Donetsk and thought to restore control of the Russo-Ukrainian border. By 28 July, the strategic heights of Savur-Mohyla were under Ukrainian control, along with the town of Debaltseve an important railroad hub. These operational successes of Ukrainian forces threatened the very existence of Russian-supported DPR and LPR statelets, prompting Russian cross-border artillery shelling targeted against advancing Ukrainian troops on their own soil, from mid-July onwards.
Ukrainian media have described the well-organised and well-armed pro-Russian militants as similar to those which occupied regions of Crimea during the Crimean crisis. The former deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, Admiral Ihor Kabanenko, said that the militants are Russian military reconnaissance and sabotage units. Arsen Avakov stated that the militants in Krasnyi Lyman used Russian-made AK-100 series assault rifles fitted with grenade launchers, and that such weapons are only issued in the Russian Federation. "The Government of Ukraine is considering the facts of today as a manifestation of external aggression by Russia," said Avakov. Militants in Sloviansk arrived in military lorries without license plates. A reporter from Russia's Novaya Gazeta, having visited separatist artillery positions in Avdeyevka, wrote that in his opinion "it's impossible that the cannons are handled by volunteers" as they require a trained and experienced team, including observers and adjustment experts.
August 2014 Russian invasion
After a series of military defeats and setbacks for the Donetsk and Luhansk separatists, who united under the banner of "Novorossiya", a term Russian President Vladimir Putin used to describe southeastern Ukraine, Russia dispatched what it called a "humanitarian convoy" of trucks across the Russo-Ukrainian border in mid-August 2014. Ukraine reacted to the move by calling it a "direct invasion". Ukraine's National Security and Defence Council published a report on the number and contents of these convoys, claiming they were arriving almost daily in November (up to 9 convoys on 30 November) and their contents were mainly arms and ammunition. In early August, according to Igor Strelkov, Russian servicemen, supposedly on "vacation" from the army, began to arrive in Donbas.
By August 2014, the Ukrainian "Anti-Terrorist Operation" was able to vastly shrink the territory under the control of the pro-Russian forces, and came close to regaining control of the Russo-Ukrainian border. Igor Girkin urged Russian military intervention, and said that the combat inexperience of his irregular forces, along with recruitment difficulties amongst the local population in Donetsk Oblast had caused the setbacks. He addressed Russian president Vladimir Putin, saying that: "Losing this war on the territory that President Vladimir Putin personally named New Russia would threaten the Kremlin's power and, personally, the power of the president".
In response to the deteriorating situation in the Donbas, Russia abandoned its hybrid approach, and began a conventional invasion of the region. The first sign of this invasion was 25 August 2014 capture of a group of Russian paratroopers on active service in Ukrainian territory by the Ukrainian security service (SBU). The SBU released photographs of them, and their names. On the following day, the Russian defence Ministry said these soldiers had crossed the border "by accident". According to Nikolai Mitrokhin's estimates, by mid-August 2014 during the Battle of Ilovaisk, there were between 20,000 and 25,000 troops fighting in the Donbas on the separatist side, and only between 40% and 45% were "locals".
On 24 August 2014, President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko referred to the anti-terrorist operation (ATO) as Ukraine's "Patriotic War of 2014" and a war against "external aggression". The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine labeled the conflict an invasion on 27 August 2014. The same day, Amvrosiivka was occupied by Russian paratroopers, supported by 250 armoured vehicles and artillery pieces. Ten Russian paratroopers of the 331st Guards Airborne Regiment, military unit 71211 from Kostroma, were captured in Dzerkalne that day, a village near Amvrosiivka, 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the border, after their armoured vehicles were hit by Ukrainian artillery. On 25 August, the Security Service of Ukraine reported about the captured paratroopers, claiming they've crossed Ukrainian border in the night of 23 August. The SBU also released their photos and names. The next day, the Russian Ministry of Defence said that they had crossed the border "by accident".
On 25 August, a column of Russian tanks and military vehicles was reported to have crossed into Ukraine in the southeast, near the town of Novoazovsk located on the Azov sea coast, and headed towards Ukrainian-held Mariupol, in an area that had not seen pro-Russian presence for weeks. The Bellingcat's investigation reveals some details of this operation. Russian forces captured the city of Novoazovsk. and Russian soldiers began arresting and deporting to unknown locations all Ukrainians who did not have an address registered within the town. Pro-Ukrainian anti-war protests took place in Mariupol which was threatened by Russian troops. The UN Security Council called an emergency meeting to discuss the situation.
The 76th Guards Air Assault Division based in Pskov allegedly entered Ukrainian territory in August and engaged in a skirmish near Luhansk, suffering 80 dead. The Ukrainian Defence Ministry said that they had seized two of the unit's armoured vehicles near Luhansk city, and reported about another three tanks and two armoured vehicles of pro-Russian forces destroyed in other regions. The Russian government denied the skirmish took place but on 18 August, the 76th Guards Air Assault Division was awarded with Order of Suvorov, one of Russia's highest awards, by Russian minister of defence Sergey Shoigu for the "successful completion of military missions" and "courage and heroism".
Russian media highlighted that the medal is awarded exclusively for combat operations and reported that a large number of soldiers from this division had died in Ukraine just days before, but their burials were conducted in secret. Some Russian media, such as Pskovskaya Guberniya, reported that Russian paratroopers may have been killed in Ukraine. Journalists traveled to Pskov, the reported burial location of the troops, to investigate. Multiple reporters said they had been attacked or threatened there, and that the attackers erased several camera memory cards. Pskovskaya Guberniya revealed transcripts of phone conversations between Russian soldiers being treated in a Pskov hospital for wounds received while fighting in Ukraine. The soldiers reveal that they were sent to the war, but told by their officers that they were going on "an exercise".
The speaker of Russia's upper house of parliament and Russian state television channels acknowledged that Russian soldiers entered Ukraine, but referred to them as "volunteers". A reporter for Novaya Gazeta, an opposition newspaper in Russia, stated that the Russian military leadership paid soldiers to resign their commissions and fight in Ukraine in the early summer of 2014, and then began ordering soldiers into Ukraine. This reporter mentioned knowledge of at least one case when soldiers who refused were threatened with prosecution. Russian opposition MP Lev Shlosberg made similar statements, although he said combatants from his country are "regular Russian troops", disguised as units of the DPR and LPR.
In early September 2014, Russian state-owned television channels reported on the funerals of Russian soldiers who died in Ukraine during the war in Donbas, but described them as "volunteers" fighting for the "Russian world". Valentina Matviyenko, a top politician in the ruling United Russia party, also praised "volunteers" fighting in "our fraternal nation", referring to Ukraine. Russian state television for the first time showed the funeral of a soldier killed fighting in east Ukraine. State-controlled TV station Channel One showed the burial of paratrooper Anatoly Travkin in the central Russian city of Kostroma. The broadcaster said Travkin had not told his wife or commanders about his decision to fight alongside pro-Russia rebels battling government forces. "Officially he just went on leave", the news reader said.
Mariupol offensive and first Minsk ceasefire
On 3 September 2014, a Sky News team filmed groups of troops near Novoazovsk wearing modern combat gear typical for Russian units and traveling in new military vehicles with number plates and other markings removed. Specialists consulted by the journalists identified parts of the equipment (uniform, rifles) as currently used by Russian ground forces and paratroopers.
Also on, 3 September, Ukrainian President Poroshenko said he had reached a "permanent ceasefire" agreement with Russian President Putin. Russia denied the ceasefire agreement took place, denying being party to the conflict at all, adding that "they only discussed how to settle the conflict". Poroshenko then backtracked from his previous statement about the agreement.
Mick Krever wrote on the CNN blog that on 5 September Russia's Permanent Representative to the OSCE, Andrey Kelin had said it was natural pro-Russian separatists "are going to liberate" Mariupol. Ukrainian forces stated that Russian intelligence groups had been spotted in the area. Kelin said 'there might be volunteers over there.' On 4 September 2014, a NATO officer said there were several thousand regular Russian forces operating in Ukraine.
On 5 September 2014, the ceasefire agreement called the Minsk Protocol, drew a line of demarcation between Ukraine and separatist-controlled portions of Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts in the southeast of the country.
November 2014 escalation
On 7 November, NATO officials confirmed the continued invasion of Ukraine, with 32 Russian tanks, 16 howitzer cannons and 30 trucks of troops entering the country. On 12 November, NATO reiterated the prevalence of Russian troops; US general Philip Breedlove said "Russian tanks, Russian artillery, Russian air defence systems and Russian combat troops" were sighted. The Lithuanian Mission to the United Nations denounced Russia's 'undeclared war' on Ukraine. Journalist Menahem Kahana took a picture showing a 1RL232 "Leopard" battlefield surveillance radar system in Torez, east of Donetsk; and Dutch freelance journalist Stefan Huijboom took pictures which showed the 1RL232 traveling with the 1RL239 "Lynx" radar system.
OSCE monitors further observed vehicles apparently used to transport soldiers' dead bodies crossing the Russian-Ukrainian border – in one case a vehicle marked with Russia's military code for soldiers killed in action crossed from Russia into Ukraine on 11 November 2014, and later returned. On 23 January 2015 the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers warned about conscripts being sent to east Ukraine. NATO said it had seen an increase in Russian tanks, artillery pieces and other heavy military equipment in eastern Ukraine and renewed its call for Moscow to withdraw its forces.
The centre for Eurasian Strategic Intelligence estimated, based on "official statements and interrogation records of captured military men from these units, satellite surveillance data" as well as verified announcements from relatives and profiles in social networks, that over 30 Russian military units were taking part in the conflict in Ukraine. In total, over 8,000 soldiers had fought there at different moments. The Chicago Council on Global Affairs stated that the Russian separatists enjoyed technical advantages over the Ukrainian army since the large inflow of advanced military systems in mid-2014: effective anti-aircraft weapons ("Buk", MANPADS) suppressed Ukrainian air strikes, Russian drones provided intelligence, and Russian secure communications system thwarted the Ukrainian side from communications intelligence. The Russian side also frequently employed electronic warfare systems that Ukraine lacked. Similar conclusions about the technical advantage of the Russian separatists were voiced by the Conflict Studies Research Centre.
Numerous reports of Russian troops and warfare on Ukrainian territory were raised in United Nations Security Council meetings. In 12 November meeting, the representative of the United Kingdom also accused Russia of intentionally constraining OSCE observatory missions' capabilities, pointing out that the observers were allowed to monitor only two kilometers of border between Ukraine and Russia, and drones deployed to extend their capabilities were being jammed or shot down.
2015 and ceasefire
Poroshenko spoke of a dangerous escalation on 21 January amid reports of more than 2,000 additional Russian troops crossing the border, together with 200 tanks and armed personnel carriers. He abbreviated his visit to the World Economic Forum in Davos because of his concerns at the worsening situation. On 29 January, the chief of Ukraine's General Military Staff Viktor Muzhenko said 'the Ukrainian army is not engaged in combat operations against Russian regular units,' but that he had information about Russian civilian and military individuals fighting alongside 'illegal armed groups in combat activities.'
Reporting from DPR-controlled areas on 28 January, the OSCE observed on the outskirts of Khartsyzk, east of Donetsk, "a column of five T-72 tanks facing east, and immediately after, another column of four T-72 tanks moving east on the same road which was accompanied by four unmarked military trucks, type URAL. All vehicles and tanks were unmarked." It reported on an intensified movement of unmarked military trucks, covered with canvas. After the shelling of residential areas in Mariupol, NATO's Jens Stoltenberg said: "Russian troops in eastern Ukraine are supporting these offensive operations with command and control systems, air defence systems with advanced surface-to-air missiles, unmanned aerial systems, advanced multiple rocket launcher systems, and electronic warfare systems."'
A new package of measures to end the conflict, known as Minsk II, was agreed on 15 February 2015.
2015–2020 frozen conflict phase
According to a top U.S. general in January, Russian supplied drones and electronic jamming have ensured Ukrainian troops struggle to counter artillery fire by pro-Russian militants. "The rebels have Russian-provided UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) that are giving the rebels the detection capability and the ability to target Ukrainian forces". Advanced electronic jamming was also reported by OSCE observers on numerous occasions.
US Army commander in Europe Ben Hodges stated in February 2015 that "it's very obvious from the amount of ammunition, type of equipment, there's direct Russian military intervention in the Debaltseve area". According to estimates by the Chicago Council on Global Affairs in February, Russian separatists forces number around 36,000 troops (as compared to 34,000 Ukrainian), of which 8,500–10,000 are purely Russian soldiers. Additionally, around 1,000 GRU troops are operating in the area. According to a military expert, Ilya Kramnik, total Ukrainian forces outnumber the Russian forces by a factor of two (20,000 Russian separatists vs. 40,000 fighting for Ukraine).
In February 2015, the independent Russian newspaper Novaya Gazeta had obtained documents, allegedly written by oligarch Konstantin Malofayev and others, which provided the Russian government with a strategy in the event of Viktor Yanukovych's removal from power and the break-up of Ukraine, which were considered likely. The documents outlined plans for the annexation of Crimea and the eastern portions of the country, closely describing the events that actually followed after Yanukovych's fall. The documents also described plans for a public relations campaign which would seek to justify Russian actions.
Russian financing of militias and Glazyev tapes
In August 2016, the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) published the first batch of telephone intercepts from 2014 of Sergey Glazyev (Russian presidential adviser), Konstantin Zatulin, and other people in which they discussed covert funding of pro-Russian activists in Eastern Ukraine, the occupation of administration buildings and other actions that in due course led to the armed conflict.
As early as February 2014, Glazyev give direct instructions to various pro-Russian parties in Ukraine to instigate unrest in Donetsk, Kharkiv, Zaporizhia, and Odessa. He told various pro-Russian actors to take over local administration offices, what to do afterwards, and how to formulate their demands, and promised support from Russia, including "sending our guys". In further calls recorded in February and March 2014, Glazyev points out that the "peninsula doesn't have its own electricity, water, or gas" and a "quick and effective" solution would be expansion to the north. According to Ukrainian journalists, this indicates that the plans for military intervention in Donbas to form a Russia-controlled puppet state of Novorossiya to ensure supplies to annexed Crimea was discussed long before the conflict actually started in April.
Russian troop deployments
A report by Igor Sutyagin published by the Royal United Services Institute in March 2015 stated that a total of 42,000 regular Russian combat troops have been involved in the fighting, with a peak strength of 10,000 in December 2014. The direct involvement of the Russian troops on Ukrainian territory began in August 2014, at a time when Ukrainian military successes created the possibility that the pro-Russian rebels would collapse. According to the report, the Russian troops are the most capable units on the anti-Ukrainian side, with the regular Donetsk and Luhansk rebel formations being used essentially as "cannon fodder".
The Chicago Council on Global Affairs stated that the Russian separatists enjoyed technical advantages over the Ukrainian army since the large inflow of advanced military systems in mid-2014: effective anti-aircraft weapons ("Buk", MANPADS) suppressed Ukrainian air strikes, Russian drones provided intelligence, and Russian secure communications system thwarted the Ukrainian side from communications intelligence. The Russian side also frequently employed electronic warfare systems that Ukraine lacked. Similar conclusions about the technical advantage of the Russian separatists were voiced by the Conflict Studies Research Centre.
