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Appalachian Mountains
Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain

A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a hill, typically rising at least 300 metres (1000 feet) above the surrounding land. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in mountain ranges.

Mountains are formed through tectonic forces, erosion, or volcanism, which act on time scales of up to tens of millions of years. Once mountain building ceases, mountains are slowly leveled through the action of weathering, through slumping and other forms of mass wasting, as well as through erosion by rivers and glaciers.

High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level at similar latitude. These colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction, such as mining and logging, along with recreation, such as mountain climbing and skiing.

The highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m (29,035 ft) above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m (69,459 ft). (Full article...)

Selected mountain-related landform

Hill upon which the village of Saint-Paul-de-Vence is built, in Southern France

A hill is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain. It often has a distinct summit. (Full article...)

Selected mountain range

The Adamant Range is a subrange of the Big Bend Ranges of the Selkirk Mountains of the Columbia Mountains in southeastern British Columbia, Canada, located on the west side of Columbia Reach, Kinbasket Lake, north of Glacier National Park. (Full article...)

Selected mountain type

The Richat Structure in the Sahara Desert of Mauritania. Briefly considered to be an impact structure, it is now believed by most to be a structural dome.

A dome is a feature in structural geology consisting of symmetrical anticlines that intersect each other at their respective apices. Intact, domes are distinct, rounded, spherical-to-ellipsoidal-shaped protrusions on the Earth's surface. However, a transect parallel to Earth's surface of a dome features concentric rings of strata. Consequently, if the top of a dome has been eroded flat, the resulting structure in plan view appears as a bullseye, with the youngest rock layers at the outside, and each ring growing progressively older moving inwards. These strata would have been horizontal at the time of deposition, then later deformed by the uplift associated with dome formation. (Full article...)

Selected climbing article

Unknown climber face climbing at Smith Rock State Park

Face climbing is a type of climbing where climbers use features and irregularities in the rock such as finger pockets and edges to ascend a vertical rock face. Face climbing is contrasted with crack climbing. Face climbing is less reliant upon technique than crack climbing, but instead relies more upon body position. (Full article...)

Related portals

General images

The following are images from various mountain-related articles on Wikipedia.

Selected skiing article

The following is a list of presidents of the International Ski Federation (FIS), the world skiing governing body. (Full article...)


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Lists of mountains
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Montane ecology
Extraterrestrial mountains
Mountains in fiction
Geologic domes
Mountain geomorphology
Hill and mountain resorts
Mountain lakes
Mountain meteorology
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Mountain names
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Mountain railways
Seven Summits
Seven Second Summits
Seven Third Summits
Mountain spurs
Mountain tunnels
Mountain stubs
Wikipedia categories named after mountains

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NASA Landsat-7 imagery of Himalayas
Eruption of Pinatubo 1991

Flora and fauna

  • Plants: Alpine Rock-JasmineHairy AlpenroseEdelweissGreat Yellow GentianGlacier CrowfootWulfeniaDwarf WillowQueen of the AndesArolla Pine
  • Animals: Red-billed ChoughAlpine marmotAlpine SalamanderRock PtarmiganAlpine IbexAndean CondorBearded VultureAlpine ChoughChamoisMountain BurnetEuropean ViperHimalayan TahrWallcreeperWhite-winged SnowfinchGolden EagleNorthern Bald IbisYak
Climbing in Greece
Georg Winkler.jpg
  • Mountaineering: Alpine ClubsBootsCramponsIce axesMountain hutsMountain rescueRopesRucksacks
  • Pioneers: Christian AlmerMelchior AndereggHermann von BarthWalter BonattiMeta BrevoortWilliam Martin ConwayAngelo DibonaHans DülferPaul GrohmannAdolphus Warburton Moore Paul PreussLudwig PurtschellerSchlagintweit brothersLeslie StephenGottlieb Samuel StuderTenzig NorgayHerbert TichyLucy WalkerEdward WhymperGeorg WinklerMatthias Zurbriggen
  • High-altitude mountaineers: Chris BoningtonHermann BuhlKurt DiembergerRalf DujmovitsGünther DyhrenfurthMaurice HerzogSir Edmund HillarySandy IrvineGerlinde KaltenbrunnerGeorge MalloryNives MeroiReinhold MessnerSimone MoroOh Eun-sunEdurne PasabanWanda RutkiewiczLionel TerrayUm Hong-GilStephen VenablesEd ViestursOther mountaineers
  • Publicists: Karl BlodigW. A. B. CoolidgeDavid BreashearsJon KrakauerGaston Rébuffat

