Prince Andrew, Duke of York

Prince Andrew
Duke of York (more)
Andrew standing at a lectern speaking
The Duke of York in 2013
Born (1960-02-19) 19 February 1960
Buckingham Palace, London, England
Spouse
Sarah Ferguson
(m. 1986; div. 1996)
Issue
Names
Andrew Albert Christian Edward[a]
HouseWindsor
FatherPrince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
MotherElizabeth II
Education
Signature
Signature of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.png
Military career
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch Royal Navy
Years of active service1979–2001
RankVice Admiral
Battles/warsFalklands War

Prince Andrew, Duke of York, KG, GCVO, CD (Andrew Albert Christian Edward; born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British royal family. He is the younger brother of King Charles III and the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Andrew is eighth in the line of succession to the British throne, and the first person in the line who is not a descendant of the reigning monarch.

Andrew served in the Royal Navy as a helicopter pilot and instructor and as the captain of a warship. During the Falklands War, he flew on multiple missions including anti-surface warfare, casualty evacuation, and Exocet missile decoy. In 1986, he married Sarah Ferguson and was made Duke of York. They have two daughters: Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie. Their marriage, separation in 1992, and divorce in 1996 attracted extensive media coverage. Andrew served as the UK's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment for 10 years until July 2011.

In 2014, the American-Australian campaigner Virginia Giuffre alleged that, as a 17-year-old, she was sex-trafficked to Andrew by the American financier and convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein. Andrew denied any wrongdoing.[2][3][4] Following criticism for his association with Epstein, Andrew resigned from public roles in May 2020,[5] and his honorary military affiliations and royal charitable patronages were removed by Queen Elizabeth II in January 2022.[6][7] He was the defendant in a civil lawsuit over sexual assault filed by Giuffre in the State of New York. The lawsuit was settled out of court in February 2022.[8]

Early life

Gordonstoun school in Scotland
Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Philip, Prince Andrew, and Prince Edward at the opening of the 1978 Commonwealth Games in Edmonton, Alberta

Andrew was born in the Belgian Suite of Buckingham Palace on 19 February 1960 at 3:30 p.m.,[9] the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. He was baptised in the palace's Music Room on 8 April 1960.[10]

Andrew was the first child born to a reigning British monarch since Princess Beatrice in 1857.[11] As with his siblings, Charles, Anne, and Edward, Andrew was looked after by a governess, who was responsible for his early education at Buckingham Palace.[12] He was sent to Heatherdown School near Ascot in Berkshire.[13] In September 1973, he entered Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland, which his father and elder brother had also attended.[14] He was nicknamed "the Sniggerer" by his schoolmates at Gordonstoun, because of "his penchant for off-colour jokes, at which he laughed inordinately".[15][16] While there, he spent six months—from January to June 1977—participating in an exchange programme to Lakefield College School in Canada.[13][17] He left Gordonstoun in July two years later with A-levels[17] in English, history, and economics.[18]

Military service

Royal Navy

The Royal Household announced in November 1978 that Andrew would join the Royal Navy the following year. In December, he underwent various sporting tests and examinations at the Aircrew Selection Centre, at RAF Biggin Hill, along with further tests and interviews at HMS Daedalus, and interviews at the Admiralty Interview Board, HMS Sultan. During March and April 1979, he was enrolled at the Royal Naval College Flight, undergoing pilot training, until he was accepted as a trainee helicopter pilot and signed on for 12 years from 11 May 1979. On 1 September of the same year, Andrew was appointed as a midshipman, and entered Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. During 1979 he also completed the Royal Marines All Arms Commando Course for which he received his Green Beret.[19] He was commissioned as a sub-lieutenant on 1 September 1981 and appointed to the Trained Strength on 22 October.[20]

After passing out from Dartmouth, Andrew went on to elementary flying training with the Royal Air Force at RAF Leeming, and later, basic flying training with the navy at HMS Seahawk, where he learned to fly the Gazelle helicopter.[19] After being awarded his wings, he moved onto more advanced training on the Sea King helicopter, and conducted operational flying training until 1982. He joined carrier-based squadron, 820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the aircraft carrier, HMS Invincible.[19]

Falklands War

On 2 April 1982, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, a British overseas territory claimed by it, leading to the Falklands War.[21] Invincible was one of the two operational aircraft carriers available at the time, and, as such, was to play a major role in the Royal Navy task force assembled to sail south to retake the islands.[22]

Andrew's place on board and the possibility of the Queen's son being killed in action made the British government apprehensive, and the cabinet desired that Prince Andrew be moved to a desk job for the duration of the conflict. The Queen, though, insisted that her son be allowed to remain with his ship.[23] Prince Andrew remained on board Invincible to serve as a Sea King helicopter co-pilot, flying on missions that included anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation, transport, and search and air rescue.[24][25][26] He witnessed the Argentinian attack on the SS Atlantic Conveyor.[27]

At the end of the war, Invincible returned to Portsmouth, where Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip joined other families of the crew in welcoming the vessel home. The Argentine military government reportedly planned, but did not attempt, to assassinate Andrew on Mustique in July 1982.[28] Though he had brief assignments to HMS Illustrious, RNAS Culdrose, and the Joint Services School of Intelligence, Prince Andrew remained with Invincible until 1983. Commander Nigel Ward's memoir, Sea Harrier Over the Falklands, described Prince Andrew as "an excellent pilot and a very promising officer."[29]

Career naval officer

The Duke of York with the US Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta commemorating the 100th anniversary of Naval Aviation at the National Building Museum in 2011

In late 1983, Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland, and was trained to fly the Lynx helicopter.[19] On 1 February 1984 he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant,[30] whereupon Queen Elizabeth II appointed him as her personal aide-de-camp.[31] Prince Andrew served aboard HMS Brazen as a flight pilot until 1986,[19] including deployment to the Mediterranean Sea as part of Standing NRF Maritime Group 2. He undertook the Lieutenants' Greenwich Staff course. On 23 October 1986, the Duke of York (as he was by then) transferred to the General List, enrolled in a four-month helicopter warfare instructor's course at RNAS Yeovilton, and, upon graduation, served from February 1987 to April 1988 as a helicopter warfare officer in 702 Naval Air Squadron, RNAS Portland. He also served on HMS Edinburgh as an officer of the watch and Assistant Navigating Officer until 1989, including a six-month deployment to the Far East as part of exercise Outback 88.[19]

The Duke of York served as flight commander and pilot of the Lynx HAS3 on HMS Campbeltown from 1989 to 1991. He also acted as Force Aviation Officer to Standing NRF Maritime Group 1 while Campbeltown was flagship of the NATO force in the North Atlantic from 1990 to 1991.[19] He passed the squadron command examination on 16 July 1991, attended the Staff College, Camberley the following year, and completed the Army Staff course. He was promoted to Lieutenant-Commander on 1 February and passed the ship command examination on 12 March 1992. From 1993 to 1994, Prince Andrew commanded the Hunt-class minehunter HMS Cottesmore.[19]

From 1995 to 1996, Andrew was posted as Senior Pilot of 815 Naval Air Squadron, then the largest flying unit in the Fleet Air Arm. His main responsibility was to supervise flying standards and to guarantee an effective operational capability.[19] He was promoted to Commander on 27 April 1999,[19] finishing his active naval career at the Ministry of Defence in 2001, as an officer of the Diplomatic Directorate of the Naval Staff.[19] In July of that year, Andrew was retired from the Active List of the Navy.[32] Three years later, he was made an Honorary Captain.[33] On 19 February 2010, his 50th birthday, he was promoted to Rear Admiral.[34] Five years later, he was promoted to Vice Admiral.[35][36]

He ceased using his honorary military titles in January 2022.[37] The action came after more than 150 Royal Navy, RAF and Army veterans signed a letter, requesting that Queen Elizabeth II remove his honorary military appointments in light of his involvement in a sexual assault civil case.[37] It was reported that he would still retain his service rank of Vice Admiral.[37]

Personal life

Personal interests

Andrew is a keen golfer and has had a low single-figure handicap.[38] He was captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews between 2003 and 2004—during the club's 250th anniversary season—was patron of a number of royal golf clubs, and had been elected as an honorary member of many others. In 2004, he was criticised by Labour Co-op MP Ian Davidson, who in a letter to the NAO questioned Andrew's decision to fly to St Andrews on RAF planes for two golfing trips.[39] Andrew resigned his honorary membership of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews when the Queen removed royal patronages at several golf clubs.[40][41] His honorary membership of the Royal Dornoch Golf Club was revoked in the following month.[42]

Andrew is a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, the senior maritime City livery company.[43]

Relationship with Koo Stark

Andrew met the American photographer and actress Koo Stark in February 1981, before his active service in the Falklands War.[44][45] In October 1982, they took a holiday together on the island of Mustique.[46][47] Tina Brown said that Stark was Andrew's only serious love interest.[48] In 1983, they split up under pressure from press, paparazzi, and palace.[44][48] In 1997, Andrew became godfather to Stark's daughter.[49] When Andrew was facing accusations in 2015 over his connection to Jeffrey Epstein, Stark came to his defence.[44]

Marriage to Sarah Ferguson

Andrew married Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey on 23 July 1986. On the same day, Queen Elizabeth II created him Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, and Baron Killyleagh.[50] The first two of these titles were previously held by both his maternal grandfather and great-grandfather. Prince Andrew had known Ferguson since childhood; they had met occasionally at polo matches, and became re-acquainted with each other at Royal Ascot in 1985.[51]

The couple appeared to have a happy marriage and had two daughters together, Beatrice and Eugenie, presenting a united outward appearance during the late 1980s. His wife's personal qualities were seen as refreshing in the context of the formal protocol surrounding the royal family.[51] However, Andrew's frequent travel due to his military career, as well as relentless, often critical, media attention focused on the Duchess of York, led to fractures in the marriage.[52][53] On 19 March 1992, the couple announced plans to separate and did so in an amicable way.[54] Some months later, pictures appeared in the tabloid media of the Duchess in intimate association with John Bryan, her financial advisor at the time, which effectively ended any hopes of a reconciliation between Andrew and Ferguson. The marriage was ended in divorce on 30 May 1996. The Duke of York spoke fondly of his former wife: "We have managed to work together to bring our children up in a way that few others have been able to and I am extremely grateful to be able to do that."[55]

The Duke of York riding in the carriage procession at Trooping the Colour, 16 June 2012

The couple agreed to share custody of their two daughters, and the family continued to live at Sunninghill Park (built near Windsor Great Park for the couple in 1990) until Andrew moved to the Royal Lodge in 2004. In 2007, Sarah moved into Dolphin House in Englefield Green, less than a mile from the Royal Lodge.[56] In 2008, a fire at Dolphin House[56] resulted in Sarah moving into Royal Lodge, again sharing a house with Andrew.[57] Andrew's lease of Royal Lodge is for 75 years, with the Crown Estate as landlord, at a cost of a single £1 million premium and a commitment to spend £7.5 million on refurbishment.[58]

In May 2010, Sarah was filmed by a News of the World reporter saying Andrew had agreed that if she were to receive £500,000, he would meet the donor and pass on useful top-level business contacts. She was filmed receiving, in cash, $40,000 as a down payment. The paper said that Andrew did not know of the situation.[59] In July 2011, Sarah stated that her multi-million pound debts had been cleared due to the intervention of her former husband, whom she compared to a "knight on a white charger".[60]

Health

On 2 June 2022, Andrew tested positive for COVID-19, and it was announced that he would not be present at the Platinum Jubilee National Service of Thanksgiving at St Paul's Cathedral on 3 June.[61]

Allegations of sexual abuse

Jeffrey Epstein and related associations

Andrew was friends with Jeffrey Epstein, an American financier who was convicted of sex trafficking in 2008. BBC News reported in March 2011 that the friendship was producing "a steady stream of criticism", and there were calls for him to step down from his role as trade envoy.[62] Andrew was also criticised in the media after his former wife, Sarah, disclosed that he helped arrange for Epstein to pay off £15,000 of her debts.[63][64] Andrew had been photographed in December 2010 strolling with Epstein in Central Park during a visit to New York City.[65] In July 2011, Andrew's role as trade envoy was terminated and he reportedly cut all ties with Epstein.[62][66]

On 30 December 2014, a Florida court filing by lawyers Bradley J. Edwards and Paul G. Cassell alleged that Andrew was one of several prominent figures, including lawyer Alan Dershowitz and "a former prime minister",[67] to have participated in sexual activities with a minor later identified as Virginia Giuffre (then known by her maiden name Virginia Roberts),[68] who was allegedly trafficked by Epstein.[69] An affidavit from Giuffre was included in an earlier lawsuit from 2008 accusing the US Justice Department of violating the Crime Victims' Rights Act during Epstein's first criminal case by not allowing several of his victims to challenge his plea deal; Andrew was otherwise not a party to the lawsuit.[70]