Cases of Russian soldiers killed and wounded in Ukraine are widely discussed in local Russian media in the republics from which they originated. Recruitment for Donbas is performed rather openly via veteran and other paramilitary organisations. Vladimir Yefimov, leader of one of such organisations, explained in details in an interview how the process works in the Ural area. The organisation recruits mostly army veterans, but also policemen, firefighters etc. with military experience. The cost of equipping one volunteer is estimated at around 350,000 rubles (around $6500) plus the cost of the volunteer's salary from 60,000 to 240,000 rubles per month depending on their experience.
The volunteers are issued a document claiming that their participation is limited to "offering humanitarian help" to avoid Russian mercenary laws. In Russia's anti-mercenary legislation a mercenary is defined as someone who "takes part [in fighting] with aims counter to the interests of the Russian Federation". The recruits travel to the conflict zone without weapons, which are given at the destination. Often, Russian troops have travelled disguised as Red Cross personnel. Igor Trunov, head of Russian Red Cross in Moscow condemned these convoys, saying they made delivery of real humanitarian aid more difficult.
On 22 April 2015, the US Department of State accused the "combined Russian-separatist forces" of accumulating air defence systems, UAV along with command and control equipment in eastern Ukraine, and of conducting "complex" military training that "leaves no doubt that Russia is involved in the training". Russia is also reinforcing its military presence on the eastern border with Ukraine as well as near Belgorod which is close to Kharkiv. In June 2015, Vice News reporter Simon Ostrovsky investigated the movements of Bato Dambaev, a Russian contract soldier from Buryatia, through a military camp in Rostov Oblast to Vuhlehirsk in Ukraine during the battle of Debaltseve and back to Buryatia, finding exact locations where Dambaev photographed himself, and came to a conclusion that Dambaev had fought in Ukraine while in active service in the Russian army.
With Russia refusing to allow the OSCE to expand its mission, OSCE observer Paul Picard stated that "We often see how Russian media outlets manipulate our statements. They say that we have not seen Russian troops crossing the borders. But that only applies to two border crossings. We have no idea what is going on at the others."
In September 2015 the United Nations Human Rights Office estimated that 8000 casualties had resulted from the conflict, noting that the violence had been "fuelled by the presence and continuing influx of foreign fighters and sophisticated weapons and ammunition from the Russian Federation."
In 2020 analysis of publicly available Russian railway traffic data (gdevagon.ru) indicated that in January 2015, period of especially heavy fighting, thousands of tons of cargo declared "high explosives" was sent by railway from various places in Russia into Uspenskaya, a small train station on a line crossing from Rostovskaya oblast' (Russia) into separatist-controlled part of Ukraine.
On 8 August 2016, Ukraine reported that Russia had increased its military presence along the Crimea demarcation line. Border crossings were then closed. On 10 August, the Russian security agency FSB claimed it had prevented "Ukrainian terrorist attacks" and that two servicemen were killed in clashes in Armiansk (Crimea), adding that "several" Ukrainian and Russian citizens were detained. Russian media reported that one of the killed soldiers was a commander of the Russian GRU, and later was buried in Simferopol.
The Ukrainian government denied that the incident took place. Parallel to the incident on 9 August, a Ukrainian official claimed that a number of Russian soldiers had deserted but had not entered into Ukraine, and that skirmishes broke out between Russian intelligence officers and border guards. Russian President Putin accused Ukraine of turning to the "practice of terror". Ukrainian President Poroshenko called the Russian version of events "equally cynical and insane". The U.S. denied Russia's claims, with its ambassador to Ukraine (Geoffrey R. Pyatt) stating "The U.S. Government has seen nothing so far that corroborates Russian allegations of a "Crimea incursion".
Russia had used the allegation to engage in a rapid military build-up in Crimea, followed by drills and military movement near the Ukrainian border. Ukrainian president Petro Poroshenko warned that Russia was preparing for a full-scale invasion of Ukraine.
2018 Kerch Strait incident
The Kerch Strait offers a critical link for Ukraine's eastern ports in the Azov Sea to the Black Sea, over which Russia gained de facto control in the aftermath of 2014. In 2017, Ukraine appealed to court of arbitration over the use of the strait, but, by 2018 Russia had built a bridge over it, limiting the size of ships that could transit the strait, imposed new regulations, and subsequently detained Ukrainian vessels on several occasions.
Tensions over the issue had been rising for months. On 25 November 2018, three Ukrainian boats traveling from Odessa to Mariupol attempted to cross the Kerch Strait caused an incident, in which Russian warships fired on and seized the Ukrainian boats; 24 Ukrainian sailors were detained. A day later on 26 November 2018, lawmakers in the Ukrainian parliament overwhelmingly backed the imposition of martial law along Ukraine's coastal regions and those bordering Russia in response to the firing and seizure of Ukrainian naval ships by Russia near the Crimean peninsula. A total of 276 lawmakers in Kyiv approved the measure, to take effect on 28 November 2018 and automatically expire after 30 days.
More than 110 Ukrainian soldiers were killed in the conflict between Ukrainian government forces and Russian-backed separatists in 2019. In May 2019, the newly elected Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky took office promising to end the War in Donbas. In December 2019, Ukraine and pro-Russian separatists began swapping prisoners of war. Around 200 prisoners were exchanged on 29 December 2019. According to Ukrainian authorities, 50 Ukrainian soldiers were killed in the conflict between Ukrainian government forces and Russian-backed separatists in 2020. Since 2019, Russia has issued over 650,000 internal Russian passports among an unconfirmed overall population, which is considered by Ukrainian government as a step towards annexation of the region.
2021–2022 Russian military buildup
Rise in tensions
From March to April 2021, Russia commenced a major military build-up near the Russo-Ukrainian border, followed by a second build-up between October 2021 to February 2022 in both Russia and Belarus. During these developments, the Russian government repeatedly denied it had plans to invade or attack Ukraine; those who issued the denials included Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov in November 2021, Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov in January 2022, Russian ambassador to the US Anatoly Antonov on 20 February 2022, and Russian ambassador to the Czech Republic Alexander Zmeevsky on 23 February 2022.
In early December 2021, following Russian denials, the US released intelligence of Russian invasion plans, including satellite photographs showing Russian troops and equipment near the Ukrainian border. The intelligence reported the existence of a Russian list of key sites and individuals to be killed or neutralized upon invasion. The US continued to release reports that accurately predicted the invasion plans, but according to Michael Kofman of the Center for Naval Analyses, the Ukrainian government did not adequately prepare for a large invasion.
Russian accusations and demands
In the months preceding the invasion, Russian officials accused Ukraine of inciting tensions, Russophobia, and the repression of Russian speakers in Ukraine. They also made multiple security demands of Ukraine, NATO, and non-NATO allies in the EU. These actions were described by commentators and Western officials as attempts to justify war. On 9 December 2021 Putin said that "Russophobia is a first step towards genocide". Putin's claims were dismissed by the international community, and Russian claims of genocide have been widely rejected as baseless.
In a 21 February speech, Putin questioned the legitimacy of the Ukrainian state, repeating an inaccurate claim that "Ukraine never had a tradition of genuine statehood". He incorrectly described the country as having been created by Soviet Russia. To justify an invasion, Putin falsely accused Ukrainian society and government of being dominated by neo-Nazism, invoking the history of collaboration in German-occupied Ukraine during World War II, and echoing an antisemitic conspiracy theory which casts Russian Christians, rather than Jews, as the true victims of Nazi Germany. While Ukraine has a far-right fringe, including the neo-Nazi Azov Battalion and Right Sector, analysts have described Putin's rhetoric as greatly exaggerating the influence of far-right groups within Ukraine; there is no widespread support for the ideology in the government, military, or electorate. The Poroshenko administration enforced the law condemning the Soviet Union and the Nazis in 2015. Ukrainian president Zelenskyy, who is Jewish, stated that his grandfather served in the Soviet army fighting against the Nazis; three of his family members died in the Holocaust.
During the second build-up, Russia issued demands to the US and NATO, including a legally binding arrangement preventing Ukraine from ever joining NATO, and the removal of multinational forces stationed in NATO's Eastern European member states. Russia threatened an unspecified military response if NATO continued to follow an "aggressive line". These demands were widely interpreted as being non-viable; new NATO members in Central and Eastern Europe had joined the alliance because their populations broadly preferred to move towards the safety and economic opportunities offered by NATO and the EU, and their governments sought protection from Russian irredentism. The demand for a formal treaty preventing Ukraine from joining NATO was also seen as unviable by Western officials as it would contravene the treaty's "open door" policy, although NATO showed no desire to accede to Ukraine's requests to join.
Alleged clashes (17–21 February)
Fighting in Donbas escalated significantly from 17 February 2022 onwards. The Ukrainians and the Russian separatists each accused the other of firing into their territory. On 18 February, the Donetsk and Luhansk people's republics ordered mandatory emergency evacuations of civilians from their respective capital cities, although observers noted that full evacuations would take months. Ukrainian media reported a sharp increase in artillery shelling by the Russian-led militants in Donbas as attempts to provoke the Ukrainian army.
In the days leading up to the invasion, the Russian government intensified its disinformation campaign, with Russian state media promoting fabricated videos (false flags) on a nearly hourly basis purporting to show Ukrainian forces attacking Russia, in a bid to justify an invasion of Ukraine. Many of the disinformation videos were poor and amateur in quality, and evidence showed that the claimed attacks, explosions, and evacuations in Donbas were staged by Russia.
Escalation (21–23 February)
On 21 February at 22:35 (UTC+3), Putin announced that the Russian government would diplomatically recognize the Donetsk and Luhansk people's republics. The same evening, Putin directed that Russian troops be deployed into Donbas, in what Russia referred to as a "peacekeeping mission". The 21 February intervention in Donbas was condemned by several members of the UN Security Council; none voiced support for it. On 22 February, the Federation Council unanimously authorised Putin to use military force outside Russia.
In response, Zelenskyy ordered the conscription of army reservists; The following day, Ukraine's parliament proclaimed a 30-day nationwide state of emergency and ordered the mobilisation of all reservists. Meanwhile, Russia began to evacuate its embassy in Kyiv. The websites of the Ukrainian parliament and government, along with banking websites, were hit by DDoS attacks, widely attributed to Russian-backed hackers.
On the night of 23 February, Zelenskyy gave a speech in Russian in which he appealed to the citizens of Russia to prevent war. He also refuted Russia's claims about the presence of neo-Nazis in the Ukrainian government and stated that he had no intention of attacking the Donbas region. Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said on 23 February that the separatist leaders in Donetsk and Luhansk had sent a letter to Putin stating that Ukrainian shelling had caused civilian deaths and appealing for military support from Russia.
In response, Ukraine requested an urgent UN Security Council meeting, which convened at 21:30 (UTC−5). Half an hour into the emergency meeting, Putin announced the start of military operations in Ukraine. Sergiy Kyslytsya, the Ukrainian representative, subsequently called on the Russian representative, Vasily Nebenzya, to "do everything possible to stop the war" or relinquish his position as president of the UN Security Council; Nebenzya refused.
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
On 21 February 2022, the Russian government claimed that Ukrainian shelling had destroyed an FSB border facility on the Russia-Ukraine border, and claimed that it had killed 5 Ukrainian soldiers who tried to cross into Russian territory. Ukraine denied having been involved in both incidents and called them false flag operations. On the same day, the Russian government formally recognized the self-proclaimed DPR and LPR as independent states, not only in their de facto controlled areas, but throughout each of the Ukrainian oblasts, and Putin ordered Russian military forces to enter the regions.
On 24 February 2022, Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered an invasion of Ukraine by Russian armed forces previously concentrated along the border. The invasion included attacks across the Belarus-Ukraine border and was followed by targeted airstrikes on military buildings in Ukraine. The Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskyy, in response, enacted martial law and general mobilization throughout Ukraine. Air raid sirens were heard throughout Ukraine for most of the day.
Ukraine's ICT infrastructure has been degraded as a result of Russian cyber-attacks and bombardments. Several Ukrainian cities and infrastructure sites have been occupied, including the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. According to a US defence official, commenting on 25 February, Russian forces are "meeting more resistance" in their advance towards Kyiv "than they expected"; this was repeated by James Heappey, Britain's Minister for the Armed Forces the next day.
Violations of human rights
The war has been accompanied by violations of human rights. From 2014 to 2021, there were more than 3,000 civilian casualties. The right of movement was impeded for the inhabitants of the conflict zone. The arbitrary detention was practiced by both sides in the first years of the conflict. It decreased after 2016 in the government-held areas while in the separatist-held ones it continued in 2021. The investigation into the abuses, including torture, committed by both sides made little progress. According to OHCHR the closure of three TV channels amounted to a violation of the freedom of expression. There were cases of conflict-related sexual violence, however OHCHR believe that "there are no grounds to believe that sexual violence has been used for strategic or tactical ends by Government forces or the armed groups in the eastern regions of Ukraine."
Russia–Ukraine gas disputes
Ukraine remains the main transit route for Russian natural gas sold to Europe, which earns Ukraine about $3 billion a year in transit fees, making it the country's most lucrative export service. Following Russia's launch of the Nord Stream pipeline, which bypasses Ukraine, gas transit volumes have been steadily decreasing. During the Ukrainian crisis, starting in February 2014 with the Russian annexation of Crimea, severe tensions extended to the gas sector. The outbreak of war in the Donbas region forced the suspension of a project to develop Ukraine's own shale gas reserves at the Yuzivska gas field, which had been planned as a way to reduce Ukrainian dependence on Russian gas imports. Eventually, the EU commissioner for energy Günther Oettinger was called in to broker a deal securing supplies to Ukraine and transit to the EU.
A terrorist explosion damaged Russia's Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhhorod pipeline in Rozhniativ district in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ukraine in May 2014. Another section of the pipeline exploded in the Poltava Oblast on 17 June 2014, one day after Russia limited the supply of gas to Ukrainian customers due to non-payment. Ukraine's Interior Minister Arsen Avakov said the next day, that the explosion had been caused by a bomb.
Russia planned to completely abandon gas supplies to Europe through Ukraine after 2018. Russia's state-owned energy giant Gazprom has already substantially reduced the volumes of gas it transits across Ukraine, and expressed its intention of reducing the level further by means of transit diversification pipelines (Turkish Stream, Nord Stream, etc.). Gazprom and Ukraine agreed a five-year deal on Russian gas transit to Europe at the end of 2019.
In 2020, the TurkStream natural gas pipeline running from Russia to Turkey changed the regional gas flows in South-East Europe by diverting the transit through Ukraine and the Trans Balkan Pipeline system.
In May 2021, the Biden administration waived Trump's CAATSA sanctions on the company behind Russia's Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline to Germany and its chief executive. Ukrainian President Zelensky said he was "surprised" and "disappointed" by Joe Biden's decision. In July 2021, the U.S. urged Ukraine not to criticise a forthcoming agreement with Germany over the pipeline.
On 20 July 2021, Joe Biden and German Chancellor Angela Merkel reached a conclusive deal that the U.S. may trigger sanctions if Russia uses Nord Stream as a "political weapon". The deal aims to prevent Poland and Ukraine from being cut off from Russian gas supplies. Ukraine will get a $50 million loan for green technology until 2024 and Germany will set up a billion dollar fund to promote Ukraine's transition to green energy to compensate the loss of the gas transit fees. The contract for transiting Russian gas through Ukraine will be prolonged until 2034, if the Russian government agrees.