Mountaineering history

Lists of mountains

Recognized content

Featured content
Good content

Associated Wikimedia

Media files used on this page

The Earth seen from Apollo 17 with transparent background.png
"The Blue Marble" is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972 by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometers (18,000 statute miles). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula.
The Earth seen from Apollo 17.jpg
"The Blue Marble" is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula.
Featured article star.svg
(c) Booyabazooka, CC-BY-SA-3.0
Wikipedia featured article star
La Paz Skyline.jpg
Author/Creator: EEJCC, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
View of La Paz from El Alto with the Illimani mountain in the background.
Ortler Ascent - South Tyrol.jpg
Author/Creator: Noclador, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Ortler ascent (3,905m/ 12,812ft) South Tyrol
Forest on Gunung Batu Brinchang, Malaysia.jpg
Author/Creator: Peter coxhead, Licence: CC0
Montane tropical forest on Gunung Batu Brinchang (w:Mount Batu Brinchang), Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Photo taken 12 May 2010 not far below summit which is at 2,032 m (6,667 ft).
Pinatubo91eruption plume.jpg
The June 12, 1991 eruption column from Mount Pinatubo taken from the east side of Clark Air Base. U.S. Geological Survey Photograph taken on June 12, 1991, 08:51 hours, by Dave Harlow.
M Rainier.jpg
Author/Creator: Troymason, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Little Tahoma as seen from Mount Rainier, Washington, United States
Granite Park Chalet.jpg
Granite Park Chalet in Glacier National Park (United States)
Vihren Pirin IMG 8898.jpg
Author/Creator: Dido3, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
This is a photo of a natural heritage site in Bulgaria, id:
Herbst am Watzmann.jpg
Author/Creator: Rainerax, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Autumn in Berchtesgaden overloking Watzmann and Hochkalter
Author/Creator: Anirban Biswas from Kolkata, India, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Shivling as we saw it from capming round of Gomukhi. We spent two nights there before leaving for Nanadanban. We had to withstand 10 hours of snow fall and half feet of snow.
Ural mountains 3 448122223 93fa978a6d b.jpg
Author/Creator: ugraland [1], Licence: CC BY 2.0
Ural mountains
Horská služba - auto.JPG
Author/Creator: Pudelek, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Záchranné vozidlo Horské služby v Jeseníkách
Spaccato vulcano.svg
Author/Creator: Fred the Oyster, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Illustration of volcano eruption
Monasterio Khor Virap, Armenia, 2016-10-01, DD 25.jpg
(c) Diego Delso, CC BY-SA 4.0
View of Khor Virap, an Armenian monastery and one of the most visited pilgrimage sites in Armenia located in the Ararat plain with Mount Ararat in the background. Khor Virap's notability as a monastery and pilgrimage site is due to the fact that Gregory the Illuminator, religious leader who converted Armenia from paganism to Christianity in 301, becoming the first nation to adopt Christianity as its official religion, was initially imprisoned here for 14 years by King Tiridates III of Armenia. A chapel was initially built in 642 by Nerses III the Builder as a mark of veneration to Saint Gregory. Over the centuries, it was repeatedly rebuilt and the current appearance dates from 1662.
Climbing tools - Mount Shasta Sisson Museum - DSC02839.JPG
Author/Creator: Daderot, Licence: CC0
Exhibit in the Mount Shasta Sisson Museum, Mount Shasta City, California, USA. Photography was permitted in the museum without restriction.
080103 hakkai fuji.jpg
Author/Creator: 名古屋太郎, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Mt. Fuji of winter that seen from Oshino Hakkai.
