Richland County, South Carolina
|• Total||772 sq mi (2,000 km2)|
|• Land||757 sq mi (1,960 km2)|
|• Water||15 sq mi (40 km2) 1.9%%|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||500/sq mi (190/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|Congressional districts||2nd, 6th|
Richland County is located in the U.S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 384,504, making it the second-most populous county in South Carolina, behind only Greenville County. The 2019 estimated population was 415,759. The county seat and largest city is Columbia, the state capital. The county was founded in 1785. Richland County is part of the Columbia, SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2010, the center of population of South Carolina was located in Richland County, in the city of Columbia.
Richland County was probably named for its "rich land." The county was formed in 1785 as part of the large Camden District. A small part of Richland later went to adjacent Kershaw County in 1791. The county seat and largest city is Columbia, which is also the state capital. In 1786 the state legislature decided to move the capital from Charleston to a more central location. A site was chosen in Richland County, which is in the geographic center of the state, and a new town was laid out. Richland County's boundaries were formally incorporated on December 18, 1799. Cotton from the surrounding plantations was shipped through Columbia and later manufactured into textiles there. General William T. Sherman captured Columbia during the Civil War and his troops burned the town and parts of the county on February 17, 1865. The U. S. Army returned on friendlier terms in 1917, when Fort Jackson was established, which is now the largest and most active Initial Entry Training Center in the U.S. Army. The South Carolina State House is located in downtown Columbia.
|Type||Name||Pop. (2019 est.)||Notes|
|City||Columbia||131,674||State capital and County seat|
Partly in Lexington County[a]
|Federal enclave[b]||Fort Jackson||14,785||Military base|
|City||Cayce||14,009||Mostly in Lexington County|
|Town||Irmo||12,483||Mostly in Lexington County|
|Town||Blythewood||2,034||Partly in Fairfield County|
Unincorporated communities and neighborhoods
- Boyden Arbor
- Cedar Creek
- Eau Claire
- Fairwold Acres
- Horrell Hill
- Mountain Brook
- Spring Hill
- State Park
- Windsor Estates
- Dutch Fork
- Fort Jackson
- Lower Richland
- Northeast Richland
- Upper Richland
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 772 square miles (2,000 km2), of which 757 square miles (1,960 km2) is land and 15 square miles (39 km2) (1.9%) is water. Richland County is situated in the center of South Carolina.
Rivers and lakes
- Broad River
- Congaree River
- Lake Murray
- Little River
- Saluda River
- Wateree River
- Kershaw County - northeast
- Fairfield County - north
- Sumter County - east
- Lexington County - west
- Calhoun County - south
- Newberry County - northwest
National protected area
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 384,504 people, 145,194 households, and 89,357 families residing in the county. The population density was 507.9 inhabitants per square mile (196.1/km2). There were 161,725 housing units at an average density of 213.6 per square mile (82.5/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 45.3% white, 48.9% black or African American, 2.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.9% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 9.6% were German, 8.6% were English, 7.6% were Irish, and 7.1% were American.
Of the 145,194 households, 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.6% were married couples living together, 17.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.5% were non-families, and 30.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 32.6 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $47,922 and the median income for a family was $61,622. Males had a median income of $42,453 versus $34,012 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,805. About 10.0% of families and 14.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over.
Richland County is governed by a County Council, who hold concurrent four-year terms. Richland County is governed under the Council-Administrator form of government, which is very similar to the Council-Manager form of government. The major difference between the Council Manager and Council Administrator forms of government is the title of the chief executive, being Manager in one and Administrator in the other.
|District 1||Bill Malinowski|
|District 2||Joyce Dickerson|
|District 3||Yvonne McBride|
|District 4||Paul Livingston (Chair)|
|District 5||Allison Terracio|
|District 6||Joe Walker III|
|District 7||Gwendolyn Kennedy|
|District 8||Jim Manning|
|District 9||Calvin "Chip" Jackson|
|District 10||Dalhi Myers|
|District 11||Chakisse Newton|
The South Carolina Department of Corrections, headquartered in Columbia and in Richland County, operates several correctional facilities in Columbia and in Richland County. They include the Broad River Correctional Institution, the Goodman Correctional Institution, the Camille Griffin Graham Correctional Institution, the Stevenson Correctional Institution, and the Campbell Pre-Release Center. Graham houses the state's female death row. The State of South Carolina execution chamber is located at Broad River. From 1990 to 1997 Broad River housed the state's male death row.
In March 2008, the Richland County Sheriff's Department acquired an armored personnel carrier equipped with a .50 caliber machine gun. Reason magazine criticized the acquisition as "overkill".
Richland County was one of the first areas of South Carolina to break away from a Solid South voting pattern. From 1948 to 1988, it only supported the official Democratic candidate for president once, in 1976. It voted for splinter Dixiecrat Strom Thurmond in 1948, and for unpledged electors in 1956.
