Portal:Ancient Rome

The Ancient Rome portal

In historiography, ancient Rome describes Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, in turn encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753–509 BC), Roman Republic (509–27 BC) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the western empire. The civilisation began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, traditionally dated to 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The civilization was led and ruled by the Romans, alternately considered an ethnic group or a nationality. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time) and covering 5 million square kilometres (1.9 million square miles) at its height in AD 117.

In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from an elective monarchy to a democratic classical republic and then to an increasingly autocratic semi-elective military dictatorship during the Empire. Through conquest, cultural, and linguistic assimilation, at its height it controlled the North African coast, Egypt, Southern Europe, and most of Western Europe, the Balkans, Crimea and much of the Middle East, including Anatolia, Levant and parts of Mesopotamia and Arabia. It is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world.

Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, religion, society, technology, law, politics, government, warfare, art, literature, architecture and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. It achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments, palaces, and public facilities.

The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars, Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily; took Hispania (modern Spain and Portugal); and destroyed the city of Carthage in 146 BC, giving Rome supremacy in the Mediterranean. By the end of the Republic (27 BC), Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa. The Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus. Seven-hundred and twenty-one years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with the first struggle against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.

Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak. It stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century before some stability was restored in the Tetrarchy phase of imperial rule.

Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent barbarian kingdoms in the 5th century. The eastern part of the empire remained a power through the Middle Ages until its fall in 1453 AD. (Full article...)

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The Western Mediterranean in 264 BC: Rome is shown in red, Carthage in grey, and Syracuse in green

The First Punic War (264–241 BC) was the first of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the early 3rd century BC. For 23 years, in the longest continuous conflict and greatest naval war of antiquity, the two powers struggled for supremacy. The war was fought primarily on the Mediterranean island of Sicily and its surrounding waters, and also in North Africa. After immense losses on both sides, the Carthaginians were defeated.

The war began in 264 BC with the Romans gaining a foothold on Sicily at Messana (modern Messina). The Romans then pressed Syracuse, the only significant independent power on the island, into allying with them and laid siege to Carthage's main base at Akragas. A large Carthaginian army attempted to lift the siege in 262 BC, but was heavily defeated at the Battle of Akragas. The Romans then built a navy to challenge the Carthaginians', and using novel tactics inflicted several defeats. A Carthaginian base on Corsica was seized, but an attack on Sardinia was repulsed; the base on Corsica was then lost. Taking advantage of their naval victories the Romans launched an invasion of North Africa, which the Carthaginians intercepted. At the Battle of Cape Ecnomus the Carthaginians were again beaten; this was possibly the largest naval battle in history by the number of combatants involved. The invasion initially went well and in 255 BC the Carthaginians sued for peace; the proposed terms were so harsh they fought on, defeating the invaders. The Romans sent a fleet to evacuate their survivors and the Carthaginians opposed it at the Battle of Cape Hermaeum off Africa; the Carthaginians were heavily defeated. The Roman fleet, in turn, was devastated by a storm while returning to Italy, losing most of its ships and over 100,000 men. (Full article...)
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The following are images from various ancient Rome-related articles on Wikipedia.

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Possible statue of Drusus Caesar, from Roselle (Grosseto)

Drusus (Julius) Caesar (c. AD 8 – 33) was the adopted grandson and heir of the Roman emperor Tiberius, alongside his brother Nero. Born into the prominent Julio-Claudian dynasty, Drusus was the son of Tiberius' general and heir, Germanicus. After the deaths of his father and of Tiberius' son, Drusus the Younger, Drusus and his brother Nero Caesar were adopted together by Tiberius in September AD 23. As a result of being heirs of the emperor, he and his brother enjoyed accelerated political careers.

Sejanus, the prefect of the Praetorian Guard, had become powerful in Rome and is believed by ancient writers such as Suetonius and Tacitus to have been responsible for the downfall of Drusus the younger. As Sejanus' power grew, other members of the imperial family began to fall as well. In AD 29, Tiberius wrote a letter to the Senate attacking Nero and his mother, and the Senate had them both exiled. Two years later, Nero died in exile on the island of Ponza. Drusus was later imprisoned following similar charges as his brother, and remained in prison from AD 30 until his death three years later. Their deaths allowed for the adoption and ascension of their third brother, Gaius Caligula, following the death of Tiberius in AD 37. (Full article...)
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Did you know?