Montes Apenninus AS15-M-1423.jpg
Oblique view of northern Montes Apenninus, including Mons Hadley, Hadley Rille (near center), and the Apollo 15 landing site, facing east from an altitude of 105 km, on revolution 34 of the Apollo 15 mission.
Georg Winkler.jpg
Scan from a photograph of the Munich mountaineer Georg Winkler (* 08/26/1869, † 08/16/1888 or 08/17/1888), first ascender of Torre Winkler, the lowest of the Vajolet Towers (Dolomites). Photographer: Anton Karg.
Horseshoe Bend TC 27-09-2012 15-34-14.jpg
Author/Creator: Paul Hermans, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Horseshoe Bend, Page, Arizona
Palü en Diavolezza.jpg
(c) Tinelot Wittermans, CC-BY-SA-3.0
Piz Palü with Vadret da Diavolezza (Diavolezza glacier), Engadin, Switzerland
Geologycal cross-section of Fuji.png
Author/Creator: TTL2698, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Geological cross-section of Fuji. Key: N2 = Tertiary sedimentary rocks; αN2 = Tertiary volcanic rocks; αQ1 = Komitake volcano; α-δQ1 = Ashitaka volcano; βQ2 = Older Fuji volcano; αβQ2 = Younger Fuji volcano. (source for key: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/vrc/others/fujigeol.html).
Andes 70.30345W 42.99203S.jpg
en:NASA World Wind screenshot of the Andes, 70.30345W, 42.99203S in South America.
Mount Kilimanjaro.jpg
Author/Creator: Muhammad Mahdi Karim, Licence: GFDL 1.2
A panorama of Mount Kilimanjaro. Picture taken in Moshi, Tanzania
Darkgreen flag waving.svg
Author/Creator: TristanBomb, Licence: CC0
A dark green flag.
Everest North Face toward Base Camp Tibet Luca Galuzzi 2006.jpg
(c) I, Luca Galuzzi, CC BY-SA 2.5
Mount Everest North Face as seen from the path to the base camp, Tibet (5,160 m).
Author/Creator: Ogmios, Licence: CC0
Dennert Fir Tree
Chase khar - چاسه خار (3).jpg
Author/Creator: Choramcity1, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Chaste khar mountain gravel road, in Choram county,Iran
World Distribution of Mid-Oceanic Ridges.gif
World Distribution of Mid-Oceanic Ridges
Mount Wilhelm.jpg
Author/Creator: Nomadtales (talk · contribs), Licence: CC BY-SA 2.1 au
Mount Wilhelm - highest mountain in Papua New Guinea. Created and released under GFDL by Nomadtales.
Brunegghorn and Weisshorn.jpg
Author/Creator: Jean-Louis Pitteloud, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Brunegghorn and Weisshorn
Himalaya from the International Space Station. In addition to looking heavenward, NASA helps the world see the Earth in ways no one else can. Astronauts on board the International Space Station recently took advantage of their unique vantage point to photograph the Himalayas, looking south from over the Tibetan Plateau. The perspective is illustrated by the summits of Makalu [left (8,462 metres; 27,765 feet)], Everest [middle (8,848 metres; 29,035 feet)] , Lhotse [middle (8,516 metres; 27,939 feet)] and Cho Oyu [right (8,201 metres; 26,906 feet)] -- at the heights typically flown by commercial aircraft.
Scetch showing the actual elevation of the Snow Line in different Latitudes by Alexander Keith Johnston 1848.png
This "Scetch showing the actual elevation of the Snow Line in different Latitudes" by Alexander Keith Johnston (1804–1871) was first published 1848 in the "The Physical Atlas"
Vue du village de Saint-Paul-de-Vence depuis la route de La Colle.jpg
Author/Creator: Jpchevreau, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Vue du village de Saint-Paul-de-Vence depuis la route de La Colle.
Walden Pond, Massachusetts on June 27, 2012.png
Author/Creator: Buaidh, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Walden Pond, Massachusetts on June 27, 2012. This is a square crop of 2012-06-27-Walden-Pond-02 33.jpg by User:Cbaile19.
BW-Waldarbeiter02 2006-05-03.jpg
Author/Creator: René Kieselmann rmk (Bergwacht Schwarzwald e.V., BWS), Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0