In August 2021, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky warned that the Nord Stream 2 natural gas pipeline between Russia and Germany was "a dangerous weapon, not only for Ukraine but for the whole of Europe." In September 2021, Ukraine's Naftogaz CEO Yuriy Vitrenko accused Russia of using natural gas as a "geopolitical weapon". Vitrenko stated that "A joint statement from the United States and Germany said that if the Kremlin used gas as a weapon, there would be an appropriate response. We are now waiting for the imposition of sanctions on a 100% subsidiary of Gazprom, the operator of Nord Stream 2."
Russian propaganda and disinformation campaigns
False stories have been used to provoke public uproar during the war. In April 2014, Russian news channels Russia-1 and NTV showed a man saying he was attacked by a fascist Ukrainian gang on one channel and on the other channel saying he was funding the training of right-wing anti-Russia radicals. A third segment portrayed the man as a neo-Nazi surgeon. In May 2014, Russia-1 aired a story about Ukrainian atrocities using footage of a 2012 Russian operation in North Caucasus. In the same month, the Russian news network Life presented a 2013 photograph of a wounded child in Syria as a victim of Ukrainian troops who had just retaken Donetsk International Airport.
In June 2014, several Russian state news outlets reported that Ukraine was using white phosphorus using 2004 footage of white phosphorus being used by the United States in Iraq. In July 2014, Channel One Russia broadcast an interview with a woman who said that a 3-year-old boy who spoke Russian was crucified by Ukrainian nationalists in a fictitious square in Sloviansk that turned to be false.
In 2022, Russian state media told stories of genocide and mass graves full of ethnic Russians in eastern Ukraine. One set of graves outside Luhansk was dug when intense fighting in 2014 cut off the electricity in the local morgue. Amnesty International investigated 2014 Russian claims of mass graves filled with hundreds of bodies and instead found isolated incidents of extrajudicial executions by both sides.
Putin and Russian media have described the government of Ukraine as being led by neo-Nazis persecuting ethnic Russians who are in need of protection by Russia, despite Ukraine's President Zelensky being Jewish. Ukraine's rejection of the adoption of Russia-initiated General Assembly resolutions on combating the glorification of Nazism, the latest iteration of which is General Assembly Resolution A/C.3/76/L.57/Rev.1 on Combating Glorification of Nazism, Neo-Nazism and other Practices that Contribute to Fueling Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, serve to present Ukraine as a pro-Nazi state, and indeed likely forms the basis for Russia's claims, with the only other state rejecting the adoption of the resolution being the US. The Deputy US Representative for ECOSOC describes such resolutions as "thinly veiled attempts to legitimize Russian disinformation campaigns denigrating neighboring nations and promoting the distorted Soviet narrative of much of contemporary European history, using the cynical guise of halting Nazi glorification".
To the Russian invasion in Crimea
Interim Ukrainian President Oleksandr Turchynov accused Russia of "provoking a conflict" by backing the seizure of the Crimean parliament building and other government offices on the Crimean peninsula. He compared Russia's military actions to the 2008 Russo-Georgian War, when Russian troops occupied parts of the Republic of Georgia and the breakaway enclaves of Abkhazia and South Ossetia were established under the control of Russian-backed administrations. He called on Putin to withdraw Russian troops from Crimea and stated that Ukraine will "preserve its territory" and "defend its independence". On 1 March, he warned, "Military intervention would be the beginning of war and the end of any relations between Ukraine and Russia." On 1 March, Acting President Oleksandr Turchynov placed the Armed Forces of Ukraine on full alert and combat readiness.
The Ministry of Temporarily Occupied Territories and IDPs was established by Ukrainian government on 20 April 2016 to manage occupied parts of Donetsk, Luhansk and Crimea regions affected by Russian military intervention of 2014.
NATO and United States military response
On 4 March 2014, the United States pledged $1 billion in aid to Ukraine. Russia's actions increased tensions in nearby countries historically within its sphere of influence, particularly the Baltic and Moldova. All have large Russian-speaking populations, and Russian troops are stationed in the breakaway Moldovan territory of Transnistria. Some devoted resources to increasing defensive capabilities, and many requested increased support from the U.S. and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which they had joined in recent years. The conflict "reinvigorated" NATO, which had been created to face the Soviet Union, but had devoted more resources to "expeditionary missions" in recent years.
In 2014, Alexander Vershbow said, that Russia "have declared NATO as an adversary", adding, that NATO must do the same. Initial deployments in March and early April were restricted to increased air force monitoring and training in the Baltics and Poland, and single ships in the Black Sea. On 16 April, officials announced the deployment of ships to the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas, and increasing exercises in "Eastern Europe". The measures were apparently limited so as not to appear aggressive.
Leaders emphasized that the conflict was not a new Cold War but Robert Legvold disagreed. Others supported applying George F. Kennan's concept of containment to possible Russian expansion. Former U.S. Ambassador to Russia Michael McFaul said, "We are enduring a drift of disengagement in world affairs. As we pull back, Russia is pushing forward. I worry about the new nationalism that Putin has unleashed and understand that many young Russians also embrace these extremist ideas."
In addition to diplomatic support in its conflict with Russia, the U.S. provided Ukraine with US$1.5 billion in military aid during the 2010s. In 2018 the U.S. House of Representatives passed a provision blocking any training of Azov Battalion of the Ukrainian National Guard by American forces. In previous years, between 2014 and 2017, the U.S. House of Representatives passed amendments banning support of Azov, but due to pressure from the Pentagon, the amendments were quietly lifted.
On 24 September 2019 the U.S. House of Representatives initiated an impeachment inquiry against incumbent U.S. president Donald Trump in the wake of scandal surrounding a phone conversation that Trump had with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky on 25 July. In December 2021, Joe Biden and Vladimir Putin spoke on the phone for two hours and they discussed the issue. Biden mentioned that he would put sanctions on Russia if Russian army men entered Ukraine.
International diplomatic and economic responses
Several members of the international community have expressed grave concerns over the Russian intervention in Ukraine and criticized Russia for its actions in post-revolutionary Ukraine, including the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Korea, Georgia, Moldova, Turkey, Australia and the European Union as a whole, which condemned Russia, accusing it of breaking international law and violating Ukrainian sovereignty.
Many of these countries implemented economic sanctions against Russia or Russian individuals or companies, to which Russia responded in kind. Amnesty International has expressed its belief that Russia is fuelling the conflict. The UN Security Council held a special meeting 1 March 2014 on the crisis. The G7 countries condemned the violation of Ukraine's sovereignty, and urged Russia to withdraw. All G7 leaders are refusing to participate in it due to assumed violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine, in contravention of Russia's obligations under the UN Charter and its 1997 basing agreement with Ukraine.
In 2014, the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly published a statement (the "Baku Declaration") discussing the events in Ukraine in detail. Specifically, it pointed out that Russia is a signatory of the Helsinki Accords and committed to observing its rules, including respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of other member countries, as well as the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances that specifically guaranteed the integrity of Ukraine's borders. As noted by the OSCE, "Russian Federation has, since February 2014, violated every one of the ten Helsinki principles in its relations with Ukraine, some in a clear, gross and thus far uncorrected manner, and is in violation with the commitments it undertook in the Budapest Memorandum, as well as other international obligations". OSCE condemned actions of the Russian Federation, calling them "coercion" and "military aggression" that are "designed to subordinate the rights inherent in Ukraine's sovereignty to the Russian Federation's own interests".
In 2016 the OSCE deputy mission head in Ukraine Alexander Hug summarized the mission's two years of observations stating that "since the beginning of the conflict" the mission has seen "armed people with Russian insignia", vehicle tracks crossing border between Russia and Ukraine as well as talked to prisoners who were declaring themselves Russian soldiers.
In January 2015, Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) accepted a resolution that noted "the direct involvement of the Russian Federation in the emergence and worsening of the situation in these parts of Ukraine" and called both sides to fully respect the terms of Minsk Agreement.
In June 2015, the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly repeated condemnation of "Russia's aggression against Ukraine, including its illegal annexation and occupation of Crimea" ("Helsinki Declaration"). On 28 August 2015 Poland's newly elected President Andrzej Duda said in Berlin during talks with German President Joachim Gauck and Chancellor Angela Merkel that Poland is already taking in large numbers of refugees from the Ukraine conflict as part of the EU's refugee programme, and does not intend to join in talks conducted since 2014 by France, Germany, Russia and Ukraine.
The policy of strategic partnership between Kyiv and Warsaw requires further strengthening of military and technical cooperation, best exemplified by the Lithuanian–Polish–Ukrainian Brigade. The more immediate task that informed Poland's State secretary Krzysztof Szczerski, is Ukraine's constitutional reform leading to broad decentralization of power, in which Poland's post-Soviet experience is going to be used.
In August 2017, President Donald Trump signed the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA), which has targeted Russia's oil and gas industry, defence and security sectors, and financial institutions. Trump's administration imposed sanctions on several third countries for buying Russian weapons.
The initial reaction to the escalation of tensions in Crimea caused the Russian and European stock market to tumble. The intervention caused the Swiss franc climbed to a 2-year high against the dollar and 1-year high against the Euro. The Euro and the US dollar both rose, as did the Australian dollar. The Russian stock market declined by more than 10 percent, whilst the Russian ruble hit all-time lows against the US dollar and the Euro. The Russian central bank hiked interest rates and intervened in the foreign exchange markets to the tune of $12 billion to try to stabilize its currency. Prices for wheat and grain rose, with Ukraine being a major exporter of both crops.
Later in March 2014, the reaction of the financial markets to the Crimea annexation was surprisingly mellow, with global financial markets rising immediately after the referendum held in Crimea, one explanation being that the sanctions were already priced in following the earlier Russian incursion. Other observers considered that the positive reaction of the global financial markets on Monday 17 March 2014, after the announcement of sanctions against Russia by the EU and the US, revealed that these sanctions were too weak to hurt Russia. In early August 2014, the German DAX was down by 6 percent for the year, and 11 percent since June, over concerns Russia, Germany's 13th biggest trade partner, would retaliate against sanctions.
To the Russian intervention in Donbas
- Amnesty International considers the war to be "an international armed conflict" and presented an independent satellite photo analysis proving involvement of regular Russian army in the conflict. It accuses Ukrainian militia and separatist forces as being responsible for war crimes and has called on all parties, including Russia, to stop violations of the laws of war. Amnesty has expressed its belief that Russia is fueling the conflict, 'both through direct interference and by supporting the separatists in the East' and called on Russia to 'stop the steady flow of weapons and other support to an insurgent force heavily implicated in gross human rights violations.'
- NATO – The Russian government's decision to send a truck convoy into Luhansk on 22 August 2014 without Ukrainian consent was condemned by NATO and several NATO member states, including the United States. NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen called it "a blatant breach of Russia's international commitments" and "a further violation of Ukraine's sovereignty by Russia".
- European Union – Leaders warned that Russia faced harsher economic sanctions than the EU had previously imposed if it failed to withdraw troops from Ukraine. In 2015 the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe [PACE] published a resolution that openly speaks about a "Russian aggression in Ukraine".
- Ukraine – Chairman of the Ukrainian Parliament Oleksandr Turchynov said "It's a hybrid war that Russia has begun against Ukraine, a war with the participation of the Russian security services and the army."
- United States – US Ambassador to the United Nations Samantha Power commented on the invasion by noting that "At every step, Russia has come before this council to say everything but the truth. It has manipulated, obfuscated and outright lied. Russia has to stop lying and has to stop fuelling this conflict." The United States government said it supported stiffer sanctions as well.
- Nordic countries – On 9 April 2015, a joint declaration by the ministers of defence of Norway, Denmark, Finland and Sweden and the minister of foreign affairs of Iceland (which does not have a ministry of defence) was brought by the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten. The declaration first asserts that the Russian aggression against Ukraine and the illegal annexation of Crimea is a violation of international law and other international treaties and that the Nordic countries must judge Russia not by the rhetoric of the Kremlin, but by the actions of the country. After pointing out that Russia has increased its military exercise and intelligence gathering activity in the Baltic and Northern areas violating Nordic borders and jeopardizing civilian air traffic, the declaration states the intention of the Nordic countries to face this new situation with solidarity and increased cooperation. The Nordic unity commitment is extended to include solidarity with the Baltic countries and to a collaboration within NATO and EU to strengthen also the unity within these entities and to maintain the cross-Atlantic link.
Street protests against the war in Ukraine have arisen in Russia itself. Notable protests first occurred in March and large protests occurred in September when "tens of thousands" protested the war in Ukraine with a peace march in downtown Moscow on Sunday, 21 September 2014, "under heavy police supervision".
Critics of Vladimir Putin also express cautious criticism in the press and social media. Garry Kasparov, a consistent critic of Putin, whom he has called "a revanchist KGB thug", has written on the Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 shootdown and called for Western action.
Ukrainian public opinion
A poll of the Ukrainian public, excluding Russian-annexed Crimea, was taken by the International Republican Institute from 12 to 25 September 2014. 89% of those polled opposed 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine. As broken down by region, 78% of those polled from Eastern Ukraine (including Dnipropetrovsk Oblast) opposed said intervention, along with 89% in Southern Ukraine, 93% in Central Ukraine, and 99% in Western Ukraine. As broken down by native language, 79% of Russian speakers and 95% of Ukrainian speakers opposed the intervention. 80% of those polled said the country should remain a unitary country.
A poll of the Crimean public in Russian-annexed Crimea was taken by the Ukrainian branch of Germany's biggest market research organization, GfK, on 16–22 January 2015. According to its results: "Eighty-two percent of those polled said they fully supported Crimea's inclusion in Russia, and another 11 percent expressed partial support. Only 4 percent spoke out against it."
In March 2014, Estonia's president Toomas Hendrik Ilves said: "Justification of a military invasion by a fabricated need to protect ethnic "compatriots" resuscitates the arguments used to annex Sudetenland in 1938." During the Group of 20 (G-20) summit of world leaders in Brisbane, Australia in November 2014, an incident occurred during private meetings that became quite public. At the private leaders' retreat, held the weekend before the official opening of the summit, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper told Russian President Vladimir Putin "I guess I'll shake your hand but I have only one thing to say to you: You need to get out of Ukraine." The incident occurred as Putin approached Harper and a group of G-20 leaders and extended his hand toward Harper. After the event was over, a "spokesman for the Russian delegation said Putin's response was: 'That's impossible because we are not there'."
In March 2015, NATO's top commander in Europe General Philip M. Breedlove has been criticized by German politicians and diplomats as spreading "dangerous propaganda" by constantly inflating the figures of Russian military involvement in an attempt to subvert the diplomatic solution of the war in Donbas spearheaded by German Chancellor Angela Merkel. According to Germany's Der Spiegel magazine, "the German government, supported by intelligence gathered by the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), Germany's foreign intelligence agency, did not share the view of NATO's Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR)."
In 2022, UK defence minister Ben Wallace characterized President Putin's article "On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians" as "a seven-thousand-word essay that puts ethnonationalism at the heart of his ambitions... It provides the skewed and selective reasoning to justify, at best, the subjugation of Ukraine and at worse the forced unification of that sovereign country."
