Media files used on this page
Charles Minard's 1869 chart showing the number of men in Napoleon’s 1812 Russian campaign army, their movements, as well as the temperature they encountered on the return path. Lithograph, 62 × 30 cm
"The Blue Marble" is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972 by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometers (18,000 statute miles). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula.
Author/Creator: Eric Gaba (Sting - fr:Sting), Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Topographic map in English of the Caribbean island of Saint-Martin / Sint Maarten, divided between French and Dutch halves.
Note: the shaded relief is a raster image embedded in the SVG file.
Signature of Gerardus Mercator (1512–1594) from Narrative and Critical History of America, Volume 4, 1883, page 371
Clay tablet containing city map of Nippur
The scale factors for the tangent and secant Mercator projections over an interval close to the equator. The bounds at 1.0004 and 0.9996 delimit the region of high accuracy.
Melchisedech Thevenot (1620?-1692): Hollandia Nova detecta 1644; Terre Australe decouuerte l'an 1644, Paris: De l'imprimerie de Iaqves Langlois, 1663 Based on a map by the dutch cartographer Joan Blaeu. Langlois, 1663.
Author/Creator: T. Hengl, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
MOD12C1 17 land cover classes defined by the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP)
Map of the World
Author/Creator: http://maps.bpl.org, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Scale: Scale not given. Call Number: G3762.B6P5 1781.D4
This survey of Boston Harbor, first published in 1775 in Des Barress Atlantic Neptune, was the pre-eminent chart of the harbor produced in the 18th century. It was used by the Royal Navy during the American Revolution, and long after that conflict by American and English merchants. The chart was based on surveys by George Callendar, master of His Majestys Ship Romney, stationed in Boston Harbor in 1769. Displayed here is the fourth state of the chart which depicts the inland topography in great detail. Roads, taverns, streams and farmhouses are shown throughout the countryside.
Shows relationship between infinitesimal elements on sphere and plane.
World Map of Pomponius Mela, rotated for north up and be comparable with modern maps
The Gough Map or Bodleian Map is a road map of Great Britain, dating from around 1360. The Gough Map is the oldest extant map of the roads of medieval Britain. It is about 115 x 56cm large and was made around 1360. It is named after Richard Gough, who donated the map to the Bodleian Library in 1809. East is on the top.
Ortelius World Map Typvs Orbis Terrarvm, 1570.
Fra Mauro map (1460)
Map of the world by Ottoman admiral Piri Reis, drawn in 1513. Only half of the original map survives and is held at the Topkapi Museum in Istanbul. The map synthesizes information from twenty maps, including one drawn by Christopher Columbus of the New World
The Lambert and Gall are equal area projections. The green curves commencing at k=1 are for the Lambert: the parallel scale (k) increases from k=1 at the equator to infinity at the pole and the meridian scale decreases from 1 at the equator to zero at the pole. The product hk=1 guarantees equal area. In the Gall (red) the parallel scale increases (to infinity)from k=0.707 at the equator and the meridian scale decreases from k=1.414 at the equator to zero at the pole. Both Gall scales are equal, h=k=1, on the standard parallel (defined by k=1) at a latitude of 45 degrees.
World map - Produced in Amsterdam
First edition : 1689. Original size : 48.3 x 56.0 cm. Produced using copper engraving. Extremely rare set of maps, only known in one other example in the Amsterdam University. No copies in American libraries. In original hand color.
Carta do Mundo de Mercator (1569)
Author/Creator: No machine-readable author provided. Roke~commonswiki assumed (based on copyright claims)., Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Order of independence of African nations 1950-1993, as listed on List of countries by date of nationhood. Made in photoshop from various historical maps on wikipedia all based on Vardion's Image:BlankMap-World.png
Author/Creator: Zde, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Engraving on a mammoth tusk perhaps representing a “map”, Pavlov (Břeclav DIstrict, Southern Moravia, Chech Republic), deposited in ArÚ AVČR Brno. Gravettian. Original. Length 37 cm. Temporary exhibition the Mammoth hunters in the NM Prague.
Map of Iraq showing major cities.
The Chinese Yu Ji Tu (Map of the Tracks of Yu the Great), a map carved into stone in the year 1137 during the Song Dynasty, located in the Stele Forest of modern-day Xian, China. Yu the Great refers to the Chinese deity described in the Chinese geographical work of the Yu Gong, a chapter of the Classic of History. Needham and Chavannes assert that the original map must have predated the 12th century.
The graduated scale of this gridded map is at 100 li (Chinese mile) squared for every representative square in the grid. The overall size of the map is 3 ft squared. The coastal outline is relatively firm and the precision of the network of river systems is incredibly accurate. The name of the geographers and cartographers who initially created the map are unknown. In the year 1142 a copy of the map was preserved at Zhenjiang in Jiangsu province by a certain Yu Chi, who was then a Prefectural Director of Studies. There is also mention of an earlier copy of about 1100 AD which itself was based on the Chang'an version. Needham asserts that the map was used primarily to instruct students while referring to sites described in the ancient Yu Gong chapter of the Classic of History.This image is taken from Joseph Needham's Science and Civilization in China: Volume 3, Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth, on the page PLATE LXXXI, as well as described on pages 547 to 549 (hardback copy). I, PericlesofAthens, took the photo of this public domain image.
Part of Tabula Peutingeriana, konrad miller´s facsimile from 1887
Page 19, South China Sea, Inset maps of Singapore strait, Jokohama, Batavia, Sunda Strait
Portuguese nautical chart by Pedro Reinel, c. 1504.
Cartographie du sentier du sommet Pinnacle, Parc National du Mont Rainier, Etat de Washington, USA.
