Qom

Qom
قم
کلانشهر قم · Qom Metropolis
IMG 20180410 065420 HDR.jpg
Maghabere Gonbade Sabz مقابر گنبد سبز از بناهای تاریخی شهر قم.jpg
IMG 0193 Qom.jpg
عکس از مدرسه علمیه معصومیه شهر قم.jpg
Jamkaran Mosque مسجد جمکران قم 15.jpg
Qom panorama.jpg
Official seal of Qom
Nickname(s): 
Religious Capital Of Iran
Qom is located in Iran
Qom
Qom
Coordinates:34°38′24″N 50°52′35″E / 34.64000°N 50.87639°E / 34.64000; 50.87639Coordinates:34°38′24″N 50°52′35″E / 34.64000°N 50.87639°E / 34.64000; 50.87639
Country Iran
ProvinceQom
DistrictCentral
Elevation
936 m (3,071 ft)
Population
 (2016 census)
 • Urban
1,200,158 [1]
 • Metro
1,260,000 [2]
 • Population Rank in Iran
7th
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
Postal code
37100
Area code(s)(+98) 025
ClimateBWh
Websitewww.qom.ir

Qom (also spelled as "Ghom", "Ghum", or "Qum") (Persian: قم [ɢom] (listen)) is the seventh largest metropolis[3] and also the seventh largest city in Iran.[4] Qom is the capital of Qom Province. It is located 140 km (87 mi) to the south of Tehran.[5] At the 2016 census, its population was 1,201,158. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River.

Qom is considered holy in Shi'a Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatimah bint Musa, sister of Imam Ali ibn Musa Rida[6] (Persian: Imam Reza; 789–816). The city is the largest center for Shi'a scholarship in the world, and is a significant destination of pilgrimage, with around twenty million pilgrims visiting the city every year, the majority being Iranians but also other Shi'a Muslims from all around the world.[7] Qom is also famous for a Persian brittle toffee known as sohan (Persian: سوهان), considered a souvenir of the city and sold by 2,000 to 2,500 "sohan" shops.

Qom has developed into a lively industrial center owing in part to its proximity to Tehran. It is a regional center for the distribution of petroleum and petroleum products, and a natural gas pipeline from Bandar Anzali and Tehran and a crude oil pipeline from Tehran run through Qom to the Abadan refinery on the Persian Gulf. Qom gained additional prosperity when oil was discovered at Sarajeh near the city in 1956 and a large refinery was built between Qom and Tehran.

Geography

Qom, the capital of Qom province, is located 125 kilometers south of Tehran, on a low plain. The shrine of Fatimeh Masumeh, the sister of Imam Reza, is located in this city, which is considered by Shiʿa Muslims holy. The city is located in the boundary of the central desert of Iran (Kavir-e Markazi). At the 2011 census its population was 1,074,036,[8] comprising 545,704 males and 528,332 females.

Qom is a focal center of the Shiʿah.[9][10] Since the revolution, the clerical population has risen from around 25,000 to more than 45,000 and the non-clerical population has more than tripled to about 700,000. Substantial sums of money in the form of alms and Islamic taxes flow into Qom to the ten Marja'-e taqlid or "Source to be Followed" that reside there.[11] The number of seminary schools in Qom is now over fifty, and the number of research institutes and libraries somewhere near two hundred and fifty.[11]

Its theological center and the Fatima Masumeh Shrine are prominent features of Qom.[12][13] Another very popular religious site of pilgrimage formerly outside the city of Qom but now more of a suburb is called Jamkaran. Qom's proximity to Tehran has allowed the clerical establishment easy access to monitor the affairs and decisions of state. Many Grand Ayatollahs possess offices in both Tehran and Qom; many people simply commute between the two cities as they are only 156 kilometres or 97 miles apart. Southeast of Qom is the ancient city of Kashan. Directly south of Qom lie the towns of Delijan, Mahallat, Naraq, Pardisan City, Kahak, and Jasb. The surrounding area to the east of Qom is populated by Tafresh, Saveh, and Ashtian and Jafarieh.

View Of Southwestern Qom

Climate

Qom has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh border on BWk) with low annual rainfall due to remoteness from the sea and being situated in the vicinity of the subtropical anticyclone aloft. Summer weather is very hot and essentially rainless, whilst in winter weather can vary from warm to – when Siberian air masses are driven south across the Elburz Mountains by blocking over Europe – frigid. An example of the latter situation was in January 2008 when minima fell to −23 °C or −9.4 °F on the 15th, whilst earlier similar situations occurred in January 1964 and to a lesser extent January 1950, January 1972 and December 1972.

Climate data for Qom (1986–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)23.4
(74.1)
26.5
(79.7)
35.5
(95.9)
36.5
(97.7)
41.5
(106.7)
44.2
(111.6)
47.0
(116.6)
45.5
(113.9)
41.6
(106.9)
36.6
(97.9)
28.6
(83.5)
22.5
(72.5)
47.0
(116.6)
Average high °C (°F)10.2
(50.4)
13.6
(56.5)
19.1
(66.4)
26.0
(78.8)
31.8
(89.2)
37.9
(100.2)
40.3
(104.5)
39.4
(102.9)
34.9
(94.8)
27.7
(81.9)
18.9
(66.0)
12.2
(54.0)
26.0
(78.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.2
(39.6)
7.1
(44.8)
12.0
(53.6)
18.3
(64.9)
23.6
(74.5)
29.1
(84.4)
31.8
(89.2)
30.3
(86.5)
25.2
(77.4)
19.0
(66.2)
11.5
(52.7)
6.1
(43.0)
18.2
(64.8)
Average low °C (°F)−1.9
(28.6)
0.6
(33.1)
5.0
(41.0)
10.5
(50.9)
15.4
(59.7)
20.2
(68.4)
23.4
(74.1)
21.2
(70.2)
15.6
(60.1)
10.3
(50.5)
4.1
(39.4)
−0.1
(31.8)
10.4
(50.7)
Record low °C (°F)−23
(−9)
−11.2
(11.8)
−11
(12)
0.4
(32.7)
5.4
(41.7)
8.0
(46.4)
15.0
(59.0)
13.5
(56.3)
6.5
(43.7)
0.6
(33.1)
−7
(19)
−10.5
(13.1)
−23
(−9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)25.4
(1.00)
20.5
(0.81)
27.7
(1.09)
20.2
(0.80)
10.4
(0.41)
2.3
(0.09)
0.7
(0.03)
0.3
(0.01)
0.8
(0.03)
6.2
(0.24)
14.3
(0.56)
19.4
(0.76)
148.2
(5.83)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)4.44.14.23.92.00.40.20.10.31.82.63.227.2
Average snowy days3.11.40.30.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.10.95.8
Average relative humidity (%)66584842332423242638526641
Mean monthly sunshine hours185.0194.0221.5233.3296.6351.5354.5347.3309.9263.4204.9172.73,134.6
Source: Iran Meteorological Organization (records),[14] (temperatures),[15] (precipitation),[16] (humidity),[17] (days with precipitation and snow),[18] (sunshine)[19]