A Normandy Format meeting was planned between Russia, Ukraine, Germany and France in Paris on 26 January 2022, with a follow-up phone call between French President Emmanuel Macron and Russian President Putin. Ukraine fulfilled Russia's condition for a meeting in Paris and decided to withdraw from Parliament the controversial draft law on the reintegration of the Crimea and Donbas region, because the law was contrary to the Minsk peace agreements.
In February 2022, Russia held the rotating presidency of the United Nations Security Council, and diplomats from other countries warned that Russia could take advantage of the UNSC presidency to delay meetings on actions by Russia.
The deliveries of the United States lethal aid to Ukraine included .50 BMG caliber ammunition, M141 Bunker Defeat Munition and FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank missiles. US also intends to transfer Mi-17 helicopters to Ukraine, previously used by Afghan Air Force. In January 2022, the Biden administration approved deliveries of U.S.-made FIM-92 Stinger surface-to-air missiles to Ukraine. On 21 January 2022, White House Press Secretary Jen Psaki stated that "In the last year alone, we committed $650 million in security assistance to Ukraine; in total, since 2014, we've committed $2.7 billion. These deliveries are ongoing, including today there's more deliveries coming."
Russophobia has increased because Russian citizens' low level of protest activity against the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. Some in the EU believe this means support for the Kremlin's militaristic actions.
2022 full-scale invasion of Ukraine
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2022)
On 5 March 2022, Israeli prime minister Naftali Bennett met with Russian President Putin in Moscow as a mediator between Russia and Ukraine, as requested by Ukrainian President Zelensky. The meeting occurred after a series of phone calls between Bennett and Putin, and with the coordination of France, Germany, and the United States.
On 20 March 2022, Japanese prime minister Fumio Kishida visited India, urging his Indian counterpart Narendra Modi to take tougher line against the Russian invasion. It was reported a few days earlier that the Indian Oil Corporation bought 3 million barrels of oil from Russia despite pressure for sanctions.
On 20 March 2022, Chinese diplomat Qin Gang denied US allegations that China was willing to provide military aid to Russia. Reuters reported a day later that China would provide 10 million yuan of humanitarian aid to Ukraine, in addition to an earlier donation of 5 million. Ambassador to Ukraine Fan Xianrong said a few days earlier that China and Ukraine were "strategic partners" and that they would "respect the path chosen by Ukrainians because this is the sovereign right of every nation".
- Asymmetric warfare
- Buhas bus attack near Volnovakha
- Cherkasy (film)
- The Forgotten (2019 film)
- Casualties of the Russo-Ukrainian War
- Hybrid warfare
- Military history of the Russian Federation
- Ministry of Reintegration of Temporarily Occupied Territories
- New generation warfare
- Occupied territories of Georgia
- Russian military intervention in Syria
- Russian-Ukrainian cyberwarfare
- December 2015 Ukraine power grid cyberattack
- May 2017 WannaCry ransomware attack
- June 2017 cyberattacks on Ukraine
- Russia–Ukraine gas disputes
- Russian sabotage in Ukraine
- Temporarily occupied territories of Ukraine
- Related to Ukrainian military supply chain
- 2014 Vrbětice ammunition warehouses explosions in the Czech Republic
- 2015 poisoning of Emiliyan Gebrev and several arms depot explosions in Bulgaria
- 2015 depot explosion in Svatove, Ukraine
- 2017 Kalynivka ammunition depot explosion, Ukraine
- 2017 depot explosion in Balakliia, Ukraine
- Maritime activities
- List of ongoing armed conflicts
- List of wars involving Ukraine
- List of wars involving Russia
- List of invasions
- Arms, military exercises and general aid.
- For further details, see Belarusian involvement in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.
- There remain "some contradictions and inherent problems" regarding date on which the annexation began. Ukraine claims 20 February 2014 as the date of "the beginning of the temporary occupation of Crimea and Sevastopol by Russia", citing timeframe inscribed on the Russian medal "For the Return of Crimea", and in 2015 the Ukrainian parliament officially designated the date as such. On 20 February 2014, Vladimir Konstantinov who at that time was a chairman of the republican council of Crimea and representing the Party of Regions expressed his thoughts about secession of the region from Ukraine. On 23 February 2014 the Russian ambassador to Ukraine Mikhail Zurabov was recalled to Moscow to due "worsening of situation in Ukraine". In early March 2015, President Putin stated in a Russian movie about the annexation of Crimea that he ordered the operation to "restore" Crimea to Russia following an all-night emergency meeting of 22–23 February 2014, and in 2018 the Russian Foreign Minister claimed that the earlier "start date" on the medal was due to "technical misunderstanding".
- Includes 400–500 Russian servicemen (US claim, March 2015)
- Russian: pоссийско-украинская война, romanized: rossiysko-ukrainskaya voyna; Ukrainian: російсько-українська війна, romanized: rosiisko-ukrainska viina.
- Many countries have provided various levels of support to Ukraine short of becoming belligerents in the war, while Belarus has provided Russian forces territorial access for the 2022 invasion.
- "Nato members 'send arms to Ukraine'". BBC News. 14 September 2014.
- "Eu assistance to Ukraine". European Court of Auditors. 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
- McDermott, Roger N. (2016). "Brothers Disunited: Russia's use of military power in Ukraine". In Black, J.L.; Johns, Michael (eds.). The Return of the Cold War: Ukraine, the West and Russia. London. pp. 99–129. doi:10.4324/9781315684567-5. ISBN 978-1-138-92409-3. OCLC 909325250.
- "7683rd meeting of the United Nations Security Council. Thursday, 28 April 2016, 3 p.m. New York".
Mr. Prystaiko (Ukraine): ... In that regard, I have to remind the Council that the official medal that was produced by the Russian Federation for the so-called return of Crimea has the dates on it, starting with 20 February, which is the day before that agreement was brought to the attention of the Security Council by the representative of the Russian Federation. Therefore, the Russian Federation started – not just planned, but started – the annexation of Crimea the day before we reached the first agreement and while President Yanukovych was still in power.
- "'Няша' Поклонська обіцяє бійцям 'Беркута' покарати учасників Майдану". www.segodnya.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Спікер ВР АРК вважає, що Крим може відокремитися від України". Українська правда (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Putin describes secret operation to seize Crimea". Yahoo News. 8 March 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "Russia's Orwellian 'diplomacy'". unian.info. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- Книга пам'яті загиблих [Memorial Book to the Fallen]. Herman Shapovalenko, Yevhen Vorokh, Yuriy Hirchenko (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "Книга пам'яті загиблих". memorybook.org.ua. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "ООН підрахувала кількість жертв бойових дій на Донбасі". Radio Liberty. 19 February 2021. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
- "UNIAN: 70 missing soldiers officially reported over years of war in Donbas". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 6 September 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- "Militants held in captivity 180 Ukrainian servicemen". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- Isaac Webb (22 April 2015). "An Eye for an Eye: Ukraine's POW Problem". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
- "Donbas rebels still hold 300 Ukraine army servicemen and civilians prisoners". zik.ua. 2 May 2015.
- Pike, John. "Ukrainian Military Personnel". www.globalsecurity.org.
- "В жертву "Оплотам": Почему тормозит модернизация Т-64". www.depo.ua.
- "The overview of the current social and humanitarian situation in the territory of the Donetsk People's Republic as a result of hostilities between 23 and 29 January 2021". Human rights Ombudsman in the Donetsk People's Republic. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- Bellal, Annyssa (2016). The War Report: Armed Conflict in 2014. Oxford University Press. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-19-876606-3. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
- "Conflict-related civilian casualties in Ukraine" (PDF).
- Snyder, Timothy (2018). The Road to Unfreedom: Russia, Europe, America. New York: Tim Duggan Books. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-525-57447-7.
Almost everyone lost the Russo-Ukrainian war: Russia, Ukraine, the EU, the United States. The only winner was China.;Mulford, Joshua P. (2016). "Non-State Actors in the Russo-Ukrainian War". Connections. 15 (2): 89–107. doi:10.11610/Connections.15.2.07. ISSN 1812-1098. JSTOR 26326442.;Shevko, Demian; Khrul, Kristina (2017). "Why the Conflict Between Russia and Ukraine Is a Hybrid Aggression Against the West and Nothing Else". In Gutsul, Nazarii; Khrul, Kristina (eds.). Multicultural Societies and their Threats: Real, Hybrid and Media Wars in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. Zürich: LIT Verlag Münster. p. 100. ISBN 978-3-643-90825-4.
- Overland, Indra; Fjaertoft, Daniel (2015). "Financial Sanctions Impact Russian Oil, Equipment Export Ban's Effects Limited". Oil and Gas Journal. 113 (8): 66–72.
- Budjeryn, Mariana. "Issue Brief #3: The Breach: Ukraine's Territorial Integrity and the Budapest Memorandum" (PDF). Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
- Vasylenko, Volodymyr (15 December 2009). "On assurances without guarantees in a 'shelved document'". The Day. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- Harahan, Joseph P. (2014). "With Courage and Persistence: Eliminating and Securing Weapons of Mass Destruction with the Nunn-Luger Cooperative Threat Reduction Programs" (PDF). DTRA History Series. Defense Threat Reduction Agency. ASIN B01LYEJ56H. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- "Istanbul Document 1999". Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. 19 November 1999. Archived from the original on 1 June 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- Wiegrefe, Klaus (15 February 2022). "NATO's Eastward Expansion: Is Vladimir Putin Right?". Der Spiegel. ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- Hall, Gavin E. L. (14 February 2022). "Ukraine: the history behind Russia's claim that Nato promised not to expand to the east". The Conversation. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
- Leung, Rebecca (11 February 2009). "Yushchenko: 'Live And Carry On'". CBS News. CBS. Archived from the original on 25 October 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "Study: Dioxin that poisoned Yushchenko made in lab". Kyiv Post. London: Businessgroup. Associated Press. 5 August 2009. ISSN 1563-6429. Archived from the original on 31 January 2022. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
- "Yushchenko to Russia: Hand over witnesses". Kyiv Post. Businessgroup. 28 October 2009. ISSN 1563-6429. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
- "The Supreme Court findings" (in Ukrainian). Supreme Court of Ukraine. 3 December 2004. Archived from the original on 22 June 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2008.
- "Ukraine-Independent Ukraine". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 January 2008. Archived from the original on 15 January 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
- Cordesman, Anthony H. (28 May 2014). "Russia and the 'Color Revolution'". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- "Putin calls 'color revolutions' an instrument of destabilization – Dec. 15, 2011". Kyiv Post. Interfax Ukraine. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- "Антиоранжевый митинг проходит на Поклонной горе" [Anti-orange rally takes place on Poklonnaya Hill] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 4 February 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- Brown, Colin (3 April 2008). "EU allies unite against Bush over Nato membership for Georgia and Ukraine". The Independent. p. 24.
- Evans, Michael (5 April 2008). "President tells summit he wants security and friendship". The Times. p. 46.
President Putin, in a bravura performance before the world's media at the end of the Nato summit, warned President Bush and other alliance leaders that their plan to expand eastwards to Ukraine and Georgia "didn't contribute to trust and predictability in our relations.
- Wong, Edward; Jakes, Lara (13 January 2022). "NATO Won't Let Ukraine Join Soon. Here's Why". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
- "Yanukovych tops list of presidential candidates in Ukraine – poll". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 2 June 2009. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- Harding, Luke (8 February 2010). "Yanukovych set to become president as observers say Ukraine election was fair". The Guardian. Kyiv. ISSN 1756-3224. OCLC 60623878. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022.
- "Parliament passes statement on Ukraine's aspirations for European integration". Kyiv Post. 22 February 2013.
- Dinan, Desmond; Nugent, Neil (eds.). The European Union in Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 3, 274.
- "Rada removes Yanukovych from office, schedules new elections for May 25". Interfax-Ukraine. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "Ukraine President Yanukovich impeached". Al Jazeera. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Sindelar, Daisy (23 February 2014). "Was Yanukovych's Ouster Constitutional?". Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty (Rferl.org). Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Feffer, John (14 March 2014). "Who Are These 'People,' Anyway?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Polityuk, Pavel; Robinson, Matt (22 February 2014). Roche, Andrew (ed.). "Ukraine parliament removes Yanukovich, who flees Kyiv in "coup"". Reuters. Gabriela Baczynska, Marcin Goettig, Peter Graff, Giles Elgood. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- Traynor, Ian (24 February 2014). "Western nations scramble to contain fallout from Ukraine crisis". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- На отмену закона о региональных языках на Украине наложат вето [The abolition of the law on regional languages in Ukraine will be vetoed] (in Russian). Lenta.ru. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Ayres, Sabra (28 February 2014). "Is it too late for Kyiv to woo Russian-speaking Ukraine?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Kofman, Michael (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-9617-3. OCLC 990544142.
By March 26, the annexation was essentially complete, and Russia began returning seized military hardware to Ukraine.
- Paul Sonne (28 February 2014). "Crimea Checkpoints Raise Secession Fears". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Под Армянск стянулись силовики из "Беркута". armyansk.info (in Russian). 27 February 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "Leaked audio reveals embarrassing U.S. exchange on Ukraine, EU". Reuters. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Янукович пошел по стопам Ющенко – суды опять отбирают маяки у российских военных" [Yanukovych followed in Yushchenko's footsteps – courts again take away beacons from Russian military]. DELO (in Russian). 11 August 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- "Bound by treaty: Russia, Ukraine, and Crimea". Deutsche Welle. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
- "Російському флоту нікуди буде плисти з Криму після 2017 року?". Українська правда (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "ЯНУКОВИЧ ВІДДАВ КРИМ РОСІЙСЬКОМУ ФЛОТУ ЩЕ НА 25 РОКІВ". Українська правда (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Угода між Україною і Російською Федерацією про статус та умови перебування Чорноморського флоту Російської Федерації на території України (укр/рос)". Офіційний вебпортал парламенту України (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Угода між Україною і Російською Федерацією про параметри поділу Чорноморського флоту (укр/рос)". Офіційний вебпортал парламенту України (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Угода між Урядом України і Урядом Російської Федерації про взаємні розрахунки, пов'язані з поділом Чорноморського флоту та перебуванням Чорноморського флоту Російської Федерації на території України (укр/рос)". Офіційний вебпортал парламенту України (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Угода між Україною та Російською Федерацією щодо Чорноморського флоту (укр/рос)". Офіційний вебпортал парламенту України (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Rada secures Ukraine's course for EU, NATO in Constitution". Ukrinform. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
- Cathcart, Will (25 April 2014). "Putin's Crimean Medal of Honor, Forged Before the War Even Began". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "В России учредили медаль За возвращение Крыма". korrespondent.net (in Russian). Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "The Russian Invasion of the Crimean Peninsula 2014–2015" (PDF). Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
- "10 facts you should know about russian military aggression against Ukraine". Ukraine government. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
- "Armed men seize two airports in Ukraine's Crimea, Russia denies involvement — Yahoo News". news.yahoo.com. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Birnbaum, Michael (15 March 2015). "Putin Details Crimea Takeover Before First Anniversary". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- Mackinnon, Mark (26 February 2014). "Globe in Ukraine: Russian-backed fighters restrict access to Crimean city". Toronto: The Globe & Mail. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Russia flexes military muscle as tensions rise in Ukraine's Crimea". CNN. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
A CNN team in the area encountered more than one pro-Russian militia checkpoint on the road from Sevastopol to Simferopol.
