Rodrigo Duterte

His Excellency
Rodrigo Duterte
President Rodrigo Duterte portrait (cropped).jpg
Official portrait, 2016
16th President of the Philippines
In office
June 30, 2016 – June 30, 2022
Vice PresidentLeni Robredo
Preceded byBenigno Aquino III
Succeeded byFerdinand Marcos Jr.
Mayor of Davao City
In office
June 30, 2013 – June 30, 2016
Vice MayorPaolo Duterte
Preceded bySara Duterte
Succeeded bySara Duterte
In office
June 30, 2001 – June 30, 2010
Vice MayorLuis Bonguyan (2001-2007)
Sara Duterte (2007-2010)
Preceded byBenjamin de Guzman
Succeeded bySara Duterte
In office
February 2, 1988 – June 30, 1998
Vice MayorDominador Zuño (acting)
Luis Bonguyan
Benjamin de Guzman
Preceded byJacinto Rubillar
Succeeded byBenjamin de Guzman
Vice Mayor of Davao City
In office
June 30, 2010 – June 30, 2013
MayorSara Duterte
Preceded bySara Duterte
Succeeded byPaolo Duterte
In office
May 2, 1986 – November 27, 1987[a]
MayorZafiro Respicio
Preceded byCornelio Maskariño
Succeeded byGilbert Abellera
Member of the
Philippine House of Representatives
from Davao City's 1st district
In office
June 30, 1998 – June 30, 2001
Preceded byProspero Nograles
Succeeded byProspero Nograles
National Chairman of PDP–Laban
Assumed office
February 7, 2016
Party presidentKoko Pimentel (2016–2020)
Manny Pacquiao (2020–2021)
Alfonso Cusi (2021–)
Preceded byIsmael Sueno
Chairman of the Liberal Party in Davao City
In office
2009 – February 21, 2015
LeaderBenigno Aquino III
Preceded byPeter T. Laviña
Personal details
Born
Rodrigo Roa Duterte

(1945-03-28) March 28, 1945
Maasin, Leyte, Philippine Commonwealth
Political partyPDP–Laban
(2001–2009; since 2015)[b][1][2]
Other political
affiliations
Kabataang Makabayan[3] (1970s)
Lakas ng Dabaw (1988)[4]
Nacionalista (1990–1998)[5]
Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino (1998–2001)
Liberal (2009–2015)[1][2]
Hugpong sa Tawong Lungsod (local party; since 2011)
Coalition for Change (since 2016)
Spouse(s)
(m. 1973; annulled 2000)
Domestic partnerHoneylet Avanceña
Children
Parent(s)Vicente Duterte
Soledad Roa
Residence(s)Davao City
EducationLyceum of the Philippines University (B.A.)
San Beda College (LL.B.)
Signature
Websitepresident.gov.ph

Rodrigo Roa Duterte KGCR (English: /dəˈtɜːrt/, Tagalog: [roˈdɾigo ɾowa dʊˈtɛɾtɛ] (listen); born March 28, 1945), also known as Digong, Rody,[6] and by the initials DU30 and PRRD,[7][8] is a Filipino lawyer and politician who served as the 16th president of the Philippines from 2016 to 2022. He is the chairperson of PDP–Laban, the ruling political party in the Philippines during his presidency. Duterte is the first president of the Philippines to be from Mindanao[9][10] and is the oldest person to assume office, beginning his term at age 71.[11]

Born in Maasin, Leyte (now in Southern Leyte), Duterte moved to Davao as a child where his father, Vicente Duterte, served as provincial governor. He studied political science at the Lyceum of the Philippines University, graduating in 1968, before obtaining a law degree from San Beda College of Law in 1972. He then worked as a lawyer and was a prosecutor for Davao City, before becoming vice mayor and, subsequently, mayor of the city in the wake of the 1986 People Power Revolution. Duterte won seven terms and served as mayor of Davao for over 22 years, during which he transformed the once crime-ridden city to a peaceful and investor-friendly city.[12][13]

Duterte's 2016 presidential campaign led to his election victory. During his presidency, his domestic policy focused on combating the illegal drug trade by initiating the controversial war on drugs, fighting crime and corruption,[14][15][16] and intensified efforts against terrorism and communist insurgency. He launched a massive infrastructure plan,[17][18] initiated liberal economic reforms,[19] streamlined government processes,[20] and proposed a shift to a federal system of government which was ultimately unsuccessful.[21] He also oversaw the controversial burial of Ferdinand Marcos,[22][23] the 2017 Battle of Marawi[24] and the government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[25] He declared the intention to pursue an "independent foreign policy", and strengthened relations with China and Russia.[26] He initially announced his candidacy for vice president in the 2022 election, but in October 2021, he announced that he was retiring from politics. On November 15, 2021, he filed his candidacy for Senator but withdrew it in December 14.[27]

His political positions have been described as populist[28][29][30] and nationalist.[31][32][33] Duterte's political success has been aided by his vocal support for the extrajudicial killing of drug users and other criminals.[34] His career has sparked numerous protests and attracted controversy, particularly over human rights issues and his controversial comments. Duterte has repeatedly confirmed to have personally killed criminal suspects during his term as mayor of Davao.[35][36] Extrajudicial killings that were allegedly committed by the Davao Death Squad between 1998 and 2016 during Duterte's mayoralty have also been scrutinized by human rights groups and the Office of the Ombudsman;[37][38] the victims were mainly alleged drug users, alleged petty criminals, and street children.[39][40] The International Criminal Court opened a preliminary investigation into Duterte's drug war in 2018,[41] prompting Duterte to withdraw the Philippines from the body in response.[42] He is the only president in the history of the Philippines not to declare his assets and liabilities.[43] Duterte's popularity and domestic approval rating remained relatively high throughout his tenure.[44][45]

Early life

Duterte was born on March 28, 1945, in Maasin, Southern Leyte.[46] His father was Vicente G. Duterte (1911–1968), a Cebuano lawyer, and his mother, Soledad Duterte (1916–2012), was a schoolteacher from Cabadbaran, Agusan and a civic leader of Maranao descent. Duterte has said that his grandfather was Chinese and hailed from Xiamen in Fujian, China.[47] Duterte's father was mayor of Danao, Cebu, and subsequently the provincial governor of (the then-undivided) Davao province. Rodrigo's cousin Ronald was mayor of Cebu City from 1983 to 1986. Ronald's father, Ramon Duterte, also held that position from 1957 to 1959. The Dutertes consider the Cebu-based political families of the Durano and the Almendras clan as relatives.[48][49] Duterte also has relatives from the Roa clan in Leyte through his mother's side.[50] Duterte's family lived in Maasin, and in his father's hometown in Danao, until he was four years old.[51] The Dutertes initially moved to Mindanao in 1948 but still went back and forth to the Visayas until 1949.[52] They finally settled in the Davao Region in 1950. Vicente worked as a lawyer engaged in private practice. Soledad worked as a teacher until 1952, when Vicente entered politics.[53]

Education and early law career

Duterte went to Laboon Elementary School in Maasin for a year.[50] He spent his remaining elementary days at Santa Ana Elementary School in Davao City, where he completed his primary education in 1956. He finished his secondary education in the High School Department of Holy Cross College of Digos (now Cor Jesu College) in Digos, Davao province, after being expelled twice from previous schools, including one in the Ateneo de Davao University (AdDU) High School due to misconduct.[54] He graduated in 1968 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science at the Lyceum of the Philippines in Manila.[55][56] He obtained a law degree from San Beda College of Law in 1972.[57] In the same year, he passed the bar exam.[58] Duterte eventually became a special counsel at the City Prosecution Office in Davao City from 1977 to 1979, fourth assistant city prosecutor from 1979 to 1981, third assistant city prosecutor from 1981 to 1983, and second assistant city prosecutor from 1983 to 1986.[59][60]

Sexual abuse claims

Duterte has claimed that he was sexually abused by a priest when he was a minor.[61] After he was challenged by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) and AdDU officials to name the priest and file a case against him, Duterte then revealed the priest's name as Fr. Mark Falvey, SJ (d. 1975).[61] The Jesuits of the Society of Jesus in the Philippines confirmed that according to press reports in the United States, in May 2007, the Society of Jesus agreed to a tentative payout of US$16 million to settle claims that Falvey sexually abused at least nine children in Los Angeles from 1959 to 1975. Accusations against Falvey began in 2002, and he was never charged with a crime. Additionally in May 2008, the Diocese of Sacramento paid a $100,000-settlement to a person allegedly raped and molested by Mark's brother, Fr. Arthur Falvey. However, it was not clearly indicated in the report if Mark Falvey was assigned at the Jesuit-run Ateneo de Davao.[62] When asked why he did not complain when the abuse supposedly happened, Duterte claimed that he was too young to complain about the priest's abuse and was intimidated by authorities at that time. He also stated that he never disclosed that information after he was expelled and moved to a different high school and especially not to his family.[63]

Shooting of student at law school

Duterte stated at a rally in April 2016 that he shot a fellow student who had bullied him about his Visayan origin as well as other students of the same ethnicity, while at San Beda law college. He said, "But the truth is, I'm used to shooting people. When we were about to graduate from San Beda, I shot a person." Duterte said that he shot the student in a corridor at the college when the said student called him names again. He later told a reporter that the student survived, but refused to answer any further questions about the incident.[64]

However, in an interview aired on 24 Oras and published on the official GMA News Online website on April 22, 2016, retired labor arbiter Arthur Amansec said Duterte and Octavio Goco at that time were both playing with a gun as it was normal for students to bring guns to school in the seventies. Amansec is Duterte's former classmate in San Beda College who witnessed the incident. He added that "the bullet hit the school's wooden floor and was embedded there." Amansec emphasized that Duterte and Goco remained friends until Goco died in the United States years later.[65]

Mayor of Davao City

Then-Mayor Duterte (left) with then-President Benigno Aquino III during a meeting with local government unit leaders in Davao City in 2013

After the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled the regime of President Ferdinand Marcos, Duterte was appointed officer-in-charge vice mayor by President Corazon Aquino.[66] In 1988, he ran for mayor as an independent and won,[5] serving until 1998. He set a precedent by designating deputy mayors that represented the Lumad and Moro peoples in the city government, which was later copied in other parts of the Philippines.

In December 1990, Duterte joined the Nacionalista Party upon the persuasion of Senator Juan Ponce Enrile.[5][67] In 1998, because he was term-limited to run again for mayor, he ran for the House of Representatives and won as congressman of the 1st district of Davao City (under the Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino coalition). In 2001, he ran again for mayor of Davao and was elected for a fourth term. He was re-elected in 2004[68] and in 2007.[69]

In 1995, after Flor Contemplacion, a Filipina, was executed in Singapore after confessing to a double murder, Duterte allegedly burned a flag of Singapore (though this claim was later denied) and joined 1,000 employees of Davao City in protest.[70][71]

Then-newly elected Davao City Vice Mayor Duterte reading his inaugural speech in June 2010

In 2010, he was elected vice mayor, succeeding his daughter, Sara Duterte-Carpio, who was elected as mayor.[72]

In 2013, Davao City sent rescue and medical teams to Tacloban to give aid to the victims of Typhoon Haiyan (locally known in the country as Typhoon Yolanda). Financial assistance was also given to Bohol and Cebu for earthquake victims.[73]

Duterte also passed Davao City's Women Development Code, which aims "to uphold the rights of women and the belief in their worth and dignity as human beings".[74][75] Duterte banned swimsuit competitions in beauty pageants in Davao City.[76] Duterte also gained prominence for supporting the first-ever Gawad Kalinga Village inside a jail facility in Davao City. It is a home-type jail with ten cottages built inside the compound, which now serve as homes for female inmates.[77]

Law and order

During Duterte's tenure as mayor, Davao City experienced economic boom and a significant decrease in crime from being a conflict-ridden area between communists and right-wing groups during the 1970s and 80s, and is constantly rated as among the safest in the country.[78][13] The city also ranks high in the world according to crowdsourced survey site Numbeo,[79][80] a narrative that gained currency in the national media, creating a widespread public perception that has been a significant factor in establishing support for his nationwide drug policy.[81][82][83] The city was also awarded "Most Child-Friendly City for Highly-Urbanized Category" in 1998, 1999, 2013 and 2014.[84][85]

Under Duterte's watch, the city council imposed a prohibition on selling, serving, drinking, and consuming alcoholic beverages from 01:00 until 08:00 each morning. Duterte signed Executive Order No. 39, reducing the speed limits for all kinds of motor vehicles within the territorial jurisdiction of Davao City in the interest of public safety and order.[86] Duterte also signed Executive Order No. 04 creating the implementing of rules and regulations for a new comprehensive anti-smoking ordinance.[87] A firecracker Ban was also implemented by the City Council through the support of Duterte.[88] Davao acquired 10 ambulances for central 911 intended for medical emergencies and 42 mobile patrol vehicles and motorcycles for the Davao City Police Office.[89] Duterte, through Executive Order No. 24, ordered all shopping malls and commercial centers to install, operate and maintain high end and high definition closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras at all entrance and exit points of their premises.[90]

In early September 2015, an incident was reported of a tourist being forced to swallow his own cigarette butt in a local bar in Davao City after the tourist refused to comply with the public anti-smoking ordinance of the city. Duterte was contacted by the bar owner and the then-mayor personally went into the bar and forced the tourist to swallow his cigarette butt. Duterte was then met with criticisms especially from the Commission on Human Rights (CHR).[91]

Davao Death squad

Duterte speaks with Davao City residents in 2009.

Duterte has been linked by human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch to extrajudicial killings of over 1,400 alleged criminals and street children by vigilante death squads.[34][92] In the April 2009 UN General Assembly of the Human Rights Council, the UN report (Eleventh Session Agenda item 3, par 21) said, "The Mayor of Davao City has done nothing to prevent these killings, and his public comments suggest that he is, in fact, supportive."[93] Duterte stressed that the concept of human rights for criminals is Western and should not apply to the Philippines.[94]

We're the ninth-safest city. How do you think I did it? How did I reach that title among the world's safest cities? Kill them all [criminals].

— Duterte, May 15, 2015[94]

Duterte has denied responsibility for the extrajudicial killings. He has also frequently announced his support for them.[34][95][96] In 2015, Duterte confirmed his links to extrajudicial killings in Davao, and warned that, if elected president, he may kill up to 100,000 criminals. After the said confirmation, Duterte challenged human rights officials to file a case against him if they could provide evidence of his links with vigilante groups.[97]

Federalism advocacy

In September 2014, Duterte and former mayors and governors, calling themselves the Mindanao Council of Leaders, advocated for a federalist government.[98] A month later, Duterte attended an event sponsored by the Federal Movement for a Better Philippines in Cebu City.[99] In December 2014, Duterte held a summit entitled "Mindanaons Forging Unity Toward a Federal System of Government".[100]

2016 presidential campaign

Duterte–Cayetano 2016 campaign logo
Duterte (3rd from right) and allies campaigning in Pandacan, Manila

As early as the first quarter of 2015, Duterte made hints to the media of his intention to run for president in the 2016 elections. However, he denied these plans numerous times amidst clamor from his supporters for him to run.