History

Azam Mosque in Qom

The present town of Qom in Central Iran dates back to ancient times. Its pre-Islamic history can be partially documented, although the earlier epochs remain unclear. Excavations at Tepe Sialk indicate that the region had been settled since ancient times (Ghirshman and Vanden Berghe), and more recent surveys have revealed traces of large inhabited places south of Qom, dating from the 4th and 1st millennium BC. While nothing is known about the area from Elamite, Medes, and Achaemenid times, there are significant archeological remains from the Seleucid and Parthian epochs, of which the ruins of Khurha (about 70 kilometres or 43 miles southwest of Qom) are the most famous and important remnants. Their dating and function have instigated long and controversial debates and interpretations, for they have been interpreted and explained variously as the remains of a Sasanian temple, or of a Seleucid Dionysian temple, or of a Parthian complex. Its true function is still a matter of dispute, but the contributions by Wolfram Kleiss point to a Parthian palace that served as a station on the nearby highway and was used until Sasanian times.[20]

The recently published results of the excavations carried out in 1955 by Iranian archeologists have, however, revived the old thesis of a Seleucid religious building.[21] Besides Khurha, which is already mentioned as Khor Abad at Qomi in the 9th century, the region has turned up a few other remnants from this epoch, including the four Parthian heads found near Qom, now kept in the National Museum of Iran in Tehran.[22] Qomi names Parthian personalities as founders of villages in the Qom area.[23] The possible mention of Qom in the form of Greek names in two ancient geographical works (the Tabula Peutingera and Ptolemy's geographical tables) remains doubtful.

View Of Qom city in a painting in 1723 AD

The Sasanian epoch offers many archeological findings and remnants, besides the fact that various sources mention Qom. The most interesting building from an archeological point of view is the Qalʿa-ye Doḵtar in Qom itself, which was long thought to have served religious purposes, while more recent research points to an administrative use.[24] The wider surroundings of Qom also contain numerous traces from palaces, religious, military and administrative buildings.[25] Some of these are mentioned by Qomi, who also names many more fire temples in the urban area of present Qom and its region, of which no archeological traces are left although the location of one fire temple can probably be equated with today's Masjed-e Emām in the city.[26] According to Qomi, the most important fire temple of the area stood in the nearby village of Dizijan.[27]

Tāriḵ-e Qom and some other sources also speak of genuine historical figures of the Sasanian epoch in connection with Qom and its region. They shed new light on the time of the seizure of power by the first Sasanian king Ardashir I, who fought his decisive battles near Qom,[28] and the collapse of the Sasanian empire, which is extensively reported by Ebn Aʿṯam Kufi and the Nehāyat al-Erab and names a certain Šērzād as the satrap of the region.[29] The existence of an urban settlement in the Sasanian epoch is furthermore verified by Middle Persian sources (literary sources, inscriptions, and seals) that mention in the time of Shapur I and Kawād I the names Godmān/Gomān and Ērān Win(n)ārd Kawād, both of which could be identified as Qom.[30] Altogether one can assume that Qom functioned as a small administrative unit throughout the whole Sasanian era. Probably the urban structure of the Sasanian settlement of Qom can be compared with the type of city of Ctesiphon (Or. Madāʾen) and consisted of several villages and little towns with Abaraštejān, Mamajjān and Jamkarān as the bigger settlements that were loosely connected by defense installations.[31]

It is difficult to decipher the actual process of the Arab conquest of Qom from the extant Arabic sources. According to Balāḏori, the first tentative conquest of Qom took place in 23/644 by Abu Musa Ashaari after a few days of fighting (although Abu Musa's route through Western Persia, as narrated by Balāḏori, appears somewhat confusing). It remains unclear who the defenders of Qom were; probably fleeing Sasanian nobles and local soldiers returning from the great battles against the Arabs formed the core of the resistance. The area remained largely untouched for 60 years after the initial conquest and was probably administered from Isfahan.[32]

The first permanent settlement of Arab settlers in Qom took place during the revolts of Mukhtar al-Thaqafi and Moṭarref b. Moḡira b. Šaʿba in 66–77/685–96, when small groups of refugees moved there and Qom itself was affected by the fighting between the Umayyad state power and the rebels[33]

The decisive step for the later urban development of Qom occurred when a group of Ashaari Arabs came to the area. These Ashaaries originated in Yemen and the first important figure among them was the first conqueror of the area of Qom, the above-mentioned Abu Musa Ashaari. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Saʿd and Aḥwaṣ b. Saʿd were grandsons of Abi Musa's nephew and led the group of Ashaaries that emigrated from Kufa to the region of Qom. It is not exactly clear why they migrated, but it might have also been a general opposition to the Umayyad dynasty. A central element was the early contact with the leading local Zoroastrian Persian noble Yazdanfadar.[34]

As the Arabs required a great deal of pasture for their large herds of cattle and were much wealthier than the local Persians, they slowly started to buy land and take over more villages. The decisive step for controlling the area was the elimination of the local Persian noble class that took place after the death of Yazdanfadar in 733.[35] The emigration and the subsequent settlement and building activities led to the fusion of the original six villages on the area of Qom to an urban conglomerate which probably happened within two generations after the first coming of Arabs.

Although a few names of governors and their tax assessments are known from the time after the administrative independence, the death of Fātimah bint Mūsā, the sister of the eighth Imam of Shias Ali al-Ridha in the city in 201/816–17 proved to be of great importance for the later history of Qom. Fātimah bint Mūsā died while following her brother to Khorasan, a region in northern Iran. The place of her entombment developed from 869–70 into a building that was transformed over time into today's magnificent and economically important sanctuary.[36]

In 825–26 a major rebellion against the tax regulations of the caliphate broke out in Qom. It was caused by the refusal of the caliph Al-Ma'mun to lower the yearly tax assessment as he had done in Ray. The revolt was led by an Ashaari named Yahya ibn Emran, maintaining that taxes should not be paid to an unlawful ruler. Yahya was killed by troops sent by the caliph and the citizens were severely punished; the taxes were raised from 2 million to 7 million dirhams. Two years later the taxes were again raised by 700,000 dirham by the Ashaari governor Ali ibn Isa, who was subsequently deposed because he was strongly rejected by the inhabitants of Qom. But in 833 Ali returned to the post of governor (wali) and forcefully collected tax debts that were laid upon him by the caliph. He destroyed parts of Qom and handed over a wanted rebel to caliphal authorities under Al-Moʿtasem. Between 839–42 two contradicting tax assessments were carried out under turbulent circumstances which amounted to a sum of 5 million dirhams. The names of those involved have survived.[37]

Deire Gachin Caravansarai

The move of a Hadith transmitter from Kufa to Qom, which took place probably in the middle of the 9th century, indicates the increased importance of Qom as a center of Shia learning. At about the same time another military attack on the city occurred in 254/868, when Mofleḥ, the Turkish officer of the caliph Al-Mostaʿin, executed some of its inhabitants because of the city's refusal to pay taxes. Mofleḥ became governor of Qom and lasted in that position for at least five years. During his governorship important Alids moved to Qom and there are references to close contacts between the representative of the 11th Shia's Imam, Hassan al-Askari, in Qom and other Qomis. The representative Aḥmad b. Esḥāq was at the same time administrator of the Fāṭema sanctuary and the agent (wakil) responsible for the pensions of the Alids.[38]