- "Checkpoints put at all entrances to Sevastopol". Kyiv Post. 26 February 2014. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
Checkpoints were put up at all entrances to Sevastopol last night and the borders to the city are guarded by groups of people, police units, and traffic police.
- "Russian parliament approves use of armed forces in Crimea". dw.com. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
- Jen Weedon, FireEye (2015). "Beyond 'Cyber War': Russia's Use of Strategic Cyber Espionage and Information Operations in Ukraine". In Kenneth Geers (ed.). Cyber War in Perspective: Russian Aggression against Ukraine. Tallinn: NATO CCD COE Publications. ISBN 978-9949-9544-5-2. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- "Ukraine Parliament declares Crimea temporarily occupied territory". IANS. news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- ""Russia Threatens Nuclear Strikes Over Crimea"". The Diplomat. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
- "Putin: Russia to set up military force in Crimea". ITV. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russian troops crossed border, Nato says". BBC News. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. pp. 33–34.
- Wilson, Andrew (20 April 2016). "The Donbas in 2014: Explaining Civil Conflict Perhaps, but not Civil War". Europe-Asia Studies. 68 (4): 631–652. doi:10.1080/09668136.2016.1176994. ISSN 0966-8136. S2CID 148334453.
- Karber, Phillip A. (29 September 2015). "Lessons Learned" from the Russo-Ukrainian War (Report). The Potomac Foundation.
- Freedman, Lawrence (2 November 2014). "Ukraine and the Art of Limited War". Survival. 56 (6): 13. doi:10.1080/00396338.2014.985432. ISSN 0039-6338. S2CID 154981360.
- Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. p. 38.
- Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. pp. 43–44.
- "Strelkov/Girkin Demoted, Transnistrian Siloviki Strengthened in 'Donetsk People's Republic'". Jamestown. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Pushing locals aside, Russians take top rebel posts in east Ukraine". Reuters. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Matsuzato, Kimitaka (22 March 2017). "The Donbass War: Outbreak and Deadlock". Demokratizatsiya. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 25 (2): 175–202. ISBN 978-1-4008-8731-6.
- Wilson, Andrew (20 April 2016). "The Donbas in 2014: Explaining Civil Conflict Perhaps, but not Civil War". Europe-Asia Studies. 68 (4): 647–648. doi:10.1080/09668136.2016.1176994. ISSN 0966-8136. S2CID 148334453.
- "Rebels appeal to join Russia after east Ukraine referendum". Reuters. 12 May 2014.
- "Ukraine rebels hold referendums in Donetsk and Luhansk". BBC News. 11 May 2014.
- "Rebels declare victory in East Ukraine vote on self-rule". Reuters. 11 May 2014.
- Grytsenko, Oksana (12 April 2014). "Armed pro-Russian insurgents in Luhansk say they are ready for police raid". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Leonard, Peter (14 April 2014). "Ukraine to deploy troops to quash pro-Russian insurgency in the east". Yahoo News Canada. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 April 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Alec Luhn (20 July 2014). "Three pro-Russia rebel leaders at the centre of suspicions over downed MH17". the Guardian.
- Shaun Walker (29 July 2014). "An audience with Ukraine rebel chief Igor Bezler, the Demon of Donetsk". the Guardian.
- Kramer, Andrew E. (20 August 2014). "Plenty of room at the top of Ukraine's fading rebellion". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
- Представитель ДНР назвал процент российских добровольцев в местной армии Archived 25 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. 27 June 2014.
- "Российский Наемник: "Половина Ополченцев – Из России. Мне Помогают Спонсоры. Мы Возьмем Львов"". M.censor.net.ua. 26 July 2014. Archived from the original on 27 July 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Interview: I Was A Separatist Fighter In Ukraine". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Tavernise, Sabrina (15 July 2014). "Whisked Away for Tea With a Rebel in Ukraine". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Yans, Georgy (9 June 2014). "Груз 200" из Донецка (in Russian). MK.RU. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- James Rupert (5 January 2015). "How Russians Are Sent to Fight in Ukraine". Newsweek. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- Makarenko, Victoria (11 June 2014). "Фермы для "диких гусей"". Novaya Gazeta. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- Mykhnenko, Vlad (2020). "Causes and Consequences of the War in Eastern Ukraine: An Economic Geography Perspective". Europe-Asia Studies. 72 (3): 528–560. doi:10.1080/09668136.2019.1684447.
- "Russia's buildup near Ukraine may reach 40,000 troops: U.S. sources". Reuters. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- Holcomb, Franklin (2017). The Kremlin's Irregular Army (PDF). Institute for the Study of War.
- "Ukraine reinstates conscription as crisis deepens". 2 May 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
- Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. p. 69.
- Fedorov, Yury E. (15 January 2019). "Russia's 'Hybrid' Aggression Against Ukraine". Routledge Handbook of Russian Security. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-18122-8.
- Karber, Phillip A. (29 September 2015). "Lessons Learned" from the Russo-Ukrainian War (Report). The Potomac Foundation. p. 34.
- Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. p. 43.
- Loshkariov, Ivan D.; Sushentsov, Andrey A. (2 January 2016). "Radicalization of Russians in Ukraine: from 'accidental' diaspora to rebel movement". Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. Informa UK Limited. 16 (1): 71–90. doi:10.1080/14683857.2016.1149349. ISSN 1468-3857. S2CID 147321629.
- "ATO forces take over Debaltseve, Shakhtarsk, Torez, Lutuhyne, fighting for Pervomaisk and Snizhne underway – ATO press center". Interfax-Ukraine News Agency. 28 July 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- Josh Rogin; Eli Lake (29 April 2014). "Kerry: U.S. Taped Moscow's Calls to Its Ukraine Spies". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 1 May 2014.
- "Ukraine Liveblog Day 163: Belarus To Host Talks Between Ukraine and Russia". www.interpretermag.com. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- Rachkevych, Mark (12 April 2014). "Armed pro-Russian extremists launch coordinated attacks in Donetsk Oblast, seize buildings and set up checkpoints". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Під Слов'янськом з'явилися "зелені чоловічки". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 12 April 2014.
- "Вторгнення військ РФ на сході країни відбулося — джерела" [Sources say that Russian troops have invaded the east of the country]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 12 April 2014.
У Слов'янську та Червоному Лімані (Донецька обл.) діють не сепаратисти, а військові розвідувально-диверсійні підрозділи.
- На Донбасі сепаратисти і міліція влаштували перестрілку. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 12 April 2014.
- "У Слов'янськ на вантажівках привезли "зелених чоловічків" із Криму" [In Sloviansk are "little green men" brought in lorries from the Crimea]. Ukrayinska Pravda. 14 April 2014.
- Sokolov, Sergey (4 February 2015). "If it is not a war, then what is it?". Novaya Gazeta. No. 11. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016.
- "Here's Why Putin Calling Eastern Ukraine 'Novorossiya' Is Important". The Huffington Post. 18 April 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- Herszenhorn, David M. (17 April 2014). "Away From Show of Diplomacy in Geneva, Putin Puts on a Show of His Own". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- Luhn, Alec; Roberts, Dan (23 August 2014). "Ukraine condemns 'direct invasion' as Russian aid convoy crosses border". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- Dolgov, Anna (21 November 2014). "Russia's Igor Strelkov: I Am Responsible for War in Eastern Ukraine". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Kofman, Michael; Migacheva, Katya; Nichiporuk, Brian; Radin, Andrew; Tkacheva, Olesya; Oberholtzer, Jenny (2017). Lessons from Russia's Operations in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine (PDF) (Report). Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. p. 44.
- "Putin's Number One Gunman in Ukraine Warns Him of Possible Defeat". The Daily Beast. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Snyder, Timothy. The road to unfreedom : Russia, Europe, America (First ed.). New York, NY. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-525-57446-0. OCLC 1029484935.
- "На Донеччині затримано десять громадян Росії, які незаконно перетнули кордон України зі зброєю у складі диверсійної групи" [Group of Russian citizens held in Donetsk region crossed the border with weapons as part of sabotage group]. Security Service of Ukraine. 25 August 2014. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Оприлюднено фото затриманих російських військових" [Released photos of Russian soldiers]. Unian.ua. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Captured Russian troops 'in Ukraine by accident'". BBC News. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- "Москва: задержанные на Украине военные пересекли границу случайно" [Moscow: soldiers arrested in Ukraine crossed the border by accident]. Gazeta.ru. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Freedman, Lawrence (2 November 2014). "Ukraine and the Art of Limited War". Survival. 56 (6): 35. doi:10.1080/00396338.2014.985432. ISSN 0039-6338. S2CID 154981360.
- Wilson, Andrew (20 April 2016). "The Donbas in 2014: Explaining Civil Conflict Perhaps, but not Civil War". Europe-Asia Studies. 68 (4): 649. doi:10.1080/09668136.2016.1176994. ISSN 0966-8136. S2CID 148334453.
- "Poroshenko: ATO Is Ukraine's Patriotic War". Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
President Petro Poroshenko considers the government's anti-terrorist operation (ATO) against separatists as Ukraine's patriotic war.
- Gearin, Mary (24 August 2014). "Ukrainian POWs marched at bayonet-point through city". ABC (Australia). Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- MFA of Ukraine 🇺🇦 [@MFA_Ukraine] (27 August 2014). "#UkraineUnderAttack #RussiaInvadedUkraine RT PLZ t.co/KMM9ezqAfv" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022 – via Twitter.
- Геращенко каже, що Росія напала на Україну ще 24 серпня — Новини Укрінформ. ukrinform.ua (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- В Амвросиевку вошли российские войска без знаков отличия. Liga Novosti (in Russian). 24 August 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
- "Captured Russian troops 'in Ukraine by accident'". BBC News. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- На Донеччині затримано десять громадян Росії, які незаконно перетнули кордон України зі зброєю у складі диверсійної групи [Group of Russian citizens held in Donetsk region crossed the border with weapons as part of sabotage group] (in Ukrainian). Security Service of Ukraine. 25 August 2014. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Оприлюднено фото затриманих російських військових [Released photos of Russian soldiers] (in Ukrainian). Unian.ua. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Москва: задержанные на Украине военные пересекли границу случайно [Moscow: soldiers arrested in Ukraine crossed the border by accident] (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Jim Heintz (25 August 2014). "Ukraine: Russian Tank Column Enters Southeast". Abcnews. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: 'Column from Russia' crosses border". BBC News. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson (26 August 2014). "Russian Separatists Open New Front in Southern Ukraine". National Public Radio (NPR). Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Kramer, Andrew. "Ukraine Says Russian Forces Lead Major New Offensive in East". CNBC. Archived from the original on 28 August 2014.
Tanks, artillery and infantry have crossed from Russia into an unbreached part of eastern Ukraine in recent days, attacking Ukrainian forces and causing panic and wholesale retreat not only in this small border town but a wide swath of territory, in what Ukrainian and Western military officials are calling a stealth invasion.
- Tsevtkova, Maria (26 August 2014). "'Men in green' raise suspicions of east Ukrainian villagers". Reuters.
Unidentified, heavily-armed strangers with Russian accents have appeared in an eastern Ukrainian village, arousing residents' suspicions despite Moscow's denials that its troops have deliberately infiltrated the frontier.
- Lowe, Christian; Tsvetkova, Maria; Zverev, Anton; Zinets, Natalia; Balmforth, Richard; Prentice, Alessandra; Ustinova, Tatiana; Devitt, Polina; Apps, Peter (26 August 2014). Elgood, Giles (ed.). "Exclusive – In Ukraine, an armoured column appears out of nowhere". Reuters. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
- Sean Case; Klement Anders; Aric Toler; Eliot Higgins. "The Burning Road to Mariupol" (PDF). Bellingcat. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- Gowen, Annie; Gearan, Anne (28 August 2014). "Russian armored columns said to capture key Ukrainian towns". The Washington Post. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
- "NATO: 1000 rosyjskich żołnierzy działa na Ukrainie. A Rosja znów: Nie przekraczaliśmy granicy [NA ŻYWO]". gazeta.pl (in Polish). 28 August 2014. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "BBC:Ukraine crisis: 'Thousands of Russians' fighting in east, August 28". BBC News. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "U.S. says Russia has 'outright lied' about Ukraine". USA Today. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "Сили АТО активно наступають. Терористи-найманці несуть чималі втрати". Міністерство оборони України.
- Sanderson, Bill (21 September 2014). "Leaked transcripts reveal Putin's secret Ukraine attack – New York Post". New York Post.
- В Пскове прошли закрытые похороны местных десантников [In Pskov closed burial ceremonies of local paratroopers were held] (in Russian). Slon.ru. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- СМИ: под Псковом тайно похоронили десантников, возможно, погибших на Донбассе [Secret paratrooper burials in Pskov, possible losses from Donbas]. Novaya Gazeta (in Russian). 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Rosyjskie media: Pod Pskowem pochowano w tajemnicy żołnierzy poległych na Ukrainie". wiadomosci.gazeta.pl (in Polish). Archived from the original on 19 September 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Сенсация, которой лучше бы не было. Pskovskaya Guberniya (in Russian). Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Russian reporters 'attacked at secret soldier burials'". BBC. 27 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- ""Псковская губерния" сообщила о гибели роты десантников на Украине". www.forbes.ru. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- ""Псковская губерния" №(706)". 2 September 2014. Archived from the original on 2 September 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
- Morgan, Martin (5 September 2014). "Russia 'will react' to EU sanctions". BBC News. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- Alfred, Charlotte (6 September 2014). "Russian Journalist: 'Convincing Evidence' Moscow Sent Fighters To Ukraine". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- Warketin, Alexander (29 August 2014). "Disowned and forgotten: Russian soldiers in Ukraine". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "Russian TV shows funeral of soldier killed 'on leave' in Ukraine". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 5 September 2014. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- "Sky Films Troops 'In Russian Gear' In Ukraine". Sky News. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- В Кремле и Киеве разъяснили заявление о прекращении огня в Донбассе (in Russian). Interfax. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: Putin hopes for peace deal by Friday". BBC News. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- "Kremlin denies that Poroshenko and Putin agreed on ceasefire (UPDATES)". kyivpost.com. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- MacFarquhar, Neil (3 September 2014). "Putin Lays Out Proposal to End Ukraine Conflict". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Walker, Shaun; Luhn, Alec; Willsher, Kim (3 September 2014). "Vladimir Putin drafts peace plan for eastern Ukraine". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- "Russian ambassador anticipates 'liberation' of Mariupol in Ukraine". cnn.com. 5 September 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Croft, Adrian (4 September 2014). Faulconbridge, Guy (ed.). "Russia has 'several thousand' combat troops in Ukraine: NATO officer". Reuters. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- "Russia Sends Dozens Of Tanks Into Ukraine". Sky News. 7 November 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- "Lithuania's statement at the UN Security Council briefing on Ukraine". Permanent Mission of the Republic of Lithuania to UN in New York. 13 November 2014. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "Putin Sends His 'Leopard' to the Battlefield of Eastern Ukraine". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russian 'Cargo 200' crossed border — OSCE". BBC. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Oliphant, Roland (23 January 2015). "Ukraine: Separatist forces in Donetsk cannot maintain offensive without Russian support". Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "NATO sees increase of Russian tanks and artillery in Ukraine". Ukraine Today. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- "Russian units participating in combat actions in Ukraine". Center for Eurasian Strategic Intelligence. 22 October 2014. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
- Giles, Keir (6 February 2015). "Ukraine crisis: Russia tests new weapons". BBC. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- "Ukraine — Security Council, 7311th meeting". United Nations. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Pro-Russian rebels officially labelled terrorists by Ukraine government". CBC News. 27 January 2015.
