Protectorate

A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy over most internal affairs while still recognizing the suzerainty of a more powerful sovereign state without being its direct possession.[1][2][3] In exchange, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations depending on the terms of their arrangement.[3] Usually protectorates are established de jure by a treaty.[1][2] Under certain conditions as of Egypt under British rule (1882–1914) e.g., a state can also be labelled as a de facto protectorate or a "veiled protectorate".[4][5][6]

A protectorate is different from a colony as they have local rulers, are not directly possessed and rarely experience colonization by the suzerain state.[7][8] A state that is under the protection of another state while retaining its "international personality" is called a protected state, not a protectorate.[9][a]

History

Protectorates form one of the oldest features of international relations, dating back to the Roman Empire. Civitates foederatae were cities that were subordinate to Rome for their foreign relations. In the Middle Ages, Andorra was a protectorate of France and Spain. Modern protectorate concepts were devised in the nineteenth century.[10]

Typology

Foreign relations

In practice, a protectorate often has direct foreign relations only with and transfers the management of all its more important international affairs to the protector.[11][3][1][2] Similarly, the protectorate rarely takes military action on its own but relies on the protector for its defence. This is distinct from annexation in that the protector has no formal power to control the internal affairs of the protectorate.

Protectorates differ from League of Nations mandates and their successors, United Nations Trust Territories, whose administration is supervised, in varying degrees, by the international community. A protectorate formally enters into the protection through a bilateral agreement with the protector, while international mandates are stewarded by the world community-representing body, with or without a de facto administering power.

Protected state

A protected state has a form of protection where it continues to retain an "international personality" and enjoys an agreed amount of independence in conducting its foreign policy.[9][12] For political and pragmatic reasons, the relationship of protection is not usually advertised, but described in euphemisms such as "an independent state with special treaty relations" with the protecting state.[13] A protected state appears on world maps just as any other independent state.[a]

International administration of a state can also be regarded as an internationalized form of protection, where the protector is an international organisation rather than a state.[14]

Colonial protection

Multiple regions like the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria, the Colony and Protectorate of Lagos and similar were subjects of colonial protection.[15][16] Conditions regarding protection are generally much less generous for areas of colonial protection. The protectorate was often reduced to a de facto condition similar to a colony, but the pre-existing native state continuing as the agent of indirect rule. Occasionally, a protectorate was established by another form of indirect rule: a chartered company, which becomes a de facto state in its European home state (but geographically overseas), allowed to be an independent country with its own foreign policy and generally its own armed forces.

In fact, protectorates were declared despite not being duly entered into by the traditional states supposedly being protected, or only by a party of dubious authority in those states. Colonial protectors frequently decided to reshuffle several protectorates into a new, artificial unit without consulting the protectorates, a logic disrespectful of the theoretical duty of a protector to help maintain its protectorates' status and integrity. The Berlin agreement of February 26, 1885, allowed European colonial powers to establish protectorates in Black Africa (the last region to be divided among them) by diplomatic notification, even without actual possession on the ground. This aspect of history is referred to as the Scramble for Africa. A similar case is the formal use of such terms as colony and protectorate for an amalgamation, convenient only for the colonizer or protector, of adjacent territories, over which it held (de facto) sway by protective or "raw" colonial logic.

Amical protection

In amical protection as of United States of the Ionian Islands by Britain, the terms are often very favourable for the protectorate.[17][18] The political interest of the protector is frequently moral (a matter of accepted moral obligation, prestige, ideology, internal popularity, or dynastic, historical, or ethnocultural ties). Also, the protector's interest is in countering a rival or enemy power such as preventing the rival from obtaining or maintaining control of areas of strategic importance. This may involve a very weak protectorate surrendering control of its external relations but may not constitute any real sacrifice, as the protectorate may not have been able to have a similar use of them without the protector's strength.

Amical protection was frequently extended by the great powers to other Christian (generally European) states and to smaller states that had no significant importance. After 1815, non-Christian states (such as the Chinese Qing dynasty) also provided amical protection towards other much weaker states.

In modern times, a form of amical protection can be seen as an important or defining feature of microstates. According to the definition proposed by Dumienski (2014): "microstates are modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints".[19]

Argentina's protectorates

De facto

Brazil's protectorates

British Empire's protectorates and protected states

Americas

Europe

South Asia

Western Asia

Africa

*protectorates which existed alongside a colony of the same name

De facto

Oceania

East and Southeast Asia

China's protectorates

Dutch Empire's protectorates

  • Various sultanates in the Dutch East Indies (present Indonesia)
    • Trumon Sultanate (1770?), Langkat Sultanate (26 October 1869), Deli Sultanate (22 August 1862), Asahan Sultanate (27 September 1865), Siak Sultanate (1 February 1858) and Indragiri Sultanate (1838?) in Sumatra
    • Jogjakarta Sultanate (13 February 1755), Mataram Empire and Surakarta Sunanate (26 February 1677), Duchy of Mangkunegara (24 February 1757) and Duchy of Paku Alaman (22 June 1812) in Java.
    • Sumbawa Sultanate (?) and Bima Sultanate (8 December 1669) in Lesser Sunda Islands.
    • Pontianak Sultanate (16 August 1819), Sambas Sultanate (1819), Kubu Sultanate (4 June 1823), Landak Sultanate (?), Mempawah Sultanate (?), Matan Sultanate (?), Sanggau Sultanate (?), Sekadau Sultanate (?), Simpang Sultanate (?), Sintang Sultanate (1822), Sukadana Sultanate (?), Kota Waringin Sultanate (?), Kutai Kertanegara Sultanate (8 August 1825), Gunung Tabur Sultanate (?) and Bulungan Sultanate (?) in Borneo.
    • Gowa Sultanate (1669), Bone Sultanate (?), Sidenreng Sultanate (?), Soppeng Sultanate (?), Butung Sultanate (?), Muna Sultanate (?) and Banggai Sultanate (?) in Celebes.
    • Ternate (12 October 1676) and Batjan Sultanate (?) in The Moluccas.
    • Kaimana Sultanate (?) in Dutch New Guinea.

