Portal:Geography

The Geography Portal

A physical map of the Earth

Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.

Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography is concerned with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography is concerned with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere.

The four historical traditions in geographical research are spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences". (Full article...)

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In this month

Amundsen's party at the South Pole, December 1911

  • 1 December 2008 – Dunwoody, Georgia incorporated as a city
  • 14 December 1911 – First humans to reach geographic South Pole (pictured)
  • 25 December 2010 – Kaohsiung merged with Kaohsiung County, Taiwan
  • 26 December 1908 – First action taken by the Oregon Geographic Names Board

Vital articles Vital article

Vital articles to understand Geography.

Map showing Earth's land areas, in shades of green and yellow.
Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of crustal components such as rock, sand, soil, and sometimes ice. The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in land areas that support agriculture, habitat, and various natural resources. Some life forms, including terrestrial plants and terrestrial animals, have developed from predecessor species that originated in bodies of water. (Full article...)

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Featured biography articles in geography

Portrait of a woman in bonnet and long dress holding rock hammer, pointing at fossil next to a spaniel dog lying on ground.
Anning with her dog, Tray, painted before 1842; the hill Golden Cap can be seen in the background

Mary Anning (21 May 1799 – 9 March 1847) was an English fossil collector, dealer, and palaeontologist who became known around the world for finds she made in Jurassic marine fossil beds in the cliffs along the English Channel at Lyme Regis in the county of Dorset in Southwest England. Anning's findings contributed to changes in scientific thinking about prehistoric life and the history of the Earth.

Anning searched for fossils in the area's Blue Lias and Charmouth Mudstone cliffs, particularly during the winter months when landslides exposed new fossils that had to be collected quickly before they were lost to the sea. Her discoveries included the first correctly identified ichthyosaur skeleton when she was twelve years old; the first two nearly complete plesiosaur skeletons; the first pterosaur skeleton located outside Germany; and fish fossils. Her observations played a key role in the discovery that coprolites, known as bezoar stones at the time, were fossilised faeces, and she also discovered that belemnite fossils contained fossilised ink sacs like those of modern cephalopods. (Full article...)

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The Wild & Scenic Rogue River (48205898602).jpg
Author/Creator: Bureau of Land Management Oregon and Washington from Portland, America, Licence: CC BY 2.0

The Wild and Scenic Rogue River from Hellgate Canyon, July 1, 2019, by Greg Shine, BLM.

The Rogue River is located in southwestern Oregon and flows 215 miles from Crater Lake to the Pacific Ocean. The 84 mile, Congressionally-designated "National Wild and Scenic" portion of the Rogue begins 7 miles west of Grants Pass and ends 11 miles east of Gold Beach.

The Rogue was one of the original eight rivers included in the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. The Rogue National Wild and Scenic River is surrounded by forested mountains and rugged boulder and rock-lined banks.

Steelhead and salmon fishing, challenging whitewater, and extraordinary wildlife viewing opportunities have made the Rogue a national treasure. Black bear, river otter, black-tail deer, bald eagles, osprey, Chinook salmon, great blue heron, water ouzel, and Canada geese are common wildlife seen along the Rogue River. Popular activities include: whitewater rafting, fishing, jet boat tours, scenic driving, hiking, picnicking, and sunbathing.

The Smullin Visitor Center is located at the Rand National Historic Site, on the river near the town of Galice, approximately 20 miles from I-5 on the Merlin-Galice Road.

Visitor Center Address: 14335 Galice Road Merlin, Oregon 97532 541-479-3735

BLM_OR_MD_Rogue_River_Mail@blm.gov
Olmec Heartland Overview 4.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Location North America.svg
Author/Creator: Bosonic dressing, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
North America: orthographic projection with the addition of national borders, based on File:United States (orthographic projection).svg
Earth symbol (fixed width).svg
Author/Creator: Denis Moskowitz, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
U+1F728 🜨: Planetary symbol for the Earth; Daltonian symbol for sulphur when red
Male-total.jpg
Author/Creator: Shahee Ilyas, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Malé, capital of Maldives
Haitian national palace earthquake.jpg
Author/Creator: Logan Abassi / UNDP Global, Licence: CC BY 2.0
The Haitian National Palace (Presidential Palace), located in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, heavily damaged after the earthquake of January 12, 2010. Note: this was originally a two-story structure; the second story completely collapsed.
Linecons big-star.svg
Author/Creator: Designmodo http://www.designmodo.com/, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Linecons by Designmodo
Darkgreen flag waving.svg
Author/Creator: TristanBomb, Licence: CC0
A dark green flag.
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Author/Creator: Users CanadianCaesar, Protarion, Cool Cat, Harrisonmetz, Alkivar, Jon Harald Søby, Optimager, CyberSkull, ClockworkSoul on en.wikipedia, Licence: LGPL