In January 2015, there was renewed media and public pressure for Buckingham Palace to explain Andrew's connection with Epstein.[71] Buckingham Palace stated that "any suggestion of impropriety with underage minors is categorically untrue", and later repeated the denial.[72][73] Requests from Giuffre's lawyers for a statement from Andrew about the allegations, under oath, were returned unanswered.[74][75]

Dershowitz denied the allegations in Giuffre's statement and sought disbarment of the lawyers filing the suit.[76][77][78] Edwards and Cassell sued Dershowitz for defamation in January 2015; he countersued.[79] The two parties settled in 2016 for an undisclosed financial sum.[80] Epstein sued Edwards for civil racketeering but later dropped his suit; Edwards countersued for malicious prosecution with the result that Epstein issued a public apology to the lawyer in December 2018.[81][82]

Giuffre asserted that she had sex with Andrew on three occasions, including a trip to London in 2001 when she was 17,[2] and later in New York and on Little Saint James in the U.S. Virgin Islands.[65] She alleged Epstein paid her $15,000 after she had sex with Andrew in London.[2] Flight logs show Andrew and Giuffre were in the places she alleged their meetings took place.[83][84] Andrew and Giuffre were also photographed together with his arm round her waist, with an Epstein associate, Ghislaine Maxwell, in the background,[85] though Andrew's supporters have repeatedly said the photo is fake and edited.[86] Giuffre stated that she was pressured to have sex with Andrew and "wouldn't have dared object" as Epstein, through contacts, could have her "killed or abducted".[87]

On 7 April 2015, Judge Kenneth Marra ruled that the "sex allegations made against Andrew in court papers filed in Florida must be struck from the public record".[88][89] Marra made no ruling as to whether claims by Giuffre are true or false, specifically stating that she may later give evidence when the case comes to court.[90] Giuffre stated she would not "be bullied back into silence".[91]

Tuan "John" Alessi, who was Epstein's butler, stated in a deposition he filed for Giuffre's 2016 defamation case against Maxwell that Andrew's hitherto unremarked visits to the Epstein house in Palm Beach were more frequent than previously thought. He maintained that Andrew "spent weeks with us" and received "daily massages".[92]

In August 2019, court documents associated with a defamation case between Giuffre and Maxwell revealed that a second girl, Johanna Sjoberg, gave evidence alleging that Andrew had placed his hand on her breast while in Epstein's mansion posing for a photo with his Spitting Image puppet.[93] Later that month, Andrew released a statement that said, "At no stage during the limited time I spent with [Epstein] did I see, witness or suspect any behaviour of the sort that subsequently led to his arrest and conviction," though he expressed regret for meeting him in 2010 after Epstein had already pleaded guilty to sex crimes for the first time.[94] At the end of August 2019, The New Republic published a September 2013 email exchange between John Brockman and Evgeny Morozov, in which Brockman mentioned seeing a British man nicknamed "Andy" receive a foot massage from two Russian women at Epstein's New York residence during his last visit to the mansion in 2010, and had realised "that the recipient of Irina's foot massage was His Royal Highness, Prince Andrew, the Duke of York".[95]

In July 2020, Caroline Kaufman, an alleged victim of Epstein, said in a federal lawsuit that she had seen Andrew at Epstein's New York mansion in December 2010.[96] In November 2021 Lawrence Visoski, Epstein's pilot, testified in court during Ghislaine Maxwell's trial that Prince Andrew flew in Epstein's private plane along with other prominent individuals, including Bill Clinton, Donald Trump and John Glenn. Visoski stated he did not notice any sexual activity or wrongdoing on the plane.[97] Similarly, Andrew's name was recorded on 12 May 2001 by Epstein's pilot David Rodgers in his logbook, and he testified that Andrew flew three times with Epstein and Giuffre in 2001.[98] The following month a picture of Epstein and Maxwell, sitting at a cabin on the Queen's Balmoral estate, around 1999, at the invitation of Andrew, was shown to the jury to establish their status as partners.[99]

On 5 January 2022, Virginia Giuffre's former boyfriend, Anthony Figueroa, said on Good Morning Britain that Giuffre told him Epstein would take her to meet Prince Andrew. He said, "She called me when she was on the trip and she was talking about she knew what they wanted her to do and she was really nervous and scared because she didn't know how to react to it". He alleged the meeting had taken place in London.[100] In a court filing, Andrew's lawyers had previously referred to a statement by Figueroa's sister, Crystal Figueroa, who alleged that in her bid to find victims for Epstein, Giuffre had asked her, "Do you know any girls who are kind of slutty?"[101] The same month, Carolyn Andriano, who as a 14-year-old was introduced by Giuffre to Ghislaine Maxwell and Jeffrey Epstein and was a prosecution witness in Maxwell's trial, said in an interview with the Daily Mail that then 17-year-old Giuffre told her in 2001 that she had slept with Prince Andrew. She stated, "And [Giuffre] said, 'I got to sleep with him'. She didn't seem upset about it. She thought it was pretty cool."[102]

In an ITV documentary, former royal protection officer Paul Page, who was convicted and given a six year sentence following a £3 million property investment scam in 2009,[103][104] recounted Maxwell's frequent visits to Buckingham Palace, and suggested the two might have had an intimate relationship,[105] while Lady Victoria Hervey added that Andrew was present at social occasions held by Maxwell.[106] The Duke of York's name and contact numbers for Buckingham Palace, Sunninghill Park, Wood Farm and Balmoral also appeared in Maxwell and Epstein's 'Little Black Book', a list of contacts of the duo's powerful and famous friends.[106] In February 2022, The Daily Telegraph published a photograph of Andrew along with Maxwell giving a tour of Buckingham Palace to Andrew's guests Bill Clinton and Kevin Spacey, with a member of the tour party describing Maxwell as "the one who led us into Buckingham Palace".[107]

Tina Brown, a journalist who edited Vanity Fair, The New Yorker and The Daily Beast, maintains Epstein described Andrew behind his back as an idiot but found him useful. Brown stated, "Epstein confided to a friend that he used to fly Andrew to obscure foreign markets, where governments were obliged to receive him, and Epstein went along as HRH's investment adviser. With Andrew as frontman, Epstein could negotiate deals with these (often) shady players".[108]

In October 2022, Ghislaine Maxwell was interviewed by a documentary filmmaker while serving her sentence in prison, and when asked about her relationship with Andrew, Maxwell stated that she felt "bad" for him but accepted their "friendship could not survive my conviction. He is paying such a price for the association. I consider him a dear friend. I care about him."[109] She also stated that she now believed the photograph showing her together with Andrew and Virginia Giuffre was not "a true image", and added that in an email to her lawyer in 2015 she was trying to confirm that she recognised her own house, but the whole image cannot be authentic as "the original has never been produced".[109]

Newsnight interview

In November 2019, the BBC's Newsnight arranged an interview between Andrew and presenter Emily Maitlis in which he recounted his friendship with Epstein for the first time.[110] In the interview, Prince Andrew says he met Epstein in 1999 through Maxwell; this contradicts comments made by Andrew's private secretary in 2011, who said the two met in "the early 1990s".[111] The Duke also said he did not regret his friendship with Epstein, saying "the people that I met and the opportunities that I was given to learn either by him or because of him were actually very useful".[112]

In the interview, Andrew denied having sex with Giuffre on 10 March 2001, as she had accused, because he had been at home with his daughters after attending a party at PizzaExpress in Woking with his elder daughter Beatrice.[113][114] Prince Andrew also added that Giuffre's claims about dancing with him at a club in London while he was sweaty were false due to him temporarily losing the ability to sweat after an "adrenaline overdose" during the Falklands War.[115][116] According to physicians consulted by The Times, an adrenaline overdose typically causes excessive sweating in humans.[117] He also said that he does not drink, despite Giuffre's account of him providing alcohol for them both.[118][119] Accounts from other people have supported his statement that he does not drink.[120][121][122]

Andrew said that he had stayed in Epstein's mansion for three days in 2010, after Epstein's conviction for sex offences against a minor, describing the location as "a convenient place to stay". The Duke said that he met Epstein for the sole purpose of breaking off any future relationship with him.[123] He also said that he would be willing to testify under oath regarding his associations with Epstein.[112]

In July 2022 it was announced that a film would be made of the preparations for the interview and the interview itself. Shooting was planned to start in November 2022. According to Deadline, Scoop is being written by Peter Moffat.[124]

Civil lawsuit

In August 2021, Virginia Giuffre sued Prince Andrew in the federal District Court for the Southern District of New York, accusing him of "sexual assault and intentional infliction of emotional distress." The lawsuit was filed under New York's Child Victims Act, legislation extending the statute of limitations where the plaintiff had been under 18 at the time, 17 in Giuffre's case.[125] On 29 October 2021, Andrew's lawyers filed a response, stating that their client "unequivocally denies Giuffre's false allegations".[126][127]

On 12 January 2022 Judge Kaplan rejected Andrew's attempts to dismiss the case, allowing the sexual abuse lawsuit to proceed.[128][129] In February, the case was settled out of court, with Andrew making a donation to Giuffre's charity for victims of abuse.[8] The Guardian reported that the Queen's decision to strip Andrew "of his royal patronages, honorary military titles [sic] and any official use of his HRH title, still stands firm."[130] Criminal procedings in the United States over Virginia Giuffre's claims are still possible.[131]

Repercussions

The 2019 interview was believed by Maitlis and Newsnight to have been approved by the Queen,[132] although "palace insiders" speaking to The Sunday Telegraph disputed this.[133] One of Prince Andrew's official advisors resigned just prior to the interview being aired.[134] Although Andrew was pleased with the outcome of the interview – reportedly giving Maitlis and the Newsnight team a tour of Buckingham Palace[135] – it received negative reactions from both the media and the public, both in and outside of the UK. The interview was described as a "car crash", "nuclear explosion level bad"[136][137] and the worst public relations crisis for the royal family since the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. Experts and those with ties to Buckingham Palace said that the interview, its fallout and the abrupt suspension of Andrew's royal duties were unprecedented.[138]

On 19 November 2019, the Students' Union of the University of Huddersfield passed a motion to lobby Andrew to resign as its chancellor, as London Metropolitan University was considering Andrew's role as its patron.[139] On 18 November, accountancy firm KPMG announced it would not be renewing its sponsorship of Prince Andrew's entrepreneurial scheme Pitch@Palace,[140] and on 19 November Standard Chartered also withdrew its support.[141]

On 20 November 2019, a statement from Buckingham Palace announced that Andrew was suspending his public duties "for the foreseeable future". The decision, made with the consent of the Queen, was accompanied by the insistence that Andrew sympathised with Epstein's victims.[142] Other working royals took his commitments over in the short term.[143] On 21 November, Andrew relinquished his role as chancellor of the University of Huddersfield.[144] Three days later, the palace confirmed that Andrew was to step down from all 230 of his patronages, although he expressed a wish to have some sort of public role at some future time.[145]

On 16 January 2020, it was reported that the Home Office was recommending "a major downgrade of security" for Andrew, which would put an end to "his round-the-clock armed police protection".[146] It was later reported that he had been allowed to keep his £300,000-a-year security and the recommendation would be reviewed again in the future.[147] On 28 January 2020, US Attorney Geoffrey Berman stated that Prince Andrew had provided "zero co-operation" with federal prosecutors and the FBI regarding the ongoing investigations, despite his initial promise in the Newsnight interview when he said he was willing to help the authorities.[148] Buckingham Palace did not comment on the issue, though sources close to Andrew said that he "hasn't been approached" by US authorities and investigators,[149] and his legal team announced that he had offered to be a witness "on at least three occasions" but had been refused by the Department of Justice.[150] The US authorities responded to the claim and denied being approached by Andrew for an interview and labeled his statements as a way "to falsely portray himself to the public as eager and willing to cooperate".[151] Spencer Kuvin, who represented nine of Epstein's victims, said Andrew could be arrested if he ever returns to the United States, saying "It is highly unlikely an extradition would ever occur, so the Prince would have to be here in the US and be arrested while he's here."[152]