France's protectorates and protected states

Africa

1960 stamp of Bechuanaland Protectorate with the portraits of Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II

The legal regime of "protection" was the formal legal structure under which French colonial forces expanded in Africa between the 1830s and 1900. Almost every pre-existing state in the area later covered by French West Africa was placed under protectorate status at some point, although direct rule gradually replaced protectorate agreements. Formal ruling structures, or fictive recreations of them, were largely retained as the lowest level authority figure in the French Cercles, with leaders appointed and removed by French officials.[34]

  • Benin traditional states
    • Independent of Danhome, under French protectorate, from 1889
    • Porto-Novo a French protectorate, 23 February 1863 – 2 January 1865. Cotonou a French Protectorate, 19 May 1868. Porto-Novo French protectorate, 14 April 1882.
  • Central African Republic traditional states:
    • French protectorate over Dar al-Kuti (1912 Sultanate suppressed by the French), 12 December 1897
    • French protectorate over the Sultanate of Bangassou, 1894
  • Burkina Faso was since 20 February 1895 a French protectorate named Upper Volta (Haute-Volta)
  • Chad: Baghirmi state 20 September 1897 a French protectorate
  • Côte d'Ivoire: 10 January 1889 French protectorate of Ivory Coast
  • Guinea: 5 August 1849 French protectorate over coastal region; (Riviéres du Sud).
  • Niger, Sultanate of Damagaram (Zinder), 30 July 1899 under French protectorate over the native rulers, titled Sarkin Damagaram or Sultan
  • Senegal: 4 February 1850 First of several French protectorate treaties with local rulers
  • Comoros 21 April 1886 French protectorate (Anjouan) until 25 July 1912 when annexed.
  • Present Djibouti was originally, since 24 June 1884, the Territory of Obock and Protectorate of Tadjoura (Territoires Français d'Obock, Tadjoura, Dankils et Somalis), a French protectorate recognized by Britain on 9 February 1888, renamed on 20 May 1896 as French Somaliland (Côte Française des Somalis).
  • Mauritania on 12 May 1903 French protectorate; within Mauritanian several traditional states:
    • Adrar emirate since 9 January 1909 French protectorate (before Spanish)
    • The Taganit confederation's emirate (founded by Idaw `Ish dynasty), since 1905 under French protectorate.
    • Brakna confederation's emirate
    • Emirate of Trarza: 15 December 1902 placed under French protectorate status.
  • Morocco – most of the sultanate was under French protectorate (30 March 1912 – 7 April 1956) although, in theory, it remained a sovereign state under the Treaty of Fez;[35] this fact was confirmed by the International Court of Justice in 1952.[36]
    • The northern part of Morocco was under Spanish protectorate in the same period.
  • Traditional Madagascar States
    • Kingdom of Imerina under French protectorate, 6 August 1896. French Madagascar colony, 28 February 1897.
  • Kingdom of Tunisia Tunisia (12 May 1881 – 20 March 1956): became a French protectorate by treaty

Americas

Asia

1 Sapèque - Protectorate of Tonkin (1905)

Europe

  • North Rhine-Westphalia Rhenish Republic (1923–1924)
  • Saar Protectorate Saar Protectorate (1947–1956), not colonial or amical, but a former part of Germany that would by referendum return to it, in fact a re-edition of a former League of Nations mandate. Most French protectorates were colonial.

Oceania

  • French Polynesia French Polynesia, mainly the Society Islands (several others were immediately annexed).[37] All eventually were annexed by 1889.
    • Otaheiti (native king styled Ari`i rahi) becomes a French protectorate known as Tahiti, 1842–1880
    • Raiatea and Tahaa (after temporary annexation by Otaheiti; (title Ari`i) a French protectorate, 1880)
    • Mangareva (one of the Gambier Islands; ruler title `Akariki) a French protectorate, 16 February 1844 (unratified) and 30 November 1871[38]
  • Wallis and Futuna:
    • Wallis declared to be a French protectorate by King of Uvea and Captain Mallet, 4 November 1842. Officially in a treaty becomes a French protectorate, 5 April 1887.
    • Sigave and Alo on the islands of Futuna and Alofi signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on 16 February 1888.