  • ...That when Caesar's troops hesitated to leave their ships for fear of the Britons, the aquilifer of the tenth legion threw himself overboard and, carrying the eagle, advanced alone against the enemy?
  • ...That the most well paid athlete in human history, Gaius Appuleius Diocles, was an illiterate Roman Chariot racer, and earned the equivalent of $15 Billion US Dollars.
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The Roman Forum (Latin: Forum Romanum) was a rectangular forum at the heart of the city of Ancient Rome. The Forum was used for military triumphs, elections, criminal trials, gladiatorial matches, and as a meeting- and business-place. The Forum survives today in ruins, and is the oldest structure in the modern city of Rome.
Photo credit: Howard Hudson
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Media files used on this page

Colosseum in Rome, Italy - April 2007.jpg
Author/Creator: Diliff, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
A 4x4 segment panorama of the Coliseum at dusk. Taken by myself with a Canon 5D and 50mm f/1.8 lens at f/5.6.
Roman Empire Trajan 117AD.png
Author/Creator: Tataryn, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The Roman Empire (red) and its clients (pink) in 117 AD during the reign of emperor Trajan.
Darkgreen flag waving.svg
Author/Creator: TristanBomb, Licence: CC0
A dark green flag.
Flag of Italy.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Parthenon from west.jpg
Parthenon from west
Author/Creator: johnny_automatic, Licence: CC0
Scales icon
C Puzzle.png
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Nuvola apps korganizer.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence:
The Great Bath in Bath (UK).jpg
Author/Creator: Steve Cadman, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
The Great Bath, Roman Baths, originally 1st-3rd century AD, with late 19th century superstructure by John McKean Brydon.
Roman military diploma Carnuntum 02.jpg
Author/Creator: User:MatthiasKabel, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Fragmento del diploma militar romano CIL XVI 26 = CIL III 854: Imp(erator) Titus Caesar divi Vespasiani f(ilius) Vespasianus / Augustus pontifex maximus tribunic(ia) potestat(e) / VIIII imp(erator) XV p(ater) p(atriae) censor co(n)s(ul) VIII / iis qui militaverunt equi[te]s et pedites in alis / quattuor et cohortibus d[ecem] et tribus I Arva/corum I civium Romanor[um II] Arvacorum Fron/[to]niana I Alpinorum I Montanorum I Nori/[cor]um I Lepidiana I Augusta Ituraeorum II Lu/[censi]um I Alpinorum I Britannica II Astu/[rum et] Callaecorum II Hispanorum III Thra/[cum V] Breucorum VIII Raetorum quae sunt / in Pannonia sub T(ito) Atilio Rufo quinis et vic[e]/nis pluribusve stipendiis emeritis dimissis / honesta missione item iis qui militant in a/lis duabus I civium Romanorum et II Arva/corum et coh(o)rte VIII Raetorum et sunt sub eo/dem emeritis quinis et vicenis stipend[iis] // quorum nomina subscripta sunt ipsis [li]/beris posterisque eorum civitatem dedit et / conubium cum {cum} uxoribus quas [tun]c ha/buissent cum est civitas iis data aut s[i q]ui cae/libes essent cum iis quas postea duxissent dum/taxat singuli singulas Idibus Iuni(i)s / L(ucio) Lamia Plautio Aeliano / [C(aio) Mario] Marcello Octavio Publio Cluvio Rufo / co(n)s(ulibus) / [coho]rt(is) I Mon[t]anorum cui prae(e)st / [Sex(tus) Ne]rianus Sex(ti) f(ilius) Clu(stumina) Clemens / ex peditibus / [Soio]ni Muscelli f(ilio) Besso / [des]criptum et recognit[um] ex tabula ae/nea quae fixa est Romae in Capitolio // Imp(erator) Titus Caesa[r divi Vespasia]ni f(ilius) Vespasia/nus Augustus [pontifex max]imus tribunic(ia) / potestat(e) VIIII im[p(erator) XV p(ater) p(atriae) cens]or co(n)s(ul) VIII / iis qui militaver[unt equite]s et pedites in / alis quattuor et co[horti]bus decem et tri/bus I Arvacorum I civium Romanorum II Ar/vacorum Frontoniana I Alpinorum I Monta/norum I Noricorum I Lepidiana I Augusta / Ituraeorum I(I) Lucensium I Alpinorum I / Britannica II Asturum et Callaecorum II / Hispanorum III Thracum V Breucorum VIII / Raetorum quae sun{n}t in Pannonia sub T(ito) / Atilio Rufo quinis et vicenis pluribusve sti/pendiis emeritis dimissis honesta missio/ne item iis qui militant in alis duabus / I civium Ro[ma]norum et II Arvacorum et / coh(o)rte VIII Raetorum et sunt sub eodem / emeritis quinis et vicenis stipendiis quo/rum nom[ina] subscripta sunt ipsis li/beris p[oste]risque eorum civitatem / dedit et [conubi]um cum uxoribus quas tunc / habuis[sent] cum est civitas iis data / aut si qu[i ca]elibes essent cum <i=E>is quas / postea duxissent dumtaxat singuli / singulas Idibus Iuni(i)s / L(ucio) Lamia Plautio Aeliano / C(aio) Mario Marcello Octavio Publio Cluvio Rufo / co(n)s(ulibus) / cohort(is) I Montanorum cui prae(e)st / Sex(tus) Nerianus Sex(ti) f(ilius) Clu(stumina) Clemens / ex peditibus / Soioni Muscelli f(ilio) Besso / descriptum et recognitum ex tabula aenea / quae fixa est Romae in Capitolio post ae/dem Fidei p(opuli) R(omani) in muro // L(uci) Pulli Sperati / [3]atini Rufi / [3] Eutrapeli / [3]di Sementivi / P(ubli) Manli Lauri / M(arci) Stlacci Phileti / L(uci) Pulli Ianuar(i)