Shrunken and colored version created for ClockworkSoul's Coffee Roll template theme.

en:zh:Image:Cscr-featured.png

part of the featured stars series

if anyone is interested in the original vector/3d files you may contact en:User:Avsa.
COL-city icon.png
Author/Creator: Dr Brains, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
City icon (colombia flag-icon)
P countries-vector.svg
Author/Creator: Al MacDonald, he:משתמש:נעמה מ and Offnfopt, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Vector to replace File:P countries.png, used oval instead of circle to keep it consistent with the other P icons
The Earth seen from Apollo 17 with transparent background.png
"The Blue Marble" is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972 by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometers (18,000 statute miles). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula.
Walden Pond, Massachusetts on June 27, 2012.png
Author/Creator: Buaidh, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Walden Pond, Massachusetts on June 27, 2012. This is a square crop of 2012-06-27-Walden-Pond-02 33.jpg by User:Cbaile19.
Waves in pacifica 1.jpg
Author/Creator: Brocken Inaglory, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Sea Storm in Pacifica, w:California
Cumulus clouds in fair weather.jpeg
Author/Creator: Michael Jastremski, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Cumulus clouds in fair weather. Photograph taken by Michael Jastremski.
Social sciences.svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Iconic image for social science.
The Earth seen from Apollo 17.jpg
"The Blue Marble" is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula.
Nuvola apps korganizer.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence:
C Puzzle.png
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Denbies when owned by Denison (cropped).jpg
The mansion house at Denbies estate, Dorking, Surrey
Tessellated Pavement Sunrise Landscape.jpg
Author/Creator: JJ Harrison (https://www.jjharrison.com.au/), Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Sunrise, “Tessellated Pavement”, Eaglehawk Neck, Tasman Peninsula, Tasmania, Australia. The „Tesselated Pavement“ is the result of an orthogonal joint pattern in the rock. On the picture it shows the so called “pan formation”, where the rock in the immediate vicinity of the joints is more resistant to erosion than the rock that is more distant to the joints, This is due to alterations of the rock along the joints by hydrothermal (or similar) solutions when the rock was still buried deeply below the surface millions of years ago. When no alterations or alterations that lower the erosional resistivity have taken place in the geological past, the rock along the joints will erode faster than the rock that is more distant to the joints. In that case the so called “loaf formation” of “Tessellated Pavement” will form.
Libya 4985 Tadrart Acacus Luca Galuzzi 2007.jpg
(c) I, Luca Galuzzi, CC BY-SA 2.5
Leaving traces on soft sand dunes in Tadrart Acacus a desert area in western Libya, part of the Sahara.
Daedongyeojido-full.jpg
Daedongyeojido ("The Great Map of the East Land") is a full scale[clarification needed] map of Korea produced in 1861. Although no modern survey techniques were used, it is remarkably similar to modern maps. This marks the zenith of pre-modern Korean cartography; this file is the full mozaic version of it, which can be read just as easily as a Google interactive map. JPG(99 MB) mirror, PNG(618 MB) mirror. All three extant copies of the map are designated as secondary national treasures of South Korea; this one is treasure item number 850-3, which is owned by Seoul National University's Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies. Stamps on the map indicate its ownership (""서울 大學校 圖書" for "Seoul National University's book"; "朝鮮総督府圖書之印" for "stamp of Governor-General of Korea"; and "奎章閣韓國學圖書" for Kyujanggak Institute for Korean Studies. See discussion of stamps here.