Germany's protectorates

Banknotes of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, 1939–1945

The German Empire used the word Schutzgebiet, literally protectorate, for all of its colonial possessions until they were lost during World War I, regardless of the actual level of government control. Cases involving indirect rule included:

Before and during World War II, Nazi Germany designated the rump of occupied Czechoslovakia and Denmark as protectorates:

India's protectorates

Italy's protectorates and protected states

  • The Albanian Republic (1917–1920) and the Albanian Kingdom (1939–1943)
  • Independent State of Croatia Independent State of Croatia (1941–1943)
  • Monaco Monaco under amical Protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia 20 November 1815 to 1860.
  • Ethiopia : 2 May 1889 Treaty of Wuchale, in the Italian language version, stated that Ethiopia was to become an Italian protectorate, while the Ethiopian Amharic language version merely stated that the Emperor could, if he so chose, go through Italy to conduct foreign affairs. When the differences in the versions came to light, Emperor Menelik II abrogated first the article in question (XVII), and later the whole treaty. The event culminated in the First Italo-Ethiopian War, in which Ethiopia was victorious and defended her sovereignty in 1896.
  • Libya: on 15 October 1912 Italian protectorate declared over Cirenaica (Cyrenaica) until 17 May 1919.
  • Benadir Coast in Somalia: 3 August 1889 Italian protectorate (in the northeast; unoccupied until May 1893), until 16 March 1905 when it changed to Italian Somaliland.
    • Majeerteen Sultanate since 7 April 1889 under Italian protectorate (renewed 7 April 1895), then in 1927 incorporated into the Italian colony.
    • Sultanate of Hobyo since December 1888 under Italian protectorate (renewed 11 April 1895), then in October 1925 incorporated into the Italian colony (known as Obbia).


Japan's protectorates

Poland's protectorates

Portugal's protectorates

  • Cabinda (Portuguese Congo) (1885–1974), Portugal first claimed sovereignty over Cabinda in the February 1885 Treaty of Simulambuco, which gave Cabinda the status of a protectorate of the Portuguese Crown under the request of "the princes and governors of Cabinda".
  • Kingdom of Kongo (1857–1914)
  • Gaza Empire (1824–1895), now part of Mozambique
  • Angoche Sultanate (1903–1910)

Russia's and the Soviet Union's protectorates

De facto

Some sources mention following states as de facto Russian protectorates:[42][43][44][45][46][47][48]

Spain's protectorates

  • Spanish Morocco protectorate from 27 November 1912 until 2 April 1958 (Northern zone until 7 April 1956, Southern zone (Cape Juby) until 2 April 1958).

Turkey's and the Ottoman Empire's protectorates and protected states

De facto

United Nations' protectorates

United States' protectorates and protected states

Contemporary usage by the United States

Some agencies of the United States government, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency, still use the term protectorate to refer to insular areas of the United States such as Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.[57] This was also the case with the Philippines and (it can be argued via the Platt Amendment) Cuba at the end of Spanish colonial rule.[53] Liberia was the only African nation that was a colony for the United States but the government had no control over the land as it was controlled by the privately owned American Colonization Society. It was, however, a protectorate from January 7, 1822, until the Liberian Declaration of Independence from the American Colonization Society on July 26, 1847. Liberia was founded and established as a homeland for freed African-Americans and ex-Caribbean slaves who left the United States and the Caribbean islands with help and support from the American Colonization Society.[51][52] However, the agency responsible for the administration of those areas, the Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) within the United States Department of Interior, uses only the term "insular area" rather than protectorate.

De facto

Joint protectorates

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Protected state in this technical sense is distinguished from the informal usage of "protected state" to refer to a state receiving protection.
  2. ^ Some scholars regard the relationship as one of Priest-patron rather than a protectorate.[31][32][33]