In March 2020, Andrew hired crisis-management expert Mark Gallagher, who had helped high-profile clients falsely accused in Operation Midland.[153] In April 2020, it was reported that the Duke of York Young Champions Trophy would not be played anymore, after all activities carried out by the Prince Andrew Charitable Trust were stopped.[154] In May 2020, it was reported that the Prince Andrew Charitable Trust was under investigation by the Charity Commission regarding some regulatory issues about £350,000 of payments to his former private secretary Amanda Thirsk.[155] According to The Times, senior personnel in the navy and army considered Andrew to be an embarrassment for the military and believed he should be stripped of his military roles.[156] In May 2020 it was announced that Andrew would permanently resign from all public roles over his Epstein ties.[5]

In June 2020, it became known that Andrew is a person of interest in a criminal investigation in the United States, and that the United States had filed a mutual legal assistance request to British authorities in order to question Andrew.[157][158] Newsweek reported that a majority of British citizens believe Andrew should be stripped of his titles and extradited to the United States.[159] Following the arrest of Ghislaine Maxwell in July 2020, Andrew cancelled a planned trip to Spain, reportedly due to fears that he might be arrested and extradited to the United States.[160] In the 2019 BBC interview, Andrew told Newsnight his association with Epstein was derived from his long-standing friendship with Ghislaine Maxwell, who was later convicted of colluding in Epstein's sexual abuse.[161]

In August 2020, anti-child trafficking protesters chanting "Paedophile! Paedophile!" referencing Andrew gathered outside Buckingham Palace, and videos of the protest went viral.[162] In August 2021, royal biographer Penny Junor maintained Prince Andrew's reputation with the public was damaged beyond repair.[163]

In 2020, prosecutors seeking access to Andrew made a formal mutual legal assistance request to the British government.[164] It was reported in August 2021 that American authorities were pessimistic about being able to interview Andrew.[164]

In January 2022, Andrew's social media accounts were deleted, his page on the royal family's website was rewritten in the past tense and his military affiliations and patronages were removed to put an emphasis on his departure from public life.[165] He also stopped using the style His Royal Highness (HRH) though it was not formally removed.[37] In the same month, York Racecourse announced that it would rename the Duke of York Stakes,[166] and Prince Andrew High School in Nova Scotia, which had announced two years earlier that it was considering a name change because the name "no longer reflects the values of the community",[167] stated that it would have a new name at the next academic year.[168] In February 2022, Belfast City Council and the Northern Ireland Assembly decided not to fly a union flag for Andrew's birthday.[169] In the same month, the Mid and East Antrim Borough Council announced that they would hold a debate in June 2022 regarding a motion to rename Prince Andrew Way in Carrickfergus.[170] On 27 April 2022 York City Council unanimously voted to remove Andrew's Freedom of the City.[171] Rachael Maskell York Central MP said Andrew was the "first to ever have their freedom removed".[172] There have also been calls to remove the Duke of York title.[173]

In March 2022, Andrew made his first official appearance in months, helping the Queen to walk into Westminster Abbey for a memorial service for his father, the Duke of Edinburgh.[174] There was a mixed reaction by commentators to his presence, with some saying that it would send the wrong message to victims of sexual abuse "about how powerful men are able to absolve themselves from their conduct" and others arguing that his appearance was required as "a son, in memory of his father".[175]

In June 2022, The Telegraph reported that Andrew had asked the Queen to be reinstated as Colonel of the Grenadier Guards, to use his HRH (His Royal Highness) title and to be allowed to appear at official events due to his position as a 'prince of the blood'.[176] In the same month, he took part in private aspects of the Garter Day ceremony, including lunch and investiture of new members, but was excluded from the public procession following an intervention by his brother Charles and his nephew William that banned him from appearing anywhere the public could see him. Andrew's name featured on one of the lists showing this was a last minute decision.[177]

In June 2022 Rachael Maskell MP introduced a 'Removal of Titles' bill in the House of Commons. If passed this bill will enable Andrew to be stripped of his Duke of York title and other titles. Maskell maintains 80% of York citizens want Andrew to lose all connection with their city.[178] The proposed bill will also enable other people considered unworthy to lose their titles. The monarch or a committee of Parliament would be able to remove a title.[179] The bill is due to get its second reading on 9 December 2022.[180]

In August 2022, it was reported that the Executive Committee for the Protection of Royalty and Public Figures (RAVEC) had assessed the security threat against Andrew and concluded that he should keep his taxpayer-funded police bodyguards, at an annual cost estimated to be between £500,000 and £3 million.[181] In early 2021 there were at least two trespassing incidents reported at his Windsor property, and in December he was verbally abused by a woman as he was driving his car.[181]

Following the death of the Queen on 8 September 2022, Andrew appeared in civilian clothing at various ceremonial events.[182] As he walked behind his mother's coffin in a funeral procession in Edinburgh on 12 September, a 22-year-old man shouted "Andrew, you're a sick old man"; the heckler was arrested and charged with committing a breach of the peace.[183] Andrew wore military uniform for a 15-minute vigil by the Queen's coffin at Westminster Hall on 16 September.[184] Lawyer Spencer Kuvin, who represented nine of Epstein's victims, was critical of Andrew's public role in the lead-up to the funeral and stated that "he is attempting now to see if he can rehabilitate his image in the public."[185] New York lawyer Mariann Wang, who represented up to 12 Epstein's victims described Andrew's public profile as "quite outrageous" and "harmful for any survivor of trauma to see an abuser or their enablers continue to reap the benefits of privilege, status and power."[185]

Activities and charitable work

Prince Andrew, Russian President Medvedev and Japanese PM Tarō Asō visit the Sakhalin-II oil and gas project in the Russian Far East, 2009

The Duke was patron of the Middle East Association (MEA), the UK's premier organisation for promoting trade and good relations with the Middle East, North Africa, Turkey and Iran.[186] Since his role as Special Representative for International Trade and Investment ended Andrew continued to support UK enterprise without a special role. Robert Jobson said he did this work well and wrote, "He is particularly passionate when dealing with young start-up entrepreneurs and bringing them together with successful businesses at networking and showcasing events. Andrew is direct and to the point, and his methods seem to work".[187]

The Duke was also patron of Fight for Sight, a charity dedicated to research into the prevention and treatment of blindness and eye disease,[188] and was a member of the Scout Association.[189] He toured Canada frequently to undertake duties related to his Canadian military role. Rick Peters, the former Commanding Officer of the Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada stated that Prince Andrew was "very well informed on Canadian military methods".[190]

While touring India as a part of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee in 2012,[191] Andrew became interested in the work of Women's Interlink Foundation (WIF), a charity which helps women acquire skills to earn income. He and his family later initiated Key to Freedom, a project which tries to "find a route to market for products made by WIF".[192][193] On 3 September 2012, Andrew was among a team of 40 people who abseiled down The Shard (tallest building in Europe) to raise money for educational charities the Outward Bound Trust and the Royal Marines Charitable Trust Fund.[194][195]

The Duke of York in his role as the UK's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment at the World Economic Forum on the Middle East, 2008.

In 2013, it was announced that Andrew was becoming the patron of London Metropolitan University[196] and the University of Huddersfield.[197][198] In July 2015, he was installed as Chancellor of the University of Huddersfield.[199] In recognition of Andrew's promotion of entrepreneurship he was elected to an Honorary Fellowship at Hughes Hall in the University of Cambridge on 1 May 2018.[200] He became the patron of the charity Attend[201] in 2003, and was a member of the International Advisory Board of the Royal United Services Institute.

In 2014, Andrew founded the Pitch@Palace initiative[202] to support entrepreneurs with the amplification and acceleration of their business ideas. Entrepreneurs selected for Pitch@Palace Bootcamp are officially invited by Andrew[203] to attend St. James Palace in order to pitch their ideas and to be connected with potential investors, mentors and business contacts.[204] The Duke also founded The Prince Andrew Charitable Trust which aimed to support young people in different areas such as education and training.[205] He also founded a number of awards including Inspiring Digital Enterprise Award (iDEA), a programme to develop the digital and enterprise skills,[206][207] the Duke of York Award for Technical Education, given to talented young people in technical education,[208][209] and the Duke of York Young Entrepreneur Award, which recognised talents of young people in entrepreneurship.[210] The Duke of York lent his support to organisations that focus on science and technology by becoming the patron of Catalyst Inc and TeenTech.[211][212][213] In 2014, Andrew visited Geneva, Switzerland, to promote British science at CERN's 60th anniversary celebrations.[214] In May 2018, he visited China and opened the Pitch@Palace China Bootcamp 2.0 at Peking University.[215]

In March 2019, Andrew took over the patronage of the Outward Bound Trust from his father, the Duke of Edinburgh, serving up until his own resignation in November 2019.[216] Prince Andrew had held the position of chairman of the board of trustees of the organisation since 1999.[217] The charity tries to instil leadership qualities among young people.[218] In May 2019, it was announced that Andrew had succeeded Lord Carrington as patron of the Royal Fine Art Commission Trust.[219]

On 13 January 2022, it was announced that his royal patronages had been handed back to the Queen to be distributed among other members of the royal family.[37]

Controversies and other incidents

Special Representative for International Trade and Investment

The Duke of York with Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev, 2011

From 2001 until July 2011, Andrew worked with UK Trade & Investment, part of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, as the United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment.[220] The post, previously held by Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, involved representing and promoting the UK at various trade fairs and conferences around the world.[12] His suitability for the role was challenged in the House of Commons by Shadow Justice Minister Chris Bryant in February 2011, at the time of the 2011 Libyan civil war, on the grounds that he was "not only a very close friend of Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, but also ... a close friend of the convicted Libyan gun smuggler Tarek Kaituni".[221][222] Further problems arose as he hosted a lunch for Sakher El Materi, a member of the corrupt Tunisian regime, at the Palace around the time of the Tunisian Revolution.[223] Andrew also formed a friendship with Ilham Aliyev, the president of Azerbaijan who has been criticised for corruption and for abuses of human rights by Amnesty International, and visited him both during and after his tenure as the UK trade envoy. As of November 2014, Andrew had met Aliyev, on 12 occasions.[224] The controversies, together with his ties to Jeffrey Epstein, made him step down from the role in 2011.[223]

Andrew did not receive a salary from the UK Trade & Investment for his role as Special Representative, but he went on expenses-paid delegations and was alleged to have occasionally used trips paid for by the government for his personal leisure, which earned him the nickname "Airmiles Andy" by the press.[223] On 8 March 2011, The Daily Telegraph reported: "In 2010, the Prince spent £620,000 as a trade envoy, including £154,000 on hotels, food and hospitality and £465,000 on travel."[225]

In November 2020, and following reviews of emails, internal documents, and unreported regulatory filings as well as interviews with 10 former bank insiders, Bloomberg Businessweek reported on Andrew using his royal cachet and role as Special Representative for International Trade and Investment for helping David Rowland and his private bank, Banque Havilland, with securing deals with clients around the world.[226] The Rowland family are among the investment advisers to Andrew,[227] and he was present for the official opening ceremony of their bank in July 2009.[228]

Alleged comments on corruption and Kazakhstan

As the United Kingdom's Special Trade Representative, Andrew travelled the world to promote British businesses. It was revealed in the United States diplomatic cables leak that Andrew had been reported on by Tatiana Gfoeller, the United States Ambassador to Kyrgyzstan, discussing bribery in Kyrgyzstan and the investigation into the Al-Yamamah arms deal. The Duke, she explained, "was referencing an investigation, subsequently closed, into alleged kickbacks a senior Saudi royal had received in exchange for the multi-year, lucrative BAE Systems contract to provide equipment and training to Saudi security forces."[229] The dispatch continued: "His mother's subjects seated around the table roared their approval. He then went on to 'these (expletive) journalists, especially from the National Guardian [sic], who poke their noses everywhere' and (presumably) make it harder for British businessmen to do business. The crowd practically clapped!"[230]

In May 2008, he attended a goose-hunt in Kazakhstan with President Nursultan Nazarbayev.[231] In 2010, it was revealed that the President's billionaire son-in-law Timur Kulibayev paid Andrew's representatives £15 million – £3 million over the asking price – via offshore companies, for Andrew's Surrey mansion, Sunninghill Park. Kulibayev frequently appears in US dispatches as one of the men who have accumulated millions in gas-rich Kazakhstan.[230] It was later revealed that Andrew's office tried to get a crown estate property close to Kensington Palace for Kulibayev at that time.[232]

In May 2012, it was reported that Swiss and Italian police investigating "a network of personal and business relationships" allegedly used for "international corruption" were looking at the activities of Enviro Pacific Investments which charges "multi-million pound fees" to energy companies wishing to deal with Kazakhstan.[233] The trust is believed to have paid £6 million towards the purchase of Sunninghill which now appears derelict.[233] In response, a Palace spokesman said "This was a private sale between two trusts. There was never any impropriety on the part of The Duke of York".[233]