In January, Duterte said he would abolish Congress if he chose to run for president and was elected.[101] On November 21, in a private gathering with fraternity brothers from San Beda College of Law, Duterte formally announced his presidential bid and also finally accepted Alan Peter Cayetano's offer to be his running mate, and named his daughter, Sara Duterte, as his substitute for Mayor.[102][103]

In his campaign, he said he would introduce a federal parliamentary form of government. He also promised to kill tens of thousands of criminals and eradicate crime in six months.[104][105]

Constitutional reform

Duterte campaigned for decentralization and a shift to a federal government during the 2016 presidential election. In an October 2014 forum organized by Federal Movement for a Better Philippines in Cebu City prior to joining the presidential race, the then-mayor of Davao City called for the creation of two federal states for Moro people as a solution to the problems besetting Mindanao.[106] Mayor Duterte said that Nur Misuari and his Moro National Liberation Front do not see eye-to-eye with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front which the administration of President Benigno Aquino III had inked a peace deal with. He also said that the "template of the Bangsamoro Basic Law is federal", but what is granted to the Bangsamoro should also be granted to other Moro groups and other regions in the country.[107] In a dialogue with the Makati Business Club prior to the elections, Duterte said he is open to "toning down the Constitution" to accommodate more foreign investors to the Philippines.[108] He also said he is open to up to 70 percent foreign ownership of businesses in the country and foreign lease of lands up to 60 years, but will "leave it to Congress to decide".[108]

Rape comments

At a campaign rally on April 12, 2016, Duterte told supporters that, as mayor, he thought he "should have been first" to rape Jacqueline Hamill, an Australian missionary who was gang-raped and killed during the 1989 Davao hostage crisis. He recalled examining her corpse and saying that he "should have gone first".[109]

After being condemned for his comments, Duterte apologized for the incident and claimed the comment was a "bad remark" and that he regretted his "gutter language," but "would not apologize for being misinterpreted." He said that the comment was not a "joke," as was reported by some media outlets and that he made it out of "utter anger" when recalling the events.[110]After the United States' and Australia's ambassadors to the Philippines criticized him for the comments, Duterte threatened to sever diplomatic ties with the countries if elected.[105]

His daughter Sara Duterte subsequently announced on social media that she was a rape victim, but would still vote for her father. He said that he doubted her story, and called her a "drama queen".[111]

2016 Philippine electoral vote results

Human rights

In a campaign speech on April 27, 2016, where he spoke to business leaders, he said his presidency would be "a bloody one", but that he would issue "a thousand pardons a day" to police and soldiers accused of human rights abuses, and would also issue a presidential pardon to himself for mass murder at the end of his six-year term.[105]

Election to the presidency

On May 30, 2016, the 16th Congress of the Philippines proclaimed Duterte as the president-elect of the Philippines after he topped the official count by the Congress of the Philippines for the 2016 presidential election with 16,601,997 votes, 6.6 million more than his closest rival, Mar Roxas.[112][113][114] Camarines Sur representative Leni Robredo on the other hand, was proclaimed as the vice president-elect of the Philippines with 14,418,817 votes, narrowly defeating Senator Bongbong Marcos by 263,473 votes.[115]

Presidency (2016–2022)

Presidential styles of
Rodrigo Duterte[116][117]
Seal of the President of the Philippines.svg
Reference stylePresident Duterte, His Excellency (rarely used)[117]
Spoken styleYour Excellency (rarely used)
Alternative styleMr. President, President Mayor[118]

Early actions

President-elect Duterte (left) and outgoing President Benigno Aquino III at Malacañang Palace on inauguration day, June 30, 2016

The presidency of Duterte began at noon on June 30, 2016, when he became the sixteenth president of the Philippines, succeeding Benigno Aquino III. At the age of 71, Duterte became the oldest person ever elected to the presidency. Duterte is also the first local chief executive to get elected straight to the Office of the President, the second Cebuano to become president (after Sergio Osmeña), the third Cebuano-speaking president (after Osmeña and Carlos P. Garcia), the first Visayan from Mindanao and the fourth Visayan overall (after Osmeña, Manuel Roxas and Garcia).[119]

Shortly after his inauguration on June 30, Duterte held his first Cabinet meeting to lay out their first agenda, which included the country's disaster risk reduction management, decongesting the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Manila, the country's main gateway, and expressed his ideas and concerns regarding the territorial disputes in the South China Sea prior to the announcement of the verdict of the Philippines' arbitration case against China over the issue,[120] which the Philippines later won.[121] Four days later, on July 4, he issued his first executive order, allowing his Cabinet Secretary to supervise over several agencies that focus on poverty reduction.[122] He called for the reimposition of capital punishment in the country to execute criminals involved in "heinous" crimes, such as illegal drug trade, insisting on hanging.[123]

During his first 100 days in office, Duterte issued an executive order on freedom of information,[124] launched an intensified campaign against illegal drugs, sought to resume peace talks with communist insurgents, formulated a comprehensive tax reform plan, led efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law, made efforts to streamline government transactions, launched the nationwide 9–1–1 rescue and 8888 complaint hotlines, established a one-stop service center for overseas Filipino workers, and increased in the combat and incentive pay of soldiers and police personnel.[125]

Duterte made moves to limit US visiting troops in the country, and has reached out to China and Russia to improve relations. He launched tirades against international critics, particularly, United States President Barack Obama, the US government, the United Nations, and the European Union, which expressed condemnation to his unprecedented war on drugs that led to the deaths of about 3,300 people, half of which were killed by unknown assailants, and the arrest of 22,000 drug suspects and surrender of about 731,000 people.[125][126]

Duterte takes his oath of office as the 16th president of the Philippines on June 30, 2016.

Following the September 2 bombing in Davao City that killed 14 people in the city's central business district, on September 3 Duterte declared a "state of lawlessness", and on the following day issued Proclamation No. 55 to officially declare a "state of national emergency on account of lawless violence in Mindanao".[127][128]

On December 7, Duterte signed Executive Order No. 10 creating a consultative committee to review the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines.[129]

While adjusting to working and residing at the Malacañang Palace, Duterte divides his workweek between Manila and Davao City by spending three days in each city, utilizing the Malacañang of the South while in Davao.[130]

A Pulse Asia survey conducted from July 2–8 showed that Duterte had a trust rating of 91%, the highest of the six presidents since the Marcos dictatorship (the previous highest was Duterte's predecessor, Benigno Aquino III with 87%).[131] One year after taking office his trust rating was 81%.[132] In December 2016, Duterte was ranked 70th on Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People.[133][134]

Domestic policy

Economic policy

Duterte's socioeconomic policies, referred to as DuterteNomics, include tax reform, infrastructure development, social protection programs, and other policies to promote economic growth and human development in the country.[135][136] Finance Secretary Carlos Dominguez III has said that the government required what he describes as an "audacious" economic strategy in order for the Philippines to "catch up with its more vibrant neighbors" by 2022 and help it achieve high-income economy status within a generation. The term DuterteNomics was coined to describe the economic policy of the Duterte administration.

Duterte initiated liberal economic reforms to attract foreign investors.[137] In March 2022, he signed Republic Act No. 11647 which amended the Foreign Investment Act of 1991, effectively relaxing restrictions on foreign investments by allowing foreigners to invest in a local enterprise up to 100% of its capital.[138] He signed Republic Act No. 11659, amending the 85-year-old Public Service Act, allowing full foreign ownership of public services, which include airports, expressways, railways, telecommunications, and shipping industries, in the country.[139]

Duterte reformed the country's tax system in an effort to make the country's tax system fairer, simpler, and more efficient.[140] In December 2017, he signed Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Law (TRAIN Law) which excludes those earning an annual taxable income of 250,000 and below from paying the personal income tax, while raising higher excise taxes on vehicles, sugar-sweetened beverages, petroleum products, tobacco and other non-essential goods.[141] Revenues collected from the TRAIN law will help fund the administration's massive infrastructure program.[142][143] In March 2021, to attract more investments and maintain fiscal stability, Duterte signed the Corporate Recovery and Tax Incentives for Enterprises (CREATE) Act, reducing the 30 percent corporate income tax rate to 25 percent for firms with assets above ₱100 million and to 20 percent for smaller firms.[144] Duterte raised sin taxes on tobacco and vapor products in July 2019, and alcohol beverages and electronic cigarettes in January 2020, to fund the Universal Health Care Act and reduce incidence of deaths and diseases associated with smoking and alcohol consumption.[145][146]

Infrastructure development

The Athletic Stadium of the New Clark City sports complex, completed on October 12, 2019, 50 days before the opening of the 2019 Southeast Asian Games.[147]

Part of Duterte's socioeconomic policy is the Build! Build! Build! Infrastructure Program which according to the administration will usher in the "Golden Age of Infrastructure". The goals of the program are to reduce poverty, encourage economic growth and reduce congestion in Metro Manila.[148] The Duterte administration in 2017 shifted its infrastructure funding policy from public-private partnerships (PPPs) of previous administrations to government revenues and official development assistance (ODA), particularly from Japan and China,[149] but has since October 2019 engaged with the private sector for additional funding.[150][151]

The administration revised its list of Infrastructure Flagship Projects (IFPs) under the Build, Build, Build program from 75 to 100 in November 2019,[152][153] then to 104 and finally to 112 in 2020,[154] expanding its scope to include health, information and communications technology, and water infrastructure projects to support the country's economic growth and recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. Some major projects include[153] the Subic-Clark Railway,[155] the North–South Commuter Railway from New Clark City to Calamba, Laguna,[155] the Metro Manila Subway,[156] the expansion of Clark International Airport[155] the Mindanao Railway (Tagum-Davao-Digos Segment),[157] and the Luzon Spine Expressway Network[158][159] By April 2022, 12 IFPs had been completed by the administration, while 88 IFPs, which were on their "advanced stage", will be inherited by the succeeding administration.[154]

As of July 2021, since Duterte assumed position in June 2016, a total of 29,264 kilometres (18,184 mi) of roads, 5,950 bridges, 11,340 flood control projects, 222 evacuation centers, and 150,149 elementary and secondary classrooms, and 653 COVID-19 facilities under the Build, Build, Build program were completed.[160][161]

War on drugs

Duterte during an ocular inspection of the seized shabu laboratory in Arayat, Pampanga on September 27, 2016.

Following his inauguration, Duterte started a nationwide anti-drug campaign, urging the Filipinos, including the New People's Army to join the fight against illegal drugs.[162] According to former Philippine National Police Chief and future senator Ronald dela Rosa, the policy is aimed at "the neutralization of illegal drug personalities nationwide".[163] Estimates of the death toll vary. Officially, 5,100 drug personalities have been killed as of January 2019.[164] Some news organizations and human rights groups claim the death toll is over 12,000.[165][166] or over 20,000.[167]

Duterte campaigned to eliminate illegal drugs in the country within three to six months, but later admitted he miscalculated the gravity of the drug problem after taking office as he based his approach to that of Davao City during his tenure as the city's mayor. He cited the difficulty in border control against illegal drugs due to the country's long coastline and lamented that government officials and law enforcers themselves were involved in the drug trade.[168]

Part of the Duterte administration's strategy on anti-illegal drugs is the Barangay Drug Clearing Program, which aims to eradicate illegal drugs in the country's remaining drug-affected barangays.[169] As of February 2022, the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency reported that a total of 24,379 (58%) out of the 42,045 barangays have been declared drug-cleared, 6,606 (16%) barangays were drug unaffected/drug-free, while 11,060 (26%) have yet to be cleared of illegal drugs.[170]

Mindanao insurgency

Duterte welcomes Norwegian Kjartan Sekkingstad following his release from Abu Sayyaf captivity.
Duterte (center) with other officials during the presentation of the Bangsamoro Organic Law to the MILF at Malacañang Palace on August 6, 2018

Duterte has said that Moro dignity is what the MILF and MNLF are struggling for, and that they are not terrorists. He acknowledged that the Moros were subjected to wrongdoing, historical and in territory.[171]

Duterte was endorsed in the election by Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) leader Nur Misuari[172] due to his background in Mindanao.[173] Other Muslims also supported Duterte and denounced Roxas, the Aquino-supported pick.[174]

On November 6, 2016, Duterte signed an executive order to expand the Bangsamoro Transition Commission to 21 members from 15, in which 11 will be decided by the MILF and 10 will be nominated by the government. The commission was formed in December 2013 and is tasked to draft the Bangsamoro Basic Law in accordance with the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro.[175]

Duterte signed the Bangsamoro Organic Law on July 26, 2018,[176][177] which abolished the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao and provided for the basic structure of government for the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region, following the agreements set forth in the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro peace agreement signed between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in 2014.[178]

Duterte oversaw the five-month long Battle of Marawi starting May 2017, declaring martial law throughout Mindanao[179] and extending it for two years to ensure order in the island.[180][181][182][183] In June 2017, Duterte ordered the creation of an inter-agency task force to facilitate the rehabilitation, recovery and reconstruction efforts in the conflict-torn city.[184]

In July 2020, Duterte signed the controversial[185] Anti-Terrorism Act of 2020, which aims to give more surveillance powers to government forces in order to curb terror threats and acts.[186]

Duterte signed proclamations granting amnesty to members of the Moro National Liberation Front, and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in February 2021.[187]

Communist insurgency

Duterte (2nd from right) presides over a meeting with the NTF-ELCAC at the Malacañang Palace on April 15, 2019.

Duterte initially pursued peace talks with the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) and appointed several left-leaning individuals to government positions,[188][189][190] but cancelled all negotiations in February 2017 following attacks and kidnapping of soldiers by New Peoples Army (NPA) rebels, officially declaring the CPP-NPA as a terrorist organization.[191] Several officials with leftist affiliations initially appointed by Duterte have either resigned, been fired, or rejected by the Commission on Appointments.[190][192]

Duterte created the Task Force Balik-Loob in April 2018 for the reintegration of former communist rebels.[193] In December 2018, he ordered the creation of the National Task Force to End Local Communist Armed Conflict (NTF-ELCAC) and institutionalized a "whole-of-nation approach" in combating extremism and terrorism.[194]

Duterte officially announced the permanent termination of the peace negotiations with the CPP-NPA-NDF on March 21, 2019, and said the communist rebels' call for land reform is already being done under his administration.[195][196] On June 23, 2021, the Anti-Terrorism Council designated the National Democratic Front (NDF) as a terrorist organization, citing it as an "integral and inseparable part" of the CPP-NPA.[197][198]

On November 29, 2021, the NTF-ELCAC reported that a total of 20,579 communist rebels surrendered since the start of the Duterte administration.[199]

Energy and climate

The Duterte administration initially adopted a "technology neutral" policy in energy generation.[200] Earlier in his term, Duterte stressed that coal remains the most viable source of energy if the Philippines is to accelerate industrialization,[201] and questioned the sanctions imposed by the United States and European Union on smaller countries including the Philippines when the country's carbon footprint is not significant compared to the superpowers.[202]

The administration shifted its energy policy to prefer renewable sources of energy later in Duterte's term.[203] At his fourth State of the Nation address in July 2019, Duterte issued an order to cut coal dependence and hasten a transition to renewable energy.[204][205] In October 2020, the energy department issued a moratorium on the construction of new coal power plants and favored renewable energy sources.[206] On February 28, 2022, Duterte issued an executive order approving the inclusion of nuclear power in the country's energy mix.[207][208]

To hasten the expansion of the nation's power capacity, Duterte established the inter-agency Energy Investment Coordinating Council tasked with simplifying and streamlining the approval process of big-ticket projects.[200] On January 21, 2022, he signed a law promoting the use of microgrid systems in unserved and underserved areas to accelerate total electrification of the country.[209] The administration made initiatives to liberalize the energy sector,[203][210] allowing 100% foreign ownership in large-scale geothermal projects starting October 2020.[211][212]

Duterte signed the Paris Agreement on Climate Change in March 2017, after initially having misgivings about the deal which he says might limit the country's industrialization.[213] The Agreement was ratified by the Senate on March 15, 2017.[214] Duterte said that rich countries producing the most carbon emissions must pay smaller countries for damage caused by climate change.[215]

Government streamlining

Duterte signs the Freedom of Information executive order in Davao City on July 24, 2016.