References

  1. ^ a b c Fuess, Albrecht (1 January 2005). "Was Cyprus a Mamluk protectorate? Mamluk policies toward Cyprus between 1426 and 1517". Journal of Cyprus Studies. 11 (28–29): 11–29. ISSN 1303-2925. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Reisman, W. (1 January 1989). "Reflections on State Responsibility for Violations of Explicit Protectorate, Mandate, and Trusteeship Obligations". Michigan Journal of International Law. 10 (1): 231–240. ISSN 1052-2867. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  3. ^ a b c Bojkov, Victor D. "Democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Post-1995 political system and its functioning" (PDF). Southeast European Politics 4.1: 41–67.
  4. ^ Leys, Colin (2014). "The British ruling class". Socialist Register. 50. ISSN 0081-0606. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  5. ^ Kirkwood, Patrick M. (21 July 2016). ""Lord Cromer's Shadow": Political Anglo-Saxonism and the Egyptian Protectorate as a Model in the American Philippines". Journal of World History. 27 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1353/jwh.2016.0085. ISSN 1527-8050. S2CID 148316956. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  6. ^ Rubenson, Sven (1966). "Professor Giglio, Antonelli and Article XVII of the Treaty of Wichale". The Journal of African History. 7 (3): 445–457. doi:10.1017/S0021853700006526. ISSN 0021-8537. JSTOR 180113. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  7. ^ Archer, Francis Bisset (1967). The Gambia Colony and Protectorate: An Official Handbook. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7146-1139-6.
  8. ^ Johnston, Alex. (1905). "The Colonization of British East Africa". Journal of the Royal African Society. 5 (17): 28–37. ISSN 0368-4016. JSTOR 715150. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  9. ^ a b Meijknecht, Towards International Personality (2001), p. 42.
  10. ^ Willigen, Peacebuilding and International Administration (2013), p. 16.
  11. ^ Yoon, Jong-pil (17 August 2020). "Establishing expansion as a legal right: an analysis of French colonial discourse surrounding protectorate treaties". History of European Ideas. 46 (6): 811–826. doi:10.1080/01916599.2020.1722725. ISSN 0191-6599. S2CID 214425740. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  12. ^ Willigen, Peacebuilding and International Administration (2013), p. 16: "First, protected states are entities which still have substantial authority in their internal affairs, retain some control over their foreign policy, and establish their relation to the protecting state on a treaty or another legal instrument. Protected states still have qualifications of statehood."
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Onley, The Raj Reconsidered (2009), p. 50.
  14. ^ Willigen, Peacebuilding and International Administration (2013), pp. 16–17.
  15. ^ Onah, Emmanuel Ikechi (9 January 2020). "Nigeria: A Country Profile". Journal of International Studies. 10: 151–162. ISSN 2289-666X. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  16. ^ Moloney, Alfred (1890). "Notes on Yoruba and the Colony and Protectorate of Lagos, West Africa". Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society and Monthly Record of Geography. 12 (10): 596–614. doi:10.2307/1801424. ISSN 0266-626X. JSTOR 1801424. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  17. ^ Wick, Alexis (2016), The Red Sea: In Search of Lost Space, Univ of California Press, pp. 133–, ISBN 978-0-520-28592-7
  18. ^ Αλιβιζάτου, Αικατερίνη (12 March 2019). "Use of GIS in analyzing archaeological sites: the case study of Mycenaean Cephalonia, Greece". Retrieved 24 October 2020. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ Dumieński, Zbigniew (2014). "Microstates as Modern Protected States: Towards a New Definition of Micro-Statehood" (PDF). Occasional Paper. Centre for Small State Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  20. ^ Cunningham, Joseph Davy (1849). A History of the Sikhs: From the Origin of the Nation to the Battles of the Sutlej. John Murray.
  21. ^ Meyer, William Stevenson (1908). "Ferozepur district". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Vol. XII. p. 90. But the British Government, established at Delhi since 1803, interevened with an offer of protection to all the CIS-SUTLEJ STATES; and Dhanna Singh gladly availed himself of the promised aid, being one of the first chieftains to accept British protection and control.
  22. ^ Mullard, Saul (2011), Opening the Hidden Land: State Formation and the Construction of Sikkimese History, BRILL, p. 184, ISBN 978-90-04-20895-7
  23. ^ "Timeline – Story of Independence". Archived from the original on 2019-07-27. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
  24. ^ Francis Carey Owtram (1999). "Oman and the West: State Formation in Oman since 1920" (PDF). University of London. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  25. ^ Onley, The Raj Reconsidered (2009), pp. 50–51.
  26. ^ a b Onley, The Raj Reconsidered (2009), p. 51.
  27. ^ "A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present, by Michael J. Seth", p112
  28. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn C. (April 1995), Tibet, China and the United States (PDF), The Atlantic Council, p. 3 – via Case Western Reserve University
  29. ^ Norbu, Dawa (2001), China's Tibet Policy, Routledge, p. 78, ISBN 978-1-136-79793-4