The first Friday mosque in Qom was built in 878–79 on the site of a fire temple, although there are also confusing reports concerning a possible earlier Friday mosque.[39] In 881–82 Qom was occupied by the Turkish military leader Edgu Tegin (Arabic: Yadkutakin b. Asātakin or Aḏkutakin), who tried to collect the tax arrears for seven years which partially ruined the guarantors (some of whom are known) of these taxes. At about the same time the early orthodox Shias achieved their victory in the town. In 893–94, at the latest, all extremists (ḡolāt) were driven out of town by the leading Shia shaikh of Qom, Aḥmad b. Moḥammed b. Isa Ashaari. Probably one year later the famous Islamic mystic Ḥosayn b. Manṣur Ḥallaj stayed in Qom, where he was arrested.[40]

From 895–96 onwards the history of Qom was connected with a family of Turkish military leaders from the army of the caliph Al-Mu'tadid, including the governor Berun (Birun). In the same year, Berun destroyed a big and probably still active fire temple located on the territory of the evolving city and probably opposite today's sanctuary of Fātimah bint Mūsā. In these unstable political times, Qom was visited by the vizier of Al-Moʿtazed, Obayd-Allah ibn Solayman, and two tax assessments were organized.[41] An administrative peculiarity of Qom was put to an end at about the same time, to wit the independent appointment of judges through the Arab inhabitants of Qom until the time of al-Moktafi, which, together with the dispatch of a joint Arab-Persian delegation to the vizier Ḥamid ibn Abbas indicate the end of the elevated position of the Arabs in Qom. The period of the governor Abbas ibn Amr Ganawi (292–96/904–09) is remarkable for the presence of non-Twelver Shias in Qom and the establishment of the office of the jahbaḏ (financial officer) as the tax broker for the city, which fostered local self-determination.[42]

In 909 Hosayn ibn Hamdan ibn Hamdun was appointed governor of Qom and Kāšān by the caliph Al-Moqtader and had to assist the caliph's army against the Saffarids in Fars. Altogether he stayed in power only for two years before he had to return to Baghdad.[43] In the years 301/913–14 to 315/927 the people of Qom had, besides another tax assessment (meanwhile the eighth), a caliphal intervention that resulted in the appointment of a governor to stabilize the administrative grip over the region. This move caused more unrest and affected the balance of power in an area that was disputed between the powers of the time (Daylamites, Samanids). Beginning in 316/928 Qom fell into the sphere of interest of Daylami warlords and was relieved from the direct authority of the caliph, although it changed hands several times between 928 and 943. The Daylamites brutally exploited the city through harsh taxes. With the firm establishment of Buyids control from 340/951–52 on, the political circumstances were less troubled than before, although the economic situation deteriorated.[44]

No outstanding events are reported for the relatively stable political period until 988–89, but Qom seems to have been isolated inside Persia because of its Shia creed. At the same time, the Fatima sanctuary was enlarged and the number of sayyeds residing in Qom reached a considerable number. In 373/984 Qom and its environs were affected by the revolt of the Kurdish Moḥammad Barzikāni against the Buyid Fakr-Al-Dawla.[45]

The population amounted to 50,000 inhabitants at the most and consisted of Persians and Arabs who had adopted the Persian of the time[46] as their language and many social customs from the Persians, whose proportion was probably smaller than the Arabs. The Kurds lived in the countryside to the west. The Twelver Shia constituted the great majority of the population and many important Shia scholars of the time came from Qom or lived there. As many as 331 male Alids lived in Qom in 988–89, and they produced a good number of community leaders and there is also mention of one prominent female ʿAlid besides Fātimah bint Mūsā. These Alids descended from the Imams and were supported by pensions.

Apart from the Shia mainstream, other Shia sects existed in the city and one can also assume the presence of Sunnies. Ḏemmis, or followers of other revealed religions (Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians) must have lived in the city, too, as the payment of poll tax (jezya) indicates, although their number can only be very roughly estimated at a few thousand at the end of the 9th century and must have shrunk drastically in the 10th century. The majority of these non-Muslims were Zoroastrians, who made their living mostly as farmers. Jews must have lived in Qom as well, but information on them is scant. It is striking that the formerly dominant Ashaaries had lost their leading positions by the end of the 10th century. This points at a new social situation that allowed assimilated Persians to join the local establishment.[47]

The city's topography in the 10th century still reflected the evolutionary merging of the original six villages; these were still separated by fields. The town center was located in the village of Mamajjān, which was connected to other parts of the city on the other side of the river by four bridges. There were about eight squares whose function is not clear and three mosques within the city. There is almost no information about madrasas. The sanctuary must have still been quite small as only two cupolas are mentioned. A bazaar and bathhouses must have existed, too, as well as certain administrative buildings (prison, mint). Five bigger and eight smaller roads indicate good traffic connections, which were supported by at least three or maybe even nine city gates.[48]

Qom was then in a difficult economical and social position. Many houses inside the city as well as bridges and mills were ruined and the roads and agriculture were suffering from an insecure situation. This has to be attributed to difficult social circumstances and excessive taxation.[49] The water supply seems to have been satisfactory and the Ashaaries seem to have undertaken continuous renovation works on the irrigation channels between 733 and 900. The Ašʿaris were also the proprietors of the water rights, which were safeguarded in the water authority (divān-e āb) that regulated the water shares. The system made the Ašʿaris the wealthiest inhabitants of Qom and stayed in place until 347/958–59 when they were expropriated by the Buyids, which consequently brought about a decline in the whole system of irrigation. Although there were attempts at restoration in 371/981–82, only three of originally twenty-one channels had flowing water which meant enough drinking water was supplied for the population, but the available amount could not have been adequate for agricultural purposes.[50]

Grand Timcheh.

Altogether the state of cultivation in Qom seems to have resembled that of the other regions of Persia, although the thirty different crops and plants are only indirectly mentioned in connection with the tax assessments. The soil is reported to have good quality and produced big quantities of food. Little is known about animal husbandry in the region, but the considerable number of fifty-one mills existed, of which a fifth was in decay. Legends speak of mineral deposits and mines of silver, iron, gold and lead, while Kurds seem to have produced salt from a lake nearby (see Qom Lake). The production of chairs, textiles, and saddle equipment indicates craftsmanship.[51]

The city's taxation has to be distinguished between the more proper rule of the Abbasid tax bureaucracy and the time of the Deylamid warlords where rules were bent arbitrarily. A stunning diversity of taxes is known (often meant to serve the ever greedy Abbasid bureaucracy and the Deylamid and Buyid war machinery) but the Karaj (land tax), which was composed of many different separate sums, was the most important single tax existing in Qom at least since post-Sasanian times. Within the known 18 tax figures ranging over 160 years there are great differences and the tax figures vary from 8 million to 2 million dirhams with a mean value at around 3 million. In taxation Qom always followed the solar calendar with its own local variation, starting from the death of the Sasanian Yazdegerd III. A highly differentiated tax administration existed and is known in great detail; 24 tax collectors (ʿommāl) are listed from 189/804–05 to 371/981–82 plus two jahabaḏa who acted as mediators after the attempt to enforce collective responsibility by the taxpayers had failed. The information in the Tāriḵ-e Qom on taxation also mention by name 21 tax districts (rasātiq) in the region with 900 villages.[52]