First compass rose depicted on a map, detail from the Catalan Atlas (1375), attributed to cartographer Abraham Cresques of Majorca.
World Map (Original text: National Library of Australia World Map)
Description=Carta universal en que se contiene todo lo que del mundo se ha descubierto fasta agora, hizola Diego Ribero cosmographo de su magestad, año de 1529, e[n] Sevilla / La cual se devide en dos partes conforme A la capitulacion que hizieron los catholicos Reyes de españa y el rrey don Juan de portogual En Tordesillas Año de 1494
Facsimile made in London by W. Griggs, ca. 1887?
1 map on 2 sheets: col.; 58 x 140 cm., sheets 61 x 79 cm and 61 x 66 cm.
Note: "Reproduced from the original in the Museum of the 'Propaganda' in Rome, lent by His Holiness Pope Leo XIII, by W. Griggs, London."
Sea map of Portugal; title: Gedaente en ... vant Landt van Portugal; from: Mariner’s Mirror (T'eerste deel vande Spieghel der zeevaerdt, van de navigatie der Westersche zee, innehoudende alle de custen van Vranckrijck, Spaingen ende 't principaelste deel van Engelandt, in diversche zee caerten begrepen", Leiden, Christoffel Plantijn, 1584)
New and 'most accurate' world map, by J.Bleau.
Copy of Al Idrisi Tabula Rogeriana with arabic names translitterated into the roman alphabet. The original has north at the bottom, so it appears "upside down". Please do not rotate it to have north at the top, as we seek to preserve the original.
The map of the Holy Land by Marino Sanudo (drawn in 1320)
Map orientation: north pointing left
An absolutely stunning and monumental double hemisphere wall map of the world by Samuel Dunn dating to 1794. This extraordinary map is so large and so rich in detail that it is exceptionally challenging to do it full justice in either photographic or textual descriptions. Covers the entire world in a double hemisphere projection. The primary map is surrounded on all sides but detailed scientific calculations and descriptions as well as northern and southern hemisphere star charts, a map of the Moon, a Latitude and Longitude Analemma chart, a map of the Solar System, a Mercator projection of the world, an Analemma projection, a seasonal chart, a universal scale chart, and numerous smaller diagrams depicting planets and mathematical systems. All text is in English. We will start our survey of this map in North America, much of which was, even in 1794, largely unknown. This map follows shortly after the explorations of Captain Cook in the Arctic and Pacific Northwest, so the general outline of the continent is known. However, when this map was made, few inland expeditions had extended westward beyond the Mississippi. This map notes two separate speculative courses for the apocryphal River of the West, a northern route extending from Lake Winnipeg and a southern route passing south of Winnepeg through Pike's lake. The River of the West was hopeful dream of French and English explorers who were searching for a water passage through North America to the Pacific. In concept, should such a route be found, it would have become an important trade artery allowing the British and French, who's colonies dominated the eastern parts of North America, to compete with the Spanish for control of the lucrative Asia-Pacific trade. Little did these earlier speculative cartographers realize the bulk of the Rocky Mountains stood between them and their dreams! Slightly south of the Rivers of the West, we find the kingdom of Quivira, which is one of the lands associated with Spanish legends of the Seven Cities of Gold. In this area we can also find Drake's Harbor or Port de la Bodega and Albion. Drake's Harbor is where Sir Francis Drake supposedly landed during his circumnavigation of the globe in 1580. Drake wintered in this harbor and used the abundant resources of the region to repair his ships. He also claimed the lands for England dubbing them New Albion. Although the true location of Drake's port is unknown, most place it much further to the north. By situating it and consequently New Albion further to the south, Dunn is advocating a British rather than Spanish claim to this region. On the Eastern coast of North America we find a fledgling United States extending from Georgia to Maine. Dunn names Boston, New York, Charleston, Long Island, and Philadelphia, as well as the important smaller towns of Jamestown, Williamsburg and Edonton. South America exhibits a typically accurate coastline and limited knowledge of the interior beyond Peru and the populated coastlands. A few islands are noted off the coast, including the Galapagos, which are referred to as the Inchanted Islands. The Amazon is vague with many of its tributaries drawn in speculatively. Dunn and d'Anville have done away with the popular representation of Manoa or El Dorado in Guyana, but a vestigial Lake Parima is evident. Further south, the Laguna de los Xarayes, another apocryphal destination, is drawn at the northernmost terminus of the Paraguay River. The Xaraiés, meaning Masters of the River were an indigenous people occupying what are today parts of Brazil's Matte Grosso and the Pantanal. When Spanish and Portuguese explorers first navigated up the Paraguay River, as always in search of El Dorado, they encountered the vast Pantanal flood plain at the height of its annual inundation. Understandably misinterpreting the flood plain as a gigantic inland sea, they named it after the local inhabitants, the Xaraies.
The Composite Map of the Ming Empire (Da Ming Hunyi Tu) reflects the political situation in AD 1389 but was likely painted much later. Original Chinese labels were later covered with Manchu on paper slips.
A Chinese topographic map (with the south positioned at the top) from Mawangdui tomb 3; dated to the early Western Han period (183–168 BC); length is 96 cm; width is 96 cm; the map is made of ink on silk. It is now housed in the Hunan Provincial Museum, Changsha. The map depicts a large territory in southern China spanning from the imperial fiefdom of Changsha (a semi-autonomous kingdom within the Han Empire, now modern-day Hunan) to the independent and sometimes hostile Kingdom of Nanyue in what is now modern-day Guangdong and northern Vietnam.
"Map of the United States of Mexico, according to what has been organized and defined by the various acts of the Congress of said republic, created by the best authorities."