Duterte introduced reforms to eliminate red tape in the government,[216] and ordered government agencies to remove all processes which are "redundant or burdensome" to the public.[217] Three weeks after assuming office, he issued his second executive order establishing Freedom of Information, allowing citizens to obtain documents and records from public offices under the executive branch to promote transparency in the government.[218][219]

In May 2018, Duterte signed the Ease of Doing Business Act which aims to create a better business environment by reducing processing time, cutting bureaucratic red tape, and eliminating corrupt practices in all government agencies.[220][221] In December 2020, he enacted a law authorizing the President to expedite the processing and issuance of national and local permits, licenses, and certifications, by suspending its requirements, in times of national emergency.[222]

Duterte institutionalized the 8888 Citizens' Complaint Hotline in October 2016, allowing the public to report complaints on poor government front-line services and corrupt practices in all government agencies.[223]

Health care

Duterte vowed to improve the health care system,[224][225] certifying the Universal Healthcare Bill as an urgent measure as early as July 2018.[226] In February 2019, he signed the Universal Health Care Act, which automatically enrolls all Filipinos under the government's health insurance program.[227] He also enacted the National Integrated Cancer Control Act which establishes a "national integrated" program to control and prevent cancer by making treatment more accessible and affordable,[228][229] and the Philippine Mental Health Law, which provides free mental health services down to the barangay level while requiring hospitals to provide psychiatric, psychosocial and neurologic services.[230][231]

In December 2019, Duterte signed a law institutionalizing Malasakit Centers in all hospitals run by the Department of Health, allowing indigent patients to efficiently access financial medical assistance from various government agencies.[232]

Duterte ordered the full implementation of the Reproductive Health Law,[233] banned smoking in public places nationwide,[234] and set a price cap on select medicines.[235]

Education

Duterte signed the Universal Access to Quality Tertiary Education Act in August 2017, providing free college education in all state universities and colleges nationwide.[236] He signed a law establishing transnational higher education in the country, allowing foreign universities to offer degree programs in the Philippines in an effort to bring international quality standards and expertise into the country.[237][238] He also signed medical scholarships for deserving students in state universities and colleges or partner private higher education institutions through the Doktor Para sa Bayan Act on December 23, 2020.[239]

Duterte approved in January 2021 a law institutionalizing the alternative learning system (ALS), providing free education to those out of school.[240][241] In March 2022, he enacted a law granting inclusive education for learners with disabilities.[242]

On June 9, 2020, Duterte signed a law establishing the country's first National Academy of Sports in New Clark City, Capas, Tarlac.[243]

Foreign policy

International trips made by Duterte during his presidency

The Duterte administration has vowed to pursue what it describes as an "independent foreign policy" that would reject any meddling by foreign governments, reiterating Article II, Section 7 of the 1987 Constitution which states: "The State shall pursue an independent foreign policy. In its relations with other states the paramount consideration shall be national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national interest, and the right to self-determination." In September 2016, Duterte said: "We will observe and must insist on the time-honored principle of sovereignty, sovereign equality, non-interference and the commitment of peaceful settlements of dispute that will serve our people and protect the interests of our country."[244]

Duterte made his first international trips as president to Vientiane, Laos and Jakarta, Indonesia on September 5–9, 2016.[245]

Duterte pursued improved relations with China and Russia,[246] and lessened the country's dependence on its traditional ally – the United States.[247][248] He has adopted a cautious, pragmatic, and conciliatory stance towards China compared to his predecessor,[249] and has set aside the previous administration's confrontational policy of asserting the Philippines' claims over the South China Sea and its islands.[250]

Administration and cabinet

Duterte presides over the 29th Cabinet Meeting at the Malacañang Palace on September 11, 2018.
On May 31, 2016, a few weeks before his presidential inauguration, Duterte named his Cabinet members,[251] which comprised a diverse selection of former military generals, childhood friends, classmates, and leftists.[252] Following his presidential inauguration, he administered a mass oath-taking for his Cabinet officials, and held his first Cabinet meeting on June 30.[253][254]

Criticisms

President Duterte and his administration have been criticized for numerous reasons. These include his anti-drug campaign, foreign policies, human rights record, and extrajudicial killings. Duterte has also been criticized for his political views, controversial comments, and others.[255][256]

Despite the criticisms on his administration, Duterte has relatively high trust and approval ratings. In the first half of his six-year term with a record net satisfaction rating of 68%.[257] Duterte's approval rating was at 79% in April 2019[258] and 87% on a December 2019 survey conducted by Pulse Asia.[259] Duterte and his administration also got high approval ratings in handling the COVID-19 pandemic.[260][261]

Anti-drug campaign

Duterte's anti-drug campaign has been criticized both locally and internationally. Senator Risa Hontiveros, a political opponent of Duterte, said that the drug war was a political strategy intended to persuade people that "suddenly the historically most important issue of poverty was no longer the most important."[262]

Various international publications and media companies had claimed that Duterte's "War on Drugs" was a war against the poor due to the abject poverty of those arrested or killed.[263][264] On June 19, 2018, 38 United Nations member states released a collective statement through the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), calling on the Philippines and President Duterte to end the killings in its war on drugs and cooperate in probing in investigating human rights abuses.[265][266][267]

Duterte believes that the number of deaths are a measure of his success in his war against drugs,[268][269][270] and despite constant criticism of his war on drugs, Duterte had staunchly defended his administration's efforts at getting rid of "filth" from the streets.[271][272] A large number of Filipinos support Duterte's war on drugs, with a 2019 SWS survey showing 82% of 1,200 interviewed Filipinos were "overwhelmingly satisfied" due to "the perception of less drugs and crime in the country".[273][274] On August 18, 2017, Duterte admitted his mistake in trying to end drugs in six months, and it would take him his entire term to end it.

Human rights concerns

Human Rights Watch (HRW) called the first year of Duterte in office a human rights calamity. HRW estimates that there has been 7,000 deaths from the day Duterte first took office to January 2017.[275] The Duterte administration suspended the drugs war in February 2017 in an effort to cleanse the police ranks of supposed corruption, also halting the disclosure of figures on deaths related to drug arrests and raids.[276] In March 2017, HRW released a special investigation and report on the state of police related shooting, titled "License To Kill".[277] The New York Times had also released a video documentary "When A President Says I'll Kill You", which depicts Duterte's war on drugs through a local photographer's eyes.[278] On August 17, 2017, HRW called Duterte a threat to the human rights community after he made threats against human rights activists.[279]

In January 2020, the International Criminal Court confirmed that an investigation into Duterte's involvement with the death squads was ongoing, despite the Philippines having withdrawn from the ICC two years prior, because it continued to have jurisdiction over crimes committed when the country was still a member. Duterte had withdrawn the country just one month after the opening of the investigation.[42] In September 2021, the ICC authorized an official probe after reviewing evidence related to at least 204 victims.[280]

COVID-19 pandemic

Members of the opposition have criticized the government's efforts against the COVID-19 pandemic in the country.[281][282] Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Philippines was confirmed on January 30, 2020.[283] This triggered outrage on local social media platforms.[284] Other criticisms include Duterte's remarks of ordering to "shoot" persons who violate quarantine protocols[285][286] and the delay of the vaccines to arrive in the Philippines were also condemned.[287]

In May 2021, Duterte was criticized for publicly taking the Sinopharm BIBP vaccine before it was approved for use by the Philippine Food and Drug Administration, when the general population had access only to a limited supply of Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines from Pfizer and lower efficacy CoronaVac vaccines from Sinovac.[288][289][290]

International policy

Militant groups decry the ties between President Duterte and China over the Chinese occupation of contested waters and the reported harassment of the fishermen amidst the territorial disputes in the South China Sea.[291][292] Also, while the United States is one of the countries critical to Philippine drug war campaign,[293][294][295] most of the militant groups[296] – particularly left-wing groups[297] – also criticize Philippine-US relations due to the United States' "imperialism"[297][298] and neoliberal policies.[299]

Tax reform

Duterte's tax reform program has garnered both support and criticism. Critics have argued that the administration's tax policy would burden the poor.[300] The implementation of the TRAIN Law triggered protests from various left-wing groups. On January 15, protesters gathered at various public market sites, calling for the revocation of TRAIN.[301] However, proponents of the program cite its appeal to foreign investors and economic benefits as the main reasons behind tax reform.

Controversial remarks

Duterte's records on human rights and his long history of comments that have widely been considered to be offensive, provocative, threatening, and undiplomatic have received sharp international criticism. He has been portrayed by his critics in the media as having a "dirty mouth".[302] He had, however, promised to behave in a "prim and proper" manner on the national and international stage once he was to be inaugurated as president, to the point that, "almost, I would become holy."[303]

Throughout his presidency, Duterte has made controversial comments about rape,[304][305][306] human rights, his views on media killings,[307] and has used slurs;[308][309] he has also made controversial statements to international leaders and institutions.[310][311] He has also repeatedly criticized the Catholic Church which has expressed alarm over deaths linked to the war on drugs.[312][313][314][315]

2022 Philippine presidential election

Duterte (left) endorsing Bong Go, who filed his certificate of candidacy for vice president on October 2, 2021.

In an earlier June 8 interview with Pastor Apollo Quiboloy on SMNI News Channel, Duterte stated that he "sees nobody deserving" to replace him as next Philippine President, but that he would either remain neutral or endorse a candidate.[316] In June 2021, Duterte stated he may run in the 2022 Philippine presidential election as Vice President.[317]

Critics raised the possibility of Duterte extending his term after he announced his candidacy for vice president.[318][319] The PDP–Laban Cusi faction fielded former Philippine National Police chief and Senator Ronald dela Rosa as president,[320] who was widely suspected to be a placeholder for Duterte's daughter, Davao City mayor Sara Duterte.[321] On October 2, 2021, Duterte withdrew his candidacy and announced his retirement from politics, with long-time aide and Senator Bong Go replacing him as the vice presidential candidate.[322]

On November 13, 2021, hours after Sara unexpectedly decided instead to run as vice president under the Lakas–CMD party, dela Rosa withdrew and was replaced by Go.[323] Duterte later backtracked on his planned retirement and announced his plan to run for vice president as an expression of dismay for Sara's decision to settle for the vice presidential race when polls showed she was the preferred candidate for presidency.[324] He later withdrew after deciding not to face his daughter in the vice presidential race, and instead announced his intent on running as senator,[325] while endorsing a Go–Sara tandem.[326]

Sara, however, decided to run in tandem with Ferdinand "Bongbong" Marcos Jr., who announced his presidential candidacy.[327] Go expressed his disinterest in the presidential position and said his heart and mind contradicted his actions.[328] On December 14, 2021, hours after Go withdrew his candidacy for president, Duterte officially withdrew his senate bid.[329]

Duterte remained influential before the national elections as several presidential candidates were open to his endorsement due to his high popularity.[330][331][332] Allies of Duterte endorsed different candidates after the Cusi faction was left without a standard bearer following Go's withdrawal. The PDP–Laban Cusi faction endorsed presidential candidate Marcos,[333] with some officials calling for Duterte to do the same.[334] Duterte, however, insisted on endorsing only Sara as vice president and 17 senatorial candidates,[335][336] and stressed that he will remain neutral, deciding not to endorse any presidential bet[333] and prohibiting his Cabinet members from campaigning for any candidate[337] to avoid suspicion that he will use public funds for his preferred successor's campaign[338] and to prevent cabinet members from compromising their integrity.[337] Duterte said the next president should be decisive, compassionate, a good judge of a person, and preferably, a lawyer,[333] which a PDP–Laban official interpreted as a "virtual endorsement" for his rival, Vice President Leni Robredo, who also decided to run for president.[339] In March 2022, Go said Duterte briefly met with Marcos and gave him advice on the presidency, but could not say whether Duterte gave Marcos an endorsement.[340][333]

Duterte (right) during Sara's oath of office as vice president in Davao City on June 19, 2022

On May 5, 2022, Duterte created a transition committee led by Executive Secretary Salvador Medialdea to oversee the transition of power to the next administration.[341] According to analysts, Duterte's popularity was "inherited" by Marcos and Sara, who both won landslides in the election.[342]

Impeachment efforts

On March 16, 2017, opposition lawmaker Gary Alejano filed an impeachment complaint against Duterte, citing thousands of deaths in Duterte's anti-drug campaign, alleged involvement as supposed leader of vigilante group Davao Death Squad, and allegations of graft and corruption.[343][344] Alejano, on March 30, later filed a supplemental complaint against Duterte over Duterte's alleged inaction and "defeatist stance" in the West Philippine Sea, Panatag Shoal, and the Benham Rise.[345][346] On May 15, the House Justice Committee officially dismissed the charge by unanimous vote due to insufficiency in substance after Alejano admitted he had no personal knowledge of the supposed offenses as he had based his impeachment complaint on news reports and testimonies of witnesses.[347][348]

Public image

Duterte meets with the Filipino community in Jakarta, September 9, 2016.