Einsatz der Bergwacht Freiburg (Waldarbeiterunfall), Zusammenarbeit mit anderen Rettungsorganisationen

Mountain Rescue Freiburg (Germany) rescuing a lumberjack met with an accident. Other aid organizations participating.
Summitting Island Peak.jpg
Author/Creator: Mountaineer, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Climber taking the final few steps onto the 20,305 ft. (6,189 m) summit of Imja Tse (Island Peak) in Nepal.
Himalayas landsat 7.png

Himalayas as pictured by NASA Landsat 7 Satellite.

Other Versions:

thumb|120px|left|Added Territorial Boundaries
Appalachian Mountains WV Banner.jpg
Author/Creator: Missvain
Original author: User:Ken_Thomas, Licence: CC0
Appalachian Mountains WV Banner
Steinbock 2006 08 2.jpg
Author/Creator: No machine-readable author provided. Grizurgbg assumed (based on copyright claims)., Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0

Beschreibung: Alpensteinbock

  • Quelle: selbst fotografiert
  • Datum: August 2006
  • Fotograf: Karsten Dörre (grizurgbg)
Lewis overthrust fault nh10f.jpg

schematic illustration of the Lewis overthrust fault in northern Montana, USA and Southern Alberta, Canada. The fault can be seen best in Glacier National Park, USA and Waterton Lakes National Park, Canada.

original caption: Overthrust Mountains

1 A hypothetical block of the Earth's crust in the region of Glacier National Park as it existed more than 60 million years ago. The two layers shown actually represent many strata of sedimentary rocks.

2 Lateral pressure begins to force the rock layers to buckle.

3 A large fold has been created, forcing the rock strata to double over and overturning some layers. A break, or fault, is forming at the plane of greatest stress.

4 The break has been completed and the strata west of the fault have slid eastward, up and over the rocks east of the fault.

