Rhacophoridae diversity.jpg
Rhacophoridae diversity
Scientific classification e
Hoffman, 1932


Amboli bush frog (Pseudophilautus amboli), a member of the Rhacophoridae, with enlarged vocal sac for mating calls

The Rhacophoridae are a family of frogs that occur in tropical sub-Saharan Africa, South India and Sri Lanka, Japan, northeastern India to eastern China, south through the Philippines and Greater Sundas, and Sulawesi. They are commonly known as shrub frogs, or more ambiguously as "moss frogs" or "bush frogs". Some Rhacophoridae are called "tree frogs". Among the most spectacular members of this family are numerous "flying frogs".

Although a few groups are primarily terrestrial, rhacophorids are predominantly arboreal treefrogs. Mating frogs, while in amplexus, hold on to a branch, and beat their legs to form a foam. The eggs are laid in the foam and covered with seminal fluid before the foam hardens into a protective casing. In some species, this is done in a large group. The foam is laid above a water source so the tadpoles fall into the water once they hatch.[1]

The species within this family vary in size from 1.5 to 12 cm (0.59 to 4.72 in).[1] Like other arboreal frogs, they have toe discs, and those of the genus Chiromantis have two opposable fingers on each hand. This family also contains the Old World flying frogs, including Wallace's flying frog (Rhacophorus nigropalmatus). These frogs have extensive webbing between their fore and hind limbs, allowing them to glide through the air.[2]


This phylogeny of the Rhacophoridae is from Yu et al. (2008):[3]







Philautus, Kurixalus







As many frogs, rhacophorids harbour monogeneans worms in their urinary bladders. The parasite species specialized to this family of frogs belong to the genus Indopolystoma, described in 2019.[4]


  1. ^ a b Zweifel, Richard G. (1998). Cogger, H.G.; Zweifel, R.G. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 0-12-178560-2.
  2. ^ Sunny Shah & Rachna Tiwari (2001-11-29). "Rhacophorus nigropalmatus, Wallace's Flying Frog". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 2007-06-22. Edited by Tate Tunstall (2003-04-12)
  3. ^ Yu Guohua, Rao Dingqi, Zhang Mingwang, Yang Junxing. Re-examination of the phylogeny of Rhacophoridae (Anura) based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 50 (2009) 571–579. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2008.11.023
  4. ^ Chaabane, Amira; Verneau, Olivier; Du Preez, Louis (2019). "Indopolystoma n. gen. (Monogenea, Polystomatidae) with the description of three new species and reassignment of eight known Polystoma species from Asian frogs (Anura, Rhacophoridae)". Parasite. 26: 67. doi:10.1051/parasite/2019067. ISSN 1776-1042. open access
  • Cogger, H.G.; R.G. Zweifel; D. Kirschner (2004). Encyclopedia of Reptiles & Amphibians Second Edition. Fog City Press. ISBN 1-877019-69-0.

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Media files used on this page

Amboli Bush Frog with enlarged vocal sac for mating calls.jpg
Author/Creator: Varrun Varatharajan, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Amboli Bush Frog, a rare endemic arboreal tree frog from the Western Ghats of India, displays spectacular mating calls during the heavy monsoon, which can usually exceed 8000-10,000 mm a year. The males are usually smaller than the females and are carried to fertilize the eggs. The species is severely endangered with only small pockets left in the region's evergreen forest. This male was found close to the huts of Kalinga Rainforest Conservation Center in Agumbe, Karnataka, India.
Rhacophoridae diversity.jpg
Author/Creator: OJJ, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Rozmanitost létavkovitých
Variegated golden frog (Mantella baroni) Ranomafana.jpg
Author/Creator: Charles J. Sharp , Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Variegated golden frog (Mantella baroni), Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0