Ardent supporters of Duterte have been labeled as "Diehard Duterte Supporters", alternatively known as "Digong Duterte Supporters", which shares the acronym with the Davao Death Squad (DDS).[349] This label has been applied to the 16 million people who voted for him in the 2016 presidential election.[350]

Duterte developed a reputation as a "protector" and "savior" in his hometown of Davao City as mayor of the city for more than two decades. This is despite reports of death squads in the city.[351]

Duterte has been described as a populist, with his foul-mouthed remarks against the country's elite which positioned him as a "man of the people" as critical to his victory in the 2016 presidential election.[352] He has also been compared to U.S. President Donald Trump for his rhetorical style.[351]

Throughout his career, Duterte's remained hugely popular, attributed to his man-of-the-people style and a perception of strong leadership and success in fighting crime and corruption, while opponents reproach him for his authoritarian style and low tolerance of dissent.[353] Analysts attribute his continued popularity to his emotional connection to the public, citing his charisma and humor, tough-talking manner, his image as a father figure as Tatay Digong (Father Digong), and Filipinos' general interest in strong leaders.[354][355]

A Social Weather Stations study concluded that there are multiple reasons for Duterte's high satisfaction ratings in surveys; these include his strong base support, satisfaction with the administration's overall governance (pamamalakad) and with some policy issues which include helping the poor and the drug war, and his character. Poll respondents who relate to or are attracted to some aspects of his character, such as his perceived decisiveness and diligence tend to be satisfied. On the other hand, those who feel he is vulgar (bastos) tend to be less satisfied.[356]

Supporters

Several other Facebook groups with the acronym "DDS" supported Duterte as early as 2011. Among these groups is the Duterte Defense Squad, which was created on July 5, 2011. Other examples include Digong Duterte Supporters-Registered Nurses Group, Duterte's Destiny is to Serve the Country, Digong Duterte Swerte (lit. Digong Duterte is (Good) Luck), and Davsur Duterte Supporters. In 2015, members of the various groups urged Duterte to run for president.[357]

Approval ratings

SWS Net satisfaction ratings of Rodrigo Duterte (September 2016–December 2021)[358][359]
DateRating
Sep 2016+64
Dec 2016+63
Mar 2017+63
Jun 2017+66
Sep 2017+48
Dec 2017+58
Mar 2018+56
Jun 2018+45
Sep 2018+54
Dec 2018+60
Mar 2019+66
Jun 2019+68
Sep 2019+65
Dec 2019+72
Nov 2020+79
May 2021+65
Jun 2021+62
Sep 2021+52
Dec 2021+60

Duterte's approval rating has been relatively high throughout his presidency despite criticism and international opposition to his anti-narcotics drive.[44] Two weeks into Duterte's presidency, on July 13, 2016, the Social Weather Stations (SWS) conducted the first survey on his presidency since his inauguration on June 30, where Duterte received an "excellent" trust rating of 79% among 1,200 adults nationwide.[360][361] A week later, on July 20, Pulse Asia released a poll conducted on July 2–8 showing 91% of Filipinos trust Duterte, making him the most trusted official in the Philippines since 1999.[362][363] Duterte's net satisfaction rating plunged to its lowest at 45% in July 2018,[364] but eventually recovered to 54% in September 2018,[365] and 60% in December 2018.[366]

Duterte finished the first half of his six-year term with a record net satisfaction rating of 68%.[257] An SWS survey conducted in April 2019 puts Duterte's approval ratings at 79%, higher than any of his predecessors at this stage in their presidencies.[367] Duterte earned an approval rating of 87% on a December 2019 survey conducted by Pulse Asia. This is credited to poverty reduction and general success in hosting the 2019 SEA Games.[368]

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, a Pulse Asia September 2020 "Ulat ng Bayan Survey" ("Report to the Nation Survey"), showed that 84% of Filipinos approve of the government's work to control the spread of the coronavirus disease and the government efforts in assisting those who lost their jobs due to the pandemic. The same survey showed that 92% of survey respondents said that Duterte has "done well" in preventing the spread of COVID-19 in the country.[260][261] Duterte's approval rating rose to 60% in December 2021[359] higher than the 52% rating in September 2021,[369] and lower than the 62% rating in June 2021.[356] The survey also noted higher net satisfaction among those vaccinated and those willing to get vaccinated.[359]

Duterte retained his high approval and trust ratings nearing the end of his term, according to a survey conducted by PUBLiCUS Asia Inc. on March 30 to April 6, 2022, which showed 67.2% of the 1,500 respondents approved of Duterte's performance over the past 12 months, while only 15.2% disapproved.[370][371] Another survey conducted in 2021 by WR Numero Research revealed that 54.59% of voters want soft continuity of the Duterte's policies, 29.57% want full continuity, while only 15.84% preferred change.[372]

A nationwide survey of 1,500 respondents conducted by PUBLiCUS from June 16 to 22, during Duterte's last month in office, revealed that Duterte is the most popular post-EDSA president, receiving 75% approval of his performance during his six-year tenure, while only 10% expressed disapproval.[373][374]

Political views

Duterte described himself as left-leaning during his campaign and presidency, but has stressed that he is for democracy and is not a communist.[375][376]

He was once a member of the leftist Kabataang Makabayan during the 1970s.[377] He himself is a student of prominent Philippine leftist figure and founder of the Communist Party of the Philippines, Jose Maria Sison.[378][379] However, his relationship with the communists deteriorated during his presidency due to continued rebel attacks on soldiers despite the peace talks.[190][192]

Personal life

Duterte is known for being an avid fan of big bikes, but detests luxury cars. He once owned a second-hand Harley-Davidson and a Yamaha Virago. He was once a habitual smoker, but he eventually quit after a doctor's suggestion due to health concerns. Duterte is an avid reader of Robert Ludlum and Sidney Sheldon novels.[380] Duterte is also known for his straightforward and vocal attitude in public, especially in interviews, showing no hesitation in profusely using profanity live on-screen on numerous occasions despite formal requests by media groups and schools beforehand to abstain.[381]

Duterte has his own local show in Davao City called Gikan Sa Masa, Para Sa Masa ("From the Masses, For the Masses"), which is aired as a blocktimer on ABS-CBN Davao. He is also a member of Lex Talionis Fraternitas, a fraternity based in the San Beda College of Law and the Ateneo de Davao University.[382]

Aside from his native Cebuano, Duterte is also fluent in Filipino and English.[383]

While criticizing political opponent Antonio Trillanes in a 2019 speech, Duterte said that he was once gay but had "cured himself" before meeting his partner Zimmerman.[308]

Family

Duterte (seated, left) with his first family after delivering his 3rd State of the Nation Address in 2018
Duterte with Avanceña along with their daughter, Veronica

Duterte was once married to Elizabeth Abellana Zimmerman, a flight attendant of Jewish and German American descent from Davao City.[384][385] She traces her roots in Tuburan, Cebu.[386] They together have three children (from eldest to youngest): Paolo ("Pulong"), Sara ("Inday Sara") and Sebastian ("Baste").[384] Paolo and Sara entered politics while Baste, with no interest in politics, concentrated on business and surfing but eventually ran and won as Davao City Vice Mayor in 2019.[387][388] Duterte's father, Vicente, died in 1968 while his mother, Soledad, died on February 4, 2012, at the age of 95.[389] Zimmerman was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer in 2015.[390]

Duterte has been publicly very open about his infidelity and philandering while married to Zimmerman and cited it as the reason for his failed first marriage when asked in interviews. In 1998, Zimmerman filed a petition in the Regional Trial Court in Pasig to nullify her marriage. Duterte never appeared in court and did not contest Zimmerman's petition. Two years later, the court decided in her favor, ending the 27-year marriage of Duterte and Zimmerman. Duterte and Zimmerman have been on good terms in recent years with Zimmerman stating, "Yes, [Rodrigo] is really a very good leader. That is all he is. But when it comes to family, he is not capable of taking care of it." In 2001, Zimmerman eventually ran for a seat on the city council but lost. Duterte and Zimmerman are said to have patched things up and appear to be civil to each other, 15 years after their marriage was declared null and void. Zimmerman eventually joined the campaign trail for Duterte's presidential candidacy in early 2016 called Byaheng Du30 in which she would travel by bus to major cities together with her daughter Sara and a number of delegates.[390]

Duterte is currently living with his common-law wife Cielito "Honeylet" Avanceña, a nurse, with whom he has one daughter named Veronica ("Kitty"). Duterte has eight grandchildren, half of whom are Muslims and the other half Christian,[391] and one great grandchild.[392]

On his paternal side, he shares familial ties with some of the prominent families of the Visayas, particularly the Almendrases and Duranos of Danao, Cebu.[c]

Religion

Duterte (center) and his cabinet members pray before the start of the 6th Cabinet Meeting on September 14, 2016.

Despite being raised as a communicant of the Catholic Church, on January 19, 2016, while meeting with businessmen in Binondo, Manila, Duterte clarified that he has not attended Mass for quite some time already since he deemed it incompatible with his mayoral responsibilities: "If I listened to the Ten Commandments or to the priests," said Duterte, "I would not be able to do anything as a mayor." He then clarified that he still believed in God, but not in religion.[394] On June 26, 2016, Duterte said he is Christian, but also said that he believes "in one God Allah".[395][396] Later, he challenged the Catholic Church to show evidence of the existence of God, while claiming he is neither an atheist nor an agnostic but happens "to be a human being believing in that there's a universal mind somewhere which controls the universe".[397] He has also called God "stupid".[398]

In July 2018, he called himself "spiritual" and expressed his belief in "one Supreme God", but stated he "can't accept" Catholicism or organized religion.[399] In 2019, he was quoted as saying: "a part of me which is Islam".[400]

Health

Duterte distributes awards to Filipino athletes on October 16, 2019.

Duterte has Buerger's disease, an inflammation of blood vessels, mostly in the limbs, and Barrett's esophagus, wherein esophageal cells are gradually replaced by gastrointestinal cells. He has denied rumors of throat cancer.[401]

Duterte admitted in December 2016 that he had been a user of the addictive opioid drug Fentanyl. He said that a doctor prescribed the drug to alleviate back pain and headaches, but that he would take more than he was prescribed.[402] Fentanyl is described by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse as "a powerful synthetic opioid analgesic that is similar to morphine but is 50 to 100 times more potent".[403] Duterte later denied that he was a drug addict, and a spokesman stated that he was not affected by side-effects of the drug, which include confusion, anxiety and hallucinations.[404]

Duterte has boasted about his use of Viagra: "When I was young, I could do overnight, which is more expensive. When I got old, I could do short time only because I have such a short time left. After one erection, that's it. No more. Without Viagra, it's even more difficult."[405][406]

A psychological assessment of Duterte was commissioned by Dr. Natividad Dayan during Duterte's marriage annulment to Elizabeth Zimmerman in July 1998. The result was that Duterte (then Davao City mayor) was found to have "antisocial narcissistic personality disorder", exemplified by "gross indifference, insensitivity and self-centeredness", and a "grandiose sense of self-entitlement and manipulative behaviours". According to the assessment, he had a "pervasive tendency to demean, humiliate others and violate their rights and feelings", and was "unable to reflect on the consequences of his actions."[407]

In a speech to the Filipino community in Russia, Duterte revealed that he has myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disease, which makes his eye droop.[408][409]

Honors and awards

National honors

Foreign honors

Duterte was conferred an honorary doctorate degree for international relations or foreign diplomacy[411] from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations on October 5, 2019.[412]

  • Malaysia Malaysia
    • Johor Johor: Grand Knight of The Most Esteemed Order of Sultan Ibrahim of Johor, 1st Class (SMIJ) – Dato' (2019)[413]
  • Brunei Brunei
    • Sultan of Brunei Golden Jubilee Medal – (2017)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Officer-in-charge from 1986 to 1987
  2. ^ According to Duterte, he never left PDP–Laban; he was the Davao City chairman of the Liberal Party in 2009, and was nationally affiliated with the Liberal Party in the 2010 and 2013 elections.[1][2]
  3. ^ Brothers Facundo & Severo Duterte both married women from Danao; Severo's daughter Beatriz married post-War business magnate Ramon M. Durano, Sr. Their descendants constitute the modern-day political family of the Duranos of Danao, Cebu. Ramon M. Durano, Sr.'s sister Elisea married Paulo Almendras, and their descendants constitute the modern-day Almendrases of Cebu. One of their descendants, Jose Rene Almendras is a former Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs (acting).[393]