LagunaBeachCA photo D Ramey Logan.JPG
(c) Photograph by D Ramey Logan, CC BY-SA 3.0
The Complete and Entire city of Laguna Beach photo: D. Ramey Logan, please include photographer credit if used outside of Wikipedia
Yue-heung1gong2.ogg
Author/Creator: Jyugulik, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Pronunciation of Heung1gong2 (Hēunggóng; Hong Kong) in Cantonese.
IvyMike2.jpg
Nuclear weapon test Mike (yield 10.4 Mt) on Enewetak Atoll. The test was part of the Operation Ivy. Mike was the first hydrogen bomb ever tested, an experimental device not suitable for use as a weapon.
Gall–Peters projection SW.jpg
Author/Creator: Strebe, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The world on Gall–Peters projection. 15° graticule. Imagery is a derivative of NASA’s Blue Marble summer month composite with oceans lightened to enhance legibility and contrast. Image created with the Geocart map projection software.
Lambert conformal conic projection SW.jpg
Author/Creator: Strebe, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The world on Lambert conformal conic projection. 15° graticule, standard parallels at 20°N and 50°N. Imagery is a derivative of NASA’s Blue Marble summer month composite with oceans lightened to enhance legibility and contrast. Image created with the Geocart map projection software.
Iceberg in the Arctic with its underside exposed.jpg
Author/Creator: AWeith, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
When the sea is calm, the underside of icebergs can easily be observed in the clear polar water.
Maid of the Mist - pot-o-gold.jpg
Author/Creator: Saffron Blaze, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
One of the Maid of the Mist tour boats approaching the Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls.
TartiniSquare-Piran-6.jpg
(c) Plamen Agov • studiolemontree.com, CC BY-SA 3.0
Tartini Square in Piran, Slovenia.
Google Maps Logo.svg
Google Maps Logo (2020).
Map of USA with state and territory names 2.png
Author/Creator: User:Wapcaplet, edited by User:Ed g2s, User:Dbenbenn, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Map of the United States — the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the 5 major territories
Waltham Abbey -21Oct2007 (3).jpg
Author/Creator: Andrew Wilkinson, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Waltham Abbey in the town of Waltham Abbey, Essex, England.
Horseshoe Bend TC 27-09-2012 15-34-14.jpg
Author/Creator: Paul Hermans, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Horseshoe Bend, Page, Arizona
Amsterdam Canals - July 2006.jpg
Author/Creator: Diliff, Licence: CC BY 2.5
A panorama of 4 segments of an Amsterdam Canal in summer.
Miscanti Lagoon near San Pedro de Atacama Chile Luca Galuzzi 2006.jpg
Author/Creator: Luca Galuzzi (Lucag), Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Cerros de Incahuasi mountains with the Salar de Talar salt flat in the foreground near San Pedro de Atacama, 4010 meters, Chile.
Physical World Map.svg
Physical map of the world. Robinson projection, standard parallels 38°N and 38°S.
20090719 Crkva Gospa od Zdravlja Kotor Bay Montenegro.jpg
Author/Creator: User:Ggia, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
"Crkva Gospa od Zdravlja" (translated in English "Our Lady of Health") church, Kotor bay, Montenegro.
Siége de la flotte turc.jpg
Siège of the fleet othoman and french, in 1543, in front of the remparts of the town of Nice.
Jamison Valley, Blue Mountains, Australia - Nov 2008.jpg
Author/Creator: Diliff, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
A panoramic view of the Jamison Valley in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia. Taken by myself with a Canon 5D and 24-105mm f/4L IS lens as a 3 segment exposure blended panorama.
Muragl LCD-edit.jpg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY 3.0