  30. ^ Lin, Hsaio-ting (2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928–49. UBC Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2.
  31. ^ Sloane, Robert D. (Spring 2002), "The Changing Face of Recognition in International Law: A Case Study of Tibet", Emory International Law Review, 16 (1), note 93, p. 135: "This ["priest-patron"] relationship reemerged during China's prolonged domination by the Manchu Ch'ing dynasty (1611-1911)." – via Hein Online
  32. ^ Karan, P. P. (2015), "Suppression of Tibetan Religious Heritage", in S.D. Brunn (ed.), The Changing World Religion Map, Spriger Science, p. 462, doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9376-6_23, ISBN 978-94-017-9375-9
  33. ^ Sinha, Nirmal C. (May 1964), "Historical Status of Tibet" (PDF), Bulletin of Tibetology, 1 (1): 27
  34. ^ See the classic account on this in Robert Delavignette. Freedom and Authority in French West Africa. London: Oxford University Press, (1950). The more recent standard studies on French expansion include:
    Robert Aldrich. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion. Palgrave MacMillan (1996)ISBN 0-312-16000-3.
    Alice L. Conklin. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa 1895–1930. Stanford: Stanford University Press (1998),ISBN 978-0-8047-2999-4.
    Patrick Manning. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880–1995. Cambridge University Press (1998)ISBN 0-521-64255-8.
    Jean Suret-Canale. Afrique Noire: l'Ere Coloniale (Editions Sociales, Paris, 1971); Eng. translation, French Colonialism in Tropical Africa, 1900 1945. (New York, 1971).
  35. ^ Bedjaoui, Mohammed (1 January 1991). International Law: Achievements and Prospects. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9231027166 – via Google Books.
  36. ^ Capaldo, Giuliana Ziccardi (1 January 1995). Repertory of Decisions of the International Court of Justice (1947–1992). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 0792329937 – via Google Books.
  37. ^ C. W. Newbury. Aspects of French Policy in the Pacific, 1853–1906. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Feb., 1958), pp. 45–56
  38. ^ Gonschor, Lorenz Rudolf (August 2008). Law as a Tool of Oppression and Liberation: Institutional Histories and Perspectives on Political Independence in Hawaiʻi, Tahiti Nui/French Polynesia and Rapa Nui. Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa. pp. 56–59. hdl:10125/20375.
  39. ^ a b Gründer, Horst (2004). Geschichte der deutschen Kolonien (in German). Schöningh. ISBN 978-3-8252-1332-9.
  40. ^ Poulose, T. T. (April 1971), "Bhutan's External Relations and India", The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 20 (2): 195–212, doi:10.1093/iclqaj/20.2.195, JSTOR 758028
  41. ^ Hoffmann, Gerhard (1987). "Protectorates". Encyclopedia of Disputes Installment 10. Elsevier: 336–339. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-86241-9.50085-3. ISBN 9780444862419. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  42. ^ Gerrits, Andre W. M.; Bader, Max (2 July 2016). "Russian patronage over Abkhazia and South Ossetia: implications for conflict resolution". East European Politics. 32 (3): 297–313. doi:10.1080/21599165.2016.1166104. ISSN 2159-9165. S2CID 156061334.
  43. ^ Greene, Sam (26 April 2019). "Putin's 'Passportization' Move Aimed At Keeping the Donbass Conflict on Moscow's Terms". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  44. ^ Robinson, Paul (1 October 2016). "Russia's role in the war in Donbass, and the threat to European security". European Politics and Society. 17 (4): 506–521. doi:10.1080/23745118.2016.1154229. ISSN 2374-5118. S2CID 155529950.
  45. ^ Pieńkowski, Jakub (2016). "Renewal of Negotiations on Resolving the Transnistria Conflict". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  46. ^ "Putin's Karabakh victory sparks alarm in Ukraine". Atlantic Council. 12 November 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  47. ^ Goble, Paul (25 November 2020). "Nagorno-Karabakh Now A Russian Protectorate – OpEd". Eurasia Review. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  48. ^ Socor, Vladimir. "Russia's 'Peacekeeping' Operation in Karabakh: Foundation of a Russian Protectorate (Part Two)". Jamestown. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  49. ^ "From the Archive 1999: Timor the defiant". The Sydney Morning Herald. 30 August 2019.
  50. ^ "East Timor". Human Rights Watch.
  51. ^ a b "The World: Two Decades of Decline; When Liberians Looked to America in Vain". The New York Times. 13 July 2003.
  52. ^ a b "A case of double conciousness americo-liberians and indigenous liberian relations 1840-1930 liberian relations 1840-1930". University of Central Florida. 2012.
  53. ^ a b "Platt Amendment (1903)".
  54. ^ Gould, Lewis L. "William McKinley: Foreign Affairs". Miller Center.
  55. ^ "U.S. De Facto Protectorate of Cuba, 1898-1934". dwkcommentaries.
  56. ^ "The Philippines, 1898–1946". History.house.gov.
  57. ^ "Notice of Finding of Failure To Submit State Plans for the Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Emission Guidelines". Environmental Protection Agency. 12 March 2020.
  58. ^ Nelson, Karen Cherese. "The U.S. Protectorate in Panama: An Analysis of Recent U.S.-Panamanian Relations". Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
  59. ^ a b Milieu, Richard (1976). "Protectorates: The U.S. Occupation of Haiti and the Dominican Republic" (PDF). United States Marine Corps.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