First Punic War 264 BC v3.png
Author/Creator: Harrias, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Map of the western Mediterranean Sea in 264 BC, focusing on the states involved in the First Punic War.
Ancient Roman latrines / latrinae, Ostia Antica
Colosseo 2008.jpg
Author/Creator: Alessandroferri, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
DM Tiberius Claudius Chryseros.jpg
Author/Creator: Kleuske, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Urn for the ashes of Tiberius Claudius Chryseros and two females: Iulia Theonoes and Claudia Dorcas, probably his wife and daughter. The reliefs on the side depict Ammon with garlands of fruit, underlining the sacral nature of the object.
CIL VI 5318: Dis Manib(us)/ Ti(beri) Claudi Aug(usti) l(iberti)/ Chryserotis/ et Iuliae Theo/noes et Claudiae / Dorcadis
Children games Louvre Ma99.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Children playing ball games. Marble, Roman artwork of the second quarter of the 2nd century AD. Provenance unknown.
Probably fragment of a Roman sarcophagus. For further information and bibliography, see the Louvre website.
Mosaique Zliten.jpg
Author/Creator: The original uploader was Nacéra Benseddik at French Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY-SA 1.0
Mosaïque de Zliten
Fresco depicting a seated woman, from the Villa Arianna at Stabiae, Naples National Archaeological Museum (17393152265).jpg
Author/Creator: Carole Raddato from FRANKFURT, Germany, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Fresco depicting a seated woman, from the Villa Arianna at Stabiae, 1st century AD, Naples National Archaeological Museum
TRF hh.jpg
(c) Howard Hudson at en.wikipedia, CC BY 2.5
The Roman Forum. By Howard Hudson.
Inscription Theatre Leptis Magna Libya.JPG
Author/Creator: Papageizichta, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Inscripción de las puertas del teatro de Leptis Magna (Libia, correspondiente con AE 1938, 3 ; AE 1948, 6adn. ; AE 1998, 1513adn. ; IRT 321 : Imp(eratore) Caesare Divi f(ilio) Aug(usto) pont(ifice) max(imo) tr(ibunicia) pot(estate) XXIV co(n)s(ule) XIII patre patr(iae)/ Annobal Rufus ornator patriae amator concordiae/ flamen sufes praef(ectus) sacr(orum) Himilchonis Tapapi f(ilius) d(e) s(ua) p(ecunia) fac(iendum) coer(avit)/ idemq(ue) dedicavit
Author/Creator: original file by Stefano Bolognini, Licence: Attribution
The wedding of Zephyrus and Chloris, Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli (inv. 9202); fresco from Pompeii, Casa del Naviglio (VI,10,11, room 24), 4th Pompeian style (54-68 CE).
Scène de banquet, fresque, Herculanum.jpg
A late Roman-Republican banquet scene in a fresco from Herculaneum, Italy. 59 x 53 cm. The woman wears a transparent silk gown while the man to the left raises a rhyton drinking vessel.
Statuetta indiana di Lakshmi, avorio, da pompei, 1-50 dc ca., 149425, 02.JPG
Author/Creator: Sailko, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Secret Cabinet in the Museo Archeologico (Naples)
Hadrian's Wall and Highshield Crags - geograph.org.uk - 1410581.jpg
(c) G Laird, CC BY-SA 2.0
Hadrian's Wall and Highshield Crags Viewed from Milecastle 39, also in view are Crag Lough and the land rising towards Hotbank Crags in the distance.
Roman Game of 12 Lines Board - Aphrodisias.jpg
Author/Creator: wneuheisel, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Backgammon is said to be the oldest game in history. The ancient Romans played a game, Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum ("Twelve-lined Game"), which was identical, or nearly so, to modern backgammon. This early game board was found near the agora (the market) in Aphrodisias and dates from the second century CE.
Marek Tuliiusz Cyceron.jpg
Author/Creator: Augurmm, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Marek Tuliiusz Cyceron, rzeźba z I wieku po Chrystusie. Muzeum Kapitolińskie.
Egyptian - Mummy Portrait of a Man - Walters 323.jpg
In Roman Egypt (30 BC-AD 324), artists adapted naturalistic painting styles to the ancient custom of making portrait masks for mummies. The portraits were often painted while the subject was in the prime of life and were hung in the home until the person's death. This practice continued in northern Egypt well into the Early Byzantine period.
Céramique sigillée Metz 100109 2.jpg