Libby Purves wrote in The Times in January 2015: "Prince Andrew dazzles easily when confronted with immense wealth and apparent power. He has fallen for 'friendships' with bad, corrupt and clever men, not only in the US but in Libya, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tunisia, wherever."[87]

In May 2016, a fresh controversy broke out when the Daily Mail alleged that Andrew had brokered a deal to assist a Greek and Swiss consortium in securing a £385 million contract to build water and sewerage networks in two of Kazakhstan's largest cities, while working as British trade envoy, and had stood to gain a £4 million payment in commission. The newspaper published an email from Andrew to Kazakh oligarch Kenges Rakishev, (who had allegedly brokered sale of the Prince's Berkshire mansion Sunninghill Park), and said that Rakishev had arranged meetings for the consortium. After initially saying the email was a forgery, Buckingham Palace sought to block its publication as a privacy breach.[234] The Palace denied the allegation that Andrew had acted as a "fixer" calling the article "untrue, defamatory and a breach of the editor's code of conduct".[234]

A former Foreign Office minister, MP Chris Bryant stated: "When I was at the Foreign Office it was very difficult to see in whose interests he [Andrew] was acting. He doesn't exactly add lustre to the Royal diadem".[234]

Arms sales

In March 2011, Kaye Stearman of the Campaign Against the Arms Trade told Channel 4 News CAAT sees Prince Andrew as part of a bigger problem, "He is the front man for UKTI. Our concerns are not just Prince Andrew, it's the whole UKTI set up. They see arms as just another commodity but it has completely disproportionate resources. At the London office of UKTI the arms sector has more staff than all the others put together. We are concerned that Prince Andrew is used to sell arms, and where you sell arms it is likely to be to despotic regimes. He is the cheerleader in chief for the arms industry, shaking hands and paving the way for the salesmen."[235]

In January 2014, Prince Andrew took part in a delegation to Bahrain, a close ally of the United Kingdom. Spokesman for CAAT, Andrew Smith said, "We are calling on Prince Andrew and the UK government to stop selling arms to Bahrain. By endorsing the Bahraini dictatorship Prince Andrew is giving his implicit support to their oppressive practices. When our government sells arms it is giving moral and practical support to an illegitimate and authoritarian regime and directly supporting their systematic crackdown on opposition groups. (...) We shouldn't allow our international image to be used as a PR tool for the violent and oppressive dictatorship in Bahrain."[236]

Andrew Smith has also said, "The prince has consistently used his position to promote arms sales and boost some of the most unpleasant governments in the world, his arms sales haven't just given military support to corrupt and repressive regimes. They've lent those regimes political and international legitimacy."[237]

Reaction to election to the Royal Society

Andrew's election to the Royal Society prompted "Britain's leading scientists" to "revolt" due to Andrew's lack of scientific background, with some noting he had only a secondary school level of education.[238] In an op-ed in The Sunday Times, pharmacologist, Humboldt Prize recipient, and Fellow of the Royal Society, David Colquhoun opined, in references to Andrew's qualifications, that "if I wanted a tip for the winner of the 14.30 at Newmarket, I'd ask a royal. For most other questions, I wouldn't."[238][239]

Allegations of racist language

Rohan Silva, a former Downing Street aide, claimed that, when they met in 2012, Andrew had commented, "Well, if you'll pardon the expression, that really is the nigger in the woodpile."[240] Former home secretary Jacqui Smith also claims that Andrew made a racist comment about Arabs during a state dinner for the Saudi royal family in 2007.[241][242] Buckingham Palace denied that Andrew had used racist language on either occasion.[243]

Allegations of ramming gates in Windsor Great Park

In March 2016, Republic CEO Graham Smith filed a formal report to the police, requesting an investigation into allegations that Andrew had damaged sensor-operated gates in Windsor Great Park by forcing them open in his Range Rover to avoid going an extra mile on his way home.[244] The Thames Valley Police dismissed the reports due to lack of details.[245]

Treatment of reporters, servants and others

During his four-day Southern California tour in 1984, Andrew squirted paint onto American and British journalists and photographers who were reporting on the tour, after which he told Los Angeles county supervisor Kenneth Hahn, "I enjoyed that".[246] The incident damaged the clothes and equipment of reporters and the Los Angeles Herald Examiner submitted a $1,200 bill to the British consulate asking for financial compensation.[246]

The Guardian wrote in 2022, "his brusque manner with servants is well-documented. A senior footman once told a reporter who worked undercover at Buckingham Palace that on waking the prince 'the response can easily be "fuck off" as good morning'."[247] Former royal protection officer Paul Page said, in an ITV documentary, that Andrew maintained a collection of "50 or 60 stuffed toys" and if they "weren't put back in the right order by the maids, he would shout and scream and become verbally abusive."[248] Page later stated in the documentary Prince Andrew: Banished that different women would visit Andrew everyday, and when one was denied entry into his residence by the security Andrew allegedly called one of the officers a "fat, lardy-ass cunt" over the phone.[249] The Duke's former maid, Charlotte Briggs, also recalled setting up the teddy bears on his bed and told The Sun that when she was bitten by his Norfolk Terrier in 1996 he only laughed and "wasn't bothered".[250][251] She said that she was reduced to tears by Andrew for not properly closing the heavy curtains in his office and added that his behaviour was in contrast to that of his brothers Charles and Edward who "weren't anything like him" and his father Philip whom she described as "so nice and gentlemanly".[250]

Massage therapist Emma Gruenbaum said Andrew regularly overstepped the mark, making creepy sexual comments when she came to give him a massage. Gruenbaum maintained Andrew talked continually about sex during the first massage and wanted to know when she last had sex. Gruenbaum said Andrew arranged regular massages for roughly two months, and she believed requests for massages stopped when he realised he would not get more.[252]

Finance and debt problems

It is unclear how Andrew finances his luxury lifestyle; in 2021 The Guardian wrote, "With little in the way of visible support, questions over how Andrew has been able to fund his lifestyle have rarely been answered. In the past he has appeared to live the jetset life of a multimillionaire, with holidays aboard luxury yachts, regular golfing sojourns and ski trips to exclusive resorts."[253]

The Duke of York received a £249,000 annuity from the Queen.[254] In the twelve-month period up to April 2004, he spent £325,000 on flights, and his trade missions as special representative for UKTI cost £75,000 in 2003.[39] The Sunday Times reported in July 2008 that for "the Duke of York's public role,... he last year received £436,000 to cover his expenses".[255] He has a Royal Navy pension of £20,000.[256]

The Duke is also a keen skier and in 2014 bought a skiing chalet in Verbier, Switzerland, for £13 million jointly with his ex-wife, Sarah Ferguson.[257] In May 2020, it was reported that they were in a legal dispute over the mortgage.[258] To purchase the chalet, they secured a loan of £13.25 million and were expected to pay £5 million in cash instalments which, after applying interests, amounted to £6.8 million.[259] Despite claims that the Queen would help pay the debt, a spokesperson for Andrew confirmed that she "will not be stepping in to settle the debt".[260] The Times reported in September 2021 that Andrew and Sarah had reached a legal agreement with the property's previous owner and would sell the house.[261] The owner agreed to receive £3.4 million, half of the amount that she was owed, as she had been under the impression that Andrew and Sarah were dealing with financial troubles.[259] The money from selling the property is reportedly to be used to pay Andrew's legal expenses over the civil lawsuit as well.[262] In June 2022 it was reported in Le Temps, a Swiss newspaper, that the chalet has been frozen because of a £1.6 million debt Andrew owes unnamed people. Law professor Nicolas Jeandin told Le Temps "A sale is in principle impossible, except with the agreement of the creditor."[263][264]

In 2021 Bloomberg News reported that a firm connected to David Rowland had been paying off Andrew's debts.[265] In November 2017, Andrew borrowed £250,000 from Banque Havilland, adding to an existing £1.25 million loan that had been "extended or increased 10 times" since 2015.[256] Documents showed that while "credibility of the applicant" had been questioned, he was given the loan in an attempt to "further business potential with the Royal Family".[256] 11 days later and in December 2017, £1.5 million was transferred from an account at Albany Reserves, which was controlled by the Rowland family, to Andrew's account at Banque Havilland, paying off the loan that was due in March 2018.[256] Liberal Democrat politician and staunch republican Norman Baker stated, "This demonstrates yet again that significant questions need to be asked about Prince Andrew's business dealings and his association with some dubious characters."[266]

Several months after Andrew's controversial 2019 Newsnight interview, his private office established the Urramoor Trust, which owned both Lincelles Unlimited (established 2020)[267] and Urramoor Ltd (established 2013),[268] and according to The Times was set up to support his family. Lincelles was voluntarily wound up in 2022.[269] Andrew was described as a "settlor but not a beneficiary", and did not own either of the companies, though Companies House listed him and his private banker of 20 years Harry Keogh[b] as people with "significant control".[270]

In March 2022 it was reported that on 15 November 2019 the wife of the jailed former Turkish politician İlhan İşbilen transferred £750,000 to Andrew in the belief that it would help her secure a passport.[271] The Duke has repaid the money 16 months later after being contacted by Mrs İşbilen's lawyers. The Telegraph reported that the money sent to Andrew's account had been described to the bankers "as a wedding gift" for his eldest daughter, Beatrice, though the court documents did not include any suggestions that the princess was aware of the transactions.[272] Mrs İşbilen alleges that a further £350,000 payment was made to Andrew through businessman Selman Turk, who Mrs İşbilen is suing for fraud. Turk had been awarded the People's Choice Award for his business Heyman AI at a Pitch@Palace event held at St James's Palace days before the £750,000 payment was made by Mrs İşbilen.[271] Even though he won the award through a public vote online and an audience vote on the night of the ceremony, there were concerns raised with a senior member of the royal household that Turk was "gaming the system" and should not have won as "he may have used bots – autonomous internet programs – to boost his vote".[273] Libyan-born convicted gun smuggler, Tarek Kaituni introduced Andrew to Selman Turk in May or June 2019 and held later meetings on at least two occasions.[274] Kaituni, for whom Andrew allegedly lobbied a British company, had reportedly gifted Princess Beatrice with a £18,000 gold and diamond necklace for her 21st birthday in 2009 and was invited to Princess Eugenie's wedding in 2018.[274]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

Royal monogram
  • 19 February 1960 – 23 July 1986: His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew[275]
  • 23 July 1986 – present: His Royal Highness The Duke of York[c]

As of September 2022, Andrew is eighth in the line of succession to the British throne.[277] On rare occasions, he is known by his secondary titles of Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh, in Scotland and Northern Ireland respectively.[275][278][279]

In 2019, Inverness residents started a campaign to strip him of that title, stating that "it is inappropriate that Prince Andrew is associated with our beautiful city", in light of his friendship with the convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein.[280] Similar pleas have been made by people affiliated with the village of Killyleagh and the city of York regarding his titles of Baron Killyleagh and Duke of York, with Labour Co-op MP for York Central, Rachael Maskell, stating that she would look for ways to make Andrew give up his ducal title if he did not voluntarily relinquish it.[170][281][282] In January 2022, it was reported that, while Andrew retains the style of His Royal Highness, he would no longer use it in a public capacity.[37] In April 2022, several York councillors called for Andrew to lose the title Duke of York.[283] Also in 2022, there was a renewed petition to strip him of the Earl of Inverness title.[284]

Naval ranks

Honours

Commonwealth

Foreign

Appointments

Former honorary military appointments

In 2019, Andrew's military affiliations were suspended and on 13 January 2022 they were formally returned to the Queen.[37]

 Canada

 New Zealand

 United Kingdom

Arms

Coat of arms of the Duke of York
Coat of Arms of Andrew, Duke of York.svg
Notes
The Duke's personal coat of arms are the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom differenced by a label of three points Argent, the central point charged with an anchor Azure.
Adopted
1963
Coronet
The coronet of a son of the sovereign Proper, thereon a lion statant guardant Or crowned of the same coronet charged with a label as in the arms.
Escutcheon
Quarterly 1st and 4th Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or 2nd Or a lion rampant Gules within a double tressure flory counterflory Gules 3rd Azure a harp Or stringed Argent
Supporters
Dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned proper, sinister a unicorn Argent, armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or.
Motto
The Order of the Garter ribbon.
Honi soit qui mal y pense
(Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)
Other elements
The whole differenced by a label of three points Argent, the central point charged with an anchor Azure.
Banner
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.svg The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom, labelled for difference as in his arms.
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Earl of Inverness.svg (in Scotland)
(in Canada: Since 2014, the Duke of York has a personal heraldic flag for use in Canada. It is the Royal Arms of Canada in banner form defaced with a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, within which is a depiction of an "A" surmounted by a coronet. Above the roundel is a white label of three points, the centre one charged with an anchor.[305][306])
Symbolism
As with the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom. The first and fourth quarters are the arms of England, the second of Scotland, the third of Ireland. The anchor has been a brisure for Dukes of York since 1892.

Issue

NameBirthMarriageIssue
DateSpouse
Princess Beatrice8 August 198817 July 2020Edoardo Mapelli MozziSienna Mapelli Mozzi
Princess Eugenie23 March 199012 October 2018Jack BrooksbankAugust Brooksbank

Ancestry

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ Andrew does not usually use a surname but when one is needed, it is Mountbatten-Windsor.[1]
  2. ^ Keogh was accused of inappropriately touching a female employee in 2015 in his previous job at Coutts, an allegation which he denied.[270] It resulted in an internal investigation that led to him quitting under pressure and later suing for unfair dismissal.[270]
  3. ^ While Andrew retains the style of His Royal Highness as is his right as a British prince, he does not use it in a public capacity since 13 January 2022.[37][276]

Citations

  1. ^ "The Royal Family name". Official website of the British monarchy. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  2. ^ a b c "Prince Andrew again denies having sex with Epstein victim". AP NEWS. 15 November 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  3. ^ Calfas, Jennifer (10 August 2021). "Prince Andrew Sued by Epstein Accuser Virginia Giuffre Over Alleged Sexual Assault". Wall Street Journal.
  4. ^ "Virginia Giuffre: Prince Andrew accuser files civil case in US". BBC News. 10 August 2021. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  5. ^ a b Nikkhah, Roya (21 May 2020). "Prince Andrew didn't think it was all over, but it is now". The Times. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  6. ^ Low, Valentine (13 January 2022). "Queen strips Prince Andrew of all military titles and royal patronages". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  7. ^ "A statement from Buckingham Palace regarding The Duke of York". The Royal Family. 13 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  8. ^ a b "Prince Andrew settles US civil sex assault case". BBC News. 15 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  9. ^ "No. 41961". The London Gazette. 20 February 1960. p. 1377.
  10. ^ "Queen Elizabeth II holding an infant Prince Andrew". Royal Collection Trust. Retrieved 17 December 2021. The Queen's third child, Prince Andrew, was born on 19 February 1960 at Buckingham Palace, and was christened on 8 April.
  11. ^ "Royal Family tree and line of succession". BBC. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  12. ^ a b "Prince Andrew: Envoy career plagued with controversy". BBC. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2018. Educated by a governess, then at Heatherdown Prep School, Surrey, and Gordonstoun in Scotland
  13. ^ a b Barkham, Patrick (9 July 2004). "The Guardian profile: Prince Andrew". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  14. ^ "Gordonstoun turns back clock to a golden age of cold showers (but would Prince Charles agree?)". The Scotsman. 28 April 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  15. ^ Cawthorne, Nigel (2021). Prince Andrew: Epstein, Maxwell and the Palace. Gibson Square. ISBN 9781783341771.
  16. ^ "New book claims Prince Andrew was 'obsessed' with pornography". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  17. ^ a b "Early Life & Education". The Duke of York. 26 October 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  18. ^ "The life and times of Prince Andrew". The Times. London, England. 25 November 2019.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "The Duke of York – Naval Career". The Duke of York official website. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  20. ^ "No. 49322". The London Gazette (Supplement). 19 April 1983. p. 5304.
  21. ^ Cawley, Charles (2015). Colonies in Conflict: The History of the British Overseas Territories. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-4438-8128-9.
  22. ^ O'Hara, Glen (2010). Britain and the Sea: Since 1600. Macmillan International Higher Education. pp. 213–214. ISBN 978-1-137-07312-9.
  23. ^ Queen Elizabeth II and the Royal Family: A Glorious Illustrated History. London: DK Publishing. 2015. p. 217. ISBN 978-1465438003.
  24. ^ "Prince Andrew Talks of His Dangerous Falklands Experiences". MercoPress. 12 June 2001.
  25. ^ "Prince Andrew, a hero of the Falklands war". UPI. 19 June 1982.
  26. ^ "Helicopter pilot Prince Andrew is flying anti-submarine patrols in..." UPI. 3 June 1982.
  27. ^ "Prince Andrew talks of Falklands horror". Glasgow Herald. 14 November 1983. p. 2.
  28. ^ "Argentines planned to kill Prince Andrew". Montreal Gazette. Montreal, Quebec: Postmedia Network. Reuters. 17 October 1983. pp. C6. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  29. ^ Ward, Sharky (1993). Sea Harrier Over the Falklands. Barnsley, South Yorkshire: Pen and Sword Books. p. 113. ISBN 978-0850523058. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
  30. ^ "No. 49633". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 January 1984. p. 1382.
  31. ^ "No. 49639". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 February 1984. p. 1735.
  32. ^ a b "No. 56295". The London Gazette (1st supplement). 7 August 2001. p. 9327.
  33. ^ a b "No. 57705". The London Gazette (1st supplement). 19 July 2005. p. 9323.
  34. ^ a b "No. 59341". The London Gazette (1st supplement). 23 February 2010. p. 3085.
  35. ^ a b "No. 61160". The London Gazette (2nd supplement). 3 March 2015. p. 3798.
  36. ^ Low, Valentine (12 February 2015). "Queen makes Prince Andrew a vice-admiral". The Times. London. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Prince Andrew loses military titles and patronages". BBC News. 13 January 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  38. ^ Royal, by Robert Lacey, 2002.
  39. ^ a b Barkham, Patrick (9 July 2004). "The Guardian profile: Prince Andrew". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 February 2022.
  40. ^ Coughlan, Sean (28 January 2022). "Prince Andrew gives up honorary membership at prestigious golf club". BBC. Retrieved 28 January 2022.
  41. ^ Murray, Ewan (28 January 2022). "Relief as Prince Andrew relinquishes membership of Royal & Ancient Club". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 January 2022.
  42. ^ "'New humiliation' for Prince Andrew as his membership of royal golf club revoked". Geo TV. 26 February 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  43. ^ "HRH The Duke of York installed as Liveryman". The Worshipful Company of Shipwrights. 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013.
  44. ^ a b c Battersby, Matilda (15 February 2015). "Prince Andrew's ex Koo Stark speaks about their relationship for first time in 30 years". The Independent. London, England. Archived from the original on 21 January 2017. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  45. ^ Burnet, Alastair (1986). The ITN Book of the Royal Wedding. London, England: Michael O'Mara Books. p. 38. The actress Miss Koo Stark was a regular girlfriend of Prince Andrew for several years.
  46. ^ McNamara, Kim (2015). Paparazzi: Media Practices and Celebrity Culture. Cambridge, England: Polity. p. 29. ISBN 978-0745651743.
  47. ^ Campbell, Lady Colin (1998). The Real Diana. Mount Pleasant, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 161. ASIN B01K562L9Q.
  48. ^ a b Brown, Tina (2007). The Diana Chronicles. New York City: Broadway Books. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-7679-2309-5.
  49. ^ Newsweek, Volume 128 (1997), p. 76
  50. ^ "No. 50606". The London Gazette (Supplement). 23 July 1986. p. 1.
  51. ^ a b DeYoung, Karen (22 July 1986). "Fergie: Bedlam Over the Bride". The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  52. ^ Kindelan, Katie (11 May 2011). "Sarah Ferguson Reveals Her Road to Recovery in Documentary on OWN, Oprah Winfrey Network". ABC News. Retrieved 6 December 2020. She moved with her prince into Buckingham Palace but two weeks into their marriage, Andrew was sent to sea and she only saw him for 40 days a year for the first five years.
  53. ^ Harris, Paul (26 October 2002). "Fergie: How food became my only friend". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 November 2020. The ex-wife of Prince Andrew described how she struggled against obesity for most of her life and was devastated when tabloids dubbed her 'Duchess of Pork' and 'Fat Fergie'.
  54. ^ "1992: Fergie and Andrew split". BBC. 19 March 1992. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  55. ^ Castle, Stephen (4 February 2008). "From Prince Andrew, critical words for U.S. on Iraq". The New York Times.
  56. ^ a b Borland, Sophie (30 January 2008). "Scented candle starts fire at Fergie's home". www.telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  57. ^ "Fergie and Andrew will definitely remarry, friends say". Irish Independent. 25 August 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2021 – via Telegraph.
  58. ^ National Audit Office report, 2005. "The Crown Estate – Property Leases with the Royal Family".
  59. ^ "Duchess of York 'wanted cash for Prince Andrew access'". BBC News. 23 May 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2011. The paper says the prince - a UK trade envoy - knew nothing about the deal
  60. ^ Collins, Nick (25 July 2011). "Duchess of York clears debts thanks to 'knight on white charger' Andrew". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
  61. ^ Mehta, Amar (2 June 2022). "Prince Andrew tests positive for COVID, Buckingham Palace says". Sky News. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
  62. ^ a b "Prince Andrew: Envoy career plagued with controversy". BBC News. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2013.
  63. ^ Swinford, Steven (7 March 2011). "Duchess of York admits Duke arranged for convicted paedophile Jeffrey Epstein to pay off her debts". The Daily Telegraph. London, England. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  64. ^ Bryant, Kenzie (18 September 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein Reportedly Wanted to Sue Sarah Ferguson After She Referred to Him as a Pedophile". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  65. ^ a b "Prince Andrew's links to Jeffrey Epstein". BBC News. 16 November 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  66. ^ Lewis, Paul; Swaine, Jon (10 January 2015). "Jeffrey Epstein: inside the decade of scandal entangling Prince Andrew". The Guardian. London, England. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
  67. ^ "Prince Andrew sex claims woman 'should not be believed'". BBC News. 3 January 2015.
  68. ^ Gibson, Megan (6 January 2015). "U.S. Lawyer Sues in Prince Andrew Sex Claims Case". time.com. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  69. ^ Wiliams, Timothy (6 January 2015). "Alan Dershowitz Denies Suit's Allegations of Sex With a Minor". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  70. ^ Meier, Barry (12 December 2015). "Alan Dershowitz on the Defense (His Own)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  71. ^ Booth, Robert (9 January 2015). "Palace digs in over Prince Andrew's links to sex offender Jeffrey Epstein". The Guardian. London, England. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  72. ^ Withnall, Adam (4 January 2015). "Teenage 'sex slave' Virginia Roberts claims she was paid £10,000 by Jeffrey Epstein to have sex with Prince Andrew". The Independent. London.
  73. ^ Booth, Robert; Lewis, Paul (4 January 2015). "Palace takes unusual step to deny Prince Andrew underage sex claims". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  74. ^ Tim Walker (22 January 2015). "Virginia Roberts sex claims: Prince Andrew arrives in Davos amid calls for him to answer 'sex slave' allegations under oath". The Independent. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  75. ^ "Prince Andrew set for first public event since sex claim". BBC News. 22 January 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  76. ^ North, Anna (30 July 2019). "Alan Dershowitz helped sex offender Jeffrey Epstein get a plea deal. Now he's tweeting about age of consent laws". Vox. Archived from the original on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  77. ^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (4 January 2015). "Suit accuses Prince Andrew, Alan Dershowitz of sex with a minor". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015 – via The Boston Globe.
  78. ^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G. (4 January 2015). "Prince Andrew and Alan Dershowitz Are Mentioned in Suit Alleging Sex With Minor". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  79. ^ Bruck, Connie (29 July 2019). "Alan Dershowitz, Devil's Advocate". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 31 July 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  80. ^ Meier, Barry (12 April 2016). "Alan Dershowitz and 2 Other Lawyers Settle Suit and Counter Claim". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
  81. ^ "Influential US predator in court apology". BBC News. 4 December 2018. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  82. ^ Cauterucci, Christina (11 July 2019). "How a Florida Lawyer Kept the Jeffrey Epstein Case Alive". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  83. ^ "Prince Andrew under renewed pressure to speak about 'sex abuse' claims after flight logs emerge". Telegraph.co.uk. 21 January 2015. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  84. ^ Sykes, Tom (20 August 2019). "Flight Logs Reportedly Link Prince Andrew to Alleged Jeffrey Epstein Victim Virginia Roberts". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  85. ^ "The Independent". Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  86. ^ Gardner, Bill (29 August 2019). "Prince Andrew's supporters say his 'chubby' fingers prove photo of him with Epstein victim is fake". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
  87. ^ a b Greenslade, Roy "Prince Andrew story runs and runs – but editors should beware", The Guardian (blog), 5 January 2015
  88. ^ Sherwell, Philip. "Prince Andrew sex abuse allegation thrown out by judge". UK Daily Telegraph – 7 April 2015. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2015. A US judge has ruled that sex allegations made against Prince Andrew in court papers filed in Florida must be struck from the public record.
  89. ^ Buncombe, Andrew. "Prince Andrew sex claims case: Judge orders that allegations against Duke of York be thrown out". The Independent UK, 7 April 2015. Retrieved 17 April 2015. A US judge has ordered that "lurid" sex allegations made against Prince Andrew and which led to a major crisis for the member of the royal family, be struck from the record
  90. ^ Jon Swaine. "Judge orders Prince Andrew sex allegations struck from court record". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  91. ^ Lewis, Paul. "Prince Andrew named in US lawsuit over underage sex claims". The Guardian. London.
  92. ^ Martin, Guy. "The Revelations: What Prince Andrew Faces As His Old Friend Ghislaine Maxwell's Trial Begins". Forbes.
  93. ^ Bekiempis, Victoria; Waterson, Jim (9 August 2019). "Prince Andrew groped young woman's breast at Epstein house, court files allege". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  94. ^ Berlinger, Joshua (28 August 2019). "Epstein accuser on Prince Andrew: 'He knows exactly what he's done'". CNN. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
  95. ^ Helmore, Edward; Rawlinson, Kevin (22 August 2019). "Prince Andrew was seen getting foot massage from young woman at Epstein's apartment – report". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  96. ^ Hall, Richard (3 July 2020). "Woman claims she was raped as a teenager by Epstein in New York mansion while Prince Andrew was visiting". The Independent. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  97. ^ "Ghislaine Maxwell was 'No 2' in Jeffrey Epstein's hierarchy, pilot says". The Guardian. 30 November 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  98. ^ Humphries, Will (22 August 2019). "Jeffrey Epstein pilot's logs pose questions for Prince Andrew". The Times. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  99. ^ "Epstein and Maxwell pictured at Queen's residence at Balmoral". BBC. 9 December 2021. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  100. ^ Sheets, Megan; Muzaffar, Maroosha; Sarkar, Alisha Rahaman; Kingsley, Thomas (5 January 2022). "Prince Andrew hearing – live: Duke in 'difficult situation' after 'horrible day' in court as decision looms". The Independent. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  101. ^ Shoaib, Alia (31 October 2021). "Prince Andrew's attorneys repeat claims that Virginia Roberts Giuffre wanted to recruit 'slutty' girls for Epstein to abuse as they up the ante in legal battle". Insider. Retrieved 15 January 2022.