References

  1. ^ a b c Espejo, Edwin (March 18, 2015). "Could Duterte be the Liberal Party's wild card bet?". Rappler. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Esmaquel, Paterno II (February 21, 2015). "Duterte 're-enters' PDP-Laban amid 2016 prospects". Rappler. Archived from the original on July 16, 2020. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  3. ^ Punzalan, Jamaine (May 3, 2016). "Duterte eyeing revolutionary gov't with Joma Sison: Trillanes". News. ABS-CBN News. Manila. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  4. ^ PNA (January 5, 1988). "Anti-communist crusader". Manila Standard. Davao City: Standard Publications, Inc. p. 3. Retrieved June 17, 2021. ... former vice mayor Rodrigo Duterte of the Lakas ng Dabaw, a new political party.
  5. ^ a b c Bigornia, Amante E. (December 29, 1990). "Davao politics now polarized". Manila Standard. Kagitingan Publications, Inc. p. 4. Retrieved May 23, 2021.
  6. ^ Flores, W.L. (June 19, 2016). "President-electpresident Rody Duterte as dad & memories of his own father". The Philippine Star. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  7. ^ Ramos, Christia Marie (July 26, 2021). "Lacson calls out Duterte, says there is underspending of Bayanihan 2 funds". Inquirer News. Manila, Philippines: INQUIRER.net. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  8. ^ "Go: Pumili ng katimbang ni PRRD sa 2022". Pilipino Star Ngayon (in Filipino). Manila, Philippines: Philstar Global Corp. August 28, 2021. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  9. ^ "Rodrigo Roa Duterte: 16th President, first Mindanawon to lead the country". MindaNews. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  10. ^ "Official count: Duterte is new president, Robredo is vice president". CNN Philippines. May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
  11. ^ "Sergio Osmeña | president of Philippines". Encyclopædia Britannica. June 3, 2011. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
  12. ^ Ramos, Roy (May 10, 2016). "New Philippines president is iron-fisted southern mayor". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the original on May 11, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
  13. ^ a b Dacumos-Lagorza, Kristine (September 1, 2017). "Defining Davao". LEAGUE Magazine. The League Publishing Company, Inc. (September–October 2017 Issue: The Local Government Unit Magazine): 62.
  14. ^ "Duterte eyes reinstating death penalty by lethal injection for drug crimes". Arab News. July 28, 2020. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  15. ^ Reganit, Jose Cielito (October 5, 2017). "Duterte creates Presidential Anti-Corruption Commission". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  16. ^ "Duterte: 'I offered to resign as president because I am sick of corruption'". CNN Philippines. September 29, 2020. Archived from the original on October 1, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  17. ^ Hilotin, Jay (October 1, 2020). "Philippines: $85 billion infrastructure spending in 104 projects". Gulf News. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  18. ^ Lopez, Melissa Luz (April 16, 2020). "Duterte open to dropping infrastructure projects for more COVID-19 funding". CNN Philippines. Retrieved October 18, 2020. The government plans to spend over ₱1 trillion this year on various construction projects, in keeping with the administration's promise to usher in a "Golden Age of Infrastructure" and fill the country's needs for longer and wider roads, convenient train systems, and bigger airports and seaports, to name a few.
  19. ^ Sicat, Gerardo P. (February 9, 2022). "The next president will inherit significant economic reforms". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on March 9, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  20. ^ Kabiling, Genalyn (July 27, 2020). "Duterte pushes shift to e-governance to cut red tape". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on May 12, 2022. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  21. ^ "Duterte blames Congress for failed federalism bid, vows peaceful transition". GMA News Online. December 10, 2021. Archived from the original on December 10, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  22. ^ "Duterte confirms Marcos burial at the Libingan ng mga Bayani". CNN Philippines. August 7, 2016. Archived from the original on August 9, 2016. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  23. ^ Santos, Eimor P. (November 9, 2016). "Duterte firm on Marcos burial at Heroes' Cemetery". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on May 19, 2019. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  24. ^ McKirdy, Euan; Berlinger, Joshua (October 17, 2017). "Philippines' Duterte declares liberation of Marawi from ISIS-affiliated militants". CNN. Archived from the original on October 17, 2017. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  25. ^ Parrocha, Azer (March 9, 2020). "State of public health emergency declared in PH". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on March 9, 2020. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  26. ^ Nawal, Allan (September 10, 2016). "Duterte: Gov't to pursue 'independent foreign policy'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  27. ^ Patinio, Ferdinand (December 14, 2021). "PRRD withdraws from 2022 Senate race". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on December 14, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  28. ^ "Duterte to Police: 'Do Not Answer' Crimes Against Humanity Investigators". Newsweek. March 2, 2018.
  29. ^ "Philippines' Rodrigo Duterte under fire for calling God 'stupid'". Financial Times. June 26, 2018.
  30. ^ "Critics Slam Rodrigo Duterte for Asking a Woman to Kiss Him Onstage". The New York Times. June 4, 2018.
  31. ^ Teehankee, Julio C. (2017). "Duterte's Resurgent Nationalism in the Philippines: A Discursive Institutionalist Analysis". Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs. 35 (3): 69–89. doi:10.1177/186810341603500304.
  32. ^ "Rodrigo Duterte Plays U.S. and China Off Each Other, in Echo of Cold War". The New York Times. November 3, 2016.
  33. ^ "Behind Duterte's Break With the U.S., a Lifetime of Resentment". Wall Street Journal. October 21, 2016.
  34. ^ a b c "Philippine death squads very much in business as Duterte set for presidency". Reuters. May 26, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016. Duterte's loud approval for hundreds of execution-style killings of drug users and criminals over nearly two decades helped propel him to the highest office of a crime-weary land.
  35. ^ dela Cruz, Kathlyn. "Duterte confirms killing 3 rapist-kidnappers". ABS-CBN News. ABS-CBN Corporation. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  36. ^ "Philippines: Duterte confirms he personally killed three men". BBC News. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  37. ^ "Ombudsman opens probe into Davao Death Squad". ABS-CBN News.
  38. ^ "CHR Probes DDS". ABS-CBN News.
  39. ^ "Philippine death squads very much in business as Duterte set for presidency". Reuters. May 26, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016. Human rights groups have documented at least 1,400 killings in Davao that they allege had been carried out by death squads since 1998. Most of those murdered were drug users, petty criminals and street children.
  40. ^ Marshall, Andrew R.C.; Mogato, Manuel (May 26, 2016). "Philippine death squads very much in business as Duterte set for presidency". Reuters. Archived from the original on May 26, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  41. ^ "International Criminal Court Will Investigate Duterte Over Drug War". The New York Times. February 8, 2018. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  42. ^ a b Yap, DJ (January 16, 2020). "Philippines: ICC prosecutor: Probe of Duterte can't be stopped". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  43. ^ "PCIJ request for Duterte SALN runs into dead end – again".
  44. ^ a b Weedon, Alan (May 10, 2019). "'Gold, guns and goons': Why the Philippines' Rodrigo Duterte remains incredibly popular". ABC News. Archived from the original on October 15, 2019. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
  45. ^ Parrocha, Azer (April 11, 2022). "Duterte's end of term high rating 'rarity' in PH pres'l politics". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on April 11, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  46. ^ Lopez, Alexander (May 11, 2015). "Duterte returns home on Mother's Day". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
  47. ^ "Will playing the Chinese ancestry card help Rodrigo Duterte win over Beijing?". South China Morning Post. October 20, 2016. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
  48. ^ "Unknown facts about President Duterte". The Manila Times. June 29, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  49. ^ Elemia, Camille (November 30, 2015). "Grace Poe campaign manager is Duterte's nephew". Rappler. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  50. ^ a b "Mayor Rodrigo Roa Duterte: Leyte's first president?". Daily Zamboanga Times. May 20, 2015. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
  51. ^ "About President Duterte". Office of the President of the Philippines. Archived from the original on July 8, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  52. ^ Corrales, Nestor (February 25, 2016). "Duterte returns to his roots in Danao City, Cebu for campaign activities". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  53. ^ "Soledad Roa Duterte". RAFI Triennial Awards. Ramon Aboitiz Foundation Inc. Archived from the original on March 15, 2014. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  54. ^ Ranada, Pia (May 20, 2016). "Rody Duterte: The rebellious son, the prankster brother". Rappler. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  55. ^ Bolido, Linda B. (March 10, 2015). "Duterte is LPU's outstanding alumnus". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 13, 2015. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  56. ^ "H.E. Rodrigo Roa Duterte". Lyceum of the Philippines – Davao. Archived from the original on August 11, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  57. ^ "Duterte receives awards from San Beda, First Scout Ranger Regiment". CNN Philippines. November 25, 2017. Archived from the original on November 28, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  58. ^ Aurelio, Julie M. (May 31, 2018). "Why Duterte almost missed the bar exams". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  59. ^ "Election 2016". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 18, 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  60. ^ "President Rodrigo R. Duterte (Law '72)" (PDF). Red and White Ball. San Beda College Alumni Association: 10–13. 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 26, 2018. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  61. ^ a b Lacorte, Germelina (December 4, 2015). "Duterte names priest who allegedly molested him as teen". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  62. ^ "Jesuit order paid USD16M to settle Falvey case in US". Philippine Daily Inquirer. December 5, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  63. ^ "PDP–Laban Bet to Meet Davao Prelate; Duterte says he was too young to complain about priest's abuse". GMA News. December 4, 2015. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  64. ^ "Law student Duterte shot frat brod on campus in '72". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 22, 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  65. ^ "Ex-classmate bares details of shooting incident between Duterte, friend". GMA News. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  66. ^ Sison, George (June 5, 2016). "Rody Duterte owes his political career to Cory Aquino". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  67. ^ Beltran, Luis D. (March 11, 1991). "The relevance of political parties". Manila Standard. Kagitingan Publications, Inc. p. 9. Retrieved May 19, 2021. Enrile has been busy recruiting new NP members – Mayor Duterte of Davao City, for example...
  68. ^ "Landslide win for Davao's Duterte". The Philippine Star. May 18, 2004. Archived from the original on March 17, 2022. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  69. ^ Arguillas, Carolyn O. (May 11, 2016). "Rodrigo Roa Duterte: 16th President, first Mindanawon to lead the country". MindaNews. Archived from the original on September 22, 2016. Retrieved June 19, 2022.
  70. ^ Shenon, Philip. "Outcry Mounts in Philippines Over Hanging". The New York Times. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  71. ^ Dancel, Raul. "Spokesman for Rodrigo Duterte says remarks on burning Singapore flag made 'jokingly'". The Straits Times. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  72. ^ Subingsubing, Krixia (January 18, 2021). "Robredo, Sara Duterte react to President's remarks on female leaders". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  73. ^ Maru, Davinci S.; Vestil, Justin K.; Pineda, Oscar C.; Felicitas, Princess Dawn H. (October 22, 2013). "Davao brings P18M as help to Cebu, Bohol". SunStar Cebu. Archived from the original on October 25, 2013. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  74. ^ "Davao City's GAD Awards" (PDF). Davao City (government website). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 5, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  75. ^ Castillo, B.L. (May 14, 2016). "National women code eyed in Duterte's term". SunStar. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  76. ^ "Davao City bans bikini contests – report". GMA News. June 17, 2007. Archived from the original on December 19, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  77. ^ Esteves, Patricia (March 16, 2008). "Gawad Kalinga builds humane haven for Davao female inmates". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on June 30, 2016. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  78. ^ Heydarian, Richard Javad (September 15, 2017). The Rise of Duterte: A Populist Revolt against Elite Democracy. Springer. p. 35. ISBN 978-981-10-5918-6. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  79. ^ Hegina, Aries Joseph. "Davao City improves to 5th in ranking of world's safest cities". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  80. ^ Llemit, Ralph Lawrence G. (August 5, 2019). "Davao 2nd top safest city in SEA". SunStar. Archived from the original on August 5, 2019. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  81. ^ "Thousands dead: the Philippine president, the death squad allegations and a brutal drugs war". The Guardian. April 2, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
  82. ^ "Drugs and death in Davao: the making of Rodrigo Duterte". Financial Times. February 2, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
  83. ^ "Philippine death squads very much in business as Duterte set for presidency". Reuters. May 26, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016. Today, thanks to Duterte's campaigns against drugs and crime, Davao today feels much safer, say the locals. But it still ranks first among 15 Philippine cities for murder and second for rape, according to the national police.
  84. ^ "Another child-friendly award given Davao". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 13, 2015. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  85. ^ "Davao City bags Kalasag, Most Child-Friendly awards". SunStar. December 12, 2017. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
  86. ^ Mejos, A.I. (April 11, 2015). "Davao City's speed limit reduces accidents, but businesses also affected". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  87. ^ Regalado, E. (February 13, 2014). "Noy complies with Davao City's smoking ordinance". The Philippine Star. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  88. ^ Tordecilla, K. (May 18, 2016). "Davao City ordinances that may be implemented nationwide under a Duterte presidency". CNN Philippines. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  89. ^ Ocampo, Y.D. (August 5, 2016). "Davao's Central 911 serves as model for national counterpart". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  90. ^ "Malls in Davao told to follow security rules". BusinessWorld. September 26, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  91. ^ Gonzales, Yuji Vincent (September 3, 2015). "Davao tourist swallows cigarette butt after reprimand from Duterte". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved December 19, 2016.
  92. ^ "Rodrigo Duterte: The Rise of Philippines' Death Squad Mayor". Human Rights Watch. The Mark News. July 17, 2015. Archived from the original on September 1, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  93. ^ "Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions" (PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
  94. ^ a b Lacorte, Germelina (May 15, 2015). "Duterte on criminals: 'Kill all of them'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 17, 2015. Retrieved March 29, 2022.
  95. ^ ""You Can Die Any Time" Death Squad Killings in Mindanao" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  96. ^ "The Philippines' real-life Punisher, Davao City Mayor Rodrigo Duterte, urged to run for president". News.com.au. Retrieved September 6, 2014.
  97. ^ "Duterte admits links to Davao Death Squad". ABS-CBN News.
  98. ^ "Duterte, Mindanao leaders bat federalism". Davao Today. September 14, 2014. Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  99. ^ Casas, Arianne Caryl (November 30, 2014). "Federalism summit in Davao today". Sun.Star. Archived from the original on December 13, 2014.
  100. ^ Mellejor, Lilian C. (November 14, 2014). "Davao mayor convenes Mindanao leaders for Federalism summit". Philippines Today. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  101. ^ "Duterte eyes abolition of Congress if elected president in 2016". The Philippine Star. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  102. ^ Dioquino, Rose-An Jessica (November 27, 2015). "Duterte files COC for president". GMA News. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  103. ^ "Duterte makes a stand". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on November 23, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  104. ^ "Philippines election: Duterte declares victory and promises change". The Guardian. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  105. ^ a b c "Philippine presidential frontrunner Rodrigo Duterte vows to pardon himself for murder". Australian Broadcasting Company. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  106. ^ Lacorte, G. (October 10, 2014). "Argument for federalism: Manila steals funds". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  107. ^ Lacorte, G. (May 17, 2015). "Duterte: Change in form of gov't possible only through 'Con-Con'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  108. ^ a b Philippine News Agency (April 28, 2016). "Duterte open to 'toning down' Constitution to accommodate foreign investors". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  109. ^ "The dark, cruel joke about rape that derailed a presidential campaign". The Independent. April 19, 2016. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
  110. ^ "Rodrigo Duterte: Philippines presidential candidate hits back as rape remark sparks fury". ABC News.
  111. ^ "Duterte calls daughter drama queen". Philippine Daily Inquirer. April 20, 2016. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  112. ^ "Official count: Duterte is new president, Robredo is vice president". CNN Philippines. May 27, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2016.
  113. ^ "Lawmakers set Monday proclamation for Duterte, Robredo". CNN Philippines. May 28, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2016.
  114. ^ "Duterte, Robredo proclaimed new President, VP; Rody a no-show". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 30, 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
  115. ^ Cayabyab, Marc Jayson. "Leni Robredo is vice president". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
  116. ^ "Malacañang: Drop 'His Excellency' in addressing Duterte". CNN Philippines. July 22, 2016. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  117. ^ a b Corrales, Nestor (July 21, 2016). "Drop 'His Excellency,' it's just President Duterte". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 21, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  118. ^ "Duterte tells public: Call me 'mayor'". The Manila Times. May 16, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  119. ^ "Presidency and Vice Presidency by the Numbers: Rodrigo Roa Duterte and Leni Robredo". Presidential Museum and Library. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
  120. ^ Gita, Ruth Abbey (June 30, 2016). "Duterte holds first Cabinet meeting". SunStar Manila. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  121. ^ Perlez, Jane (July 12, 2016). "Tribunal Rejects Beijing's Claims in South China Sea". The New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  122. ^ Andolong, Ina (July 4, 2016). "President Duterte issues his first Executive Order". CNN Philippines. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
  123. ^ Romero, Alexis; Macairan, Evelyn; Mendez, Christina (June 25, 2016). "Duterte insists on death penalty by hanging". The Philippine Star. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  124. ^ Alimario, Anjo (July 25, 2016). "President Duterte finally signs FOI". CNN Philippines. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  125. ^ a b Valente, Catherine S. (October 8, 2016). "First 100 days yield significant accomplishments". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on December 5, 2019. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
  126. ^ "A look at the 1st 100 days of Duterte's phenomenal rule". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Associated Press. October 8, 2016. Archived from the original on December 10, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
  127. ^ Solomon, F. (September 6, 2016). "Rodrigo Duterte declares a state of emergency in the Philippines". Time. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  128. ^ Viray, P.L. (September 6, 2016). "Palace issues proclamation of state of national emergency". The Philippine Star. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  129. ^ Macas, T. (December 9, 2016). "Duterte signs EO creating committee to review 1987 Constitution". GMA News. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  130. ^ Hegina, Aries Joseph (July 2, 2016). "Duterte to split workweek between Manila, Davao". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  131. ^ "The Truth About Duterte's 'Popularity' in the Philippines". The Diplomat. October 7, 2016. Retrieved December 2, 2016.
  132. ^ "Approval and Trust survey for RP Officials". Pulse Asia Research Inc. June 17, 2017.
  133. ^ "The World's Most Powerful People 2016". Forbes. December 14, 2016. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  134. ^ "Rodrigo Duterte". Forbes. December 14, 2016. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  135. ^ "TIMELINE for Duterte's economic agenda". The Manila Times. May 29, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  136. ^ "Home". Build!. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  137. ^ Calonzo, Andreo; Lopez, Ditas B. (July 25, 2021). "Duterte Pushes to Open Philippines to More Foreign Investors". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on July 26, 2021. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  138. ^ Cervantes, Filane Mikee (March 4, 2022). "PRRD signs law amending Foreign Investments Act". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on March 5, 2022. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  139. ^ Parrocha, Azer (March 21, 2022). "Duterte signs law amending Public Service Act". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on March 21, 2022. Retrieved March 22, 2022.
  140. ^ Felipe, Marvee Anne C. (2022). "Tax Laws Enacted During the Duterte Administration and the Role of STSRO in the Law-making Process" (PDF). Taxbits. Senate Tax Study and Research Office (STSRO). XI (62nd Issue (January – February 2022)): 1–2. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 20, 2022. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