- Miller, Michael Weiss (26 January 2015). "Putin Is Winning the Ukraine War on Three Fronts". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Francine Lacqua (21 January 2015). "Ukraine Talks Start as Poroshenko Warns of an Escalation". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Ukraine has evidence of Russian military presence in Donbas". Ukrinform. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015.
- "Latest from OSCE Special Monitoring Mission (SMM) to Ukraine based on information received as of 18:00 (Kyiv time), 28 January 2015". osce.org. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Malgin, Andrei (28 January 2015). "Russia Is Denying the Obvious in Ukraine". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Ukraine crisis: Leaders agree peace roadmap". BBC News. 12 February 2015. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
- AFP, globalpost.com Ukrainian forces face drones electronic jamming Archived 7 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- "Latest from OSCE Special Monitoring Mission (SMM) to Ukraine based on information received as of 19:30 (Kyiv time), 19 June 2015 – OSCE". www.osce.org. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "US Army commander for Europe: Russian troops are currently fighting on Ukraine's front lines". Business Insider. 11 February 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
- "Preserving Ukraine's Independence, Resisting Russian Aggression: What the United States and NATO Must Do" (PDF). Chicago Council on Global Affairs. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- Laurence Peter (6 February 2015). "Ukraine 'can't stop Russian armour'". BBC. Retrieved 7 February 2015.
- Lipsky, Andrey (24 February 2015). ""Представляется правильным инициировать присоединение восточных областей Украины к России"" [«It seems right to initiate the accession of eastern regions of Ukraine to Russia»]. Novaya Gazeta (in Russian). No. 19. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- Schofield, Matthew (22 February 2014). "BERLIN: Russian news report: Putin approved Ukraine invasion before Kiev government collapsed | Europe". McClatchy DC. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- "Report to Allege Direct Kremlin Link to Ukraine Invasion". Voice of America. 15 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- "World War 3: Vladimir Putin Plotted Ukraine Invasion Early As February 2014, New Report Says". Inquisitr.com. 22 February 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Беседы "Сергея Глазьева" о Крыме и беспорядках на востоке Украины. Расшифровка — Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- Whitmore, Brian (26 August 2016). "Podcast: The Tale Of The Tape". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- Uapositon (29 August 2016). "English translation of audio evidence of Putin's Adviser Glazyev and other Russian politicians involvement in war in Ukraine". Uaposition. Focus on Ukraine. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- Umland, Andreas. "Glazyev Tapes: What Moscow's interference in Ukraine means for the Minsk Agreements". Raam op Rusland (in Dutch). Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- "Scale of Russian military intervention in Ukraine revealed, says report". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- "Russian Forces in Ukraine" (PDF). Royal United Services Institute. March 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 May 2015.
- Alec Luhn (19 January 2015). "They were never there: Russia's silence for families of troops killed in Ukraine". Guardian. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
- Quinn, Allison (25 June 2015). "Russia trolls world by saying it can not stop its citizens from fighting in Ukraine". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- "Head of Sverdlovsk special forces veterans union: 'I help to send volunteers to war in Ukraine'". Kyiv Post. 26 December 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- Ilya Kozakov (24 December 2014). "Глава фонда свердловских ветеранов спецназа: "Я помогаю добровольцам отправиться воевать на Украину"" [Head of spetsnaz veteran fund in Sverdlovsk: "I'm helping volunteers go to the war in Ukraine"]. E1.ru. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Russians Used Humanitarian Convoys to Send Militants into Ukraine, Russian Organizer Says". The Interpreter Magazine. 26 December 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- "Red Cross Official Says Moscow Used 'Humanitarian' Convoys to Ship Arms to Militants in Ukraine". The Interpreter Magazine. 28 December 2014. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- "Statement by Marie Harf, Acting Spokesperson". US Department of State. 22 April 2015. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- Ostrovsky, Simon (16 June 2015). Selfie Soldiers: Russia Checks in to Ukraine. VICE News. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022 – via YouTube.
- Theise, Eugen (24 June 2015). "OSCE caught in the crossfire of the Ukraine propaganda war". Deutsche Welle.
- "UN News – Close to 8,000 people killed in eastern Ukraine, says UN human rights report". UN News Service Section. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
- "Russia inadvertently reveals how it poured ammunition into Ukraine in 2015". Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- Sharkov, Damien (8 August 2016). "Ukraine Reports Russian Military Activity on Crimea Border". Newsweek. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "Russia says it thwarted 'armed Ukrainian incursion' into Crimea". Deutsche Welle. 10 August 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- "ФСБ России обвинила спецслужбы Украины в подготовке теракта в Крыму" [FSB of Russia accused the special services of Ukraine of preparing a terrorist attack in Crimea]. BBC Russian Service (in Russian). 10 August 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- "Russia: Ukraine 'terrorist attacks' in Crimea foiled". Aljazeera. 10 August 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- "One of the Russian soldiers allegedly killed by Ukrainian spies has already been buried in Simferopol". Meduza.io. 10 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- Oliphant, Roland (10 August 2016). "Putin accuses Ukraine of 'terror' over alleged Crimea raid". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- Osborn, Andrew; Stolyarov, Gleb (10 August 2016). "Putin accuses Ukraine of trying to provoke a new conflict over Crimea". Reuters. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- "Competing Narratives of the Crimean "Terrorist Attacks"". AtlanticCouncil's Digital Forensic Research Lab. 10 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- "Ukrainian intelligence says there was an armed skirmish in Crimea between Russian soldiers and Russian federal agents". Meduza.io. 11 August 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- Walker, Shaun (10 August 2016). "Putin raises stakes over alleged Ukrainian terror plot in Crimea". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- "Comment of President: Russia's accusing Ukraine of terrorism in occupied Crimea is absurd and cynical". Presidential Administration of Ukraine. 10 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- Williams, Matthias (11 August 2016). Jones, Gareth (ed.). "No evidence so far to corroborate Russia allegations over Crimea: U.S." Reuters. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- Weinberger, Kathleen (12 August 2016). "russian build-up in and around ukraine". foreignpolicy. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- Kofman, Michael (31 August 2016). "Putin's Military Is Playing the Long Game in Ukraine". foreignpolicy. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
- "Ukraine's Poroshenko warns of 'full-scale' Russia invasion". BBC News. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- Balmforth, Richard; Polityuk, Pavel (4 June 2015). Prentice, Alessandra (ed.). "Ukraine's Poroshenko warns of threat of "full-scale invasion" from Russia". Reuters. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- Larter, David B.; Bodner, Matthew (28 November 2018). "The Sea of Azov won't become the new South China Sea (and Russia knows it)". Defense News.
- "Russia-Ukraine sea clash in 300 words". BBC News. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- "The Kerch Strait incident". International Institute for Strategic Studies. December 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
- "Kiev declares martial law after Russian seizure of Ukrainian ships in Black Sea". The Independent. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
- "Two Ukrainian Soldiers Killed Over Bloody Weekend In Donbas". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 3 February 2020.
- Betz, Bradford (29 December 2019). "Ukraine, pro-Russian separatists swap prisoners in step to end 5-year war". Fox News.
- "Ukraine and pro-Russian separatists exchange prisoners". BBC News. 29 December 2019.
- Reuters Staff (29 December 2019). "France's Macron, Germany's Merkel welcome prisoner swap in Ukraine". Reuters – via www.reuters.com.
- Ukraine government and separatists begin prisoners swap. Al Jazeera English. 29 December 2019. Archived from the original on 26 December 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2022 – via YouTube.
- "Ukraine conflict: Moscow could 'defend' Russia-backed rebels". BBC News. 9 April 2021. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Kremlin defends Russian military buildup on Ukraine border". The Guardian. 9 April 2021.
- "Zelenskiy: Russian passports in Donbass are a step towards 'annexation'". Reuters. 20 May 2021.
- "173rd Airborne Brigade battalion heads to Latvia as Ukraine comes under Russian attack". Stars and Stripes. 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- Schogol, Jeff (22 February 2022). "Here's what those mysterious white 'Z' markings on Russian military equipment may mean". Task & Purpose. North Equity. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
[B]ottom line is the 'Z' markings (and others like it) are a deconfliction measure to help prevent fratricide, or friendly fire incidents.
- Taylor, Adam (24 February 2022). "Russia's attack on Ukraine came after months of denials it would attack". The Washington Post. Photograph by Evgeniy Maloletka (Associated Press). Nash Holdings. ISSN 0190-8286. OCLC 2269358. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
On Sunday ... "There is no invasion. There is no such plans," Antonov said.
- "Putin attacked Ukraine after insisting for months there was no plan to do so. Now he says there's no plan to take over". CBS News. Kharkiv: CBS (published 22 February 2022). 24 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- Farley, Robert; Kiely, Eugene (24 February 2022). "Russian Rhetoric Ahead of Attack Against Ukraine: Deny, Deflect, Mislead". FactCheck.org. Photograph by Aris Messinis (Agence-France Presse). Annenberg Public Policy Center. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
Nov. 28 – ... 'Russia has never hatched, is not hatching and will never hatch any plans to attack anyone,' Peskov said. ... Jan. 19 – ... Ryabkov ... 'We do not want and will not take any action of aggressive character. We will not attack, strike, invade, quote unquote, whatever Ukraine.'
- Fořtová, Klára (8 March 2022). "Velvyslanec Ukrajiny v Česku denně promlouvá, ruský mlčí a je 'neviditelný'". iDNES (in Czech). Retrieved 10 March 2022.
Zmejevský ... 'Důrazně jsme odmítli jako nepodložená obvinění Ruska z přípravy, agrese vůči Ukrajině a fámy o vstupu ruských jednotek na ukrajinské území,' stojí v něm.
- Harris, Shane; Sonne, Paul (3 December 2021). "Russia planning massive military offensive against Ukraine involving 175,000 troops, U.S. intelligence warns". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
[U].S. intelligence has found the Kremlin is planning a multi-frontal offensive as soon as early next year involving up to 175,000 troops ... .
- Merchant, Normaan (25 February 2022). "US intel predicted Russia's invasion plans. Did it matter?". AP News. Photographs by Alexei Alexandrov and Alex Brandon (AP Photo). Washington, D.C.: Associated Press. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- Chotiner, Isaac (11 March 2022). "The Russian Military's Debacle in Ukraine". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
- Li, David K.; Allen, Jonathan; Siemaszko, Corky (24 February 2022). "Putin using false 'Nazi' narrative to justify Russia's attack on Ukraine, experts say". NBC News. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- "US accuses Moscow of creating Ukraine invasion pretext with 'genocide' claims". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 15 February 2021. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Putin Says Conflict in Eastern Ukraine 'Looks Like Genocide'". The Moscow Times. 10 December 2021. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Путин заявил о геноциде на Донбассе" [Putin announced the genocide in the Donbas]. Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). 9 December 2021. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- Stanley, Jason (26 February 2022). "The antisemitism animating Putin's claim to 'denazify' Ukraine". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- "Ukraine crisis: Vladimir Putin address fact-checked". BBC News. 22 February 2022. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Hinton, Alexander (24 February 2022). "Putin's claims that Ukraine is committing genocide are baseless, but not unprecedented". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- "Disinformation About the Current Russia-Ukraine Conflict – Seven Myths Debunked". Directorate-General for European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations (Press release). 24 January 2022. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
- "Extracts from Putin's speech on Ukraine". Reuters. 21 February 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- Düben, Björn Alexander (1 July 2020). "'There is no Ukraine': Fact-Checking the Kremlin's Version of Ukrainian History". LSE International History. London School of Economics. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- Perrigo, Billy (22 February 2022). "How Putin's Denial of Ukraine's Statehood Rewrites History". Time. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- Abbruzzese, Jason (24 February 2022). "Putin says he is fighting a resurgence of Nazism. That's not true". NBC News. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Campbell, Eric (3 March 2022). "Inside Donetsk, the separatist republic that triggered the war in Ukraine". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
- Waxman, Olivia B. (3 March 2022). "Historians on What Putin Gets Wrong About 'Denazification' in Ukraine". Time. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
- Berger, Miriam (24 February 2022). "Putin says he will 'denazify' Ukraine. Here's the history behind that claim". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
- Campbell, Eric (3 March 2022). "Inside Donetsk, the separatist republic that triggered the war in Ukraine". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
- Lawler, Dave; Basu, Zachary (24 February 2022). "Ukrainian President Zelensky says Putin has ordered invasion as country prepares for war". Axios. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Li, David K.; Allen, Jonathan; Siemaszko, Corky (24 February 2022). "Putin using false 'Nazi' narrative to justify Russia's attack on Ukraine, experts say". NBC News. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Harris, Shane; Sonne, Paul (3 December 2021). "Russia planning massive military offensive against Ukraine involving 175,000 troops, U.S. intelligence warns". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
- Tétrault-Farber, Gabrielle; Balmforth, Tom (17 December 2021). "Russia demands NATO roll back from East Europe and stay out of Ukraine". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- MacKinnon, Mark (21 December 2021). "Putin warns of unspecified military response if U.S. and NATO continue 'aggressive line'". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Szayna, Thomas S. (29 October 1997). "The Enlargement of NATO and Central European Politics". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
- Coyer, Cassandre (25 February 2022). "Why is Ukraine not in NATO and is it too late to join? Here's what experts, NATO say". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
- MacKinnon, Mark; Morrow, Adrian. "Putin orders snap nuclear drill". The Globe and Mail. Phillip Crawley. p. A3. ISSN 0319-0714.
- Brown, David (17 February 2022). "Ukraine: How big is Russia's military build-up?". BBC News. Photograph by the Russian Defence Ministry; Graphics by Sandra Rodriguez Chillida and Prina Shah. BBC. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- Talmazan, Yuliya; Shabad, Rebecca; Williams, Abigail (17 February 2022). "Ukraine, West accuse Russia of trying to create pretext for invasion after shelling in east". NBC News. NBC. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022 – via MSN.
- "Russian-backed separatists announce civilian evacuation from eastern Ukraine as escalation stokes Russian invasion fears". NBC News. 18 February 2022. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- Smith, Alexander (18 February 2022). "Warning siren sounds in rebel-held capital in east Ukraine -Reuters witness". MSN News. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Ukraine conflict: Rebels declare general mobilisation as fighting grows". BBC News. 19 February 2022. Archived from the original on 19 February 2022. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- Light, Felix (20 February 2022). "In the Closest Russian City to Ukraine's Separatist Region, There Are Few Signs of Refugees". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 20 February 2022. Retrieved 20 February 2022.