  102. ^ Bartholomew, Jem (8 January 2022). "Virginia Giuffre told me in 2001 she slept with Prince Andrew, witness says". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  103. ^ Churchman, Laurie (19 January 2022). "Paul Page: The former royal protection officer found guilty of fraud". The Independent. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  104. ^ Laville, Sandra (17 July 2009). "Former royal protection officer guilty of £3m scam". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  105. ^ Bancroft, Holly (18 January 2022). "Prince Andrew and Ghislaine Maxwell may have been in relationship, former friend claims". The Independent. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  106. ^ a b "ITV documentary sheds light on Prince Andrew's connection with disgraced socialite Ghislaine Maxwell". ITV. 17 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  107. ^ Mendick, Robert (11 February 2022). "'They knew each other well': Prince Andrew pictured with Ghislaine Maxwell in 2002 palace tour". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  108. ^ Brown, Tina (11 April 2022). "'Jeffrey Epstein told people that Prince Andrew was an idiot – but a useful one'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  109. ^ a b Halliday, Josh (16 October 2022). "Ghislaine Maxwell says she feels bad for 'dear friend' Prince Andrew". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  110. ^ "As it happened: Prince Andrew's Interview". BBC News. 16 November 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  111. ^ "Letter casts doubt on when prince met Epstein". BBC News. 20 November 2019. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  112. ^ a b Mansoor, Sanya; Haynes, Suyin (17 November 2019). "Prince Andrew Says He Doesn't Regret His 'Very Useful' Relationship With Jeffrey Epstein". Time. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  113. ^ "Prince Andrew denies sex with 17-year-old because he was 'at Pizza Express' on night in question". The Independent. 16 November 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  114. ^ "Prince Andrew denies sex with 17-year-old: 'I went to Pizza Express that day'". Sky News. 16 November 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  115. ^ Hamblin, James (18 November 2019). "The Man Who Did Not Sweat". The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  116. ^ "'I returned a changed man': Prince Andrew deletes Falklands war post". The Guardian. PA Media. 2 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  117. ^ Whipple, Tom (18 November 2019). "Why can't Prince Andrew sweat? The answer is anhidrosis". The Times. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  118. ^ "Prince Andrew 'categorically' denies sex claims". BBC News. 17 November 2019. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  119. ^ Sykes, Tom (22 September 2021). "Defiant Prince Andrew to Stop Hiding and Fight Virginia Giuffre's Claims". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  120. ^ Clarkson, Jeremy. "All Prince Andrew's woes can be blamed on the bottle: he never has one in his manicured hands". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  121. ^ McElvoy, Anne (13 August 2021). "A majestic silence is no longer an option for Prince Andrew". Evening Standard. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  122. ^ Sykes, Tom (29 August 2014). "The Perils of a Playboy Prince". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  123. ^ Mohdin, Aamna (16 November 2019). "Prince Andrew: I thought staying with Epstein was 'honourable thing'". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  124. ^ Shoard, Catherine (14 July 2022). "Prince Andrew's Newsnight interview to be the subject of a new film". The Guardian.
  125. ^ Walters, Joanna (9 August 2021). "Epstein accuser Virginia Giuffre sues Prince Andrew". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 August 2021.
  126. ^ Media, P. A. (30 October 2021). "Prince Andrew 'unequivocally denies' Virginia Giuffre sexual assault claims". edinburghlive.
  127. ^ Moghe, Sonia (30 October 2021). "Prince Andrew's attorneys ask to dismiss US sex assault lawsuit saying it violates the terms of a settlement agreement". CNN. Retrieved 30 October 2021.
  128. ^ Bekiempis, Victoria (12 January 2022). "Prince Andrew rejected in effort to get US sexual abuse case dismissed". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  129. ^ "Prince Andrew to face civil sex assault case after US ruling". BBC. 12 January 2022. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  130. ^ Davies, Caroline (15 February 2022). "Prince Andrew's settlement raises many questions but answers none". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  131. ^ Bryant, Nick (26 March 2022). "Royal roadkill: The downfall of Britain's Prince Andrew". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  132. ^ "Queen approved Andrew's 'disastrous' interview, Emily Maitlis says". ITV News. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  133. ^ Tominey, Camilla; Ward, Victoria (17 November 2019). "Queen did not approve Prince Andrew's excruciating Newsnight interview". The Sunday Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  134. ^ Sandler, Rachel (17 November 2019). "Prince Andrew's PR Advisor Reportedly Quit Over BBC Interview About Jeffrey Epstein". Forbes. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  135. ^ Waterson, Jim (17 November 2019). "'He was incredibly gracious after': Newsnight team say Andrew was pleased with interview". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  136. ^ Adam, Karla (17 November 2019). "Prince Andrew's Epstein interview roundly panned: 'nuclear explosion level bad'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  137. ^ Lewis, Aimee (17 November 2019). "Prince Andrew sparks near-universal condemnation with TV interview". CNN. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  138. ^ Landler, Mark (20 November 2019). "After Disastrous Epstein Interview, Prince Andrew Steps Down From Public Duties". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  139. ^ "Huddersfield and London Met universities reviewing Prince Andrew's role following interview". ITV News. 19 November 2019.
  140. ^ Siddique, Haroon; Sundaravelu, Anugraha (18 November 2019). "KPMG ends its backing for Prince Andrew's mentorship scheme". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
  141. ^ Quinn, Ben; Waterson, Jim; Otte, Jedidajah (19 November 2019). "Prince Andrew mentor scheme at risk as firms withdraw support". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
  142. ^ Quinn, Ben (20 November 2019). "Prince Andrew to step back from public duties 'for foreseeable future'". The Guardian. London, England. Retrieved 20 November 2019.
  143. ^ "Prince Andrew seen for first time since stepping back from royal duties". BBC News. 21 November 2019. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  144. ^ "Prince Andrew quits as University of Huddersfield chancellor". BBC News. 21 November 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
  145. ^ Booth, Robert (24 November 2019). "Prince Andrew to stand aside from all 230 of his patronages". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
  146. ^ Davies, Caroline (16 January 2020). "Prince Andrew: Home Office 'recommends downgrade of security'". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  147. ^ Brown, Natalie (8 June 2020). "Prince Andrew to keep taxpayer-funded bodyguards after Queen's intervention". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  148. ^ "Jeffrey Epstein accusers outraged by Prince Andrew's 'lack of co-operation'". BBC. 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  149. ^ Davies, Caroline (29 January 2020). "Prince Andrew 'angry' at claims he is not cooperating on Epstein inquiry". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  150. ^ "Prince Andrew 'offered to help Jeffrey Epstein prosecutors'". BBC News. 8 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
  151. ^ Hosenball, Mark; Holden, Michael (8 June 2020). "U.S. prosecutors say Britain's Prince Andrew not cooperating in Epstein probe". Reuters. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  152. ^ Doody, Kieran (2 July 2022). "Prince Andrew issued arrest warning after Ghislaine Maxwell is jailed". The Herald. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  153. ^ Tominey, Camilla; Ward, Victoria (10 March 2020). "Prince Andrew hires PR man who advised VIPs falsely accused of child sex abuse". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  154. ^ "AXED! – Prince Andrew's junior golf tournament is scrapped". Bunkered. 25 April 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020.
  155. ^ Nikkhah, Roya (10 May 2020). "Prince Andrew Charitable Trust to be wound up amid Charity Commission investigation". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  156. ^ Fisher, Lucy; Low, Valentine (28 November 2019). "Prince Andrew: Strip duke of military roles, urge top brass". The Times. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
  157. ^ Katersky, Aaron; Hill, James; Margolin, Josh (8 June 2020). "NY prosecutors request testimony from Prince Andrew as part of Jeffrey Epstein investigation". ABC News. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  158. ^ Winter, Tom; Talmazan, Yuliya (7 June 2020). "Prosecutors formally request to talk with Prince Andrew in Epstein investigation". NBC News. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  159. ^ "Prince Andrew Should Lose Royal Titles, Face Extradition". Newsweek. 26 June 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  160. ^ "Prince Andrew's 'nervous' move after Ghislaine Maxwell's arrest". NewsComAu. 6 July 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  161. ^ Casciani, Dominic (30 December 2021). "Ghislaine Maxwell: What the trial means for Prince Andrew". BBC. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  162. ^ Clifton, Jamie (25 August 2020). "Protesters Chanted 'Paedophile! Paedophile!' Outside Buckingham Palace". Vice. London. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  163. ^ Davies, Caroline (20 August 2021). "Prince Andrew's reputation damaged for ever by Giuffre claims, experts say". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  164. ^ a b "Prince Andrew 'a person of interest' in Epstein probe – source". Reuters. 16 August 2021. Retrieved 19 August 2021.
  165. ^ Davies, Caroline (19 January 2022). "Prince Andrew's social media accounts deleted as he fights US lawsuit". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  166. ^ Davies, Gareth (19 January 2022). "Minister accuses Prince Andrew of keeping 'horrifically ill-advised' company". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  167. ^ "Officials ponder name change for Prince Andrew High School in Nova Scotia after complaints". National Post. 16 December 2019.
  168. ^ "Prince Andrew High to get a new name next school year". CBC News. 18 January 2022. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  169. ^ Simpson, Mark (1 February 2022). "Prince Andrew: Council agrees not to fly union flag on birthday". BBC. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
  170. ^ a b Simpson, Mark (16 February 2022). "Prince Andrew Way in Carrickfergus may be renamed". BBC. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  171. ^ a b "Prince Andrew: York councillors unanimously vote to remove Duke's freedom of the city". Sky News. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  172. ^ "Prince Andrew: Duke of York loses Freedom of City honour". BBC. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  173. ^ Wheeler, Richard (21 February 2022). "MP advised to speak to Commons officials over bid to remove Duke of York title". The Independent. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
  174. ^ Turner, Lauren (29 March 2022). "Queen attends Prince Philip memorial service at Westminster Abbey". BBC News. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  175. ^ Hall, Rachel (29 March 2022). "Was Prince Andrew's role at service a bid to rehabilitate 'soiled royal'?". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  176. ^ Ward, Victoria (12 June 2022). "Exclusive: Prince Andrew wants royal status 'reinstated, recognised and respected'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  177. ^ Davies, Caroline (13 June 2022). "Prince Andrew misses Windsor Castle procession after 'family decision'". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  178. ^ "Prince Andrew: Duke of York could lose title if bill becomes law". BBC. 21 June 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  179. ^ Bet, Martina (22 June 2022). "Prince Andrew Duke of York and 'dubious' peers 'could be stripped of their titles'". Irish Independent. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  180. ^ Laycock, Mike (21 June 2022). "MP proposes law allowing Prince Andrew to be stripped of Duke of York title". The Press. Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  181. ^ a b Ward, Victoria (11 August 2022). "Taxpayers still forking out eye-watering sum to fund Prince Andrew's police protection". The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  182. ^ Davies, Caroline (12 September 2022). "Prince Andrew unlikely to resume royal duties under King Charles". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
  183. ^ Sabin, Lamiat (12 September 2022). "Man arrested after Prince Andrew heckled as he follows Queen's coffin in Edinburgh". The Independent. Retrieved 13 September 2022.
  184. ^ Davies, Caroline (15 September 2022). "King Charles to lead siblings in vigil over Queen's coffin in Westminster Hall". BBC News. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
  185. ^ a b Buncombe, Andrew (17 September 2022). "Jeffrey Epstein victims angered by Prince Andrew's 'public rehabilitation' at Queen's funeral events". The Independent. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  186. ^ "The Middle East Association". Global Arab Network. Archived from the original on 3 August 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  187. ^ Robert Jobson (23 January 2015). "What's the point of Prince Andrew?". CNN. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  188. ^ "Message from the Royal Patron" Archived 4 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Fight for Sight, accessed 4 February 2015
  189. ^ "Royal Support for the Scouting and Guiding Movements". Official Website of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 24 January 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2008.
  190. ^ Hurst, Jeff; "Princely plans for Andrew", Cambridge Times (Canada), 1 May 2007. Archived 16 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  191. ^ "Royal family global tour to mark Diamond Jubilee". The Daily Telegraph. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  192. ^ Perry, Simon (28 July 2015). "Prince Andrew and Ex-Wife Fergie Come Together for a Fashionable Cause: 'It Is About Family Unity'". People. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  193. ^ "Key to Freedom". Key to Freedom. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  194. ^ "Prince Andrew rappels down U.K. building for charity". CBC News. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  195. ^ "Prince Andrew descends Europe's tallest building". cbsnews. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  196. ^ "By Royal Appointment: London Met welcomes new Patron". London Metropolitan University. 3 June 2013.
  197. ^ "Duke of York becomes University Patron". University of Huddersfield. 2 July 2013. Archived from the original on 22 January 2015.
  198. ^ "The Duke of York to be Patron of the University of Huddersfield". ITV News. 2 July 2013.