  141. ^ Cigaral, Ian Nicolas (December 19, 2017). "Duterte signs 2018 national budget, tax reform bill". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on December 20, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  142. ^ "Duterte signs tax reform, 2018 budget into law". ABS-CBN News. December 19, 2017. Archived from the original on December 21, 2017. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  143. ^ Gulla, Vivienne (March 5, 2019). "Duterte: TRAIN law keeps gov't running". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on March 13, 2019. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  144. ^ Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (March 26, 2021). "Duterte signs CREATE bill into law". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on June 22, 2021. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  145. ^ "Duterte signs bill on higher tobacco sin taxes". CNN Philippines. July 25, 2019. Archived from the original on April 11, 2021. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
  146. ^ Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (January 23, 2020). "Duterte signs law imposing higher taxes on alcohol, e-cigarettes". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on January 24, 2020. Retrieved March 27, 2022.
  147. ^ De La Cruz, Gabrielle (October 29, 2019). "Athletic Stadium 100% complete 50 days before the SEA Games". BluPrint. One Mega Group. Archived from the original on November 9, 2019. Retrieved June 10, 2022.
  148. ^ "DuterteNomics unveiled". Presidential Communications Operations Office. April 19, 2017. Archived from the original on April 20, 2017. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  149. ^ Heydarian, Richard Javad (February 28, 2018). "Duterte's Ambitious 'Build, Build, Build' Project To Transform The Philippines Could Become His Legacy". Forbes. Archived from the original on March 10, 2018. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  150. ^ Dumlao-Abadilla, Doris (April 18, 2020). "Fitch: PH faces wary private sector in infra policy shift". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 21, 2020. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  151. ^ Rosales, Elijah Felice (September 18, 2021). "Government mulls shift in infrastructure funding tack". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on September 19, 2021. Retrieved May 23, 2022.
  152. ^ de Guzman, Warren (November 14, 2019). "LIST: 100 projects under revised 'Build, Build, Build'". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on November 14, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  153. ^ a b "Recommended List of Projects for Inclusion in the Infrastructure Flagship Program" (PDF). ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 3, 2019. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  154. ^ a b Royandoyan, Ramon (April 27, 2022). "Next president to inherit 88 infra projects on 'advanced stage'". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on April 27, 2022. Retrieved June 10, 2022.
  155. ^ a b c Mawis, Sara Mae D. "Understanding the 'Build, Build, Build' program". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 27, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  156. ^ Camus, Miguel R. (September 16, 2021). "DOTr: Metro Manila Subway now 26% complete". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on September 15, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  157. ^ Bagaforo, Nelson C. (June 26, 2017). "Mindanao railway project gets support". SunStar. Archived from the original on June 28, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
  158. ^ Lamentillo, Anna Mae Yu. "What is 'Build, Build, Build'?". Manila Bulletin News. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  159. ^ "WATCH: Luzon Spine Expressway Network is Duterte's P107-billion traffic decongestion plan". The Summit Express. Archived from the original on February 1, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  160. ^ Patinio, Ferdinand (July 23, 2021). "'Build, Build, Build': Paving the way to progress". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on July 23, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  161. ^ Lamentillo, Anna Mae Yu (July 21, 2021). "What has 'Build, Build, Build' achieved so far?". Manila Bulletin News. Archived from the original on July 21, 2021. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  162. ^ Legaspi, Amita (July 4, 2016). "Communists answer Duterte's call to join fight vs. drugs". GMA News Online. Retrieved July 9, 2016.
  163. ^ Tubeza, Philip C. (February 28, 2017). "Bato: 'Neutralization' means arrest". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  164. ^ "SWS: Most Filipinos believe number of drug addicts decreased in 2018". CNN Philippines. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  165. ^ "PNP bares numbers: 4,251 dead in drug war". The Philippine Star. May 8, 2018. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018.
  166. ^ "The Guardian view on the Philippines: a murderous 'war on drugs'". The Guardian. September 28, 2018. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
  167. ^ "Trillanes calls on Senate to defend De Lima, press freedom, right to life". Rappler.
  168. ^ Tan, Lara (August 17, 2017). "Duterte: I was wrong to put 6-month deadline on drug war". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on August 18, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  169. ^ Maralit, Kristina (September 26, 2020). "Narcos get virus lull". The Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on October 4, 2020. Retrieved May 7, 2022. Villanueva last 6 August, or 702 days before the deadline set by President Rodrigo Duterte to eradicate the country's problem with illegal drugs, led the launching of the agency's Barangay Drug Clearing Program (BDCP) which aims to clear the remaining15,388 drug-affected barangays by June 2022.
  170. ^ Caliwan, Christopher Lloyd (March 30, 2022). "Over 24K villages 'drug-cleared' as of February: PDEA". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on March 31, 2022. Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  171. ^ Mellejor, Lilian C. "MILF, MNLF not terrorist groups, simply fighting for Moro dignity – Duterte". Philippines News Agency. DAVAO CITY. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017.
  172. ^ Coconuts Manila (May 8, 2016). "Nur Misuari's bet? Duterte and Marcos, he tells Vice News". Coconuts Manila. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  173. ^ "MNLF Founder Nur Misuari Weighs in on the Philippine Presidential Election". Vice News. May 6, 2016.
  174. ^ Tayao-Juego, Annelle (May 8, 2016). "Muslim groups back Duterte, ask Aquino for clean polls". Philippine Daily Inquirer. MANILA, Philippines. Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  175. ^ Aben, Elena (November 7, 2016). "Duterte signs EO on Bangsamoro transition commission". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
  176. ^ Romero, Alexis (July 26, 2018). "Duterte signs Bangsamoro Organic Law". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on July 27, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  177. ^ Geducos, Argyll Cyrus (July 27, 2018). "Duterte signs Bangsamoro Law". Manila Bulletin News. Archived from the original on July 27, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  178. ^ "FAQs about the Bangsamoro Basic Law". GMA News Online. GMA Network. September 10, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2015.
  179. ^ Mendoza, Greanne (May 23, 2017). "Duterte declares Martial Law in Mindanao". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  180. ^ Luu, Chieu (July 22, 2017). "Philippines extends martial law in Mindanao". CNN. Archived from the original on July 24, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  181. ^ Santos, Eimor P. (December 14, 2017). "Congress grants Duterte request to extend Mindanao martial law until end of 2018". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on December 14, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  182. ^ Cervantes, Filane Mikee (December 12, 2018). "Congress grants martial law extension until end of 2019". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on December 16, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  183. ^ Corrales, Nestor (December 31, 2019). "'Strong security' in Mindanao as martial law ends on New Year's eve". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 31, 2019. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  184. ^ Placido, Dharel (July 3, 2017). "Duterte orders creation of 'Task Force Bangon Marawi'". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on July 3, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  185. ^ Santos, Elmor (July 3, 2020). "Duterte signs into law the controversial anti-terrorism bill". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on August 1, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  186. ^ Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (July 3, 2020). "Duterte signs anti-terror bill into law". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on July 4, 2020. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  187. ^ Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (February 16, 2021). "Duterte grants amnesty to communist, Moro rebels". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  188. ^ Andolong, Ina (June 3, 2016). "Duterte announces more Cabinet appointments". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on June 5, 2016. Retrieved March 14, 2022. He has so far appointed to his Cabinet two other nominees of the Communist Party of the Philippines-National Democratic Front (CPP-NDF): former Anakpawis Rep. Rafael Mariano as agrarian reform secretary and Alliance of Concerned Teachers (ACT) women's committee head Judy Taguiwalo as secretary of the Department of Social Welfare and Development.
  189. ^ Lopez, Virgil (June 3, 2016). "Joma Sison welcomes Duterte's Cabinet appointees". GMA News Online. Archived from the original on March 14, 2022. Retrieved March 14, 2022.
  190. ^ a b c Santos, Eimor P. (October 3, 2018). "Duterte fires left-leaning Labor official". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on April 11, 2019. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
  191. ^ Tordecilla, Karmela (February 6, 2017). "Duterte: CPP-NPA-NDF a terrorist group". CNN Philippines. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  192. ^ a b Esguerra, Darryl John (October 3, 2018). "Duterte fires last leftist in government". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 24, 2022. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
  193. ^ Geducos, Argyll Cyrus (April 5, 2018). "Duterte creates task force for the reintegration of former rebels". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on November 29, 2019. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  194. ^ "Duterte: Gov't shifts to 'civilian-led approach' in fight vs. communists". CNN Philippines. December 12, 2018. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  195. ^ Roque, EJ (March 21, 2019). "Duterte permanently ends peace talks with Reds". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on March 23, 2019. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
  196. ^ Romero, Alexis (March 21, 2019). "Duterte declares permanent termination of talks with Reds". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved February 24, 2022.
  197. ^ "Govt designates NDFP as 'terrorist' organization". CNN Philippines. July 19, 2021. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  198. ^ Torres-Tupas, Tetch (July 19, 2021). "Gov't anti-terrorism body names NDF as 'terrorist group'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. Retrieved March 26, 2022.
  199. ^ "Over 20K rebels abandoned CPP-NPA-NDF since 2016: NTF-ELCAC". Philippine News Agency. November 29, 2021. Archived from the original on November 29, 2021. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  200. ^ a b Lim, Yvonne (July 12, 2017). "The Philippines is aiming for an energy boom with Duterte's latest reform". CNBC. Archived from the original on July 12, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  201. ^ Dela Cruz, Enrico; Elona, Julian (July 4, 2016). "New Philippine Energy Minister Says Can't Afford to Ditch Coal". Jakarta Globe. Archived from the original on October 20, 2020. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  202. ^ "Duterte: Green energy is good but we need coal". SunStar. December 9, 2016. Archived from the original on March 4, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  203. ^ a b Crismundo, Kris (July 21, 2021). "DOE pushes shift to renewables during Duterte's term". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on July 22, 2021. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  204. ^ dela Cruz, Enrico; Warrier, Gopakumar (July 25, 2019). "Philippines readies new renewable energy policies to curb coal dependence". Reuters. Archived from the original on July 25, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  205. ^ Philippine EnviroNews (July 29, 2019). "Duterte signals need for Philippines to cut coal dependence and fast-track renewables". Eco-Business. Archived from the original on July 31, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  206. ^ Magtulis, Prinz (October 27, 2020). "Government ends energy neutrality, favors renewables ahead of boom". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  207. ^ Crismundo, Kris (March 3, 2022). "Duterte approves inclusion of nuclear power in PH energy mix". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on March 4, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  208. ^ "Duterte signs EO outlining national policy on nuclear energy". CNN Philippines. March 3, 2022. Archived from the original on March 4, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  209. ^ Atienza, K.A.T. (January 24, 2022). "Duterte signs law to accelerate Philippines' total electrification". BusinessWorld. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  210. ^ Petty, Martin (November 23, 2016). "Philippines president vows to free economy 'from clutches' of oligarchs". Reuters. Archived from the original on November 23, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2022. The outspoken, populist leader said it was high time to change regulations and liberalize sectors like energy, power and telecoms to make the country more competitive, and give Filipinos better services and a share of the wealth.
  211. ^ Cordero, Ted (November 1, 2020). "Philippines allows 100% foreign ownership in large-scale geothermal projects —Cusi". GMA News Online. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  212. ^ Cordero, Ted (October 31, 2020). "Right to develop Philippines' geothermal resources to be given thru open, competitive process —DOE". GMA News Online. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  213. ^ Salaverria, Leila B. (March 2, 2017). "Duterte finally signs Paris Agreement on climate change". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  214. ^ Quismundo, Tarra (March 15, 2017). "Senate votes to ratify Paris climate pact". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 22, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  215. ^ Galvez, Daphne (April 19, 2022). "Rich countries must pay for climate change damage – Duterte". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 18, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  216. ^ Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (December 21, 2019). "Duterte wants completion of gov't transactions in hours". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on December 23, 2019. Retrieved April 7, 2022.
  217. ^ Aguilar, Krissy (February 27, 2020). "Duterte streamlines gov't processes, removes redundant functions". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 27, 2020. Retrieved March 29, 2022.
  218. ^ "Duterte signs historic EO on Freedom of Information". The Philippine Star. July 24, 2016. Archived from the original on July 25, 2016. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  219. ^ Cervantes, Filane Mikee (February 12, 2020). "PCOO eyes 80% success rate in eFOI requests by 2022". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on July 20, 2020. Retrieved October 28, 2020.
  220. ^ Musico, Jelly (May 28, 2018). "Duterte signs Ease of Doing Business law". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on May 28, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2022.
  221. ^ PIA SarGen. "The ease of doing business under RA 11032". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on October 28, 2020. Retrieved October 28, 2020.
  222. ^ Parrocha, Azer (January 5, 2021). "Law allowing President to rush permits in nat'l emergency OK'd". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved April 7, 2022.
  223. ^ Ranada, Pia (October 26, 2016). "Duterte signs EO for 8888 citizen complaint center". Rappler. Archived from the original on October 27, 2016. Retrieved April 2, 2022.
  224. ^ Bajo, Anna Felicia (July 19, 2018). "Duterte vows to improve PHL's healthcare system". GMA News Online. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  225. ^ Aguilar, Krissy (June 24, 2021). "Duterte vows to provide equitable healthcare service as he signs hospital bills". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  226. ^ Corrales, Nestor (July 10, 2018). "Duterte certifies as urgent the Universal Health Care Bill". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 13, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  227. ^ Parrocha, Azer (February 20, 2019). "PRRD signs Universal Healthcare Care law". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on February 22, 2019. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  228. ^ Roque, EJ (February 19, 2019). "Duterte signs Integrated Cancer Control law". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on February 24, 2019. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  229. ^ Placido, Dharel (February 19, 2019). "Duterte signs national integrated cancer control act". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on February 19, 2019. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  230. ^ Musico, Jelly (June 21, 2018). "Duterte signs Mental Health Law". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on June 21, 2018. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  231. ^ Auto, Hermes (June 21, 2018). "Duterte signs law providing free healthcare to Filipinos suffering from mental illnesses". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on September 11, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  232. ^ Parrocha, Azer (December 3, 2019). "PRRD signs Malasakit Center law". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on December 4, 2019. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  233. ^ Viray, Patricia Lourdes (January 17, 2017). "Duterte signs EO to implement RH Law". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on September 13, 2018. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
  234. ^ Salaverria, Leila B. (May 19, 2017). "Duterte signs EO banning smoking nationwide". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 18, 2017. Retrieved March 18, 2022.
  235. ^ Parrocha, Azer (February 17, 2020). "Duterte signs EO on medicine price cap". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on February 18, 2020. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  236. ^ Corrales, Nestor (August 4, 2017). "Duterte signs into law bill granting free tuition in SUCs". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on August 4, 2017. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  237. ^ Parrocha, Azer (September 25, 2019). "Duterte signs Transnational Higher Education Act into law". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on February 28, 2022. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  238. ^ Balinbin, Arjay L. (September 25, 2019). "Duterte signs law allowing foreign universities to offer degree programs in Philippines". BusinessWorld. BusinessWorld Publishing. Archived from the original on September 26, 2019. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  239. ^ Parrocha, Azer (January 5, 2021). "Duterte signs Doktor Para sa Bayan Act". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  240. ^ "Duterte OKs Alternative Learning System Act". ABS-CBN News. January 5, 2021. Archived from the original on January 22, 2021. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  241. ^ Cervantes, Filane Mikee (January 5, 2021). "Alternative learning system law 'a win for marginalized learners'". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  242. ^ Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (March 15, 2022). "PRRD OKs inclusive education for learners with disabilities". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on March 15, 2022. Retrieved March 16, 2022.
  243. ^ Rola, Alyssa (June 10, 2020). "Duterte signs law establishing National Academy of Sports". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  244. ^ Nawal, Allan (September 10, 2016). "Duterte: Gov't to pursue 'independent foreign policy'". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  245. ^ Nicolas, Fiona (September 5, 2016). "Duterte heads to Laos for ASEAN summit". CNN Philippines. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  246. ^ Storey, Ian (June 12, 2017). "Duterte's Moscow Visit Advances Philippine and Russian Foreign Policy Goals" (PDF). Perspective. Singapore: ISEAS - Yusof Ishak Institute (2017): 1–2. ISSN 2335-6677. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 11, 2021. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  247. ^ Galang, Mico A. (April 6, 2017). "US, China, and Duterte's 'Independent Foreign Policy'". The Diplomat. Retrieved June 1, 2021.
  248. ^ Hendler, Bruno (September 3, 2018). "Duterte's Pivot to China, and Prospects for Settling the South China Sea Disputes". Contexto Internacional. 40 (2): 326. doi:10.1590/S0102-8529.2018400200005. S2CID 149738997. Archived from the original on April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  249. ^ Liu, Fu-Kuo; Zou, Keyuan; Wu, Shicun; Spangler, Jonathan (April 20, 2017). South China Sea Lawfare: Post-Arbitration Policy Options and Future Prospects. South China Sea Think Tank. p. 101. ISBN 978-986-92828-3-3. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  250. ^ Shoji, Tomotaka; Tomikawa, Hideo. "Chapter 5; Southeast Asia: Duterte Takes Office, South China Sea in Flux" (PDF). East Asian Strategic Review. National Institute for Defense Studies (2017): 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  251. ^ Corrales, Nestor (May 31, 2016). "Duterte names members of Cabinet". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on August 3, 2016.
  252. ^ Venzon, Cliff (June 1, 2016). "Duterte's cabinet taps retired generals and communists". Nikkei Asia. Archived from the original on April 15, 2022.
  253. ^ Viray, Patricia Lourdes (June 30, 2016). "Duterte's Cabinet takes oath, holds first meeting". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016.
  254. ^ "Mass Oath-Taking of the Cabinet Members". Radio Television Malacañang. Presidential Communications Operations Office. June 30, 2016. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021.
  255. ^ Aurelio, Julie M. "Bishop signs online petition seeking int'l court probe". Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  256. ^ "Roque defends Duterte's rape remark: 'It's more liberal in the South'". CNN Philippines. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  257. ^ a b Venzon, Cliff (July 8, 2019). "Duterte on track to become Philippines most popular president". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on December 2, 2019. Retrieved December 5, 2019.
  258. ^ Heydarian, Richard Javad (May 2, 2019). "Philippine midterms could extend Duterte's rule". Asia Times.
  259. ^ Vera, Ben O. de (December 20, 2019). "Duterte approval rating of 87 percent in December attributed to poverty reduction, SEA Games 'high'". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  260. ^ a b Parrocha, Azer (October 8, 2020). "8 in 10 Pinoys approve Duterte admin's Covid-19 response". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved November 1, 2020.
  261. ^ a b Malindog-Uy, Anna (October 11, 2020). "In Duterte We Trust". The ASEAN Post. Archived from the original on October 12, 2020. Retrieved November 1, 2020.
  262. ^ "Philippines: Inside Duterte's killer drug war". Al Jazeera. September 8, 2016. Retrieved October 2, 2016.
  263. ^ Manila, Rishi Iyengar /. "The Killing Time: Inside Rodrigo Duterte's Drug War". Time. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  264. ^ "Philippines: Duterte's 'war on drugs' is a war on the poor". Amnesty International. February 4, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  265. ^ "38 nations ask PH: Stop killings, probe abuses". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  266. ^ "38 nations seek end to 'killings'".
  267. ^ Mateo, Janvic; Mendez, Christina (June 24, 2018). "Philippines does not need call from 38 states on HR". The Philippine Star. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  268. ^ "Duterte brags about 'beautiful' drug war after deadliest day yet". Vice News. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  269. ^ "32 killed in drug war's bloodiest day; Duterte says, 'Let's kill 32 every day'". Malaya Business Insight. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  270. ^ "32 alleged criminals killed in shootouts in Philippine province, police say". CBC News. Retrieved August 17, 2017.