- Ponomarenko, Illia (18 February 2022). "47 shelling incidents leave 5 injured in Donbas". The Kyiv Independent. Archived from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
- Volvach, Yaroslava (18 February 2022). "How Russian proxy forces are attempting to provoke the Ukrainian army and are lying about a new Ukrainian offensive". NV.UA. Archived from the original on 18 February 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
- Gilbert, David (21 February 2022). "Russia's 'Idiotic' Disinformation Campaign Could Still Lead to War in Ukraine". Vice Media. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
- Bellingcat Investigation Team (23 February 2022). "Documenting and Debunking Dubious Footage from Ukraine's Frontlines". Bellingcat. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Harding, Luke; Roth, Andrew; Walker, Shaun (21 February 2022). "'Dumb and lazy': the flawed films of Ukrainian 'attacks' made by Russia's 'fake factory'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
- "Address by the President of the Russian Federation". President of Russia. 21 February 2022. Archived from the original on 21 February 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
- "Extracts from Putin's speech on Ukraine". Reuters. 21 February 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
- Kottasová, Ivana; Qiblawi, Tamara; Regan, Helen (21 February 2022). "Putin orders troops into separatist-held parts of Ukraine". CNN. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- Philp, Catherine; Wright, Oliver; Brown, Larissa (22 February 2022). "Putin sends Russian tanks into Ukraine". The Times. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- Lederer, Edith (22 February 2022). "Putin gets no support from UN Security Council over Ukraine". ABC News. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Hodge, Nathan (26 February 2022). "Russia's Federation Council gives consent to Putin on use of armed forces abroad, Russian agencies report". CNN. Moscow. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- Zinets, Natalia; Williams, Matthias (22 February 2022). "Ukrainian president drafts reservists but rules out general mobilisation for now". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- Kingsley, Thomas (23 February 2022). "Ukraine to introduce a state of emergency and tells its citizens to leave Russia immediately". The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- "Ukraine's Parliament approves state of emergency". Reuters. 23 February 2022. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- D'agata, Charlie; Redman, Justine; Ott, Haley (23 February 2022). "Ukraine calls up reservists, declares national emergency as U.S. and allies hit Russia with new sanctions". CBS News. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Litvinova, Dasha (23 February 2022). "Russia evacuates embassy in Ukraine as crisis escalates". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
- Bajak, Frank (23 February 2022). "Ukraine hit by more cyberattacks, destructive malware". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Bajak, Frank (25 February 2022). "Cyberattacks accompany Russian military assault on Ukraine". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- Milmo, Dan (25 February 2022). "Russia unleashed data-wiper malware on Ukraine, say cyber experts". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
- Zelenskyy, Volodymyr (23 February 2022). Україна прагне миру! І робить для цього все! [Ukraine seeks peace! And does everything for this!] (Video) (in Russian). Ukraine. Archived from the original on 23 February 2022.
- Sonne, Paul (24 February 2022). "Ukraine's Zelensky to Russians: 'What are you fighting for and with whom?'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- "Zelensky's Last-Ditch Plea for Peace". Foreign Policy. 23 February 2022. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- Cruz Bustillos, Dominic (24 February 2022). "Full Translation: Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy's Feb. 23 Speech". Lawfare. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- "Kremlin Says Ukraine Rebels Have Asked Russia for 'Help' Against Kyiv". The Moscow Times. 23 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022.
- "Russia says Donbas separatists ask Putin for military support". Deutsche Welle. 23 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022.
- "Ukraine – Security Council, 8974th meeting". United Nations. 27 February 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
- Mauldin, William (23 February 2022). "U.S. Says Russia Will Face U.N. Security Council Resolution". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Leff, Alex; Wood, Patrick (24 February 2022). "Read the impassioned plea from Ukraine's U.N. ambassador to Russia to stop the war". NPR. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
- "Russia Says Border Facility Near Ukraine Destroyed in Shell Attack". The Moscow Times. 21 February 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
- "Russia says it prevented border breach from Ukraine, Kyiv calls it fake news". Reuters. 21 February 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2022.
- Putin: Russia recognized the "DPR" and "LPR" within the boundaries enshrined in their constitutions, Novaya Gazeta, 22 February 2022
- Osborn, Andrew; Antonov, Dmitry (22 February 2022). "Putin orders Russian troops to Ukraine after recognising breakaway regions". Reuters. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
- Philp, Catherine; Wright, Oliver; Brown, Larissa (22 February 2022). "Putin sends tanks into Ukraine". The Times.
- Andrew Roth, Dan Sabbagh, David Blood and Niels de Hoog (23 Feb 2022) The Ukraine-Russia crisis explained: a complete visual guide
- "Russia has invaded Ukraine. Here's what you need to know". ABC News. abcNEWS. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Child, David; Najjar, Farah. "Russia-Ukraine live news: Moscow launches full-scale invasion". ALJAZEERA. ALJAZEERA. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Jessie Yeung; Adam Renton; Rob Picheta; Ed Upright; Aditi Sangal; Adrienne Vogt; Melissa Macaya; Maureen Chowdhury (23 February 2022). "WATCH: Tanks enter Ukraine via Belarus border". CNN. Archived from the original on 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- "Zelensky introduces martial law in Ukraine as sirens blare in Kyiv – video". The Guardian. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- "Hear air raid sirens go off in Ukraine's capital". CNN. CNN. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Monash IP Observatory [@IP_Observatory] (24 February 2022). "UKR :: With reports of shelling across #Ukraine, we sadly report the onset of Ukraine going offline: . so far most impact in #Kyiv City and region, and #Kharkiv . other border regions remain online at time of analysis . 👇vis to: 08h15m #24Feb (GMT+2) @MonashBusiness t.co/qIYVs5C0Ut" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022 – via Twitter.
- Reuters (24 February 2022). "Ukraine computers hit by data-wiping software as Russia launched invasion". Reuters. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- "Zelenskiy Says Russian Forces Trying To Take Over Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- "Fighting breaks out near Chernobyl, says Ukrainian president". The Independent. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Aditi Sangal; Meg Wagner; Adrienne Vogt; Melissa Macaya; Rob Picheta; Lauren Said-Moorhouse; Ed Upright; Maureen Chowdhury (24 February 2022). "Russian troops seize Chernobyl nuclear power plant, Ukrainian official says". CNN. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Kaufman, Ellie. "Russians "meeting more resistance" in advance towards Kyiv "than they expected," US defense official says". CNN. CNN. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- "Ukraine-Russia news live: Ukrainians told to 'disorientate' Russian forces by removing road signs – as advance 'slows' due to 'strong resistance'". Sky News. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
- "Conflict-related civilian casualties in Ukraine" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- "REPORT ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN UKRAINE 1 AUGUST 2021 - 31 JANUARY 2022" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. p. 1. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- "Address by Ms. Nada Al-Nashif, Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights 47th session of the Human Rights Council Item 10: Oral report on Ukraine". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- "REPORT ON THE HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION IN UKRAINE 1 AUGUST 2021 - 31 JANUARY 2022" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. p. 2. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- "UKRAINE 2021". Amnesty International. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- "Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Ukraine" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. pp. 1–3. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- Kyiv's gas strategy: closer cooperation with Gazprom or a genuine diversification Archived 23 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Centre for Eastern Studies (15 July 2013)
- "Russia's gas fight with Ukraine". BBC News. 31 October 2014.
- "Russia, Ukraine escalate 'gas war' as Europe draws 'map of fear'". Al Jazeera. 27 November 2019.
- Gent, Stephen E. (2021). Market power politics : war, institutions, and strategic delays in world politics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-19-752984-3. OCLC 1196822660.
- "Russia-Ukraine gas deal secures EU winter supply". BBC News. 31 October 2014.
- Moore, Jack (17 March 2014). "Ukraine: Neo-Fascist Leader Dmitry Yarosh Vows to Destroy Russia's Gas Pipelines to Stop 'World War III'". International Business Times.
- "UPDATE 1-Blast at Ukraine gas pipeline said due to bomb, security increased". Reuters. 18 June 2014.
- "Russia's gas pipelines to Europe by 2018". TASS. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Gas supplies to bypass Ukraine from 2019 — Gazprom". TASS. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- Pirani, Simon; Yafimava, Katja (February 2016). "Russian Gas Transit Across Ukraine Post-2019 – pipeline scenarios, gas flow consequences, and regulatory constraints". Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. ISBN 978-1-78467-054-2.
- "Russia, Ukraine sign gas transit deal ahead of deadline". Deutsche Welle. 31 December 2021.
- Makogon, Sergiy (1 October 2021). "Europe is under attack from Putin's energy weapon". Atlantic Council.
- "TurkStream natural gas pipeline to impact region's gas flow". Daily Sabah. 23 October 2019.
- "Russia Launches Into New Export Territory With TurkStream Natural-Gas Pipeline". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 7 January 2020.
- "Biden Says He Waived Nord Stream Sanctions Because It's Finished". Bloomberg. 25 May 2021.
- "Putin-Biden Summit Set for June 16 in Geneva". The Moscow Times. 25 May 2021.
- "Exclusive: Zelensky "surprised" and "disappointed" by Biden pipeline move". Axios. 6 June 2021.
- Woodruff, Betsy Swan; Ward, Alexander; Desiderio, Andrew (20 July 2021). "U.S. urges Ukraine to stay quiet on Russian pipeline". POLITICO. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
- "U.S.-German Deal on Russia's Nord Stream 2 Pipeline Expected Soon". Wall Street Journal. 20 July 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
- Shalal, Andrea (20 July 2021). "Germany to announce deal on Nord Stream 2 pipeline in coming days -sources". Reuters. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- "Nord Stream 2: Ukraine and Poland slam deal to complete controversial gas pipeline". Euronews. 22 July 2021. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
- Williams, Aime; Olearchyk, Roman (21 July 2021). "Germany and US reach truce over Nord Stream 2 pipeline". Financial Times. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
- Rettman, Andrew (23 August 2021). "Nord Stream 2 overshadows EU leaders' Ukraine trip".
- "Ukraine insists Nord Stream 2 is 'dangerous' despite German reassurances". Politico. 22 August 2021.
- "Ukraine gas chief urges Europe to resist Russia pressure on Nord Stream 2". Financial Times. 1 November 2021.
- "Ukraine demands sanctions on Russia's Gazprom after Kyiv loses gas imports". Reuters. 1 October 2021.
- "Russia TV stations air 'impostor' protester in two guises". BBC News. 11 April 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- Pomerantsev, Peter (9 September 2014). "Russia and the Menace of Unreality". The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- Rudenko, Olga (30 April 2014). "Russia cranks out propaganda as militants hang on in Ukraine". USA TODAY. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- Young, Cathy (24 July 2014). "Putin's Pal". Slate. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- Williams, Carol J. (18 June 2014). "U.N. warns pro-Russia separatists leading Ukrainians down 'dead end'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- Ash, Lucy (29 January 2015). "How Russia outfoxes its enemies". BBC News. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- "Russian TV sparks outrage with Ukraine child 'crucifixion' claim". Yahoo News. Agence France-Presse. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- Crosbie, Jack (17 February 2022). "'Mass Graves' and Shelled Schools: A Dangerous New Phase of the Ukraine Crisis is Here". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- Fisher, Max (19 February 2022). "Putin's Baseless Claims of Genocide Hint at More Than War". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- "Eastern Ukraine conflict: Summary killings, misrecorded and misreported". Amnesty International. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
- "Attacking Ukraine, Putin calls for 'denazification' of country with a Jewish leader". Times of Israel. 24 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
- Bulos, Nabih (17 February 2022). "Russian disinformation kicks into high gear as Ukraine crisis drags on". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
- Team, ODS. "Elimination of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance" (PDF). documents-dds-ny.un.org.
- Ljubicic, Milica (9 March 2022). "Ruska rezolucija u UN-u poslužila da se SAD i Ukrajina predstave kao nacističke države | Raskrikavanje". raskrikavanje.rs (in Serbian). Raskrikavanje. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- "Explanation of Vote at the Third Committee Adoption of the Combating Glorification of Nazism". United States Mission to the United Nations. 12 November 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
- "Dam leaves Crimea population in chronic water shortage". Al-Jazeera. 4 January 2017.
- "Turchynov: Russia starts aggression in Crimea". Kyiv Post. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- Henderson, Barney (1 March 2014). "Ukraine live: Prime Minister of Ukraine says Russian military invasion would lead to war". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- Coker, Margaret; Kolyandr, Alexander (1 March 2014). "Ukraine Puts Military on Full Alert After Russian invasion Threat". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- (in Ukrainian) The Cabinet decided to create the Ministry of temporarily occupied territories and internally displaced persons, Ukrayinska Pravda (20 April 2016)
- "U.S. pledges $1 billion in aid to Ukraine". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- Scislowska; Pablo Gorondi; Karel Janicek; Jovana Gec; Corneliu Rusnac (12 March 2014). "Russian aggression unnerves other neighbours". The Chronicle Herald. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- "Russia's Neighbors Want Stronger Defenses After Ukraine Incursion". Global Security Newswire. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- Gearan, Anne (1 April 2014). "NATO chief recommits to defending Eastern European, Baltic nations". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- Matishak, Martin (1 May 2014). "NATO diplomat: Russia now more an 'adversary' than an ally". The Hill. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- Adrian Croft (8 April 2014). "NATO to triple Baltic air patrol from next month". Reuters. Brussels. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- Naftali Bendavid (16 April 2014). "NATO Boosts Its Operations in Response to Russia's Moves on Ukraine". The Wall Street Journal. Brussels. Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- de Nesnera, Andre (16 April 2014). "Are US and Russia in New Cold War?". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 17 April 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- Kettle, Martin (24 April 2014). "Russia is a hostile power, but this is not a new cold war". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- Webb, Isaac (1 May 2014). "Isaac Webb: Containment starts at home". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "The New Yorker, August 2014". The New Yorker. 11 August 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "How U.S. Military Aid Has Helped Ukraine Since 2014". NPR.org. December 2019.
- Kheel, Rebecca (27 March 2018). "Congress bans arms to Ukraine militia linked to neo-Nazis". TheHill.
- "Congress Has Removed a Ban on Funding Neo-Nazis From Its Year-End Spending Bill". The Nation. 14 January 2016. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- Sokol, Sam (18 January 2016). "US lifts ban on funding 'neo-Nazi' Ukrainian militia". Jerusalem Post.
- Law, Tara (25 September 2019). "'Nobody Pushed Me.' Ukrainian President Denies Trump Pressured Him to Investigate Biden's Son". TIME.
- Singh, Maanvi; Greve, Joan E.; Gabbatt, Adam; Roth, Andrew (8 December 2021). "Biden voices 'deep concerns' over Ukraine escalation in call with Putin – as it happened". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
- "Obama: Russia 'On The Wrong Side Of History' On Ukraine". Huffington Post. AP. 3 March 2014. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: Russia faces 'costs and consequences', warns William Hague". The Telegraph. London. 3 March 2014. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014.
- "UK and France pull out of G8 preparatory talks over Ukraine crisis". The Guardian. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: Vladimir Putin has lost the plot, says German chancellor". The Guardian. 3 March 2014.
- Jones, Gavin (2 March 2014). "Italy appeals to Russia to negotiate, not invade Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- Waterfield, Bruno (3 March 2014). "Ukraine crisis: EU gives Russia 48-hour deadline to return troops to barracks in Crimea". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022.
- "Statement by the Prime Minister of Canada on the situation in Ukraine | Prime Minister of Canada". Pm.gc.ca. 1 March 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014.
- "Japan announces steps to punish Russia over Ukraine crisis". Kyodo News. 18 March 2014. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014.
- "The Netherlands is considering to send fighter jets to Ukraine. The Netherlands can also send ships to the Baltic or the Black Sea, Hennis Minister of Defense said in Pauw & Witteman. According Hennis is the commitment needed to help our European allies". NOS. 16 April 2014.