Little is known about the time until the period of Seljuki dominance. In 387/997, Qom became involved in internal Buyid quarrels and was subsequently unsuccessfully besieged. In 418/1027–28, Qom fell under the rule of Šahryuš from the Kakuyid dynasty and a few years later (1030–40) it became part of the Ghaznavid domain. The Seljuki did not occupy Qom at once but left the town and Jebāl in Kakuyid hands for ten years. From 442/1050–51 on, the city was under Seljuk rule and nothing is known about its fate until 487/1094. Afterwards the growing instability of the Seljuk empire involved Qom in the power struggles between the competing Seljuk factions in Jebāl and the city changed hands many times. The most stable period seem to have been the 14 years (513–27/1119–33) when Qom lay in Sanjar's sphere of power and witnessed the construction of a second Friday mosque.[53]

Surprisingly, Qom enjoyed relative prosperity in its economy in the Seljuk period. The rigidly Sunni Seljuks seem to have practiced a pragmatic policy and one of the main sources of this time (ʿAbd-al-Jalil Qazvini) speaks of good relations between the famous vizier Nizam al-Mulk and Seljuk sultans on the one hand, and members of the local nobility on the other. Sultans reportedly visited the sanctuary (although no specific sultan is mentioned by name) and in general no religiously motivated punitive action against Qom is known to have taken place. Under Seljuk rule a considerable number of religious buildings were erected. At least ten madrasas are known by name. Two Friday mosques seem to have existed in Seljuk times: the old one was renovated and a new one, located outside of the town area, was built in 528/1133–34 by the order of Sultan Togrel II (Persian: سلطان طغرل دوم). Qom must have expanded during this period, but precise reasons for its prosperity are not known. A family of Ḥosaynid Alids was influential and provided a number of community leaders. Another important Shia family was that of the Daʿwidār (Persian: دعوی‌دار), whose members were judges (Arabic: قاضی) in town, which indicates the transformation of Qom from a town governed by the Sunnis to a completely Shai domain.[54]

The following epochs of the Eldiguzids and Khawrazmshahs lasted for almost 30 years and brought different systems of rule in quick succession. The two noteworthy events of this period are the execution of ʿEzz-al-Din Yaḥyā, the naqib of the Shias, by the Tekesh in 592/1196 and the work on the tiles of the sanctuary (probably in 605–13/1208–17), which indicate a certain economic prosperity at a time of unstable political conditions. From 614/1217–18 until the Mongol attack, Qom remained under Muhammad II of Khwarezm.[55]

The Mongol invasion led to the total destruction of Qom by the armies of the Mongol generals, Jebe and Sübedei, in 621/1224 and left the city in ruins for at least twenty years, when the sources (Jovayni) tell of the levying of taxes. Twenty years later, reconstruction and repair works, probably sponsored by some wealthy inhabitants, were being done on the mausoleums of Shia saints in the city, which contradict those sources, such as Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi, that describe Qom as a ruined and depopulated city throughout the Ilkhanid period. Besides, the fact that the Ilkhanid vizier Šams-al-Din Jovayni took refuge in the Fātimah bint Mūsā sanctuary in 683/1284, indicates that the city must have experienced at least a modest comeback. The city walls were probably rebuilt and, moreover, four graves of saints are known to have been constructed between 720/1301 and 1365. Additionally some fine tiles are known from this period. Nothing is known about the irrigation systems of the town, but nearby a dam was built in the Ilkhanid period and the local administration must have functioned again, as the name of a judge shows. The agricultural situation is described as flourishing with a variety of cultivated plants and a good supply of water, and legends indicate the use of deposits of mineral resources. Information exists concerning taxes for the post-Mongolian period. Qom paid 40,000 dinars, but more remarkable is the fact that some of the surrounding rural districts paid as much as Qom or even more, which suggests that the whole administrative structure of districts had also changed.[56]

In the late 14th century, the city was plundered by Tamerlane and the inhabitants were massacred. Qom gained special attention and gradually developed due to its religious shrine during the Saffavid dynasty. By 1503, Qom became one of the important centers of theology in relation to Shia Islam, and became a significant religious pilgrimage site and pivot.

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1986543,139—    
1991681,253+4.64%
1996777,677+2.68%
2006959,116+2.12%
20111,074,036+2.29%
20161,201,158+2.26%
source:[57]

The city suffered heavy damage again during the Afghan invasions, resulting in consequent severe economic hardships. Qom further sustained damage during the reign of Nader Shah and the conflicts between the two households of Zandieh and Qajariyeh in order to gain power over Iran. Finally in 1793 Qom came under the control of Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar. On being victorious over his enemies, the Qajar Sultan Fath Ali Shah was responsible for the repairs done on the sepulchre and Holy Shrine of Hæzræt Mæ'sume, as he had made such a vow.

The city of Qom began another era of prosperity in the Qajar era. After Russian forces entered Karaj in 1915, many of the inhabitants of Tehran moved to Qom due to reasons of proximity, and the transfer of the capital from Tehran to Qom was even discussed. But the British and Russians defeated prospects of the plan by putting Ahmad Shah Qajar under political pressure. Coinciding with this period, a "National Defense Committee" was set up in Tehran, and Qom turned into a political and military apex opposed to the Russian and British colonial powers.

As a center of religious learning Qom fell into decline for about a century from 1820 to 1920, but had a resurgence when Shaykh Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi accepted an invitation to move from Sultanabad (now called Arak, Iran), where he had been teaching, to Qom.[58]

In 1964–65, before his exile from Iran, the Ayatollah Khomeini led his opposition to the Pahlavi dynasty from Qom. After the Islamic revolution in 1979, Khomeini spent time in the city before and after moving to Tehran.

On 19 February 2020, the Iranian Students News Agency reported that the first two cases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran were detected in Qom.[59]

Governance

Authority for the city lies with the mayor, who is elected by a municipal board. The municipal board is periodically elected by the city's residents. The municipal central office is located on Saheli Street. The current mayor of Qom is Mohammad Delbari.

Old districts

Modern districts

Tourism

Jamkaran Mosque

Historical and cultural heritage

(c) Diego Delso, CC BY-SA 4.0
Imam Hassan Al-Askari Mosque
Al-Ghadir Mosque

Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 195 sites of historical and cultural significance in Qom. But the more visited sites of Qom are:

  • Shrine of Fatimah al-Masumah
  • Jamkaran Mosque
  • Azam Mosque
  • Imam Hassan Al-Asgari Mosque
  • Al-Ghadir Mosque
  • Atiq Mosque in Qom
  • Qom Bazaar
  • Feyzieh Religious School
  • Mar'ashi Najafi Library, with over 500,000 handwritten texts and copies.
  • Timcheh-ye-Bozorg (Grand Timcheh)
  • Paminar School
  • Jahangirkhan School
  • Fath-Ali Shah Qajar Tomb
  • Mohammad Shah Qajar Tomb
  • Shah Abbas II Tomb
  • Shah Soleyman III & Shah Safi Tomb
  • Gonbad Sabz Historical Garden
  • Ali Ibn Ja'afar Tomb
  • Shah Hamzeh Tomb
  • Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi's Historical House
  • Yazdan Panah Historical House
  • Haji Khan Historical House
  • Zand Historical House
  • Ruhollah Khomeini's House
  • Beyt-on-noor House
  • Haj Asgar Khan Historical Bath
  • The Minarets Of Risbaf Historical Factory
  • Gholi Darvish Historical Hill
  • Jamkaran Historical Castle
  • 500 year Cypress Tree in Jamkaran
  • Sirang Tourism Centre
  • Kohne Bazaar Commercial Centre
  • Kohne Mosque