  271. ^ Bunachita, Jose Santino S. "Duterte renews attack on Church as he defends war on drugs". Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  272. ^ seokhwai@st (December 16, 2016). "Duterte defends war on drugs, slams US in Singapore speech". The Straits Times. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  273. ^ Reuters Staff (September 23, 2019). "Filipinos give thumbs up to Duterte's 'excellent' drugs war: poll". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 24, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  274. ^ Reuters Staff (September 23, 2019). "Filipinos give thumbs up to Duterte's 'excellent' drugs war: poll". Reuters – via www.reuters.com.
  275. ^ "Philippines: Duterte's First Year a Human Rights Calamity". Human Rights Watch. June 28, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  276. ^ "Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte is suspending his war on drugs to go after "corrupt" police". Newsweek. January 30, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  277. ^ "License to Kill". Human Rights Watch. March 2, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  278. ^ Glazer, Andrew; Rocklin, Jeremy (March 26, 2017). "When a President Says, 'I'll Kill You'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  279. ^ "Philippines: Duterte Threatens Human Rights Community". Human Rights Watch. August 17, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
  280. ^ Regencia, Ted (September 15, 2021). "ICC to open full investigation into Duterte's 'war on drugs'". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on January 9, 2022. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  281. ^ Mendez, Christina (September 23, 2020). "Duterte slams Robredo, critics of pandemic response". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on September 24, 2020. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  282. ^ Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (September 1, 2021). "Opposition 'desperate' to politicize Covid-19 pandemic". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on September 1, 2021. Retrieved March 17, 2022.
  283. ^ "Philippines confirms first case of new coronavirus". ABS-CBN News. January 30, 2020. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
  284. ^ "Outrage Over Duterte's Inaction Grips Filipinos During Coronavirus Scare". The News Lens. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  285. ^ "Duterte's 'kill' order during COVID-19 crisis fuels worldwide 'oust' trend". InterAksyon. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
  286. ^ "'Shoot them dead': Duterte says won't tolerate lockdown violators". InterAksyon. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
  287. ^ @News5PH (January 13, 2021). "Nagsagawa ng protesta ang ilang mga kabataan, estudyante mula sa iba't ibang unibersidad at organisasyon, at iba pang progresibong grupo sa labas ng House of Representatives para tutulan ang Charter Change" (Tweet). Retrieved January 14, 2021 – via Twitter.
  288. ^ "Politicians in the Philippines are holding raffles to boost vaccination". The Economist. June 12, 2021.
  289. ^ "Philippines President Duterte apologises for taking Chinese Covid vaccine before it has been approved for citizens". Independent.co.uk. May 6, 2021.
  290. ^ "As China awaits WHO approval for its vaccines, one country is sending theirs back".
  291. ^ "Pagdami ng Chinese workers, isa sa isyu sa Bonifacio Day". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on December 19, 2021 – via YouTube.
  292. ^ "Activists mark 'Day of Valor' with anti-China protests | ANC". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  293. ^ "Obama cancels meeting with 'colorful' Philippine president, who now expresses regret…". The Washington Post. September 5, 2016.
  294. ^ "After cursing Obama, Duterte expresses regret…". CNN. September 5, 2016.
  295. ^ See the following citations:
  296. ^ Ayalin, Adrian (November 14, 2017). "ASEAN protests end with burning of US flag in Mendiola". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on November 14, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  297. ^ a b "Women's group in Manila burns US flag with Trump's face". Millennium Post. March 9, 2017. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  298. ^ (from 0:24) Damay din ang pati watawat ng Amerika, dahil imperyalista rin daw sila. Bandila: Ilang estudyante, nagsunog ng watawat ng China sa pagtatapos ng bisita ni Xi Jinping
  299. ^ "Militants protest Trump visit". Manila Bulletin News. Retrieved January 13, 2019.
  300. ^ "'TRAIN' advocates and supporters are insensitive to the cries of the poor". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved July 15, 2018.
  301. ^ "Bandila: Kilos-protesta kontra TRAIN, isinagawa" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  302. ^ "The 'son of a whore' story is about so much more than Duterte's dirty mouth". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
  303. ^ Bencito, J. P.; Araneta, S.; Araja, R. N. (May 11, 2016). "Duterte starts searching for Cabinet men". The Standard.
  304. ^ "Malacañang on Duterte rape remark: The masses get him". Rappler. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
  305. ^ Joe Sterling and Buena Bernal. "Duterte jokes about rape while rallying troops to fight militants". CNN. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
  306. ^ "Duterte makes rape 'joke' for martial law troops". Al Jazeera. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
  307. ^ "Philippines' Duterte denounced for defending killing of some journalists". Reuters. June 2, 2016. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  308. ^ a b Croucher, Shane (May 31, 2019). "Philippines President Duterte says he was once gay "but I cured myself"". Newsweek.
  309. ^ "Barack Obama scraps planned talks with Rodrigo Duterte over 'son of whore' slur". ABC News. September 6, 2016. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  310. ^ "Philippine president accuses U.S. of "importing" terrorism to Middle East". Xinhua. July 9, 2016. Archived from the original on July 10, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  311. ^ "Duterte tells Obama to 'go to hell,' explains frustration with U.S." CNN Philippines. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  312. ^ Romero, Alexis. "Duterte vows more attacks on Catholic Church". The Philippine Star. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  313. ^ Corrales, Nestor (May 22, 2016). "Duterte defies Catholic Church's belief on family planning". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  314. ^ "Philippines' Duterte launches vulgar attacks on Church". PRI. May 24, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
  315. ^ "Sedition charges against four bishops and three priests are 'beyond belief'". AsiaNews. Retrieved February 27, 2020.
  316. ^ "Duterte 'sees nobody deserving' as next Philippine President, says he is ready to retire". The Straits Times. June 9, 2021. ISSN 0585-3923. Retrieved October 9, 2021.
  317. ^ "Duterte Says Running for Vice President is a 'Good Idea'". Bloomberg.com. June 16, 2021.
  318. ^ "Philippines' Duterte Raises Rivals' Suspicions by Seeking Vice Presidency in 2022". U.S. News & World Report. Reuters. August 24, 2021. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  319. ^ "Duterte confirms he'll run for Philippines VP next year". Associated Press. August 25, 2021. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  320. ^ Galvez, Daphne (October 8, 2021). "'Bato' dela Rosa is Cusi wing PDP-Laban's standard-bearer for 2022 polls". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on October 8, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  321. ^ Galvez, Daphne (October 19, 2021). "Bato, suspected to be a placeholder, agrees to amend substitution rule". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  322. ^ David Tristan, Yumol. "Duterte announces retirement from politics". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on October 2, 2021. Retrieved October 2, 2021.
  323. ^ Yumol, David Tristan (November 13, 2021). "Bato Dela Rosa withdraws from 2022 presidential race". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on November 13, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  324. ^ Fernandez, Daniza (November 14, 2021). "Duterte's possible VP run a show of dismay for Sara Duterte's candidacy". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 14, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  325. ^ Galvez, Daphne (November 15, 2021). "Duterte to run for senator in 2022 – Bong Go". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 15, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  326. ^ Galvez, Daphne (November 17, 2021). "Duterte endorses Bong Go-Inday Sara tandem in meeting with lawmakers". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 17, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  327. ^ Mercado, Neil Arwin (November 16, 2021). "It's official: Bongbong Marcos, Sara Duterte running in tandem in 2022 elections". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on November 16, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  328. ^ Torregoza, Hannah (November 30, 2021). "Bong Go backs out of May 2022 presidential race". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on November 30, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  329. ^ "Duterte withdraws from 2022 Senate race". CNN Philippines. December 14, 2021. Archived from the original on December 14, 2021. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  330. ^ Manahan, Job (March 22, 2022). "Palace: Presidential bets still seeking Duterte's endorsement". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on April 26, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  331. ^ Mendoza, John Eric (March 23, 2022). "Isko still hopeful of Duterte's endorsement despite PDP-Laban backing of Marcos Jr". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 23, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  332. ^ "VP spox: Robredo to welcome Duterte endorsement provided 'it's not transactional'". CNN Philippines. March 16, 2022. Archived from the original on March 17, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  333. ^ a b c d Fernandez, Daniza (March 31, 2022). "After PDP-Laban endorsement of Marcos Jr., Duterte insists neutrality". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 31, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  334. ^ Galvez, Daphne (March 23, 2022). "Adviser urges Duterte: Endorse Marcos, he is the best to protect you". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 23, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  335. ^ Geducos, Argyll Cyrus (April 2, 2022). "Duterte endorses Sara's VP candidacy". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on April 2, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  336. ^ Israel, Dale G. (April 2, 2022). "Duterte endorses 17 senatorial bets". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 2, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  337. ^ a b Geducos, Argyll Cyrus (February 26, 2022). "Duterte: Cabinet members, except Cusi, banned from campaigning". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on March 10, 2022. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  338. ^ Valente, Catherine S. (April 7, 2022). "Duterte will not endorse presidential bet". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on April 6, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  339. ^ Peralta-Malonzo, Third Anne (March 14, 2022). "PDP-Laban official endorses Robredo for president". SunStar. Archived from the original on March 14, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  340. ^ Felipe, Cecille Suerte (March 25, 2022). "Duterte, Marcos Talk, But No Endorsement – Go". One News. Archived from the original on March 27, 2022. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
  341. ^ Corrales, Nestor (May 5, 2022). "Duterte creates Palace transition team". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 4, 2022. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  342. ^ Manahan, Job (May 10, 2022). "Duterte's popularity, regionalism crystalized votes for Marcos Jr., Sara Duterte: analysts". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on May 12, 2022.
  343. ^ Santos, Eimor P. (March 16, 2017). "Duterte faces impeachment complaint over alleged killings, corruption". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017.
  344. ^ "Duterte says he's not intimidated by impeachment attempt". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. March 19, 2017. Archived from the original on March 19, 2017.
  345. ^ Santos, Eimor P. (March 30, 2017). "Duterte faces more impeachment charges over 'inaction' in sea row". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on March 30, 2017.
  346. ^ Cayabyab, Marc Jayson (March 30, 2017). "Solon files impeach rap vs Duterte over West PH Sea, Benham Rise". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 1, 2017.
  347. ^ "House committee effectively dismisses impeachment complaint vs. Duterte". CNN Philippines. May 15, 2017. Archived from the original on May 15, 2017.
  348. ^ Cayabyab, Marc Jayson (May 15, 2017). "House panel junks Duterte impeach complaint for lack of substance". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on May 17, 2017.
  349. ^ Luyag, Margaret Claire (October 28, 2017). "'Hello, mga ka-DDS': Steven Seagal lauds Duterte's fight vs. terrorism, drugs". GMA News. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
  350. ^ Bayoran, Gilbert (September 17, 2016). "Alvarez a 'DDS' – Diehard Duterte Supporter". The Philippine Star. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
  351. ^ a b Santos, Ana (May 1, 2017). "Rodrigo Duterte's drug war has killed thousands. Trump just invited him to the White House". Vox. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
  352. ^ "Duterte, Trump, 'Brexit': Populist surge worldwide". ABS-CBN News. Agence France-Presse. November 10, 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
  353. ^ "Philippines' Duterte scores record high rating, despite virus crisis". Reuters. October 5, 2020. Archived from the original on October 10, 2020. Retrieved January 10, 2022.
  354. ^ Francisco, Katerina (July 24, 2017). "'Tatay Digong' brand, charisma behind Duterte's survey numbers – analysts". Rappler. Archived from the original on July 24, 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  355. ^ Aquino, Norman P. (July 21, 2019). "'Tatay Digong' thrives on pathos to keep rock-star status". BusinessWorld Online. Archived from the original on April 8, 2022. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  356. ^ a b "Special report on Satisfaction Rating of the President: Pres. Duterte's Net Satisfaction at +79 in November 2020, +65 in May 2021, and +62 in June 2021" (PDF). Social Weather Stations. September 24, 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2021. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  357. ^ Nawal, Allan (May 27, 2015). "Facebook groups add meaning to DDS". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
  358. ^ "Net Satisfaction Ratings of Presidents: Philippines (Page 2 of 2)". Social Weather Stations. September 24, 2021. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  359. ^ a b c De Vera-Ruiz, Ellalyn (February 8, 2022). "75% of Filipinos satisfied with Duterte – SWS survey". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on February 11, 2022. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  360. ^ "Duterte rides on 'excellent' trust rating". BusinessWorld. July 13, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  361. ^ "Duterte starts presidency with 'excellent' trust rating – SWS poll". GMA News Online. July 13, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  362. ^ Hegina, Aries Joseph (July 20, 2016). "Duterte becomes PH's most trusted official". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  363. ^ Bencito, John Paulo (July 21, 2016). "Duterte's trust rating hits new high". The Standard. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
  364. ^ Morallo, Audrey (July 10, 2018). "SWS: Duterte's satisfaction rating plunges across all areas". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on July 13, 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  365. ^ Layug, Margaret Claire (September 29, 2018). "SWS: Duterte net satisfaction rating in Q3 improves, now 'very good'". GMA News Online. Archived from the original on March 2, 2022. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  366. ^ Merez, Arianne (December 28, 2018). "Duterte closes 2018 with 'very good' satisfaction rating- SWS". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on December 28, 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  367. ^ Heydarian, Richard Javad (May 2, 2019). "Philippine midterms could extend Duterte's rule". Asia Times.
  368. ^ Vera, Ben O. de (December 20, 2019). "Duterte approval rating of 87 percent in December attributed to poverty reduction, SEA Games 'high'". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  369. ^ Romero, Alexis (October 31, 2021). "Despite Duterte rating drop, Palace thanks Pinoys". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on March 2, 2022. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
  370. ^ Cruz, Kaithreen (April 12, 2022). "Duterte bowing out with high ratings". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on April 11, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  371. ^ Parrocha, Azer (April 11, 2022). "Duterte's end of term high rating 'rarity' in PH pres'l politics". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on April 11, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  372. ^ De Vera-Ruiz, Ellalyn (March 22, 2022). "More than half of Pinoy voters support 'partial continuity' of Duterte's policies — survey". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on March 22, 2022. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  373. ^ De Vera-Ruiz, Ellalyn (June 27, 2022). "PUBLiCUS survey: Duterte is most popular post-EDSA 1 president". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on June 27, 2022. Retrieved June 28, 2022.
  374. ^ Cruz, Kaithreen (June 27, 2022). "Duterte most popular post-EDSA president - Publicus". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on June 27, 2022. Retrieved June 28, 2022.
  375. ^ "'BUT NOT AN NPA': Duterte declares he'll be first leftist president". GMA News Online. April 22, 2016. Archived from the original on March 13, 2022. Retrieved March 16, 2022.
  376. ^ Diplomat, Mong Palatino, The. "Is the Philippines' Duterte Really a Leftist?". The Diplomat. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
  377. ^ "'BUT NOT AN NPA': Duterte declares he'll be first leftist president". GMA News. Retrieved November 23, 2018.
  378. ^ Jr, Delfin T. Mallari. "Joma Sison wishes 'best of health' for ex-student Duterte". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  379. ^ Sabillo, Kristine Angeli. "Joma Sison talks about former student Duterte, other candidates". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  380. ^ Ranada, Pia; Caduaya, Editha (September 18, 2015). "22 things to know about 'Duterte Harry'". Rappler. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  381. ^ Regalado, Edith (March 3, 2001). "Davao City Mayoral Race; Duterte siblings slugging it out". Philstar. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  382. ^ Monforte, Cha (April 15, 2015). "2 Duterte aides hurt in accident". BusinessMirror. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  383. ^ Apostol, Gina (May 29, 2017). "Speaking in Fascism's Tongues". New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2018.
  384. ^ a b Andolong, Ina (June 24, 2016). "Elizabeth Zimmerman: Digong still takes care of me". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on June 27, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  385. ^ Ranada, Pia (October 4, 2016). "Jewish community applauds Duterte after apology". Rappler. Archived from the original on October 5, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  386. ^ Macasero, Ryan (April 13, 2016). "Duterte's ex-wife: It's not true he kills innocent people". Rappler. Archived from the original on May 11, 2022. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  387. ^ "Duterte son answers call of campaign". Philippine Daily Inquirer. March 14, 2016. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  388. ^ Cabico, Gaea Katreena (May 14, 2019). "Dutertes cement grip on Davao City politics after a widely expected victory". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on May 14, 2019. Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  389. ^ Lacorte, Germelina (February 5, 2012). "Duterte matriarch dies at 95". Inquirer.net. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  390. ^ a b "Duterte's ex-wife skips cancer treatments to launch campaign caravan". GMA News.
  391. ^ "Duterte wants conflict with Muslims settled". Bohol News Today. January 13, 2015. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  392. ^ Mercado, Neil Arwin (June 9, 2019). "Meet Rodrigo III, the President's first great-grandson". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 11, 2019.
  393. ^ Figueroa, Antonio V. (December 5, 2015). "The Duterte Bloodline". EDGE Davao. Archived from the original on September 14, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2016.
  394. ^ Romero, Alexis (May 20, 2016). "Duterte says he believes in God but not in religion". The Philippine Star. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
  395. ^ "Duterte slams Church as hypocritical institution". Philippine Daily Inquirer. May 23, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  396. ^ Torres, Hazel (June 29, 2016). "Duterte vows to promote birth control in the Philippines, says he's a Christian but believes 'in one god Allah'". Christian Today. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  397. ^ "Duterte: I'm not agnostic, not atheist". Philippine News Agency. July 7, 2018.
  398. ^ Regencia, Ted (June 25, 2018). "Duterte's 'stupid God' quip is his 'personal opinion' – spokesman". Al Jazeera. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
  399. ^ "Rodrigo Duterte doubles down on attack on God, asks for proof". Newshub. July 8, 2018.
  400. ^ Esguerra, Darryl John. "Duterte: Part of me is Islam". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  401. ^ Frialde, Mike (December 10, 2015). "Duterte: I may not last 6 years in office". The Philippine Star. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  402. ^ "Philippines President Duterte admits killing suspects". CNN. December 14, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  403. ^ "Duterte's painkiller too strong to prescribe, says medical specialist". GMA News. December 15, 2016. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  404. ^ "Philippines: Duterte confirms he personally killed three men". BBC. December 16, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  405. ^ "Duterte's shocking, shrewd shot at the Philippine presidency". Channel NewsAsia. May 6, 2016. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  406. ^ Ranada, Pia (November 30, 2015). "Rodrigo Duterte: Yes, I'm a womanizer". Rappler. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  407. ^ Samuels, Gabriel. "Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte mental health assessment reveals tendency to 'violate rights and feelings'". The Independent. Retrieved June 1, 2019.
  408. ^ "Philippine President Duterte says he has muscle disease that causes eyelid to droop". The Straits Times. October 6, 2019. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  409. ^ Gregorio, Xave (October 6, 2019). "Duterte reveals he has a neuromuscular disease". CNN Philippines. Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  410. ^ Nawal, Allan. "Duterte conferred with highest Knights of Rizal award". Retrieved February 24, 2017.
  411. ^ "PRRD receives honorary doctorate from top Russian school". PTVNews. October 6, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2022.
  412. ^ Mendez, Christina (October 8, 2019). "With Russian honorary doctorate, Duterte preaches about climate change". The Philippine Star. Archived from the original on October 8, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2022.
  413. ^ "It's Datuk Duterte now after Johor Sultan, Philippine leader meet-up". The Star Online. Retrieved July 11, 2019.