- "Statement by Norway on Russia's illegal annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol". 19 March 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "Seoul refuses to recognize Russia's Crimea annexation". The Korea Herald. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- "Georgian President Condemns 'Illegal Referendum' in Crimea". Civil Georgia. 17 March 2014. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Alexander Tanas (18 March 2014). "Moldova tells Russia: don't eye annexation here". Reuters. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- "No: 86, 17 March 2014, Press Release Regarding the Referendum held in Crimea". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Turkey. 17 March 2014. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- Hurst, Daniel (19 March 2014). "Australia imposes sanctions on Russia after it 'steals' Crimea from Ukraine". The Guardian.
- "EU leaders to hold summit on Ukraine on Thursday". Yahoo! News. 3 March 2014.
- "Ukraine: Mounting evidence of war crimes and Russian involvement". amnesty.org. 7 September 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "UN Security Council meets on Ukraine". Yahoo!. Agence France-Presse. 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- DeYoung, Karen (1 March 2014). "Obama speaks with Putin by phone, calls on Russia to pull forces back to Crimea bases". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: 'G7' condemn Russia". The Age. Melbourne. 3 March 2014.
- "G-7 Leaders Statement", whitehouse.gov (press release), 2 March 2014 – via National Archives
- "The Baku Declaration". OSCE. 2 July 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "OSCE 'sees Russian soldiers, weapons in Ukraine for two years'". www.kyivpost.com. 26 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- "South-east Ukraine: the ceasefire must be respected to ease the humanitarian crisis". Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE). 26 January 2015. Archived from the original on 24 July 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Rasmussen, Pia. "2015 Annual Session Helsinki". www.oscepa.org. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- PAP (28 August 2015). "We can build European security together". Office of the President of Poland. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- Relacja Pawła Buszko z Kijowa (IAR) (4 September 2015). "Prezydent Ukrainy dziękuje Polsce za solidarność i zaprasza Andrzeja Dudę". Polskie Radio. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- Ukraine Today (25 July 2015). "Joint Military Brigade: Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania sign framework agreement". uatoday.tv. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "CAATSA designed not to take punitive action against friends, allies: US diplomat". The Economic Times. 18 December 2020.
- "Opinion: Why US needs to revisit CAATSA". WION. 30 October 2021.
- "Trump signs bill approving new sanctions against Russia". CNN. 3 August 2017.
- "S-400 delivery to India has begun: Russian official". Al Jazeera. 15 November 2021.
- Wearden, Graeme (3 March 2014). "Ukraine crisis sends stock markets sliding; Russia's MICEX tumbles 11% - as it happened". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Chua, Ian (3 March 2014). Pullin, Richard (ed.). "Yen holds ground as Ukraine jitters keep risk at bay". Reuters. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "What is Russia doing in Ukraine, and what can West do about it?". CNN. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Ukraine Crisis Sends Russian Markets, Ruble Plummeting". NBC News.
- Tim Sullivan (4 March 2014). "Putin: troops to bases; warning shots in Crimea". Associated Press. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- Dreibus, Tony (3 March 2014). "Wheat, Corn Prices Surge on Ukraine Crisis". The Wall Street Journal.
- Jolly, David (17 March 2014). "Markets Worldwide Brush Off Crimea Vote". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- Elliott, Larry (17 March 2014). "Market reaction suggests sanctions over Crimea are slap on the wrist for Putin". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2022.
- "German economy hammered by Russian sanctions". CNBC. Archived from the original on 11 August 2014. Retrieved 8 August 2014.
- "Russian artillery units in Ukraine, NATO says". Boston Globe. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "NATO: Russia Just Significantly Escalated The Crisis In Ukraine". Business Insider. 22 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "EU orders preparation of 'urgent' Russia sanctions as Ukraine troops give more ground". Fox News. 31 August 2014. Archived from the original on 1 September 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "Missing persons during the conflict in Ukraine". Resolution 2067 (2015). Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- "Turchynov: Russia needs war with Ukraine to divert attention from crisis in Russia itself". Interfax. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
"It's a hybrid war that Russia has begun against Ukraine, a war with the participation of the Russian security services and the army," Turchynov said.
- "Ukraine crisis: Obama rules out military action". CBC News. The Associated Press. 28 August 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- Felsenthal, Mark (31 August 2014). "U.S. applauds European steps towards more Russia sanctions". Reuters. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- Søreide, Ine Eriksen; Wammen, Nicolai; Haglund, Carl; Sveinsson, Gunnar Bragi; Hultqvist, Peter (9 April 2015). "Fem nordiske ministre i felles kronikk: Russisk propaganda bidrar til å så splid" [Five Nordic ministers in joint feature article: Russian propaganda contributes to sowing discord]. Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- "Dozens Arrested at Moscow Anti-war Protest". Voice of America. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- "Russian anti-war protesters detained in Moscow". Agence France-Presse. 2 March 2014. Archived from the original on 4 May 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Demirjian, Karoun (21 September 2014). "Russian peace march draws tens of thousands in support of Ukraine". The Washington Post. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- "Malaysia Airlines Ukraine Crash: Garry Kasparov on Cost of Inaction". TIME.com. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Garry Kasparov: People & Power portrays a fierce critic of Vladimir Putin, the Russian president". Al Jazeera English. 8 February 2008. Archived from the original on 7 September 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Garry Kasparov really wants Western countries to intervene in the Ukraine". The Week. 18 July 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Antonova, Natalia (5 September 2014). "Putin walks a tightrope as evidence mounts of Russians dying in Ukraine". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
- "IRI Ukraine pre-election poll shows strong opposition to Russian aggression, support for Kyiv Government" (Press release). International Republican Institute. 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
- Bershidsky, Leonid (6 February 2015). "One Year Later, Crimeans Prefer Russia". Bloomberg News.
Eighty-two percent of those polled said they fully supported Crimea's inclusion in Russia, and another 11 percent expressed partial support. Only 4 percent spoke out against it.
- Социально-политические настроения жителей Крыма (PDF). GfK Ukraine (in Russian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
82% крымчан полностью поддерживают присоединение Крыма к России, 11% – скорее поддерживают, и 4% высказались против этого. Среди тех, кто не поддерживает присоединение Крыма к России, больше половины считают, что присоединение было не полностью законным и его нужно провести в соответствии с международным правом
- "Poll: 82% of Crimeans support annexation". UNIAN. 4 February 2015.
A total of 82% of the population of the Crimea fully support Russia's annexation of the peninsula, according to a poll carried out by the GfK Group research institute in Ukraine, Ukrainian online newspaper Ukrainska Pravda reported on Wednesday. Another 11% of respondents said that they rather support the annexation of Crimea, while 4% were against it.
- Ilves, Toomas Hendrik (27 March 2014). "Toomas Hendrik Ilves: The United States and Europe need a new rulebook for Russia". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Stephen Harper at G20 tells Vladimir Putin to 'get out of Ukraine' : Annual summit dominated by Western anger towards Putin". CBC News. cbc.ca. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- Gebauer, Matthias; Hoffmann, Christiane; Hujer, Marc; Repinski, Gordon; Schepp, Matthias; Schult, Christoph; Stark, Holger; Wiegrefe, Klaus (6 March 2015). "Breedlove's Bellicosity: Berlin Alarmed by Aggressive NATO Stance on Ukraine". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 7 March 2015.
- Wade, Robert H. (31 March 2015). "The Ukraine crisis is not what it seems". Le Monde diplomatique. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- Oliphant, Roland (6 March 2017). "Ukraine sues Russia in International Court of Justice for 'financing terrorism' and discrimination". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022.
- "Latest developments | Application of the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Ukraine v. Russian Federation) | International Court of Justice". www.icj-cij.org. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
- "An article by the Defence Secretary on the situation in Ukraine". GOV.UK. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
- "Political advisers to hold four-way talks on Ukraine in Paris". Thomson Reuters. 22 January 2022. Archived from the original on 24 January 2022.
- "Scholz, Macron say diplomacy can fix Ukraine-Russia standoff". Deutsche Welle. 25 January 2022. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022.
- "At Russia's request, Kiev withdrew the law on Crimea and Donbas from parliament". News Fox24. 25 January 2022. Archived from the original on 26 January 2022. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
- "Macron plans diplomatic phone call with Putin to calm Ukrainian crisis". The Irish Times. 26 January 2022.
- Nichols, Michelle (13 February 2022). "Explainer: Can the U.N. do more than just talk about Russia, Ukraine crisis?". Reuters. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
- "Ukraine receives SMAW grenade launchers from United States". NV.UA. 24 January 2022.
- "U.S. planning to transfer Mi-17 military helicopters to Ukraine". Ukrinform. 22 January 2022. Archived from the original on 22 January 2022.
- "U.S. Military Aid to Ukraine: A Silver Bullet?". RAND Corporation. 21 January 2022.
- "Press Briefing by Press Secretary Jen Psaki". whitehouse.gov. 21 January 2022.
- "US allows NATO allies to send American-made weapons to Ukraine". The Hill. 20 January 2022.
- VALERIE INSINNA and AARON MEHTA (Feb 2022) Biden orders forces to Baltics, warns Russia plans further invasion of Ukraine Topic Summary Of Counter Measures
- Mark Cancian (Dec 2021) What would it take to defend Ukraine? Potentially, billions of dollars. $27 billion is one estimate
- Katia Nikitina, 37, a marketing specialist originally from Russia, explain to her British friends that more Russians would demonstrate against the war if doing so didn't risk going to jail.
- Dan Williams; Maayan Lubell (5 March 2022). "Israeli PM meets Putin in Moscow, then speaks with Zelenskiy by phone". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
- "Japan PM urges Modi to take tougher line against Russian invasion". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
- Iqbal, Anwar (18 March 2022). "Indian purchase of Russian oil not violation of sanctions: US". Dawn.com.
- Ashok Sharma (17 March 2022). "India buys Russian oil despite pressure for sanctions". ABC News. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
- China sends Ukraine humanitarian aid, not weapons, says China’s ambassador to the US, South China Morning Post, 21 March 2022, retrieved 26 March 2022
- Reuters (21 March 2022). "China says it will offer 10 million yuan more of humanitarian aid to Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
- "Chinese humanitarian aid arrives in Ukraine". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 13 March 2022. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022.
- "The Chinese ambassador said that China is a friend of Ukraine and is willing to help Ukraine develop its economy, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs responded". Guancha.cn (in Chinese). 17 March 2022. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022.
- Feng, John (17 March 2022). "China doubles down on support for Ukraine, backs peace talks to end war". Newsweek.
- "Bulgaria investigates arms depot blast link to Russia". Deutsche Welle. 21 April 2021.
- Bowen, Andrew (2017). "Coercive Diplomacy and the Donbas: Explaining Russian Strategy in Eastern Ukraine". Journal of Strategic Studies. 42 (3–4): 312–343. doi:10.1080/01402390.2017.1413550. S2CID 158522112.
- Bremmer, Ian (1994). "The Politics of Ethnicity: Russians in the New Ukraine". Europe-Asia Studies. 46 (2): 261–283. doi:10.1080/09668139408412161.
- Hagendoorn, A.; Linssen, H.; Tumanov, S. V. (2001). Intergroup Relations in States of the former Soviet Union: The Perception of Russians. New York: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-84169-231-9.
- Legvold, Robert (2013). Russian Foreign Policy in the Twenty-first Century and the Shadow of the Past. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-51217-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Russo-Ukrainian War.|
- Гай-Нижник Павло Павлович Росія проти України (1990–2016 рр.): від політики шантажу і примусу до війни на поглинання та спроби знищення. – К.: «МП Леся», 2017. – 332 с.ISBN 978-617-7530-02-1
- "Anchor quits: I can't be part of network 'that whitewashes' Putin's actions". CNN World. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Russia's invasion of Ukraine (March 2 live updates)". Kyiv Post. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Путін vs народ України. 2 березня. ОНЛАЙН" [Putin vs the people of Ukraine. 2 March. ONLINE] (in Ukrainian). Ukrayinska Pravda. 2 March 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Ukraine crisis: an essential guide to everything that's happened so far". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Granholm, Niklas; Malminen, Johannes; Persson, Gudrun (June 2014). "A Rude Awakening. Ramifications of Russian Aggression Towards Ukraine" (PDF). Swedish Defence Research Agency. 91 pages. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Ukraine crisis: Timeline". BBC Online. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "As it happened: Russia troops 'inside Ukraine'". BBC News. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Список российских военных и добровольцев, погибших на Украине [List of Russian military and volunteers who were killed in Ukraine]. openrussia.org (in Russian). 22 December 2014. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Открытая Россия устанавливает личности погибших из списка "Груз-200" [Open Russia is in the process of establishing identities of the victims from the list "Груз-200"]. openrussia.org (in Russian). 1 April 2015. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Bellingcat Launches the Ukraine Conflict Vehicle Tracking Project". Bellingcat. 3 February 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
Media files used on this page
The Flag of Europe is the flag and emblem of the European Union (EU) and Council of Europe (CoE). It consists of a circle of 12 golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. It was created in 1955 by the CoE and adopted by the EU, then the European Communities, in the 1980s.
The CoE and EU are distinct in membership and nature. The CoE is a 47-member international organisation dealing with human rights and rule of law, while the EU is a quasi-federal union of 27 states focused on economic integration and political cooperation. Today, the flag is mostly associated with the latter.It was the intention of the CoE that the flag should come to represent Europe as a whole, and since its adoption the membership of the CoE covers nearly the entire continent. This is why the EU adopted the same flag. The flag has been used to represent Europe in sporting events and as a pro-democracy banner outside the Union.
Flag of Donetsk Republic, from 2010 to 2014 and from 2018. Donetsk Republic is a pro-Russian separatist organization operating in Donetsk, Ukraine.
Flag of self-proclaimed Luhan'sk People's Republic. Enshrined in law, which can not be described as official, because issued by a unrecognized republic of any UN country (Luhan'sk Republic of People is Republic, that funded by government of Russian Federation in whole or in part
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Novorussia from May to August 2014. Used as war flag from August 2014.
Sgt. Eric Gerst (3rd from right), a paratrooper with the U.S. Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade, rides along with Soldiers from the Ukrainian national guard's 3029th Regiment during a platoon live-fire exercise June 6, 2015, as part of Fearless Guardian in Yavoriv, Ukraine. Paratroopers from the U.S. Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade are in Ukraine for the first of several planned rotations to train Ukraine's newly-formed national guard as part of Fearless Guardian, which is scheduled to last six months. (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Alexander Skripnichuk, 13th Public Affairs Detachment).
Satellite picture of Crimea, Terra/MODIS, 05-16-2015, spatial resolution 250 m
(c) Kremlin.ru, CC BY 4.0
Before the start of the joint press conference following the meeting in the "Norman format".
|This picture has been taken by Andrew Butko. Contact e-mail: email@example.com. Do not copy this image illegally by ignoring the terms of the СС-BY-SA or GNU FDL licenses, as it is not in the public domain. Other photos see here.|
Solidarity holiday in Donetsk
Soldiers and Airmen conduct deployment activities at Aviano Air Base, Italy, Feb. 24, 2022. Soldiers of 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, 173rd Airborne Brigade, departed Caserma Ederle, Vicenza, Italy, for Latvia to assure our Allies and partners and deter aggression. (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Meleesa Gutierrez)