Museums

  • Astaneh Moqaddaseh Museum (Qom Central Museum)
    Quran manuscript written by Ali ibn Musa in the Qom Museum
  • Anthropology Museum Of Qom
  • The Museum Of Traditional Arts
  • The Museum Of Natural History & Wildlife
  • The Museum Of Astronomy

Educational institutions

Iranian Seminaries Management Centre

Qom is well known for its many religious seminaries and institutes that offer advanced religious studies, which made this city the largest center for Shia scholarship in the world. There are an estimated 50,000 seminarians in the city coming from 80 countries, including 6,000 from Pakistan alone. Qom has seminaries for women and some non-Shia students. Most of the seminaries teach their students modern social sciences and Western thought as well as traditional religious studies.[60]

Hawzah 'Ilmiyya Qom (Qom Seminary)

(c) Tasnim News Agency, CC BY 4.0
Imam Hassan Askari Mosque, Qom, Iran

The Hawzah (a short form of al-Hawzah al-Ilmiyya), which presently consists of over 200 education and research centres and organisations, catering for over 40,000 scholars and students from over 80 List of sovereign states. The modern Qom hawza was revitalized by Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi and Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi and is barely a century old. There are nearly three hundred thousand clerics in Iran's seminaries. At present Hossein Vahid Khorasani heads Hawza 'Ilmiyya Qom.

Universities and seminaries

  • University of Qom
  • Mofid University
  • Qom University of Medical Sciences
  • Al-Mustafa International University
  • Al-Zahra Seminary
  • Seyyed Hassan Shirazi Seminary
  • Imam Hossein Seminary
  • Imam Baghir Seminary
  • Imam Mahdi Seminary
  • Rasoul A'zam Seminary
  • Razavia Seminary
  • Satia Seminary
  • Imam Khomeini Seminary
  • Aba-Salih Seminary
  • Al-Mahdi Seminary
  • Al-Hadi Seminary
  • Haghani Seminary
  • Janbazan Seminary
  • Resalat Seminary
  • Itrat Seminary
  • Darb-Astana Seminary
  • Seyyed Abdol Aziz Seminary
  • Toloo-e-Mehr Educational Institute
  • Shahab Danesh University
  • Pardis-e-Daneshgah-e-Tehran University
  • IRIB University Of Qom
  • Qom's Industrial College
  • Azad Islami University of Pardisan
  • Payam-Nour College of Pardisan
  • Ma'sumia University
  • Hikmat College
  • The University Of Religions & Denominations
  • Quran & Hadis University
  • Fekr-e-Eslami University
  • Ma'aref-e-Islami University
  • Computer Research Center of Islamic Sciences
  • Qom University of Technology

Fordow uranium enrichment facility

The Fordow uranium enrichment facility is located 20 miles north east of Qom.[61] In January 2012 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) announced that Iran had started producing uranium enriched up to 20% for medical purposes and that material "remains under the agency's containment and surveillance.”[62] Iranian authorities state the facility is built deep in a mountain because of repeated threats by Israel to attack such facilities, which Israel believes can be used to produce nuclear weapons.[63] However, attacking a nuclear facility so close to a city considered so holy in Shia Islam brings concern of a potential risk of a Shiite religious response.[64]

Qom space center

Qom space center is one of the two places where the Iranian Space Agency is launching its suborbital Shahab-3 ballistic missiles, the other being the Emamshahr space center.

Transportation

The city has a number of streets and roadways.

It will be served by Qom International Airport which is under construction.

Notable people

Farrokhroo Parsa
Farrokhroo Parsa
Nasser Kamalian
Naser Kamalian
Azartash Azarnoush
Azartash Azarnoush
Hamid Reza Noorbakhsh
Hamid Reza Noorbakhsh
Javad Razavian
(c) Tasnim News Agency, CC BY 4.0
Javad Razavian
Ali Asghar Hassanzadeh
(c) Tasnim News Agency, CC BY 4.0
Amir Mehdizadeh
Amir Mehdizadeh
Alireza Vafaei
Alireza Vafaei
Abolghasem Orouji
Abolghasem Orouji
  • Gholam Ali Oveissi (b. 1918) - General and The Chief Commander of the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces
  • Farrokhroo Parsa (b. 1922) - Physician, educator and parliamentarian
  • Abolhasan Farhoudi (b. 1923) - Medical scientist, Immunologist and Pediatrician
  • Parviz Shapour (b. 1924) - Writer
  • Naser Kamalian (b. 1931) - Medical scholar
  • Nasrollah Soltaninejad (b. 1936) - Wrestler
  • Azartash Azarnoush (b. 1937) - Linguist and Scholar
  • Bahram Afzali (b. 1938) - Commander of Iranian Navy
  • Sadeq Tabatabaei (b. 1943) - politician
  • Mohammad Reza Nasehi (b. 1944) - weightlifter
  • Rabab al-Sadr (b. 1944) - activist
  • Fathali Oveisi (b. 1946) - Actor
  • Mostafa Pourmohammadi (b. 1960) - Politician and Prosecutor
  • Hamid Reza Noorbakhsh (b. 1965) - Singer
  • Majid Abdolhosseini (b. 1972) - Karateka
  • Mehdi Khalaji (b. 1973) - Writer, Scholar of Islamic studies and Political analyst
  • Javad Razavian (b. 1974) - Actor
  • Mohsen Hassanzadeh (b. 1974) - Futsal player
  • Vahid Ghiasi (b. 1975) - Futsal player
  • Alireza Katiraei (b. 1976) - Karateka
  • Mohsen Rabbani (b. 1983) - Pole vaulter
  • Ali Asghar Hassanzadeh (b. 1987) - Futsal player
  • Saeid Taghizadeh (b. 1988) - Futsal player
  • Amir Mehdizadeh (b. 1989) - Karateka
  • Alireza Vafaei (b. 1989) - Futsal player
  • Abolghasem Orouji (b. 1989) - Futsal player
  • Hamid Naderi Yeganeh (b. 1990) - Mathematical artist
  • Mehdi Hosseini (b. 1993) - Football player
  • Alireza Nejati (b. 1998) - Wrestler

Twin towns

Qom is twinned with:

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-07-08. Retrieved 2018-07-17.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Major Agglomerations of the World - Population Statistics and Maps". citypopulation.de. Archived from the original on 2018-09-13. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  3. ^ The metropolises of Iran amar.org.ir Retrieved 19 Oct 2018
  4. ^ The largest cities in Iran worldatlas.com Retrieved 21 Oct 2018
  5. ^ The province Qom yjc.ir Retrieved 21 Oct 2018
  6. ^ The biography of Hazrat Ma'sumeh tasnimnews.com Retrieved 4 Oct 2018
  7. ^ Alex Shams (6 December 2018), "On Persian pilgrimages, Pakistanis and Indians reconnect with Iran", Dawn News. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  8. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Statistical Center of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11.
  9. ^ The holy city of Qom is the pole of Shia world irna.ir Retrieved 10 Oct 2018
  10. ^ Qom should be the capital of Shia world aghigh.ir Retrieved 10 Oct 2018
  11. ^ a b Christopher de Bellaigue, The Struggle for Iran, New York Review of Books, 2007, p. 24
  12. ^ When does the history of the holy shrine of Lady Ma’sumah start from? islamquest.net Retrieved 10 Oct 2018
  13. ^ The role of Qom and Hazrat Ma'sumah's court in the appearance of Islamic republic iqna.ir Retrieved 10 Oct 2018
  14. ^
  15. ^ *"Average Maximum temperature in Ghom by Month 1986–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 2014-09-06. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  16. ^ "Monthly Total Precipitation in Ghom by Month 1986–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  17. ^ "Average relative humidity in Ghom by Month 1986–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 2014-09-16. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  18. ^ *"No. of days with precipitation equal to or greater than 1 mm in Ghom by Month 1986–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 2014-08-22. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  19. ^ "Monthly total sunshine hours in Ghom by Month 1986–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 2014-09-06. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  20. ^ Kleiss, 1973, p. 181; idem, 1981, pp. 66–67; idem, 1985, pp. 173–79
  21. ^ Hakemi, pp. 16, 22, 26, 28, 35, 39
  22. ^ Ghirshman, 1962, pl. 52; Hakemi, pp. 13–14 and pl. 3
  23. ^ Qomi, pp. 65, 82, 84–86
  24. ^ Schippmann, pp. 416–21
  25. ^ for a summary, see Drechsler, pp. 44–46
  26. ^ Qomi, pp. 22–23, 32, 37, 61, 62, 69–71, 74, 77, 82, 90, 137–38
  27. ^ Qomi, pp. 88–89
  28. ^ Qomi, pp. 70–71; Nehāyat al-erab, p. 179; Widengren, pp. 271, 743–45
  29. ^ Ebn Aʿṯam, I, p. 201, II, pp. 31, 33, 58/59; Nehāyat al-Erab, pp. 383, 388
  30. ^ Frye, 1956, p. 320; idem, 1975, p. 11; Gyselen, pp. 28, 73–74
  31. ^ Drechsler, pp. 57–60
  32. ^ Balāḏori, pp. 312–14; Drechsler, pp. 69–74
  33. ^ Qomi, p. 38; Ṭabari, II, p. 992
  34. ^ Qomi, pp. 242–50, 258–65, 284–91; Drechsler, pp. 78–91
  35. ^ Qomi, pp. 48–49, 242, 244, 250, 253–57, 260, 262–63
  36. ^ Qomi, pp. 31, 101–02, 164, 213–14; Ebn Bābuya, II, p. 271; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi 1976, I, p. 18; Drechsler, pp. 124–31
  37. ^ Qomi, pp. 35, 102–04, 156–57, 163–64; Ṭabari, III, pp. 1092–93, 1102, 1106, 1111; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1983, p. 166; Drechsler, pp. 132–39
  38. ^ Najāši, p. 12, 262; Qomi, pp. 35, 156–57, 163–64, 211–12, 215; Ṭabari, III, p. 1697; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1983, p. 166; Drechsler, pp. 140–45
  39. ^ Qomi, pp. 26, 37–38; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1976, II, pp. 115–16; Drechsler, pp. 146–48
  40. ^ Ṭabari, III, p. 2024, tr. XXXVII, p. 78; Qomi, pp. 35, 157–58, 163, 215; Najāši, pp. 33, 132; Ṭusi, pp. 20, 25, 247–48; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1993, pp. 34–35, 37; Drechsler, pp. 148–54
  41. ^ Qomi, pp. 89–90, 104–06, 125, 128, 133–34, 156, 163–64; Ebn al-Faqih, p. 247; Drechsler, pp. 154–60
  42. ^ Qomi, pp. 17, 35–36, 149–53, 225, 229; Drechsler, pp. 160–64
  43. ^ Ṭabari, III, p. 2284, tr., XXXVIII, pp. 197–98; Drechsler, pp. 164–66
  44. ^ Qomi, pp. 99–100, 105–06, 142–44, 164–65, 217–18; Ebn al-Aṯir, VIII, pp. 102–04, 162, 196, 290, 388–89; Drechsler, pp. 166–81
  45. ^ Qomi, pp. 214, 219–220; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1971, p. 117; idem, 1976, I, p. 18; Drechsler, pp. 181–91
  46. ^ Ebn Ḥawqal, p. 362; Drechsler, p. 198, n. 956
  47. ^ Qomi, pp. 18, 32, 44–46, 108, 123, 125, 128, 191–241; Ebn al-Faqih, p. 209; Ebn Ḥawqal, pp. 315, 342; Ṭusi, pp. 42, 75–76, 93; Najāši, p. 276; Biruni, p. 228; Ebn Saʿd, VII, p. 382; Samʿāni, X, p. 486; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1971, pp. 121–25; 136–37; Drechsler, pp. 198–207
  48. ^ Qomi, pp. 23, 26–27, 32, 35–40, 42, 60, 167, 214, 216; Saʿidniā, pp. 151–53, 155–56, 158–59; Drechsler, pp. 194–98
  49. ^ Qomi, pp. 13, 27, 36–37, 53–56; Drechsler, pp. 192–93
  50. ^ Yaʿqubi, pp. 273–74; Qomi, pp. 40–46; 48–53, 244; Lambton, 1989, pp. 156–59; Drechsler, pp. 243–52
  51. ^ Qomi, pp. 48, 53–56, 76–77, 87–88, 107–08, 112–13, 119–22, 167, 174–76, 244, 251; Ebn Ḥawqal, p. 342; Ebn al-Faqih; pp. 50, 265; Moqaddasi, pp. 396, 470; Spuler, pp. 387–90, 392–94; 405–06, 408; Drechsler, pp. 253–58
  52. ^ Qomi, pp. 28–29, 31, 34, 38–39, 42, 56–59, 101–90, 242, 253, 262; Balāḏori, p. 314; Yaʿqubi, p. 274; Ebn al-Faqih, pp. 264–65; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1983, pp. 28, 40–41; Lambton, 1969, pp. 41–45; Drechsler, pp. 258–73, 285–306
  53. ^ Ebn al-Aṯir, IX, pp. 204, 357–58, 429–30, X, pp. 289, 332–33, 551, XI, p. 237; ʿAbd-al-Jalil Qazvini, pp. 167–68; Bayhaqi, pp. 422–33; Mostawfi, pp. 833, 841; Bosworth, 1968, pp. 38, 106–110, 120, 125, 135; Drechsler, pp. 208–19
  54. ^ ʿAbd-al-Jalil Qazvini, pp. 47, 51, 163–64, 182, 191, 220–21, 229–30, 280, 430, 437, 494, 643; Abu’l-Rajāʾ Qomi, pp. 105–06, 262; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1971, pp. 5, 130, 138–39, 165–67; idem, 1976, I, p. 20, II, pp. 109–10, 217–18; Drechsler, pp. 220–28
  55. ^ Ebn al-Aṯir, X, p. 118, XII, p. 317; Abu’l-Rajāʾ Qomi, p. 262; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1971, pp. 132–33; Drechsler, pp. 228–31
  56. ^ Ebn al-Aṯir, XII, p. 419; Rašid al-Din Fażl-Allāh, 1957, p. 63; Jovayni, pp. 538, 542; Ḥamd-Allāh Mostawfi, 1919, pp. 67–68, 71–73; Boyle, pp. 311, 331, 337, 368–69, 496, 541; Spuler, 1955, pp. 30–31, 41, 82–83; Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi, 1976, II, p. 35, 43, 67, 78; Survey of Persian Art, IV, pp. 1684–86; Drechsler, pp. 232–41, 308–12
  57. ^ Iran: Provinces and Cities population statistics
  58. ^ Momen, Moojan, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press, 1985, p. 247
  59. ^ "Iran Reports Its First 2 Cases of the New Coronavirus". New York Times. 19 February 2020. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  60. ^ Nasr, Vali The Shia Revival, Norton (2006), p. 217
  61. ^ Russia 'regrets' reported Iran nuclear activity in Qom facility, Haaretz, January 10, 2012.
  62. ^ "Iran enriching uranium at Fordo plant near Qom". BBC. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  63. ^ Azmat Khan (13 January 2012). "Did Santorum Suggest Iran Wants Nukes to Bring Back Messiah?". Public Broadcasting Service.
  64. ^ Akluf Benn (3 September 2009). "Cries of 'hold me back' may lead Israel to strike Iran". Haaretz.com.

Bibliography

  • Balāḏori
  • Drechsler
  • Frye
  • Ghirshman
  • Hakemi
  • Kleiss
  • Modarresi Ṭabāṭabāʾi
  • Najāši
  • Qomi
  • Schippmann

External links

Media files used on this page

Flag of Iran.svg
Flag of Iran. The tricolor flag was introduced in 1906, but after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the Arabic words 'Allahu akbar' ('God is great'), written in the Kufic script of the Qur'an and repeated 22 times, were added to the red and green strips where they border the white central strip and in the middle is the emblem of Iran (which is a stylized Persian alphabet of the Arabic word Allah ("God")).
The official ISIRI standard (translation at FotW) gives two slightly different methods of construction for the flag: a compass-and-straightedge construction used for File:Flag of Iran (official).svg, and a "simplified" construction sheet with rational numbers used for this file.
Flag of Spain.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
13 Chardin Qom.jpg
Vue de la ville de Qom, Iran
Alireza vafaei.jpg
Author/Creator: Kiyaeinejadkoskesh, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Alireza vafaei
Deire Gachin Caravansarai - Sasanian dating - Iran. Qom Province - Dayr-e Gachin 01.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
This is a photo of a monument in Iran identified by the ID
Qom.ogg
Author/Creator: Mehdi, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
pronounce Qom in Persian
عکس حرم حضرت معصومه سلام الله علیها 03.JPG
Author/Creator: علیرضا خلیل نژاد, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
عکس حرم حضرت معصومه سلام الله علیها کپی برداری مانعی ندارد
Qom Seal.png
Author/Creator: Mohammad mahdi P9432, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Qom Official Seal
Qom city Photos, Iran country Wallpaper, Shia Muslim religion, Mostafa Meraji- Urban landscapes - City Design 05.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Qom is 'n stad in die sentraale Iran. Die stad het 'n bevolking van 1 233 000 in 2010 gehad en is die agste grootste stad van die land. Qom is geleë net suid van die hoofstad Teheran en noord van Isfahan. Qom is die hoofstad en grootste stad in die provinsie Qom en lê aan die Qomrivier. Die stad is een van die heilige stede van die Sjiitiese Islam en die religieuse sentrum van Iran.
Santuario de Fátima bint Musa, Qom, Irán, 2016-09-19, DD 14.jpg
(c) Diego Delso, CC BY-SA 4.0
This is a photo of a monument in Iran identified by the ID
Jamkaran Mosque مسجد جمکران قم 15.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
The Jamkaran Mosque is one of the primary significant mosques in the city of Qom, Iran.
Professor Kamalian Professorship 1967.jpeg
Author/Creator: B.Dianati at English Wikipedia, Licence: CC0
This picture has been provided to me directly by the Professor's family to be used in the body of the article.
عکس حمید رضا نوربخش.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Hamid Reza Noorbakhsh (also spelt Nourbakhsh) is a Persian classical vocalist and musician. He studied Iranian classical music under the supervision of Mohammad Reza Shajarian and has performed with several music ensembles, including the Shams Ensemble and the Aref Ensemble, as well as with the Ukraine Philharmonic Orchestra. Noorbakhsh is currently the director of Iran's House of Music
Jamkaran Mosque-3855.jpg
Author/Creator: Fabienkhan, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Jamkaran Mosque is a popular pilgrimage site for Shi'ite Muslims. Local belief has it that the Twelfth Imam (Muhammad al-Mahdi) — a messiah figure Shia believe will lead the world to an era of universal peace — once appeared and offered prayers at Jamkaran.
Camera location 34° 34′ 59.5″ N, 50° 54′ 50″ E Kartographer map based on OpenStreetMap. View this and other nearby images on: OpenStreetMap info
Hamid Naderi Yeganeh 2018.jpg
Author/Creator: Hamid Naderi Yeganeh, Licence: CC BY 4.0
Hamid Naderi Yeganeh
Qom panorama.jpg
Author/Creator: Amir Pashaei , Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
A view of qom city after rain in a good air
Maghabere Gonbade Sabz مقابر گنبد سبز از بناهای تاریخی شهر قم.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Qom also spelled as Ghom, is the eighth largest city in Iran. It lies 125 kilometres (78 mi) by road southwest of Tehran and is the capital of Qom Province. At the 2011 census its population was 1,074,036 (957,496 at the 2006 census, in 241,827 families), comprising 545,704 men and 528,332 women. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River. Qom is considered holy by Shiʿa Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatema Mæ'sume, sister of Imam `Ali ibn Musa Rida (Persian Imam Reza, 789–816 AD). The city is the largest center for Shiʿa scholarship in the world, and is a significant destination of pilgrimage. Qom is famous for a brittle toffee called “Sohan” (Persian:سوهان), considered a souvenir of the city and sold by 2,000 to 2,500 “Sohan” shops.
عکس از مدرسه علمیه معصومیه شهر قم.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
مدرسه علمیه معصومیه در سال ۱۳۶۰ به فرمان خمینی شروع و در سال ۱۳۶۸ تاسیس گردید و مدرسه علی ابن ابی طالب که قبلا در خیابان صفاییه قرار داشت به این مکان منتقل و با نام مدرسه علمیه معصومیه افتتاح گردید. ویژگی خاص این مدرسه جذب رزمندگان جنگ ایران و عراق بود که پس از آتش بس به این مدرسه آمدند. به همین دلیل نیز همواره مهمترین رکن این مدرسه بسیج آن بوده‌است و در تمامی راهپیمایی‌ها تجمعات حمایت از نظام،مستضعفین جهان و مقابله با استکبار جهانی حضور داشته اند. دهها نفر از طلاب سابق بسیجی این مدرسه مؤسس مؤسسات فرهنگی و آموزشی بوده‌اند. این مدرسه در حال حاضر بیش از 1000 نفر طلبه در پایه‌های ۱ تا ۶ حوزه دارد. این عکس در سال 2011 میلادی از این مدرسه گرفته شده است که به حالت اچ دی آر عکاسی شده.
Qom in Iran.svg
Author/Creator: TUBSEmail Silk.svg Gallery, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Location of province XY (see filename) in Iran
Mezquita del Imam Hassan Al-Asgari, Qom, Irán, 2016-09-19, DD 20.jpg
(c) Diego Delso, CC BY-SA 4.0
Imam Hassan Al-Asgari Mosque, Qom, Iran
Karaj Sky.jpg
(c) TELLURIDE 749, CC BY-SA 3.0
Karaj Sky
North Tehran Towers.jpg
Author/Creator: ninara, Licence: CC BY 2.5
A view of North of Tehran from Aab o Aatash (Water & Fire) Park
Aerial View of Koohsangi street, Mashhad, Iran.png
Author/Creator: ALI0513, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
خیابان کوهسنگی
QoranQomMuseum.jpg
Author/Creator: Mohammad mahdi P9432, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
قرآن موجود در موزه آستانه مقدسه، منسوب به علی بن موسی
Orouji.jpg
Author/Creator: Kiyaeinejadkoskesh, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Abolghasem Orouji
Qom Seminary.jpg
(c) Tasnim News Agency, CC BY 4.0
Qom Seminary.
The Grand Teemcheh.jpg
Author/Creator: Amir Pashaei , Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
The grand teemcheh located in qom historical bazaar. this architecture has biggest rough brick arch in iran and built in qajar dynasty
Ahl ul Bait International Community.JPG
Author/Creator: Mohammad mahdi P9432, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Ahl-ul-Bait International Community
نمایی پاییزی از قم ، بوستان هاشمی.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Qom also spelled as Ghom, is the eighth largest city in Iran. It lies 125 kilometres (78 mi) by road southwest of Tehran and is the capital of Qom Province. At the 2011 census its population was 1,074,036 (957,496 at the 2006 census, in 241,827 families), comprising 545,704 men and 528,332 women. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River. Qom is considered holy by Shiʿa Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatema Mæ'sume, sister of Imam `Ali ibn Musa Rida (Persian Imam Reza, 789–816 AD). The city is the largest center for Shiʿa scholarship in the world, and is a significant destination of pilgrimage. Qom is famous for a brittle toffee called “Sohan” (Persian:سوهان), considered a souvenir of the city and sold by 2,000 to 2,500 “Sohan” shops.
DANESHGAH OLOOM PEZESHKI QOM0.jpg
Author/Creator: Mohammad mahdi P9432, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Qom University of Medical Sciences
Qom University gate.JPG
Author/Creator: Mohammad mahdi P9432, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
سردر دانشگاه قم
Merkaz Modiria Hawzeha ye Ilmiyeh Qom.JPG
Author/Creator: Mohammad mahdi P9432, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Iranian Seminaries Management Centre
Asghar Hassanzadeh.jpg
(c) Tasnim News Agency, CC BY 4.0
از اعضای تیم ملی فوتسال ایران
IMG 0193 Qom.jpg
Author/Creator: Davoodjalali1365, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
This is a photo of a monument in Iran identified by the ID
Amir mehdizadeh.jpg
Author/Creator: Kiyaeinejadkoskesh, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Amir mehdizadeh
Mofid-University-Qom.jpg
Author/Creator: Mohammad mahdi P9432, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
دانشگاه مفید قم
Sadeq Tabatabaei as Spokesman for the interim government of Iran - 1979 (2).jpg
Sadeq Tabatabaei as Spokesman for the interim government of Iran - 1979 (2)
Naghshejahan.jpg
Author/Creator: Dolphinphoto5d, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
This is a photo of a monument in Iran identified by the ID
000920-ImamHassanMosque-Qom-IMG 4944-2.jpg
Author/Creator: Safa.daneshvar, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Imam Hassan Askari (One of the Muslims' leaders), the new mosque and yard area, close to the Masoomeh holly shrine, Qom, Iran - This is the main prayer hall of the mosque under the dome - Photo by: Safa Daneshvar - December 11, 2021 - Thank you to Ms. Fatemeh Hosseini
BustaneAlaviQom.JPG
Author/Creator: Mohammad mahdi P9432, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
بوستان علوی قم
Javad Razavian 2016.jpg
(c) Tasnim News Agency, CC BY 4.0
Javad Razavian
Fatima-Masuma-HS2.JPG
Author/Creator: Mohammad mahdi P9432, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
مقبره فاطمه معصومه
Qom-Azadari-Moharram4.JPG
Author/Creator: Mohammad mahdi P9432, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
عزاداری روز عاشورای حسینی در قم
Perspolis.jpg
Author/Creator: Luis Argerich, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Persian Column, Perspolis, iran
Qom, Qom Province, Iran - panoramio (15).jpg
(c) ‫سید محمود جوادی‬‎, CC BY 3.0
Qom, Qom Province, Iran
ایران - کلانشهر قم - استان قم - مناظر عمومی و چشم اندازهای شهری 02.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY 4.0
Кум горад у цэнтральнай частцы Ірана, на поўдні ад Тэгерана, сталіца астана Кум. Вядомы з 5 стагоддзя. Насельніцтва 1 071 503 чалавек (2012). Вузел чыгунак і аўтадарог. Прамысловасць: харчовая і харчасмакавая, тэкстыльная, керамічная, дыванаткацтва. Месца паломніцтва мусульман-шыітаў.
نمایی از شهر قم از بالای کوه خضر نبی در شب.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
om Province (Persian: استان قم‎‎, Ostān-e Qom) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran with 11,237 km², covering 0.89% of the total area in Iran. It is in the north of the country, and its provincial capital is the city of Qom.
دریاچه بوستان جوان قم.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
این دریاچه واقع در بوستان جوان شهر قم است. ابعاد این استخر 135 در 245 متر و عمق آن نیز 17 متر می باشد که در آن ماهی های سفید، کپور و قزل آلا برای ماهیگیری وجود دارد.
Gen Oveissi main pic.jpg
Author/Creator: Ghom110, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
General Gholam-Ali Oveissi, Four Star General of the Imperial Iranian Army
ALGHADIR MOSQUE.JPG
Author/Creator: Mohammad mahdi P9432, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
مسجد الغدیر قم
Azartash Azarnoush.tif
Author/Creator: Parpak, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Portrait of Azartash Azarnoush, Iranian scholar, Researcher and Arabic Literature Critic.
Iran location map.svg
Author/Creator: Uwe Dedering, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Location map of Iran.