Further reading

External links

Media files used on this page

Flag of Malaysia.svg
Flag of Malaysia – Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory)
Flag of Johor.svg
Author/Creator: Mrmw, Mike Rohsopht, Licence: CC0
Flag of the Malaysian state Johor. FOTW says:
Johore has a blue flag, with a big red canton with white crescent and five-pointed star, pointing somewhere, but not exactly in lower fly end. (…) The flag consists of a white crescent and a star of five points on a red field at the canton and navy blue at the fly. The white denotes a sovereign ruler, red a warrior and blue the universe. This flag is very much associated with the Sultan.
President Rodrigo Roa Duterte poses for a photo with the first family after delivering his 3rd SONA.jpg
President Rodrigo Roa Duterte poses for a photo with the first family after delivering his third State of the Nation Address (SONA) at the Session Hall of the House of Representatives Complex in Constitution Hills, Quezon City on July 23, 2018.
President Rodrigo Duterte portrait (cropped).jpg
Cropped version of the official portrait of Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte.
Presidential Race 2016.png
Author/Creator: LEXTRIKE, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Provincial and city breakdown of presidential race 2016.
Rodrigo Duterte signature.svg
Signature of Philippine president Rodrigo Roa Duterte. Vectorized using w:Inkscape based on media uploaded by w:User:WayKurat
Duterte-Cayetano campaign 2016 elections (Pandacan, Manila)(2016-04-23) 28).jpg
Author/Creator: Patrickroque01, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
duterte-cayetano campaign 2016 elections
Senator Bong Go files his COC for VP with President Duterte.jpg
GO FOR VP. President Rodrigo Duterte raises the hand of Senator Bong Go as he presents his certificate of candidacy for vice president to journalists at the Sofitel Harbor Garden Tents in Pasay City on Saturday (Oct. 2, 2021). Duterte also announced that he will retire from politics because he listened to the will of the people.
Duterte foreign trips.png
Author/Creator: PatTag2659, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
This map was created with GunnMap
GunnMap was created by Arthur Gunn and is available, free, at http://gunn.co.nz/map/ and http://gunnmap.herokuapp.com/.
Please attribute by linking to http://gunn.co.nz/map/.
Rodrigo Duterte (2009).jpg
Author/Creator: Keith Kristoffer Bacongco from Davao, Philippines, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Davao City Mayor Rodrigo Duterte speaks before the protesting residents in the city who are calling for the moratorium on housing foreclosure in several housing projects in the city. At least 5,000 homeowners coming from different subdivisions in the city and even from neighboring towns and cities marched around the city on Wednesday afternoon, February 11, 2009 to oppose the transfer of an estimated P13 billion worth of housing loans with the National Home Mortgage Finance Corporation (NHMFC) to a private entity known as Balikatan Housing Finance Inc. (BHFI). AKP Images / Keith Bacongco
VICE MAYOR RODRIGO R. DUTERTE Inauguration Speech 2010.jpg
Newly-elected vice-mayor Rodrigo Duterte reads his inaugural speech at the Session Hall of the Sangguniang Panlungsod ng Davao City, 30 June 2010.
Rodrigo Duterte 2016 campaign.png
Campaign logo + slogan for Rodrigo Duterte, PDP-Laban candidate for President of the Philippines in 2016
BOL Presentation to MILF, Duterte.jpg
President Rodrigo R. Duterte poses for a photo with the legislators and negotiators in the peace process with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), as well as top officials from the Armed Forces of the Philippines and Philippine National Police during the presentation of the Bangsamoro Organic Law (BOL) to the MILF at Malacañan Palace on August 6, 2018.
President Rodrigo Roa Duterte strikes his signature pose with the Filipino athletes who have brought home medals from various international competitions during their meeting at the Malago Clubhouse in Malacañang on October 16, 2019. 3.jpg
President Rodrigo Roa Duterte is assisted by Senate Committee on Sports Chair Senator Christopher "Bong" Go as he distributes the incentives to the Filipino athletes who have brought home medals from various international competitions during their meeting at the Malago Clubhouse in Malacañang on October 16, 2019. KING RODRIGUEZ/PRESIDENTIAL PHOTO
President Rodrigo Duterte meets with Filipino community in Indonesia during his working visit in the country on September 9 (3).jpg
President Rodrigo Duterte meets with Filipino community in Indonesia during his working visit in the country on September 9. KING RODRIGUEZ/ PPD
Duterte and Aquino June 2016.jpg
President-elect Rodrigo Roa Duterte and outgoing President Benigno S. Aquino III meet at the President’s Hall Sala for a courtesy call before the formal inaugural ceremony..
Rodrigo Duterte and Cielito Avanceña family portrait.jpg
President Rodrigo Duterte with his common-law wife Cielito Avanceña and their daughter Veronica.
Rodrigo Duterte welcomes Kjartan Sekkingstad.jpg
President Rodrigo Duterte welcomes Norwegian Kjartan Sekkingstad following his release from Abu Sayyaf captivity, during a press conference in Matina Enclaves, Davao City on September 18.
President Rodrigo R. Duterte signs the Freedom of Information (FOI) Executive Order in Davao (Ph2-072416-JALL1747-1).jpg
President Rodrigo R. Duterte signs the Freedom of Information (FOI) Executive Order in Davao.
Sara Duterte oath taking 6.19.22 (5).jpg
Vice president-elect Sara Duterte taking her oath at the San Pedro Square in Davao City.
President Rodrigo Roa Duterte presides over a meeting with the National Task Force to End Local Communist Armed Conflict (NTF-ELCAC) at the Malacañan Palace on April 15, 2019.jpg
President Rodrigo Roa Duterte presides over a meeting with the National Task Force to End Local Communist Armed Conflict (NTF-ELCAC) at the Malacañan Palace on April 15, 2019.
Rodrigo Duterte Benigno Aquino III 03.jpg
President Benigno S. Aquino III converses with Davao City Vice Mayor Rodrigo Duterte during the Meeting with Local Leaders and the Community at the Rizal Park in San Pedro Street, Davao City on Wednesday (March 06, 2013).
President Rodrigo Duterte is accompanied by Pampanga Governor Lilia Pineda during an ocular inspection of the seized shabu laboratory in Arayat, Pampanga on September 27.jpg
President Rodrigo Duterte is accompanied by Pampanga Governor Lilia Pineda during an ocular inspection of the seized shabu laboratory in Arayat, Pampanga on September 27.
President Rodrigo Roa Duterte presides over the 29th Cabinet Meeting at the Malacañan Palace on September 11, 2018. 03.jpg
President Rodrigo Roa Duterte presides over the 29th Cabinet Meeting at the Malacañan Palace on September 11, 2018.
Athletic Stadium of the New Clark City sports complex (July 19, 2019).jpg
ATHLETIC STADIUM. The Athletic Stadium of the New Clark City sports complex in New Clark City in Capas, Tarlac is expected to be finished by the end of August. The stadium was shown to members of the media by officials of the Bases Conversion and Development Authority during a familiarization tour on Friday (July 19, 2019). The facility will serve as the hub of the 30th Southeast Asian Games slated to be held on November 30, 2019 to December 11, 2019.
President Rodrigo Duterte and his Cabinet members pray before the start of the 6th Cabinet Meeting.jpg
President Rodrigo Duterte and his Cabinet members pray before the start of the 6th Cabinet Meeting in Malacañan’s State Dining Room on September 14.
President Rodrigo Duterte.jpg
President Rodrigo Duterte poses for a photo with former House Speaker Jose de Venecia Jr. and Pangasinan 4th District Representative Gina de Venecia during a meeting at the Study Room in Malacañan Palace on March 7, 2017. RICHARD MADELO / Presidential Photo
Rodrigo Roa Duterte (tl).ogg
Author/Creator: Raku Hachijo, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Pronunciation of Rodrigo Duterte's full name in Tagalog. Speaker is from Batangas, Philippines.
Inauguration of President Rodrigo Roa Duterte 6 30 2016-uH80-bjOBnM.webm
Inauguration of President Rodrigo Roa Duterte 6/30/2016; Malacañan Palace; 30 June 2016