Bibliography

French

  • Larousse, Pierre; Paul Augé; Claude Augé (1925). Nouveau Petit Larousse Illustré: Dictionnaire Encyclopédique. Larousse.

Media files used on this page

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Flag of the United Kingdom, Union Jack or Union Flag in a 1:2 ratio (typical on British warships and also the rank flag of an admiral of the fleet).
British Raj Red Ensign.svg
The Star of India Red Ensign
Flag of Abu Dhabi.svg
Flag of Abu Dhabi
Flag of Ajman.svg
Flag of Ajman
Flag of Fujairah (1952–1972).svg
Flag of Fujairah from 1952 until 1961, featuring a plain red field with the name of the emirate. Before and after, the emirate used a plain red flag. In 1975, the flag was replaced with the national flag of the United Arab Emirates.
Flag of Sharjah.svg
Flag of Ras al-Khaimah
Flag of Umm al-Qaiwain.svg
Flag of Umm al-Qaiwain
Flag of Kenya (1921–1963).svg
Author/Creator: Oren neu dag, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0

Flag of Colonial Kenya, between the years 1921-1963.

Made out of Government Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
Flag of Egypt (1922–1958).svg
flag of the Kingdom of Egypt (1922–1953) and the Republic of Egypt (1953–1958).
Flag of Tonga.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of Malaya.svg
Author/Creator: No machine-readable author provided. Nightstallion assumed (based on copyright claims)., Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Flag of the Federation of Malaya.
This flag should not be confused with the flag of Malaysia. The flag of Malaya has 11 stripes and 11 spokes in the star. The flag of Malaysia has 14 stripes and 14 spokes.
Flag of Perak.svg
Flag of the Malaysian state of Perak
Flag of Johor.svg
Author/Creator: Mrmw, Mike Rohsopht, Licence: CC0
Flag of the Malaysian state Johor. FOTW says:
Johore has a blue flag, with a big red canton with white crescent and five-pointed star, pointing somewhere, but not exactly in lower fly end. (…) The flag consists of a white crescent and a star of five points on a red field at the canton and navy blue at the fly. The white denotes a sovereign ruler, red a warrior and blue the universe. This flag is very much associated with the Sultan.
Flag of Kedah.svg
Flag of the Malaysian state of Kedah. SVG version.
Flag of Bougainville.svg
Flag of Bougainville
Flag of Korea (1899).svg
Flag of Korea (1899)
Flag of Manchukuo.svg
Flag of Manchukuo
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.
Flag of South Ossetia.svg
Flag of South Ossetia
Flag of Maldives.svg
Flag of Maldives. The colours used are Pantone 186 C for red and Pantone 348 C for green.
Flag of Cuba (sky blue).svg
Flag of Cuba before its light blue stripes were changed to a darker shade.
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of Guam.svg
The flag of Guam, courtesy an e-mail from the author of xrmap. Modifications by Denelson83.
Flag of Alaska.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of Alaska
Flag of Haiti.svg
The national and official state flag of Haiti; arms obtained from http://www.webchantier.com/. The civil flag can be found at here.
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg
The flag of the Dominican Republic has a centered white cross that extends to the edges. This emblem is similar to the flag design and shows a bible, a cross of gold and 6 Dominican flags. There are branches of olive and palm around the shield and above on the ribbon is the motto "Dios,Patria!, Libertad" ("God, Country, Freedom") and to amiable freedom. The blue is said to stand for liberty, red for the fire and blood of the independence struggle and the white cross symbolized that God has not forgotten his people. "Republica Dominicana". The Dominican flag was designed by Juan Pablo Duarte, father of the national Independence of Dominican Republic. The first dominican flag was sewn by a young lady named Concepción Bona, who lived across the street of El Baluarte, monument where the patriots gathered to fight for the independence, the night of February 27th, 1844. Concepción Bona was helped by her first cousin María de Jesús Pina.
Flag of Rarotonga 1888-1893.svg
Flag of Rarotonga (now Cook Islands) from 1858 to 1893.
Flag of British Somaliland (1952–1960).svg
Author/Creator: Fry1989 eh?, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Flag and government ensign of British Somaliland (1952–1960).

FIAV 110010.svg
Flag of Qatar (1936-1949).svg
Flag of Qatar from 1936 to 1949
1 Sapèque - Protectorate of Tonkin (1905) 02.jpg

KM#1 1905 Sapeque (1/600 Piastre)

Obverse: date; Text: PROTECTORAT DU TONKIN = Protectorate of Tonkin; Reverse: denomination; Text: 六百分之一 = 1/600;

通寶 = Coin;
Mahraflag.svg
Author/Creator: Ivan Sache, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Flag of the Mahra Sultanate of Qishn and Socotra until 1967
St. Blaise - National Flag of the Ragusan Republic.svg
Author/Creator: Berto456, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Representation of the flag of St. Blaise which is the National Flag of the Ragusan Republic, in the colors used during the Republic.
Bandera de la Provincia de Misiones.svg
Flag of Misiones Province, Argentina.
Flag of Bahrain (1932 to 1972).svg
The Flag of Bahrain used from 1932 to 1972.
Flagge von Walachischen 1858.svg
Author/Creator: Лобачев Владимир. Base: File:Flagge von Walachischen 1858.png, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Naval ensign of the Principality of Wallachia
Flag of República Juliana (1839).svg
Flag of Juliana Republic (1839)
Flag of Albania (1939–1943).svg
Flag of the Kingdom of Albania (1939-1943) by a decree of Victor Emanuel III, 28 September 1939. Officially retired since 25 July 1943.
Flag of the Septinsular Republic.svg
Flag of the Septinsular Republic (1800-1807)
Flag of Dhala.svg
Flag of the Emirate of Dhala
Bandera de la Provincia de Tierra del Fuego.svg
Flag of Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina. The flag was nicknamed the Albatross, wherein the orange portion reflected the geography of Tierra del Fuego, and the blue symbolizes the sky and sea surrounding the province, while the Southern Cross reflects the night sky and the albatross itself is a local bird that represents freedom through flight.[1]
Flag of the Solomon Islands (1906–1947).svg
Flag and government ensign of the Solomon Islands (1906–1947).

FIAV 110010.svg
Kokbayraq flag.svg
"Kokbayraq" flag, used by the Uyghurs as a symbol of the East Turkestan independence movement. The Chinese government prohibits using the flag within China.
No flag.svg
No official flag.
Flag of Lower Yafa.svg
Flag of the Sultanate of Lower Yafa
Civil Ensign of the Principality of Moldavia (1834-1861).svg
Author/Creator: Hierakares, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Reconstruction of File:Civil ensign of the Principality of Moldavia (1834-1861).png.

This is own work based on the following files, which are all published under similar Creative Commons or Public Domain licenses:

File:Coat of arms of Moldavia.svg by Shtephan

File:Crown of prince of the Holy Roman Empire.svg by F l a n k e r

File:8 pointed star shapes.svg by Nevit
5000 Kronen BM1944.jpg
5000 Korun Note of Bohemia and Moravia
Flag of Brunei 1906-1959.svg
Flag of Brunei from 1906 to 1959
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg
The flag of the Independent State of Croatia
Flag of Alo.svg
Author/Creator: Thommy, Licence: CC0
Flag of Alo.
Flag of Kenya (1895–1921).svg
The flag of the British East Africa colony from 1895 to 1921.
Flag of the Mosquito Monarchy.svg
Author/Creator: Sarumo74, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Versión vectoral de Bandera regne Miskito.png
Flag of Revolutionary Serbia.svg
Author/Creator: Samhanin, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Flag of Revolutionary Serbia (Topola)
Flag of Cyprus (1881-1922).svg
Flag and government ensign of Cyprus (1881–1922).