Since 1992, Richland County has been one of the stronger Democratic bastions in South Carolina, following the trend of most urban counties across the country.
Public transportation in Richland County is provided by the COMET, or officially the Central Midlands Regional Transit Authority (CMRTA). The bus system is the main public transit system for the greater Columbia area. In Richland County, the bus system runs in the areas of Columbia, Forest Acres, Fort Jackson, Irmo, St. Andrews, Northeast Richland, Lower Richland, and Eastover. Additionally, COMET offers Dial-a-ride transit (DART), which provides personalized service passengers with disabilities.
Columbia has one Amtrak station (CLB) that serves over 30,000 passengers per year on the Silver Star rail line. Additionally, Richland County has an operating facility for CSX Transportation, a company that transports over one million carloads of freight on South Carolina's rail network.
The Jim Hamilton–L.B. Owens Airport operates over 56,000 aircraft annually but is a smaller airport used mostly for small and private planes. The main airport for the region is the Columbia Metropolitan Airport, which is located in neighboring Lexington County. In 2018, the Columbia Metro Airport served 1,197,603 passengers with 12,324 flights.
- I-26 Interstate 26 travels from northwest to southeast and connects the Columbia area to the other two major population centers of South Carolina: the Greenville-Spartanburg area in the northwestern part of the state and North Charleston – Charleston area in the southeastern part of the state.
- I-20 Interstate 20 travels from west to east and connects Columbia to Atlanta and Augusta in the west and Florence in the east. It serves the nearby towns and suburbs of Pelion, Lexington, West Columbia, Sandhill, Pontiac, and Elgin. Interstate 20 is also used by travelers heading to Myrtle Beach, although the interstate's eastern terminus is in Florence.
- I-77 Interstate 77 begins in Lexington county and ends in Cleveland, Ohio and is frequently used by travelers on the east coast heading to or from Florida.
- I-126 Interstate 126 branches off from I-26 and leads into downtown Columbia and provides access to Riverbanks Zoo.
|2||Blue Cross Blue Shield||10,000|
|3||University of South Carolina||7,000|
|4||South Carolina Department of Corrections||5,000|
|5||Richland County School District One||5,000|
|6||South Carolina Department of Transportation||5,000|
|7||South Carolina Department of Mental Health||5,000|
|8||South Carolina Department of Social Services||5,000|
|9||Richland County School District Two||4,000|
|10||South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control||4,000|
- Congaree National Park
- Lake Murray
- Riverbanks Zoo
- South Carolina State Fair
- Sesquicentennial State Park
- South Carolina State Museum
- Martin Luther King Park
- Richland Library
In popular culture
Richland County was one of several counties across the country used as a filming location for the A&E reality documentary series Live PD, which worked in collaboration with the Richland County Sheriff's Department. The show first premiered in 2016 and aired for four years until its cancellation in 2020.
- Birch County, South Carolina, a proposed county that would include existing portions of Richland County
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Richland County, South Carolina
- A very small percentage of the city is in Lexington County.
- Though within the city limits of Columbia, Fort Jackson operates autonomously with a private population and closed borders.
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- "Richland County > Government > County Council > County Council Members". www.richlandonline.com. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
- "Institutions." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
- "Broad River Correctional Institution." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
- "Goodman Correctional Institution." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
- "Graham (Camille Griffin) Correctional Institution." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010. "4450 Broad River Road Columbia, SC 29210-4096"
- "Stevenson Correctional Institution." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
- "Campbell Pre-Release Center." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
- "Graham (Camille Griffin) Correctional Institution." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010. "The institution also functions as a major special management unit with the ability to house female death row inmates and county safekeepers."
- "Death Row/Capital Punishment." South Carolina Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 17, 2010.
- S.C. Sheriff's Department Armored Vehicle with Belt-Fed Machine Gun Archived 2008-09-04 at the Wayback Machine
- Sheriff Lott's New Toy by Radley Balko September 1, 2008
- Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
- "The Comet Routes" (PDF). The Central Midlands Transit Authority. n.d. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "Columbia, SC (CLB)". Great American Stations. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "CSX in South Carolina". CSX. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "Comrehensive Financial Report (2019)" (PDF). Richland County. 2019.
- Schneider, Michael (11 June 2020). "'Live PD': Inside A&E's Swift Decision to Cancel the Show, and Whether it Will Ever Return". Variety. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
Media files used on this page
Red Gum felled- also called Sweet Gum. Left in woods to dry out with top on before cutting into logs. Young Gum and Elm in background. Congaree River, Richland Co., South Carolina.
This is a locator map showing Richland County in South Carolina. For more information, see Commons:United States county locator maps.
South Carolina State House, post 1998 renovations