5 The Glacier landscape today. Throughout the millions of years during which the folding, faulting, and overthrusting have been taking place, the process of erosion has continued; a thousand meters of stratified rocks have been worn away, so that only a remnant of the overthrust layers can be seen today. Because Glacier's eastern slope represents the eroded face of the overthrust block, the mountain range rises precipitously from the prairie, with no foothills breaking the abrupt transition from open prairie to mountain valley.
Overlooking Waimea Canyon.jpg
Overlooking Waimea Canyon
Inside Khumbu-Icefall.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC BY 2.5
The Triplets from Sahale Arm.jpg
Author/Creator: Jeffrey Pang from Madison, NJ, USA, Licence: CC BY 2.0
The Triplets (center skyline); Sambucus racemosa (white flowers, left); other wildflowers. Taken while hiking up the Sahale Arm in the North Cascades, Washington, US.
Mountain rescue 01.jpg
Author/Creator: آرمین, Licence: CC0
Mountain rescue
Мальовишки дял, Рила 15.JPG
Author/Creator: Любомир Розенщайн, Licence: CC BY 4.0
This is a photo of a natural heritage site in Bulgaria, id:
Choppering out the injured - Mt. Forbes.jpg
Author/Creator: BrettA343, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
On a trek to climb the Lyells, one of our party badly twisted an ankle in an area where helicopters couldn't possibly land, so we took turns carrying him down to a clearing while one of our group ran back the ~20 km (12 mi) to get help. That's Mt. Forbes in the background. We waited for some time, but eventually a helicopter arrived on a SAR mission to carry the injured party out.
Author/Creator: Marturius, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Hillside of peruvian Ausangate mountain.
Stretcher Box at Styhead - geograph.org.uk - 730830.jpg
(c) Steve Partridge, CC BY-SA 2.0
Stretcher Box at Styhead Positioned so that Mountain Rescue Teams don't have to carry a stretcher all the way up here. There is also a similar box positioned a couple of miles away at the top of the Mickledore col.
ASTER Richat.jpg
Richat Structure, Oudane, Mauritania - This prominent circular feature in the Sahara desert of Mauritania has attracted attention since the earliest space missions because it forms a conspicuous bull's-eye in the otherwise rather featureless expanse of the desert. Described by some as looking like an outsized ammonite in the desert, the structure [which has a diameter of almost 50 kilometers (30 miles)] has become a landmark for shuttle crews. Initially interpreted as a meteorite impact structure because of its high degree of circularity, it is now thought to be merely a symmetrical uplift (circular anticline) that has been laid bare by erosion. Paleozoic quartzites form the resistant beds outlining the structure. The image was acquired October 7, 2000, covers an area of 45 x 47 km, and is located at 20.9 degrees north latitude and 11.6 degrees west longitude.
Smith Rock Climber (Deschutes County, Oregon scenic images) (desDB1710).jpg

A climber on a rock face at Smith Rock State Park near Terrebonne.
Cho Oyu - North face.jpg
Author/Creator: Steve Hicks, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Cho Oyu - North face from Old Tingri
Owen Glynne Jones 12.jpg
Owen Glynne Jones climbs the first pitch of Deep Ghyll, Sca Fell, English Lake District
Cotopaxi volcano 2008-06-27T1322.jpg
Author/Creator: Gerard Prins, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Cotopaxi Volcano
Author/Creator: Orcaborealis, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Mountain birch (Betula pubescens subsp. ssp. czerepanovii) trees reaching 4-5m tall. The ground is covered with bilberry plants, and there are some Juniperus communis. Picture taken near the path to Jøldalshytta (lodge) in Trollheimen mts, altitude approximately 750 m (2400 ft). Rennebu municipality, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway.
Author/Creator: Matthias Zepper, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The outflow of the Chüebodensee close to Elm, Kanton Glarus. The snow-topped mountain is the Piz Sardona (3056m) and the peaks on the right, just before the rock spur blocks the sight are the Tschingelhoren (2849 m). Cotton-sedge in the foreground.
Nuvola apps edu languages.svg
Author/Creator: Traced by User:Stannered, original by David Vignoni, Licence: LGPL
SVG version of the apps/edu_languages icon from the Nuvola icon set.
Lila Lake 26527.JPG
Author/Creator: Walter Siegmund, Licence: CC BY 2.5
Lila Lake on Rampart Ridge, Hibox Mountain (6547 ft) on Box Ridge, Mountain Hemlock, Kachess Ridge (right skyline); stitched panorama of 525, 526 and 527
Slide Mountain Catskills.jpg
(c) Daniel Case, CC-BY-SA-3.0
Slide Mountain, highest in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA, seen from Ashokan High Point
Volcán Chimborazo, "El Taita Chimborazo".jpg
Author/Creator: Dabit100/ David Torres Costales
Twitter logo.svg
Riobamba, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Chimborazo volcano, the closest point to the sun. Riobamba - Ecuador
Kalymnos 2005 022.jpg
Author/Creator: No machine-readable author provided. Hlohning assumed (based on copyright claims)., Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5

Author: David Bolius Description: Lowering from Daniboy (Kalymnos, Greece)

Reference: http://www.photoglobe.info/db_kalymnos/kalymnos_2005_022.html
Edward Whymper Calkin.jpg
Edward Whymper (27 April 1840 – 16 September 1911)