FIAV 110010.svg
Flag of The Gambia (1889–1965).svg
Author/Creator: Thommy, Licence: CC0
Flag of the Gambia Colony and Protectorate between 1889 and 18 February 1965.
Flag of Beihan.svg
Flag of the Emirate of Beihan
Merchant flag of French Morocco.svg
Author/Creator: Flaspec, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Merchant flag of the French Protectorate of Morocco (NOT the national flag).
Royal flag of Sikkim.svg
Reconstruction of the Royal flag of Sikkim, in use from 1877 to 1975
Flag of Wahidi Balhaf.svg
Flag of Wahidi Balhaf in Hadhramaut
Flag of the Kingdom of Sarawak (1870).svg
Flag of the historical Raj of Sarawak (late 19th century)
Flag of Sigave.svg
Author/Creator: Thommy, Licence: CC0
Flag of Sigave.
Flag of Colonial Annam.svg
Flag of the French protectorates of Annam and Tonkin (Nguyễn Dynasty under French domination).
Flag of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate (1900–1914).svg
Author/Creator: Thommy, Licence: CC0
Flag of the Northern Nigeria Protectorate from 1 January 1900 to 1 January 1914.
Flag of Panama Canal Zone.svg
Flag of the Panama Canal Zone from 1915-1979
Flag of Sikkim (1914-1962).svg
Reconstruction of the Flag of Sikkim, in use from 1914 to 1962
Bandeira da Terceira República do Acre.svg
Flag of the Third Acrean Republic (1902-1903)
Flag of the State of Upper Yafa.svg
Author/Creator: Xwejnusgozo, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Flag of the State of Upper Yafa
Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg
Flag of the British East India Company, 1801–1858. Data from FOTW http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/gb-eic.html.
Flag of Bhutan (1949–1956).svg
Possible reconstruction of flag of Bhutan from 1949 to 1956, based on photographs of the signing of the Indo-Bhutanese treaty and colour information from FOTW.
Flag of Sierra Leone 1916-1961.gif
Flag of Sierra Leone 1916-1961
Bandera de la Provincia del Chaco.svg
Flag of Chaco Province, Argentina.
Flag of Uvea.svg
Author/Creator: Thommy, Licence: CC0
Flag of Uvea.
Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1738).svg
It is easy to put a border around this flag image
Flag of the Sultanate of Fadhli.svg
Flag of the Fadhli Sultanate
Banner of the Kingdom of Imereti.svg
Author/Creator: Dekodrak, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Banner of Imereti.
Flag of Uriankhai (1918-1921).svg
Flag of Uriankhai krai in Russian Empire, that replace Tannu Uriankhai in Qing empire, in use from about 1918 (maybe earlier, from 1914 on?) until 1921
Flag of Johor (1855–1865).svg
Flag of the Sultanate of Johor from 1855 - 1865.
Flag of the Donetsk People's Republic.svg
Author/Creator: MrPenguin20SVG in SVG.svg This SVG flag includes elements that have been taken or adapted from this flag:Flag of Donetsk Republic.svg Flag of Donetsk Republic.svg (by Владимир Ђорђевић).SVG in SVG.svg This SVG flag includes elements that have been taken or adapted from this flag:Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation.svg Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation.svg (by Conscious).SVG in SVG.svg This SVG flag includes elements that have been taken or adapted from this flag:Flag of Kyiv Kurovskyi.svg Flag of Kyiv Kurovskyi.svg (by Leonid76)., Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Variant flag of the Donetsk People's Republic, without writing. It has been used until June 2014.
Royal flag of Goryeo (Bong-gi).svg
Royal Flag of the Goryeo dynasty. Flag's name is "Phoenix flag" ( hanja: 鳳旗, 봉기, Bong-gi). This flag is in the War Memorial of Korea.
Flag of Central Vietnam (1885-1890).svg
Flag of Central Vietnam (1885-1890)
Flag of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate (1900–1914).svg
Author/Creator: Thommy, Licence: CC0
Flag of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate from 1 January 1900 to 1 January 1914.
Flag of Texas (1839–1879).svg
Flag of Texas (1839–1933)
Flag of German New Guinea.svg
(c) Jolle, CC-BY-SA-3.0
It is easy to put a border around this flag image
Flag of the Sultanate of Zanzibar (1963).svg
Author/Creator: Orange Tuesday, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Flag of the Sultanate of Zanzibar from 10 Dec 1963 to 12 Jan 1964
Flag of Nigeria (1914–1952).svg
Author/Creator: Benchill (original), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Flag and government ensign of the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria (1914–1952).

