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This is a star map for the celestial globe of Su Song (1020-1101), a Chinese scientist and mechanical engineer of the Song Dynasty (960-1279). It was first published in the year 1092, in Su's book known as the Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao (Wade-Giles: Hsin Yi Hsiang Fa Yao). On this star map there are 14 xiu (lunar mansions) on Mercator's projection. The equator is represented by the horizontal straight line running through the star chart, while the ecliptic curves above it. Note the unequal breadth of the lunar mansions on the map.
Su Song's star maps had the hour circles between the xiu (lunar mansions) forming the astronomical meridians, with stars marked in quasi-orthomorphic cylindrical projection on each side of the equator, and thus was in accordance to their north polar distances. Not until the work of Gerard Mercator in 1569 was a celestial map of this projection created in the Western world (Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 569).This picture appears on page 277 of Joseph Needham's book Science and Civilization in China: Volume 3, Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth.
Portrait of Johannes Kepler.
Photograph of the German expedition and overwintering in Greenland
Author/Creator: Cancer Research UK, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Diagram showing the position of the pancreas.
Author/Creator: Isaac Newton, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
The first edition was published under the imprint of Samuel Pepys who was president of the Royal Society. By the time of the second edition, Newton himself had become president of the Royal Society, as noted in his corrections.Wren Library of Trinity College, Cambridge.
Illustration from De Magnete, etc. by William Gilbert (1600, translated 1900), showingiron wires standing on a terrella
Author/Creator: Users CanadianCaesar, Protarion, Cool Cat, Harrisonmetz, Alkivar, Jon Harald Søby, Optimager, CyberSkull, ClockworkSoul on en.wikipedia, Licence: LGPL
Shrunken and colored version created for ClockworkSoul's Coffee Roll template theme.
part of the featured stars seriesif anyone is interested in the original vector/3d files you may contact en:User:Avsa.
The inner Solar System, from the Sun to Jupiter. Also includes the asteroid belt (the white donut-shaped cloud), the Hildas (the orange "triangle" just inside the orbit of Jupiter), the Jupiter trojans (green), and the near-Earth asteroids. The group that leads Jupiter are called the "Greeks" and the trailing group are called the "Trojans" (Murray and Dermott, Solar System Dynamics, pg. 107)
This image is based on data found in the en:JPL DE-405 ephemeris, and the en:Minor Planet Center database of asteroids (etc) published 2006 Jul 6. The image is looking down on the en:ecliptic plane as would have been seen on 2006 August 14. It was rendered by custom software written for Wikipedia. The same image without labels is also available at File:InnerSolarSystem.png.
Profile of Adam Smith. The original depiction of Smith was created in 1787 by James Tassie in the form of an enamel paste medallion. Smith did not usually sit for his portrait, so a considerable number of engravings and busts of Smith were made not from observation but from the same enamel medallion produced by Tassie, an artist who could convince Smith to sit.
Picture of a painting by Giuseppe Bertini of Alessandro Volta demonstrating his battery to Napoleon in 1801
Author/Creator: Anagoria, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Star list with distance information, Uruk (Iraq), 320-150 BC, the list gives each constellation, the number of stars and the distance information to the next constellation in ells. Special exhibition "Beyond the Horizon - Space and Knowledge in the Old World cultures" at the Pergamon Museum (22.06 -. 30.09.2012); Source: Vorderasiatisches Museum SMB Inv. VAT 16436
Title page from The sceptical chymist : or Chymico-physical doubts and paradoxes, touching the spagyrist's principles commonly call'd hypostatical, as they are wont to be propos'd and defended by the generality of alchymists. Whereunto is praemis'd part of another discourse relating to the same subject / by the Honourable Robert Boyle, Esq. by Robert Boyle, 1627-1691. London : Printed by J. Cadwell for J. Crooke, 1661. Robert Boyle directed his skepticism at the gaggle of common chemists who hawked medicines and deliberately obfuscated their writings. But he worked untiringly on the problem of transmutation and believed there was an alchemical elite who could instruct him. This book is in part an attempt to silence the former and prompt the latter to reveal themselves.
William Harvey (1578-1657) Image from Harvey's Exercitatio, showing that the blood circulated. When a vein was blocked with a tourniquet, it swelled up, the blood unable to escape back towards the heart.
Jean-Jacques Boujot from Paris, France, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Lepus europaeus (Causse méjean, Lozère - France)
Test for ketonuria using Bayer Ketostix reagent strips.
Divinatory livers, clay models for the training of soothsayers. The one in the middle is interpreted as fortelling the destruction of small cities. Baken clay, 19th–18th centuries BC, found in the royal palace at Mari (now in Syria).
