Province of South Carolina
|Province of Great Britain|
An orthographic projection of the world, highlighting South Carolina (green).
|• Type||Constitutional monarchy|
|Robert Gibbes (first)|
|Lord William Campbell (last)|
• Upper house
• Lower house
|Historical era||Georgian era|
• Partition of Carolina
|January 24, 1712|
• Charter of Georgia
|June 9, 1732|
|July 4, 1776|
|Today part of||United States|
South Carolina, originally known as Clarendon Province, was a province of Great Britain that existed in North America from 1712 to 1776. It was one of the five Southern colonies and one of the thirteen American colonies. The monarch of Great Britain was represented by the Governor of South Carolina, until the colonies declared independence on July 4, 1776.
"Carolina" is taken from the Latin word for "Charles" (Carolus), honoring King Charles II, and was first named in the 1663 Royal Charter granting to Edward, Earl of Clarendon; George, Duke of Albemarle; William, Lord Craven; John, Lord Berkeley; Anthony, Lord Ashley; Sir George Carteret, Sir William Berkeley, and Sir John Colleton the right to settle lands in the present-day U.S. states of North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida.
Charlestown was the first settlement, established in 1670. King Charles II had given the land to a group of eight nobles called the lords proprietor; they planned for a Christian colony. Originally a single proprietary colony, the northern and southern sections grew apart over time, due partly to neglect by the legal heirs of the original lords proprietor. Dissent over the governance of the province led to the appointment of a deputy governor to administer the northern half of the Province of Carolina in 1691. The partition of the province into North and South Carolina became complete in 1712.
The Yamasee War (1715–1717) ravaged the back-country of the province. Complaints that the proprietors had not done enough to protect the provincials against either the Indians or the neighboring Spanish, during Queen Anne's War (1702–1713), convinced many residents of the necessity of ending proprietary rule. A rebellion broke out against the proprietors in 1719. Acting on a petition of residents, King George I appointed the governor of South Carolina in 1720 (the governors of North Carolina would continue to be appointed by the lords proprietor until 1729). After nearly a decade in which the British monarchy sought to locate and buy out the lords, both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729.
|Took office||Left office|
|Edmund Bohun||1698||1699||died in office of fever|
|Nicholas Trott||c.1702||1718||dismissed from office after uprising|
|Richard Alleyn||1719||not sure|
|Robert Wright||1730||1739||died in office|
|Thomas Dale||17 Oct 1739||November 1739||not sure|
|Benjamin Whitaker||7 Nov 1739||1749||removed from office due to paralysis|
|James Graeme||6 Jul 1749||29 August 1752||died in office|
|James Michie||1 Sep 1759||16 July 1760||died in office, London, England|
|William Simpson||24 Jan 1761|
|Thomas Knox Gordon||13 May 1771|
|William Henry Drayton||13 Apr 1776|
|John Rutledge||16 Feb 1791||1795||resigned and afterwards Chief Justice of the United States|
|after 1791 no further Chief Justices were appointed.|
|Source: 1720–1760; 1769–1775 1770–1775|
- Poore, Ben. Perley, ed. (1877). The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and Other Organic Laws of the United States, Volume II. Washington: Government Printing Office. pp. 1382–1390. OCLC 958743486 – via Internet Archive.
- D.J. McCord (1839). The Statutes at Large of South Carolina. Vol. 6. A.S. Johnston. p. 616. ISBN 978-5-87571-708-6.
- The Statutes at Large of South Carolina. Vol. 1. A.S. Johnston. 1836. p. 439.
- Salley, Alexander Samuel; Webber, Mabel L. (March 21, 2012). Death Notices in the South-Carolina Gazette 1732-1775/Death Notices in the South Carolina Gazette, 1766-1774. Genealogical Publishing Com. ISBN 978-0-8063-4656-4.
- Anderson, Dorothy Middleton; Eastman, Margaret Middleton Rivers (May 4, 2015). St. Philip's Church of Charleston: An Early History of the Oldest Parish in South Carolina. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-62585-407-0.
- Purvis, Thomas L. (1999). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Colonial America to 1763. New York: Facts on File. pp. 128–129. ISBN 978-0816025275.
- Purvis, Thomas L. (1995). Balkin, Richard (ed.). Revolutionary America 1763 to 1800. New York: Facts on File. p. 171. ISBN 978-0816025282.
- "Colonial and Pre-Federal Statistics" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. p. 1168.
- Coclanis, Peter A., "Global Perspectives on the Early Economic History of South Carolina," South Carolina Historical Magazine, 106 (April–July 2005), 130–46.
- Crane, Verner W. The Southern Frontier, 1670-1732 (1956)
- Edgar, Walter. South Carolina: A History, (1998) the standard scholarly history
- Edgar, Walter, ed. The South Carolina Encyclopedia, (University of South Carolina Press, 2006)ISBN 1-57003-598-9, the most comprehensive scholarly guide
- Feeser, Andrea. Red, White, and Black Make Blue: Indigo in the Fabric of Colonial South Carolina Life (University of Georgia Press; 2013) 140 pages; scholarly study explains how the plant's popularity as a dye bound together local and transatlantic communities, slave and free, in the 18th century.
- Smith, Warren B. White Servitude in Colonial South Carolina (1961)
- Tuten, James H. Lowcountry Time and Tide: The Fall of the South Carolina Rice Kingdom (University of South Carolina Press, 2010) 178 pp.
- Wallace, David Duncan. South Carolina: A Short History, 1520-1948 (1951) online standard scholarly history
- Wright, Louis B. South Carolina: A Bicentennial History' (1976) online, popular survey
- Wood, Peter H. Black Majority: Negroes in Colonial South Carolina from 1670 Through the Stono Rebellion (1996)
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The World in 1897. "The British Possessions are coloured Red"
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Coat of Arms of Great Britain from 1714 to 1801 used by King George I, George II and George III
|“||Quarterly, First quarter, Per pale, dexter, Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or armed and langued Azure (for England), sinister, Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory counter-flory Gules (for Scotland), Second quarter Azure three fleurs de lys Or (For France), Third quarter Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland), Fourth quarter, Tierced per pale and per chevron, First Gules two lions passant guardant Or (for Brunswick), Second Or semée of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure (For Luneburg), Third Gules a horse courant Argent (For Hanover), an inescutcheon over all three, Gules the Crown of Charlemagne Proper (As Archtreasurer of the Holy Roman Empire), the whole surrounded by the Garter; for a Crest, upon the Royal helm the imperial crown Proper, thereon a lion statant guardant Or imperially crowned Proper; Mantling Or and ermine; for Supporters, dexter a lion rampant guardant Or crowned as the Crest, sinister a unicorn Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lys a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or; Motto 'Dieu et mon Droit' in the compartment below the shield, with the Union rose, shamrock and thistle engrafted on the same stem.||”|
- PINCHES, J.H & R.V., The Royal Heraldry of England, 1974, Heraldry Today.
Version 3.0 of the Grand Union flag (aka Continental Colors). This version rewritten from scratch using a text-editor; with colors from File:Flag of the United States.svg. Previous text: image was created using an image of the pre-1801 Union flag and the SVG of the Betsy Ross flag. The colors are based on information from here. I hope St. George's cross looks straight now.