View of the High Engadin valley from Muragl, canton Grisons, Switzerland.
Colton Point State Park overlook 1.jpg
(c) I, Ruhrfisch, CC-BY-SA-3.0
CCC-built overlook, looking south to the Pine Creek Gorge in Colton Point State Park in Shippen Township, Tioga County, Pennsylvania, United States. This is the second overlook after entering the park. The white rock outcrop on the other side of the gorge is the main overlook in Leonard Harrison State Park.
The Volcano.jpg
A photo of The Volcano in northwestern British Columbia, Canada.
Israel-2013-Aerial 00-Negev-Makhtesh Ramon.jpg
(c) Andrew Shiva / Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 4.0
Aerial view of Makhtesh Ramon (Hebrew: מכתש רמון), in the Negev Desert, Israel.
Maple syrup.jpg
Bottle of maple syrup from Quebec, Canada.
Sinusoidal projection SW.jpg
Author/Creator: Strebe, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The world on sinusoidal projection. 15° graticule. Imagery is a derivative of NASA’s Blue Marble summer month composite with oceans lightened to enhance legibility and contrast. Image created with the Geocart map projection software.
Thames Barrier, London, England - Feb 2010.jpg
Author/Creator: Diliff, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
An 11 segment panoramic view of the Thames Barrier in London, England.
Mary Anning painting.jpg
Portrait of Mary Anning with her dog Tray and the Golden Cap outcrop in the background, Natural History Museum, London. This painting was owned by her brother Joseph, and presented to the museum in 1935 by Miss Annette Anning.
London Montage L.jpg
Author/Creator: Southlondoneye (compilation, sources to attribute see above), Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
London
Prussian infantry advance at Leuthen.jpg
Prussian infantry advance at Leuthen
Blois Loire Panorama - July 2011.jpg
Author/Creator: Diliff, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
A 28 segment (2 x 14) panoramic view of Blois as viewed from the south-east on the far side of the Loire River.
Gnomonic projection SW.jpg
Author/Creator: Strebe, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Polar view on gnomonic projection. 15° graticule, 60° radius. Imagery is a derivative of NASA’s Blue Marble summer month composite with oceans lightened to enhance legibility and contrast. Image created with the Geocart map projection software.
Eagle-crashed.jpg
photo taken by Nils Strindberg, member of the disastrous Andrée expedition, and hence dead in 1897.
South America - Blue Marble orthographic.jpg
South America. An orthographic projection of NASA's Blue Marble data set (1 km resolution global satellite composite). Image generated by custom Python code with orthographic projection formulas from MathWorld.
Alter Strom.jpg
(c) Alabama, CC-BY-SA-3.0
Alter Strom, a canal in the sea resort of Warnemünde.
The Matterhorn as seen from Zermatt.png
Author/Creator: Buaidh, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
The Matterhorn as seen from Zermatt. This is a square crop of Peak of the Matterhorn, seen from Zermatt, Switzerland.jpg
Florida topographic map-en.svg
Author/Creator:
Eric Gaba (Sting - fr:Sting)
, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Topographic map of the State of Florida, USA (2000 Census).
Note: the background map is a raster image embedded in the SVG file.
De Zoeker LCD.jpg
Author/Creator: Murdockcrc, Licence: CC BY 3.0
De Zoeker (the Seeker) windmill in Zaanse Schans, North Holland, Netherlands. This mill was used to produce oil.
Círculos Concéntricos.svg
Urantia symbol variant (unlike the official Urantia logo, the inner circle is filled).
Sarychev Volcano edit.jpg
A picture of Russia's Sarychev Volcano, on Matua Island in the Kuril Islands, erupting on 12 June 2009, as seen from the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbits the Earth at a height of between 347 and 360 km.