Oxyrhynchus papyrus (P.Oxy. I 29) showing fragment of Euclid's Elements
Author/Creator: Lucas Taylor / CERN, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
An example of simulated data modeled for the CMS particle detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Here, following a collision of two protons, a Higgs boson is produced which decays into two jets of hadrons and two electrons. The lines represent the possible paths of particles produced by the proton-proton collision in the detector while the energy these particles deposit is shown in blue. More CMS events at CMS Media
Author/Creator: Science Museum, London / Science and Society Picture Library, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
This aluminium template representing the base thymine (T) is part of Crick and Watson’s model of DNA. Bases are those groups of atoms that make up DNA's twin strands. The bases in each of the strands combines to spell out the organism's genetic code. This structure of DNA was discovered by Francis Crick (b 1916) and James Dewey Watson (b 1928) whilst working in the Medical Research Council Unit at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge and after having seen X-ray diffraction pattern photographs of DNA by Rosalind Franklin. In 1953 Watson and Crick constructed a molecular model of the complex genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Their analysis of the double helix shape of DNA explained how genetic information could be copied and passed from one generation to the next. They were awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine and physiology in 1962.
Illuminated opening of the fourth book of the Kitab al-Qanun fi al-tibb (The Canon on Medicine) by Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Undated; probably Iran, beginning of 15th century. The illumination is typical of products from Timurid workshops of the en:15th century.
U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894en:Category:Illuminated manuscript images
Author/Creator: Kircher, Athanasius, 1602-1680., Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Matteo Ricci and Paul Xu Guangqi From La Chine d'Athanase Kirchere de la Compagnie de Jesus: illustre de plusieurs monuments tant sacres que profanes, Amsterdam, 1670. Plate facing p. 201.
(Translation of: Athanasii Kircheri e Soc. Jesu China monumentis ... Amstelodami, 1667).Digital Scan from Villanova University, Falvey Memorial Library, Digital Library.
SVG by Indolences.Recoloring and ironing out some glitches done by Rainer Klute., Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Stylised atom. Blue dots are electrons, red dots are protons and black dots are neutrons.
Galileo Galilei. Portrait by Ottavio Leoni.
Charles Darwin's 1837 sketch, his first diagram of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) on view at the Museum of Natural History in Manhattan.
Interpretation of handwriting: "I think case must be that one generation should have as many living as now. To do this and to have as many species in same genus (as is) requires extinction . Thus between A + B the immense gap of relation. C + B the finest gradation. B+D rather greater distinction. Thus genera would be formed. Bearing relation" (next page begins) "to ancient types with several extinct forms". Text in Darwin's format:
36 (text) I think (tree graph) B D C 1 A (text on the side) Case must be that one generation then should be as many living as now. To do this & to have many species in same genus (as is) requires extinction. (text below tree graph) Thus between A & B immense gap of relation. C & B the finest gradation, B & D rather greater distinction. Thus genera would be formed. — bearing relation(The text continues outside the image:)(page 37) to ancient types. — with several extinct forms for if each species an ancient (1) is capable of making 13 recent forms, twelve of the contemporarys must have left no offspring at all, so as to keep number of species constant. — With respect to extinction we can easy see that variety of ostrich, Petise may not be well adapted, and thus perish out, or on other hand like Orpheus being favourable (page 38) many might be produced. — This requires principle that the permanent varieties produced by inter confined breeding & changing circumstances are continued & produced according to the adaptation of such circumstances, & therefore that death of species is a consequence (contrary to what would appear from America). Source of this text: User fileunderwater at https://biology.stackexchange.com/questions/46481/darwins-first-sketch-of-a-phylogenetic-tree , consulted on 26 April 2021.
View from above of Gresham College, London, as it was in the eighteenth century
Model for the Three Superior Planets and Venus
from Georg von Peuerbach, Theoricae novae planetarum.
Image enhanced for legibility.
The abbreviations in the center of the diagram read:
- C[entrum] æquantis (Center of the equant)
- C[entrum] deferentis (Center of the deferent)
- C[entrum] mundi (Center of the world)
Sea Island survey diagram 窥望海岛之图, first written of by the Chinese mathematician Liu Hui during the Three Kingdoms era (220–280 CE).
Banksia sceptrum inflorescences, near Jarrahdale Dec 2004photo Cas Liber
This is an SVG version of the schematic for the Antikythera mechanism based on the file:Meccanismo_di_Antikytera.jpg
Author/Creator: Antony-22, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
A model of a DNA tetrahedron. Each edge of the tetrahedron is a 20bp DNA duplex, and each vertex is a three-arm junction. In this model each basepair is represented by five pseudo-atoms, representing the two sugars, the two phosphates, and the major groove. The scale bar is 1 nm.
фото Дмитрия Ивановича Менделеева
Albert Einstein, official 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics photograph.
Galen of Pergamon (Claudius Galenus, or in French, Claude Galien), the most famous medical researcher of classical antiquity. Lithograph by Pierre Roche Vigneron. (Paris: Lithograph by Gregoire et Deneux, ca. 1865).
Author/Creator: en:user: Kowloonese, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
A replica of an ancient Chinese Seismograph from Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 CE).
This picture is taken from an exhibition at Chabot Space & Science Center in Oakland, California.
The plaque of the exhibit said:
Detecting a Quake
In 132 CE, after several earthquakes in China, astronomer Zhang Heng invented this instrument to warn people of the next one. When the ground shook, it moved a pendulum inside the jug. The pendulum pushed a lever that opened one dragon's mouth. A ball rolled out and into the toad's mouth below, sounding an alarm. The open dragon mouth pointed in the direction of the earthquake, notifying the Emperor.
Vesalius' Fabrica contains many detailed drawings of human dissections, some of them in allegorical poses.
Escherichia coli: Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli, grown in culture and adhered to a cover slip.
The 1945 TRINITY nuclear explosion. Rapatronic picture taken 25ms after detonation.
This is an image of a draft letter written by Galileo Galilei in August 1609 to Leonardo Donato, Doxe de Venexia, and currently held in the University of Michigan Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library's Special Collections. The University of Michigan states the following about its history:
"In 1609 [Galileo] received a description of a telescope which had been developed the year before in the Dutch town of Middelburg by an optician, one Jan Lippershey. Applying his knowledge of optical science, Galileo built such a glass or telescope for himself, and in the draft letter shown above offers his new "occhiale" to the Doge of Venice for use in warfare. The final letter, revised from this draft, was sent on August 24, 1609. It is in the State Archives in Venice.
The lower part of this sheet shows the use to which Galileo put this optical device: as he viewed the skies on successive evenings in January, 1610, he noted his first observations of the planet Jupiter and four of Jupiter's moons."
This item is cataloged in the collections as:
- Galileo Galilei (1564-1642).
- Draft of a letter to Leonardo Donato, Doge of Venice.
- Circa August, 1609. Gift of Tracy W. McGregor, 1938.
According to Scientific American, when it was donated it was known to be a draft of the letter in the Venice State Archives, but the significance and meaning of the material on the lower half was unrecognized. Only in the late 1970s was it determined that these "doodles" in fact depict the positions of the Galilean moons on the nights in early January when Galileo first observed them, thus proving that this document contains the original notes he took on the nights he made his observations. (See Scientific American article, Date late 70s or early 80s.)
The University of Michigan translates the upper half thus:
"Most Serene Prince.Galileo Galilei most humbly prostrates himself before Your Highness, watching carefully, and with all spirit of willingness, not only to satisfy what concerns the reading of mathematics in the study of Padua, but to write of having decided to present to Your Highness a telescope that will be a great help in maritime and land enterprises. I assure you I shall keep this new invention a great secret and show it only to Your Highness. The telescope was made for the most accurate study of distances. This telescope has the advantage of discovering the ships of the enemy two hours before they can be seen with the natural vision and to distinguish the number and quality of the ships and to judge their strength and be ready to chase them, to fight them, or to flee from them; or, in the open country to see all details and to distinguish every movement and preparation."
Savery Steam Engine, 1698
Taken by Apollo 8 crewmember Bill Anders on December 24, 1968, at mission time 075:49:07  (16:40 UTC), while in orbit around the Moon, showing the Earth rising for the third time above the lunar horizon. The lunar horizon is approximately 780 kilometers from the spacecraft. Width of the photographed area at the lunar horizon is about 175 kilometers.  The land mass visible just above the terminator line is west Africa. Note that this phenomenon is only visible to an observer in motion relative to the lunar surface. Because of the Moon's synchronous rotation relative to the Earth (i.e., the same side of the Moon is always facing Earth), the Earth appears to be stationary (measured in anything less than a geological timescale) in the lunar "sky". In order to observe the effect of Earth rising or setting over the Moon's horizon, an observer must travel towards or away from the point on the lunar surface where the Earth is most directly overhead (centred in the sky). Otherwise, the Earth's apparent motion/visible change will be limited to: 1. Growing larger/smaller as the orbital distance between the two bodies changes. 2. Slight apparent movement of the Earth due to the eccenticity of the Moon's orbit, the effect being called libration. 3. Rotation of the Earth (the Moon's rotation is synchronous relative to the Earth, the Earth's rotation is not synchronous relative to the Moon). 4. Atmospheric & surface changes on Earth (i.e.: weather patterns, changing seasons, etc.). Two craters, visible on the image were named 8 Homeward and Anders' Earthrise in honor of Apollo 8 by IAU in 2018. 
Author/Creator: Andrew Dunn, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
An 18th Century Persian astrolabe – maker unknown. The points of the curved spikes on the front rete plate, mark the positions of the brightest stars. The name of each star being labeled at the base of each spike. The back plate, or mater is engraved with projected coordinate lines. From the Whipple Museum of the History of Science in Cambridge.
- Oryzomys_distribution.png: *BlankMap-World6.svg: Canuckguy (talk) and many others
- derivative work: Ucucha (talk)
- derivative work: Ucucha (talk)
Distribution of the genus en:Oryzomys in Panama and northwestern South America. Red: O. couesi; brown: O. gorgasi.