Céramique sigillée, époque gallo-romaine, musées de la Cour d'Or à Metz.
SEUSO lakomája.png
Author/Creator: Elekes Andor, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Vadásztál. Seuso kincs. A felvétel 2017. július 17-én, hétfőn készült az Országházban. Lapos ezüsttál, átmérője 70,5 cm, tömege 8,8 kg. A tál közepén vadászati jelenetekkel közrefogott szabadtéri lakomajelenet. Kör alakú mezőbe foglalt díszítését latin nyelvű verses felirat keretezi. Seuso a kincs tulajdonosa lehetett aki jelentős családi esemény, talán mennyegző alkalmával kaphatta ajándékba ezt a tárgyat. A vadásztársaság a halban gazdag Balaton partján lakomázik. A víz felett Pelso (Balaton). A tál a 4. század közepe táján készülhetett. Seuso, Pannonia helytartója birtokának széle a legközelebbi Balatonpart a Partfő, Balatonkenesén.
RMW - Opfernder Togatus.jpg
Author/Creator: Wolfgang Sauber, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Weißenburg ( Bavaria ). Roman Museum: Bronze statue of priest in toga ( 2nd/3rd century AD ).
0 Relief représentant Mithra - Louvre-Lens (2).JPG
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY 3.0
Marble relief of a Mithraic tauroctony scene from the Capitol, Rome, Italie, of the Roman cult figure of Mithras sacrificing a bull - Musée du Louvre-Lens, on exhibit at the Galerie du Temps, secteur Antiquité / Empire romain. Note: the head is a statuary that shows Mithras looking at the bull or towards the viewer are the result of Renaissance-era restorations of monuments that were missing a head; they are incorrect reconstructions.
Altrömische Wandmalerei in der Villa of P. Fannius Synistor, Wandmalerei-Detail nach Bühnenmanie, Boscoreale, Campaia.jpg
Wandmalerei in der Villa of P. Fannius Synistor, -Detail nach Bühnenmanier (Fantasiearchitektur), Boscoreale, Campania, Italien
Arch of Titus Menorah.png
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY 3.0
Roman Triumphal arch panel copy from Beth Hatefutsoth, showing spoils of Jerusalem temple 81 ap. J.-C. .
Siege and destruction of Jerusalem (f. 155v) Cropped.jpg
Unknown authorUnknown author
, Licence: CC0
Siege and destruction of Jerusalem
Giovane con rotolo.JPG
A young man with blondish hair wearing a laurel wreath, holding a rotulus document, a fresco portrait from Pompeii, 1st century AD, National Archaeological Museum of Naples (inv. nr. 9085).
Pompeii - Battle at the Amphitheatre - MAN.jpg
Battle between inhabitants of Pompeii and Nuceria in the Amphitheatre of Pompeii (see Tacitus Annals' XIV.17). Roman fresko from Pompeii in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Naples)
Ostia antica-13.jpg
Author/Creator: Patrick Denker, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Thermopolium ad Ostia Antica, Roma, Italia
IMG_1344 Ostia Antica
Primavera di Stabiae.jpg
Affresco della Flora o della Primavera, da Stabiae, una delle pitture più famose dell'epoca romana. Rinvenuta a Stabia, si trova oggi al Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli (inv. nr. 8834).
Hall of the Augustals.jpg
Author/Creator: Andy Hay from UK, Licence: CC BY 2.0
Hall of the Augustals (Herculaneum) - This fresco depicts Hercules with Achelous.
Neptune Roman mosaic Bardo Museum Tunis.jpg
Author/Creator: Tony Hisgett from Birmingham, UK, Licence: CC BY 2.0
"The Triumph of Neptune" Roman mosaic from La Chebba, Tunisia, late 2nd Century CE. Women representing the four seasons occupy each corner, along with agricultural scenes and flora. Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
Roman school.jpg
Author/Creator: user:shakko, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Relief found in Neumagen near Trier, a teacher with three discipuli. Around 180–185 CE. Photo of casting in Pushkin museum, Moscow.
Togato con tesa dell'imperatore claudio, inv. 2221.JPG
(c) I, Sailko, CC BY-SA 3.0
Togato con testa dell'imperatore claudio, inv. 2221.JPG
Choregos actors MAN Napoli Inv9986.jpg
Choregos and actors, Roman mosaic.
Grande Ludovisi Altemps Inv8574.jpg
So-called “Grande Ludovisi” sarcophagus, with battle scene between Roman soldiers and Germans. The main character is probably Hostilian, Emperor Decius' son (d. 251 AD). Proconnesus marble, Roman artwork, ca. 251/252 AD.
042 Conrad Cichorius, Die Reliefs der Traianssäule, Tafel XLII.jpg
Building a fort (scene LX); reception of a Dacian embassy (scene LXI)
Head Constantine Musei Capitolini MC1072.jpg
Head of Emperor Constantine I, part of a colossal statue. Bronze, Roman artwork, 4th century AD, Musei Capitolini, Rome. Formerly at the Lateran Palace; gift of Sixtus IV, 1471.
Casale Bikini modified.jpg
Author/Creator: modification by AlMare of photograph taken by Disdero, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5

Famous "bikini girls" mosaic (found by archeological excavation of the ancient Roman villa near Piazza Armerina in Sicily), showing women exercising, running, or receiving the palm of victory and crown (for winning an athletic competition).

Bikini Mosaic
Villa Romana del Casale
Statua virile in nudità eroica, forse di druso III figlio di germanico e agrippina maggiore, 1-50 dc ca, da roselle.JPG
Author/Creator: Sailko, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Ancient Roman statues in the Museo archeologico e d'arte della Maremma
Roman Empire 125.png
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Map of the Roman Empire in 125 during the reign of emperor Hadrian.


Lambert azimuthal-equal area. Central latitude: 45° N, central longitude: 20° E. X, Y origin offset - 0

Datum: ETRS89


The physical map was made using the following public domain sources:

Additional references for the map content:

  • Tacitus, Germania (ca. 100)
  • Ptolemy, Geographia (ca. 140)
  • Atlante storico DeAgostini, Instituto Geografico DeAgostini, 1998. pg. 35-41.
  • Historischer Weltatlas, Dr. Walter Leisering, Marix Verlag, 2011. pg. 26-27
  • Történelmi világatlasz, Cartographia Kiadó, 2005. pg. 20-21.
  • The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Rome by Christopher Scarre, Penguin Historical Atlases, 1995. pg. 81.

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Still life Tor Marancia Vatican.jpg
Fish and vegetables hanging up in a cupboard, still-life. Mosaic, Roman artwork, 2nd century CE. From a villa at Tor Marancia, near the Catacombs of Domitilla.
Still life with eggs, birds and bronze dishes, Pompeii.jpg
Still life with eggs, birds and bronze dishes, from the House of Julia Felix, Pompeii. Height: 74 cm.
Roman diatretglas.jpg
Unknown artistUnknown artist
, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Roman glass beaker from second half of the 4th century. Found in Cologne, now in the Staatliche Antikensammlung Munich. The style is called diatret, there are only 50 beakers left, most are broken. The characters at the top: "Bibe multis annis" short for "Bibe vivas multis annis" (Drink and you will live for many years"). Photographed by myself in Antikensammlung München.
Author/Creator: Rabax63, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Das heutige Gelände des Circus Maximus an der Südostkurve
Belgique - Bruxelles - Maison de la Louve - 05.jpg
Author/Creator: EmDee, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Belgium - Brussels - Grand-Place - Maison de la Louve - Romulus, Rémus et la louve after restoration
Colosseum Colosseo Coliseum (8082864097).jpg
Author/Creator: Bert Kaufmann from Roermond, Netherlands, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Roma / Rome - Lazio - Italia / Italy
Green glass Roman cup unearthed at Eastern Han tomb, Guixian, China.jpg
An ancient Roman green glass cup discovered in an Eastern Han tomb of Guangxi, China, dated to the Eastern Han period (25-220 AD). Photo taken in the National Museum, Beijing.
Pont du Gard BLS.jpg
Author/Creator: Benh LIEU SONG (Flickr), Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Pont du Gard, in Vers-Pont-du-Gard, Gard department, South France. The Pont du Gard is the most famous part of the roman aqueduct which carried water from Uzès to Nîmes until roughly the 9th century when maintenance was abandoned. The monument is 49m high and now 275m long (it was 360m when intact) at its top. It's the highest roman aqueduct, but also one of the best preserved (with the aqueduct of Segovia). The Pont du Gard has been a UNESCO world heritage site since 1985.
The new old amphitheater in Pula Istria (19629095974).jpg
(c) Jeroen Komen, CC BY-SA 2.0
The new old amphitheater in Pula, Istria. Built around 0 AD/BC and one of the largest remaining in the world. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pula_Arena
Table with was and stylus Roman times.jpg
Author/Creator: Peter van der Sluijs, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Writing tablet with wax and stylus. Roman period. The sharp tip was used for writing and the flat end was for wiping it out.
Pompeii - Fullonica of Veranius Hypsaeus 1 - MAN.jpg
Roman fresco from the fullonica (dyer's shop) of Veranius Hypsaeus in Pompeii. Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Naples). The man on the left is busy brushing wool cloth. The man on the right, standing beneath a caged dome, is engaged in fabric whitening via sulphurized fumigation. An owl is perched on top of the cage, likely a symbol of Athena, protector of the lanaiuoli (i.e. companies of wool merchants).
Nile river02 pushkin.jpg
Author/Creator: shakko, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Personification of Nile river with all its tributaries as children. Plaster cast of original in Vatican, Museo Pio-Clementino.
Antoninus Pius Hermitage.jpg
Статуя Антонина Пия (император 131-161 гг). Третья четверть II в. Мрамор, А 164. Эрмитаж, зал Юпитера. Санкт-Петербург, Россия.
Bust of Julius Caesar from History of the World (1902).png
Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE). Source: H. F. Helmolt (ed.): History of the World. New York, 1902. Copied from: University of Texas Library Portrait Gallery.
Sarcofago avvocato Valerius Petrnianus-optimized.jpg
Author/Creator: Giovanni Dall'Orto., Licence: Attribution
Archaeological Museum in Milan, (Italy). A slave brings to his master the tablets to write. Detail from the sarcophagus of Roman lawyer "Valerius Petronianus" [315-320 a.D.]. Picture by Giovanni Dall'Orto, March 21, 2005.
Cacera Centcelles panoràmica.jpg
Author/Creator: Patricirobert, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
This image was provided to Wikimedia Commons as a contribution from an Art&Design School thanks of a collaboration between Escola d'Art i Disseny de Tarragona and Amical Wikimedia.
Tunisia-3363 - Amphitheatre Spectacle.jpg
Author/Creator: Dennis Jarvis, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.0
Leopard attacking a prisoner in an amphitheatre spectacle in a Roman mosaic (late 2nd century AD)
Lipsanoteca di Brescia.jpg
Lipsanoteca di Brescia
Pompeii family feast painting Naples.jpg
Painting from Pompeii, now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Naples), showing a banquet or family ceremony
HMB - Muri statuette group - Ensemble.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC BY 3.0
The Muri statuette group, a noted collection of bronze figures of Gallo-Roman found in Muri bei Bern, Switzerland, 1832.
Winner of a Roman chariot race.jpg
Winner of a Roman chariot race
Pannello di pittura parietale da area vesuviana, miho museum, shiga 02.jpg
Pannello di pittura parietale da area vesuviana, miho museum, shiga
Author/Creator: The original uploader was Daniel at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Square version of the DYK image. GFDL
Augusto come giove, 00-50 dc circa.JPG
(c) I, Sailko, CC BY-SA 3.0
Ancient Roman statue of Emperor Augustus as Jove (i.e. Jupiter), first half of the 1st century AD.
Skyphos Boscoreale Louvre Bj2367.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC BY 2.5
Emperor Tiberius's triumph. Silver skyphos with repoussé decoration, late 1st century BC–early 1st century AD. From the villa della Pisanella at Boscoreale, 1895.
Boucles d'oreilles 3ème siècle Musée de Laon 030208.jpg
Boucles d'oreilles en or, 3ème siècle + JC. Musée de Laon.
Terentius Neo and wife MAN Napoli Inv9058 n01.jpg
Portrait of the baker Terentius Neo and his wife.
Jerash BW 12.JPG
Author/Creator: Berthold Werner, Licence: CC BY 3.0
Jerash, Oval forum
Pompei - House of Julia Felix - 2 - MAN.jpg
Sale of bread at a market stall.

Roman fresco from the Praedia of Julia Felix in Pompeii.

Museo Archeologico Nazionale (Naples)
Drunken satyr MAN Napoli Inv5628 n01.jpg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC BY 2.5
Drunken satyr.
Roman fresco Villa dei Misteri Pompeii 004.jpg
Roman Painting - Villa dei Misteri - Pompeii - Italia.
Busto maschile.JPG
Busto maschile, da Ercolano - Museo archeologico nazionale di Napoli (inv. nr. 9072).
Author/Creator: Tataryn, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Amphitheatres of the Roman Empire in the mid-3rd century CE
Togato, I sec dc. con testa di restauro da un ritratto di nerva, inv. 2286.JPG
(c) I, Sailko, CC BY-SA 3.0
Togato, I sec dc. con testa di restauro da un ritratto di nerva, inv. 2286. Museo Chiaramonti.
The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial period.jpg
Author/Creator: John william hanson, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
The cities of the Roman world in the Imperial period. Created by J. W. Hanson.
List icon.svg
A simple icon of a bullet list
0 Sarcophage d'Acilia - Pal. Massimo alle Terme.JPG
Unknown artistUnknown artist
, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Marble fragment of the sarcophagus depicting Acilia Gordian III and some members of the Roman Senate.
Mosaic showing Roman entertainments from the 1st century. Jamahiriya Museum, Tripoli, Libya. From Dar Buc Ammera villa (Zliten).
Kapitolinische Wölfin Museum Capitolini.jpg
Author/Creator: Rabax63, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Capitoline she-wolf (Latin Lupa Capitolina), a bronze figure showing Romulus and Remus, the mythical founders of the city of Rome
Herkulaneischer Meister 002.jpg
So-called Sappho, fourth style fresco; Pompeii, Region VI, Insula occidentalis. A young woman is shown with a pen (stylus) that is used to enscribe writing on the wax tablets she is holding. The net in her hair is made of golden threads and typical for the fashion of the Neronian period.
Periplous of the Erythraean Sea.svg
Author/Creator: George Tsiagalakis, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Periplous of the Erythreaen Sea map, according to the description from source text (https://el.wikisource.org/wiki/Περίπλους_τῆς_Ἐρυθράς_Θαλάσσης). Original names have been transcribed to Latin alphabet when possible. For the Greek names look at the respective Greek version of the map.
Invasions of the Roman Empire 1.png
Author/Creator: User:MapMaster, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5
Map of the "barbarian" invasions by the Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Franks, Goths, Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Huns and Vandals of the Roman Empire showing the major incursions from 100 to 500 CE.
  • References
    • Cornell, Tim; Matthews, John (1982), Atlas of the Roman World, Facts on File, NY, ISBN: 0871966522.
    • Ermatinger, James W; (2004) Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Greenwood Pub Group, NY, ISBN: 0313326924.
    • Various, Historical Atlas of the World, 1970, Barnes & Noble, NY.
    • Ancona, Francis ; Atlas Of The World, 1999, Barnes & Noble, NY.