  199. ^ a b "HRH The Duke of York installed as University Chancellor". University of Huddersfield. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  200. ^ a b "Hughes Hall appoints the Duke of York as an Honorary Fellow and HRH opens Gresham Court". 1 May 2018. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  201. ^ "Attend VIPs". Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  202. ^ Emma.Goodey (4 April 2016). "The Duke of York and Pitch@Palace". The Royal Family. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  203. ^ "Nick Hatter – Life Coach in London | How to get a royal invitation". Nick Hatter – Life Coach in London. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  204. ^ "What is Pitch@Palace?". Pitch@Palace. 1 June 2017. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  205. ^ "The Prince Andrew Charitable Trust". Public register for charities (BETA). Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  206. ^ "Duke of York's Inspiring Digital Enterprise Awards". University of Huddersfield. Archived from the original on 27 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  207. ^ "iDEA". Wigan Council. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  208. ^ "The Duke of York Award". The University Technical College Network. Archived from the original on 26 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  209. ^ "The Duke of York Award for Technical Education: Educate's involvement". Educate School Services Ltd. 7 July 2015. Archived from the original on 27 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  210. ^ "York graduate awarded Duke of York Young Entrepreneur Award". The University of York. 27 April 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  211. ^ "Duke of York visits Northern Ireland Science Park". Gov.uk. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  212. ^ Mulgrew, John (18 October 2016). "Prince Andrew launches tech park offices". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  213. ^ Philbin, Maggie (12 November 2017). "TeenTech@Buckingham Palace". TeenTech. Archived from the original on 26 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  214. ^ "Visit of His Royal Highness, The Duke of York, KG to Geneva, Switzerland". Gov.uk. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  215. ^ "The Duke of York visits China 2018". The Royal Family. 1 June 2018. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  216. ^ "Prince Andrew could be handed a summons to face Epstein questions". Sky News. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  217. ^ Furness, Hannah (12 March 2019). "Prince Philip passes Outward Bound Trust patronage to Prince Andrew after interviewing him for the job". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  218. ^ "The Duke of York, KG". The Outward Bound Trust. Archived from the original on 26 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  219. ^ Pitcher, Greg (15 May 2019). "Prince Andrew takes design champion role". Architects Journal. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
  220. ^ "Prince Andrew to stand down as UK trade envoy", BBC News, 21 July 2011
  221. ^ "Duke of York must lose trade job, says Labour MP", BBC News, 1 March 2011.
  222. ^ "Libyan gun smuggler was at Princess Eugenie's royal wedding". The Times. 15 October 2018.
  223. ^ a b c "Prince Andrew: Envoy career plagued with controversy". BBC. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  224. ^ Armitage, Jim (12 November 2014). "Duke of York to meet Azeri despot Ilham Aliyev for 12th time". The Independent. London. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  225. ^ Swinford, Steven (7 March 2011). "Duke of York costs taxpayers £15m". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
  226. ^ Finch, Gavin; Wilson, Harry (19 November 2020). "Prince Andrew Helped a Secretive Luxembourg Bank Woo Sketchy Clients". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  227. ^ Croft, Jane (9 October 2017). "Former Conservative party treasurer wins Luxembourg bank case". Financial Times. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  228. ^ "Ouverture officielle Banque Havilland en présence de S. A. R le Duc d'York K. G." [Official Opening of Banque Havilland in the presence of HRH the Duke of York, KG]. Paperjam.lu. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  229. ^ "Cablegate Chronicles: Prince Andrew on 'These (Expletive) Journalists'". The Atlantic. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  230. ^ a b Leigh, David; Brooke, Heather; Evans, Rob (29 November 2010). "WikiLeaks cables: 'Rude' Prince Andrew shocks US ambassador". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 August 2019.
  231. ^ Foggo, Daniel; Swinford, Steven; Mikhailova, Anna (27 July 2008). "Prince Andrew, his £15m home and the Kazakhstan connection". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 4 September 2008. On one of his most recent visits, in May, he [Prince Andrew] is understood to have spent a weekend on a goose-shooting excursion with Nursultan Nazarbayev, the president of Kazakhstan. ... Timur Kulibayev, 41, is a billionaire oil and gas tycoon who is known to Andrew, not least through their attendance at hunting parties thrown by Nazarbayev. ... Kulibayev has also been busy inviting VIPs, reportedly including the prince, to regular hunting meets hosted by the Kazakh president.
  232. ^ Booth, Robert (3 July 2016). "Prince Andrew tried to broker crown property deal for Kazakh oligarch". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  233. ^ a b c Lewis, Jason (26 May 2012). "Money laundering probe puts spotlight on the £15 million sale of the Duke of York's home". The Sunday Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  234. ^ a b c Sawer, Patrick (21 May 2016). "Prince Andrew brokered £385m deal with Kazakh regime while working as British trade envoy". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022.
  235. ^ "Prince Andrew: 'Cheerleader in chief for the arms industry'". Channel 4 News. 10 March 2011.
  236. ^ "Campaigners call for UK to halt arms exports to Bahrain as Prince Andrew joins sales drive" Archived 19 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Campaign Against Arms Trade. 15 January 2014.
  237. ^ "What Scandal Involving Prince Andrew Says – Al Jazeera America". Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  238. ^ a b Leake, Jonathan (5 May 2013). "Royal Society bust-up over Andrew". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 24 November 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  239. ^ Colquohon, David (5 May 2013). "Dukes of York don't belong in our Royal Society". Sunday Times. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  240. ^ Waterson, Jim (18 November 2019). "Prince Andrew used the N-word, former No 10 aide claims". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
  241. ^ Davies, Gareth (19 November 2019). "Prince Andrew made 'racist' comment about Arabs, ex-home secretary says". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  242. ^ O'Neill, Sean (19 November 2019). "Prince Andrew was racist about Arabs at state banquet, claims former home secretary Jacqui Smith". The Times. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  243. ^ "Former British home secretary accuses Prince Andrew of racism". The Australian.
  244. ^ Weaver, Matthew (16 March 2016). "Duke of York 'should be prosecuted for ramming open park gate'". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  245. ^ Weaver, Matthew (17 March 2016). "Police won't investigate Prince Andrew over alleged gate ramming". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  246. ^ a b Childress, Deirdre (24 April 1984). "Crown may pay for cameras, clothes sprayed by prince". UPI. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  247. ^ Anthony, Andrew (8 January 2022). "Royals await anxiously the fallout from Prince Andrew's disgrace". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  248. ^ "Andrew's teddy bear collection was not to be disturbed, claims documentary". The Independent. 17 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  249. ^ Nolasco, Stephanie; Papa, Ashley (5 October 2022). "'Bully' Prince Andrew had a 'revolving door' of women entering 'his bedroom,' former royal officer claims". Fox News. Retrieved 11 October 2022.
  250. ^ a b Cartwright, Lexie (22 January 2022). "Former palace maid spills on Prince Andrew's 'entitled' demands". news.com.au. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  251. ^ Hanna, Aoife (21 January 2022). "Prince Andrew laughed when his dog bit maid, leaving her 'bleeding'". Woman & Home. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  252. ^ Giordano, Chiara (11 February 2022). "Prince Andrew 'was constant sex pest' to massage therapist". The Independent. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
  253. ^ Davies, Caroline (16 November 2021). "Questions persist over how Prince Andrew funded luxury lifestyle". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  254. ^ "Financial arrangements of members of the Royal Family". Royal Household. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  255. ^ Foggo, Daniel; Swinford, Steven; Mikhailova, Anna (27 July 2008). "Prince Andrew, his £15m home and the Kazakhstan connection". The Sunday Times. London. Retrieved 24 November 2019. (subscription required)
  256. ^ a b c d Wilson, Harry; Finch, Gavin (16 November 2021). "Prince Andrew's £1.5 Million Loan Paid Off by Top Political Donor". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 3 February 2022.
  257. ^ "Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson buy luxury chalet". BBC News. 10 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2022.
  258. ^ "Prince Andrew to face legal case over reported £5m ski chalet debt". The Guardian. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  259. ^ a b Bodkin, Henry (7 August 2022). "Sarah Ferguson's £5m Mayfair mews purchase 'outrages' chalet owner burned by the Yorks". The Telegraph. Retrieved 8 August 2022.
  260. ^ Badshah, Nadeem (1 June 2020). "Queen will not pick up chalet debt, says Prince Andrew". The Times. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  261. ^ Nicholl, Katie; Vanderhoof, Erin (28 September 2021). "Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson Have Solved One Big Financial Woe". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 28 September 2021.
  262. ^ Giordano, Chiara (7 January 2022). "Prince Andrew 'rushing through sale of £17m Swiss chalet' as legal bills spiral". The Independent. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  263. ^ "Prince Andrew branded 'absolute fool' over £1.6 million Swiss debt". Geo TV. 11 June 2022. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  264. ^ Ward, Victoria (11 June 2022). "'Absolute fool': Prince Andrew embroiled in another debt battle, this time over £1.6m". The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 June 2022.
  265. ^ Stewart, Heather (16 November 2021). "Prince Andrew's £1.5m loan paid off by firms linked to Tory donor – report". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  266. ^ Wadhera, Celine (17 November 2021). "Prince Andrew's £1.5m loan 'paid off by firms linked to Tory donor'". The Independent. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  267. ^ "Lincelles". Companies House. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  268. ^ "Urramoor Limited". Companies House. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  269. ^ Greenwood, George (5 January 2022). "Prince Andrew winds up investment company linked to disgraced Coutts banker Harry Keogh". The Times. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  270. ^ a b c Royston, Jack (27 April 2021). "Prince Andrew Teams Up With Banker Accused of Sexual Harassment For New Business Venture". Newsweek. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  271. ^ a b Dixon, Hayley; Mendick, Robert; Ward, Victoria (31 March 2022). "Prince Andrew took £1 million from Turkish 'fraudster'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  272. ^ Dixon, Hayley; Ward, Victoria; Mendick, Robert (1 April 2022). "Exclusive: Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie received money from Turkish 'fraudster' linked to Prince Andrew". The Telegraph. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  273. ^ Grierson, Jamie (4 April 2022). "New questions raised over Prince Andrew's award to Selman Turk". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  274. ^ a b Grierson, Jamie (3 April 2022). "More details emerge of Prince Andrew's alleged links with banker Selman Turk". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  275. ^ a b "The Duke of York – Style and titles". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  276. ^ "Prince Andrew: Who is he and what titles is he losing?". BBC News. 16 February 2022.
  277. ^ Goodey, Emma (17 March 2016). "Succession". The Royal Family. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  278. ^ "A comprehensive guide to the Royal Family's regional titles". Tatler. 20 May 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  279. ^ "A Guide to Royal Family Titles, from the Queen's Specific Styling to Prince Harry's Scottish Moniker". Town & Country. 6 June 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  280. ^ "Petition urges Queen to strip Prince Andrew of Earl of Inverness title". Inverness Courier. 21 November 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  281. ^ "Prince Andrew faces calls to give up Duke of York title". BBC News. 14 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  282. ^ Halliday, Josh (16 February 2022). "Prince Andrew facing fresh calls to be stripped of Duke of York title". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  283. ^ Ng, Kate (28 April 2022). "Will Prince Andrew still be the Duke of York?". The Independent. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  284. ^ Meighan, Craig (16 September 2022). "More than 6000 sign petition calling for Prince Andrew to lose Earl of Inverness title". The National. Retrieved 17 September 2022.
  285. ^ "The Duke of York appointed GCVO, 21 February 2011". Official Website of The British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
  286. ^ "No. 56951". The London Gazette. 2 June 2003. p. 6753.
  287. ^ "St George's Chapel > History > Orders of Chivalry". St George's Chapel. Archived from the original on 20 August 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2008.
  288. ^ "No. 48072". The London Gazette. 18 January 1980. p. 899.
  289. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Honours and Decorations". The Duke of York. 26 October 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  290. ^ a b rose.slavin (13 December 2017). "Year in Review 2017".
  291. ^ Jackson, Michael (Summer 2007). "Honours of the Crown" (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News. Monarchist League of Canada (26): 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
  292. ^ Johnson, Alice (26 November 2010). "Khalifa, Queen Elizabeth II exchange orders". Gulf News. Dubai.
  293. ^ "TRH The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall Awarded with the Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle". Embassy of Mexico in the United Kingdom (Press release). 21 August 2019. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  294. ^ "El Rey reconoce que Isabel II ha hecho posible la visita de Estado a Reino Unido" [King Felipe recognises that Elizabeth II has made possible the state visit to the United Kingdom]. lavanguardia.com (in Spanish). La Vanguardia. 14 July 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  295. ^ Batchelor, Tom (24 March 2022). "Prince Andrew hangs on to Freedom of the City of York after Covid derails council vote". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  296. ^ "Royal Society elects new Fellows for 2013". London: Royal Society. 3 May 2013.
  297. ^ "Grand President – The Royal Commonwealth Ex-Services League (RCEL)". South African Legion of Military Veterans. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  298. ^ "Prince Andrew stripped of Royal Patronages". This Is Local London. 13 January 2022. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  299. ^ "Prince Andrew still named by royals as patron of numerous charities – despite severing ties a year ago". uk.news.yahoo.com. 5 March 2021. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  300. ^ Lavigueur, Nick (2 July 2015). "Duke of York to become new chancellor of Huddersfield University". huddersfieldexaminer.
  301. ^ SLL Present HRH The Duke of York KG with Honorary Fellowship – website of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers
  302. ^ Lozinski, Grace (29 November 2019). "Prince Andrew resigns as honorary fellow of Hughes Hall". Varsity. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  303. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "The Duke of York – Service appointments". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 10 January 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  304. ^ "The Duke of York is appointed Colonel of the Grenadier Guards". Royal Household. 1 December 2017.
  305. ^ "Canadian Flags of the Royal Family". Canadian Crown. Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  306. ^ "The Prince Andrew, Duke of York". Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges. Office of the Governor General of Canada: Canadian Heraldic Authority. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
  307. ^ Paget, Gerald (1977). The Lineage and Ancestry of H.R.H. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales (2 vols). Edinburgh: Charles Skilton. ISBN 978-0-284-40016-1.

Bibliography

  • Photographs (1985) by HRH Prince Andrew. London: Hamilton.ISBN 978-0-241-11644-9.OCLC 13947617. A book of photographs taken by Andrew.

External links

Media files used on this page

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Norway.svg
Flag of Norway. The colors approximately correspond to Pantone 200 C (deep red) and 281 C (dark blue).
Flag of Mexico.svg
Flag of Mexico Official version of the Flag of the United Mexican States or Mexico, adopted September 16th 1968 by Decree (Published August 17th 1968), Ratio 4:7. The previous version of the flag displayed a slightly different Coat of Arms. It was redesigned to be even more resplendent due to the upcoming Mexico City 1968 Olympic Games; According to Flag of Mexico, the colors are Green Pantone 3425 C and Red Pantone 186 C. According to [1] or [2], that translates to RGB 206, 17, 38 for the red, and RGB 0, 104, 71 for the green.
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Flag of Canada introduced in 1965, using Pantone colors. This design replaced the Canadian Red Ensign design.
Flag of New Zealand.svg
Flag of New Zealand. Specification: http://www.mch.govt.nz/nzflag/description.html , quoting New Zealand Gazette, 27 June 1902.
Flag of Scotland.svg
Flag of Scotland. Ratio 3:5. The blue used is "royal" blue (Pantone 300), following the Scottish Parliament's recommendation of 2003. See also the traditional colour: Flag of Scotland (traditional).svgFlag of Scotland (1542–2003).svg.
Saint Patrick's Saltire.svg
This is "Saint Patrick's saltire", the third component of the Union Flag. It represents Ireland and is called "Saint Patrick's cross/saltire", though whether this was originally an authentic symbol of Saint Patrick is historically quite doubtful.
UK Queen EII Platinum Jubilee Medal ribbon.svg
Ribbon bar: Queen Elizabeth II Platinum Jubilee Medal – United Kingdom.
New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal ribbon.png
Author/Creator: The original uploader was PalawanOz at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal ribbon
Summary
Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: [1] Permission given by Megan Robertson to User:PalawanOz on 22 April 2007 for the use of this image in Wikipedia articles
The Duke of York in Belfast (cropped).jpg
Author/Creator: Titanic Belfast, Licence: CC BY 2.0
On 29 January 2013, Prince Andrew, the Duke of York, visited Titanic Belfast to talk to over 200 young people from across Northern Ireland who attended an event organised by Cooperation Ireland to celebrate their completion of the first ever National Citizen Service project to be run in Northern Ireland
Ribbon - Naval Long Service and Good Conduct Medal v3.png
Author/Creator: Col André Kritzinger, Licence: CC0
The 1874 ribbon of the Naval Long Service and Good Conduct Medal, 32 mm wide and Navy blue with 6½ mm wide white edges.
Prince Andrew and Leon E. Panetta.jpg
Author/Creator: Secretary of Defense, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Prince Andrew and Leon E. Panetta
Badge of the House of Windsor.svg

The Badge of the House of Windsor (the ruling royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms), as approved by King George VI in 1938. In the style used from 1938 to 1952 and the again from 2022.


Although the Sovereigns of the House of Windsor (this dynastic name was adopted by Royal Proclamation on 17th June 1917) have used various old royal badges only one or two new badges have been adopted that for Wales and the following badge for the House of Windsor, which was approved by King George VI on 28th July 1938: On a Mount Vert the Round Tower of Windsor Castle argent, masoned sable, flying thereon the Royal Standard, the whole within two branches of oak fructed or, and ensigned with the Imperial Crown.
(J.P. Brooke-Little, 1954, Boutell's Heraldry, Frederick Warne: London and New York, pages 216-217)
Coronet of a British Duke.svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Coronet of a British Duke
Personal Flag of the Duke of York for use in Canada.svg
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Duke of York (2014-present).
Flag of the British Army.svg
The Army Flag (non-ceremonial): is authorized to be flown at any Army or inter-Service events of a non ceremonial nature, at Army headquarters and recruiting offices. The Army Flag is not to be flown as the principal flag denoting Army participation at any international event where the Union Flag should be flown (Ministry of Defence (1996). The Queen's Regulations for the Army 1975. Government of the United Kingdom p. 227. Retrieved on 14 November 2015.).
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Earl of Inverness.svg
Author/Creator: Own work, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Earl of Inverness, for use in Scotland. This was also the standard for Prince Albert, 3rd Earl of Inverness, the future King George VI, from 19??-1936.
UK Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon.svg
Author/Creator: Boroduntalk, Licence: CC BY 4.0
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon bar. United Kingdom.
CD-ribbon and bar.png
Author/Creator: LukGasz, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Ribbon of the Canadian Forces Decoration and bar
Duke of York - World Economic Forum on the Middle East 2008.jpg
Author/Creator: World Economic Forum, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Prince Andrew, Duke of York, UK Special Representative for International Trade and Investment captured during the session "The Future of the Middle East" at the World Economic Forum on the Middle East 2008 held in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt.
Copyright World Economic Forum (www.weforum.org)
Order of the Garter UK ribbon.svg
Author/Creator: Image sourced from 'Medals of the World' website: http://www.medals.org.uk/index.htm, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Ribbon of the Order of the Garter
UK Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal ribbon.svg
Author/Creator: Borodun, Licence: CC BY 4.0
Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal ribbon bar. United Kingdom.
Coat of Arms of Andrew, Duke of York.svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Coat of Arms of HRH Prince Andrew, Duke of York. (born 1960) second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip the Duke of Edinburgh. The coat of arms was granted in 1963. The label of three points, with the central point charged with an anchor; was previously borne by his grandfather King George VI ('Bertie', also named Duke of York) and King George V (also Duke of York).
Quarterly, 1st and 4th Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or armed and langued Azure (for England), 2nd quarter Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland), 3rd quarter Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland), with over all a label of three points Argent the central point charged with an Anchor Azure, the escutcheon ensigned by a coronet of a child of the Sovereign, the whole surrounded by the Garter, for a crest on a coronet of his rank, thereon a lion statant guardant Or crowned of the same coronet charged with a label as in the arms, for supporters, dexter a lion rampant guardant Or crowned by the same coronet, sinister a unicorn Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper, gorged with the same coronet, attached thereto a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or, both charged on the shoulder with a label as in the arms.
UK Royal Victorian Order ribbon.svg
Ribbon of an ordinary member of the Royal Victorian Order. United Kingdom.
Signature of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.png
Author/Creator:

Prince Andrew, Duke of York

, Licence: PD

Signature of Prince Andrew, Duke of York

Arms of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Arms of the Most Noble Order of the Garter
Royal Monogram Of Prince Andrew Of Great Britain.svg
Author/Creator: Glasshouse, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Monogram Of Prince Andrew Of Great Britain
Ilham Aliyev met with Duke of York of the Great Britain, Prince Andrew.jpg
(c) President.az, CC BY 4.0
Ilham Aliyev met Prince Andrew, Duke of York of the United Kingdom
South Atlantic Medal w rosette BAR.svg
UK South Atlantic Medal with rosette ribbon bar.
Royal motorcade (8075978363).jpg
Author/Creator: Brisbane City Council, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Royal motorcade
G House from the South Lawn on an Autumn Afternoon.jpg
Author/Creator: No machine-readable author provided. Nibaba assumed (based on copyright claims)., Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Gordonstoun House, Scotland, from the South Lawn on an Autumn Afternoon
Dmitry Medvedev in Yuzhno-Sakhalink 18 February 2009-2.jpg
(c) Kremlin.ru, CC BY 4.0
YUZHNO-SAKHALINSK. With Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Minister of Economic Affairs of The Netherlands Maria van der Hoeven.
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.svg
Author/Creator: Own work, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Duke of York. This was also the standard for Prince Albert, 7th Duke of York, the future King George VI, from 19??-1936
Flag of the Canadian Army.svg
Flag of the Canadian Army, adopted in 14 July 2016.
The Duke of York.JPG
Author/Creator: Carfax2, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The Duke of York, June 2012