Equirectangular projection. Stretched by 118.0%. Geographic limits of the map:

* N: 40.0° N
* S: 24.5° N
* W: 43.5° E
* E: 64.0° E
Made with Natural Earth. Free vector and raster map data @ naturalearthdata.com.
Park Bonyadi نمایی برفی و پاییزی از بوستان بنیادی قم.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Qom also spelled as Ghom, is the eighth largest city in Iran. It lies 125 kilometres (78 mi) by road southwest of Tehran and is the capital of Qom Province. At the 2011 census its population was 1,074,036 (957,496 at the 2006 census, in 241,827 families), comprising 545,704 men and 528,332 women. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River. Qom is considered holy by Shiʿa Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatema Mæ'sume, sister of Imam `Ali ibn Musa Rida (Persian Imam Reza, 789–816 AD). The city is the largest center for Shiʿa scholarship in the world, and is a significant destination of pilgrimage. Qom is famous for a brittle toffee called “Sohan” (Persian:سوهان), considered a souvenir of the city and sold by 2,000 to 2,500 “Sohan” shops.
IMG 20180410 065420 HDR.jpg
Author/Creator: Mohsen zamini nia, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
This is a photo of a monument in Iran identified by the ID
مسجد جامع قم.jpg
Author/Creator: Mostafameraji, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
om Province (Persian: استان قم‎‎, Ostān-e Qom) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran with 11,237 km², covering 0.89% of the total area in Iran. It is in the north of the country, and its provincial capital is the city of Qom.
Azam Mosque.jpg
Author/Creator: Hamid Reza Rahmani, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
This is a photo of a monument in Iran identified by the ID