FIAV 110010.svg
Banaadir calan.gif
Banaadir calan
Kathiri flag.svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Flag of Kathiri state of Seiyun in Hadhramaut until 1967
Flag of French Laos.svg
Flag of French Laos between 1893 - 1952
Majeerteen sultanate flag.jpg
Official Flag of Majeerteen Sultanate
Bandera de la Provincia de Tucumán.svg
Flag of Argentina (popularly known as "Bandera de Macha"), probably used by the army leadered by Manuel Belgrano in 1813 during the battles for independence. The original flag is currently exhibited at the Casa de la Libertad Museum of Sucre, Bolivia.[1][2]
This emblem was adopted as official flag by the Tucumán Province through Law N° 8.291,[3] in 2010.
Ralik-Inseln.svg
Author/Creator: Inkscape to text.svg This vector image was created with Inkscape by Fornax, and then manually edited., Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Flagge der Ralik-Inseln (Marschallflagge) 19.11.1878 – 7.3.1894
Flag of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1937–1976).svg
Flag and government ensign of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands (1937–1976) and of the Gilbert Islands (1976–1979).

FIAV 110010.svg
Flag of Nyasaland (1925–1964).svg
Author/Creator: Fry1989 eh?, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Flag of Nyasaland (1925–1964).
Flag of Mexico (1864-1867).svg
Flag of Mexico (1864-1867)
Flag of Cambodia (1863–1948).svg
Author/Creator: No machine-readable author provided. Lexicon assumed (based on copyright claims)., Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Flag of Cambodia as a French protectorate.
Merchant flag of Spanish Morocco.svg
Merchant flag of the Spanish Protectorate of Morocco (NOT the national flag).
Flag of Kuwait 1940-1961.png
Author/Creator: Havsjö, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Flag of Kuwait 1940-1961. Sheik Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah added the Wasm to the flag
Flag of Egypt (1922–1953).svg
flag of the Kingdom of Egypt (1922–1953) and the Republic of Egypt (1953–1958).
Royal banner of Béhanzin of Dahomey.svg
Author/Creator: Samhanin, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal banner of Béhanzin of Dahomey (1889-1892)
Flag of Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti.svg
Author/Creator: Althiphika, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
This flag was apparently shown on the website of the Parliament of Georgia as the "flag of West Georgia (13th-14th centuries)" in 2005[1] The claim associating it with Kartli-Kakheti (1762-1802) made by the uploader (2010) is apparently based on the worldstatesmen.org website.
Flag of Fujairah (1952–1961).svg
Flag of Fujairah from 1952 until 1961, featuring a plain red field with the name of the emirate. Before and after, the emirate used a plain red flag. In 1975, the flag was replaced with the national flag of the United Arab Emirates.
Flag of Barotseland.svg
Flag of Barotseland, homeland of the Lozi people in western Zambia.
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svg
Flag of arms of the Cossack Hetmanate (1649–1764)
Flag of the Luhansk People's Republic.svg
Flag of self-proclaimed Luhan'sk People's Republic. Enshrined in law, which can not be described as official, because issued by a unrecognized republic of any UN country (Luhan'sk Republic of People is Republic, that funded by government of Russian Federation in whole or in part
Flag of Peru (1821-1822).svg
Author/Creator: Huhsunqu, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Flag of the Protectorate of Peru 1821-1822.
Flag of British Central Africa Protectorate.svg
Author/Creator: Fenn-O-maniC, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Flag of British Central Africa Protectorate
Flag of Uruguay (Oribe).svg
Author/Creator: Guilherme Paula, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Bandera de Uruguay (Oribe)
Ethiopian Pennants.svg
Pennants of the Ethiopian empire before the adoption of the flag in 1897.
Flag of the Territory of Papua.svg
Flag of the Territory of Papua between September 1, 1906 - November 6, 1949.
Flag of North Borneo (1902–1946).svg
Flag and government ensign of North Borneo (1902–1946).

FIAV 110010.svg
Flagge Witu 1890 laut Voeltzkow.jpg
Author/Creator: Kipala, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Witu Sultanate - flag of Sultan Fumobakari around 1890 according to Voeltzkow, Reise in Ostafrika, Band I, Abt. I, Reisebericht 2. Teil, p. 83
Flag of Quaiti Hadramaut.svg
Author/Creator: ArnoldPlaton, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Flag of Qu'aiti State in Hadhramaut from 1939 until 1967
Flag of Serbia (1835-1882).svg
Flag of Serbia (1835-1882)
Flag of Transnistria (state).svg
Flag of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Pridnestrovie, Transdniestria, Transnistria). The flag's reverse omits the hammer and sickle
Flag of the United States of the Ionian Islands.svg
Flag of the United States of the Ionian Islands, in use from (1815 to 1864)
Flag of the Maldives 1953.svg
Flag of the Maldives from 1953 to 1965
Flag of the Merina Kingdom.svg
Author/Creator: Samhanin, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Flag of the Merina Kingdom.
Flag of the Uganda Protectorate.svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Flag and government ensign of the Uganda Protectorate (1914-1962).

FIAV 110010.svg
Coat of arms of Libya (1940).svg
Author/Creator: derivative work: GJo, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Coat of arms of Italian Lybia
1960 6d Bechuanaland Protectorate stamp.jpg
1960 stamp of the Bechuanaland Protectorate.
Flag of Northern Rhodesia (1939–1964).svg
Flag of Northern Rhodesia, 1939–1964
Sable six palets wavy Argent on a Chief Azure an eagle reguardant wings expanded Or holding in the talons a Fish of the second.
Reichskolonialflagge.svg

Service flag of the Reichskolonialamt (Imperial Colonial Office), German Empire 1892–1918
19th Century Flag of Malta.svg
Ensign of Malta in the 19th Century
Italian Somaliland COA.svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Coat of arms of Italian Somaliland.