Original description by NASA:
"A fortuitous orbit of the International Space Station allowed the astronauts this striking view of Sarychev volcano (Russia’s Kuril Islands, northeast of Japan) in an early stage of eruption on June 12, 2009. Sarychev Peak is one of the most active volcanoes in the Kuril Island chain and is located on the northwestern end of Matua Island.

"Prior to June 12, the last explosive eruption had occurred in 1989 with eruptions in 1986, 1976, 1954 and 1946 also producing lava flows. Commercial airline flights were diverted from the region to minimize the danger of engine failures from ash intake. This detailed photograph is exciting to volcanologists because it captures several phenomena that occur during the earliest stages of an explosive volcanic eruption.

"The main column is one of a series of plumes that rose above Matua Island (48.1 degrees north latitude and 153.2 degrees east longitude) on June 12. The plume appears to be a combination of brown ash and white steam. The vigorously rising plume gives the steam a bubble-like appearance; the surrounding atmosphere has been shoved up by the shock wave of the eruption. The smooth white cloud on top may be water condensation that resulted from rapid rising and cooling of the air mass above the ash column, and is probably a transient feature (the eruption plume is starting to punch through). The structure also indicates that little to no shearing winds were present at the time to disrupt the plume. By contrast, a cloud of denser, gray ash -- most probably a pyroclastic flow -- appears to be hugging the ground, descending from the volcano summit. The rising eruption plume casts a shadow to the northwest of the island (bottom center). Brown ash at a lower altitude of the atmosphere spreads out above the ground at upper right. Low-level stratus clouds approach Matua Island from the east, wrapping around the lower slopes of the volcano. Only about 1.5 kilometers of the coastline of Matua Island (upper center) can be seen beneath the clouds and ash."
En-us-Bulgaria.ogg
(c) I, EncycloPetey, CC BY-SA 3.0
Pronunciation of the term Bulgaria in US English
Keswick Panorama - Oct 2009.jpg
Author/Creator: Diliff, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
A 2 × 3 segment panorama of the town of Keswick, nestled between Derwent Water and the fells of Skiddaw in the Lake District, Cumbria, England. Taken from about 3/4 of the way to the summit of Walla Crag.
Dead Vlei 4.jpg
Author/Creator: Ikiwaner, Licence: GFDL 1.2
Dead acacia trees (Acacia erioloba) in Dead Vlei, near Sossusvlei, Namibia
The Horn Pano, Mt Buffalo Nat Pk, jjron, 1.4.2011.jpg
Author/Creator: jjron, Licence: GFDL 1.2
Panoramic view across the Mt Buffalo plateau. The highest peak on Mt Buffalo, The Horn at 1,723 m, is the white peak to image right approximately 3 km from the location of the camera (a walker's safety fence can be seen on top). The large number of dead trees visible resulted from the 2006-07 Victorian Alps Bushfires. Mount Buffalo National Park, Victoria, Australia.
Chat Moss Twelve Yards Road 1.jpg
Author/Creator: Parrot of Doom, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Chat Moss, along Astley Road (ignore title)
Brown in a posed formal photo.JPG
William Robinson Brown of New Hampshire, in early to mid 1900s.
Africa (satellite image).jpg
A composed satellite photograph of Africa.
Craig projection SW.jpg
Author/Creator: Strebe, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Part of the world on Craig retroazimuthal projection. 15° graticule, central meridian 39°49'E, center latitude 21°25'N (Mecca). Imagery is a derivative of NASA’s Blue Marble summer month composite with oceans lightened to enhance legibility and contrast. Image created with the Geocart map projection software.
Tobler hyperelliptical projection SW.jpg
Author/Creator: Strebe, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The world on Tobler hyperelliptical projection. 15° graticule; α = 0, γ = 1.18314; k = 2.5. Imagery is a derivative of NASA’s Blue Marble summer month composite with oceans lightened to enhance legibility and contrast. Image created with the Geocart map projection software.
AYool topography 15min.png
Author/Creator: Plumbago, Licence: CC BY 2.5
Present-day Earth topography and bathymetry at 15-minute horizontal resolution. Derived from the National Geophysical Data Center's TerrainBase Digital Terrain Model (v1.0). The original dataset is at 5-minute resolution, and this has been averaged down to 15-minute resolution. It is plotted here using a Mollweide projection (using MATLAB and the M_Map package).
Two-point equidistant projection SW.jpg
Author/Creator: Strebe, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Eurasia on two-point equidistant projection. 15° graticule; two anchor points are (45°N, 40°E), (30°N, 110°E). Imagery is a derivative of NASA’s Blue Marble summer month composite with oceans lightened to enhance legibility and contrast. Image created with the Geocart map projection software.
Mitchell Map-06full2.jpg
Mitchell Map - A map of the British and French dominions in North America,...; 1757
20110419 Ani North Walls Turkey Panorama.jpg
Author/Creator: Ggia, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
North wall of Ani, Turkey.
Gruppo del Sella.jpg
Author/Creator: Dmitry A. Mottl, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Sella group, Piz Ciavazes on the right, Torri del Sella (Sellatowers) on the left
Panorama La Défense.jpg
Author/Creator: Dimitri Destugues, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Paris business district of La Défense (cities of Puteaux, Courbevoie and Nanterre) as seen from the tour Défense 2000. The historical axis joins the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel to the Grande Arche de la Fraternité passing by the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile.