Pearl River Delta

Pearl River Delta
珠江三角洲(珠三角)
Delta do Rio das Pérolas (DRP)
Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macau Greater Bay Area
2014 satellite view of the Pearl River Delta from the NASA Earth Observatory
2014 satellite view of the Pearl River Delta from the NASA Earth Observatory
Map of the metropolitan region Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area in Green
Map of the metropolitan region Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area in Green
RegionsGuangdong
Hong Kong
Macau
Major SettlementsGuangzhou
Shenzhen
Zhuhai
Foshan
Dongguan
Zhongshan
Jiangmen
Huizhou
Zhaoqing
Hong Kong
Macau
Government
 • Governor of GuangdongMa Xingrui
 • Chief Executive of Hong KongCarrie Lam
 • Chief Executive of MacauHo Iat Seng
Area
 • Metro
39,380 km2 (15,200 sq mi)
Population
 • Megalopolis78,314,535
 • Metro density1,989/km2 (5,150/sq mi)
Language
 •  Cantonese and other Yuehai dialects, Mandarin, English, Portuguese, Macanese Patois
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST, HKT, MST)
Pearl River Delta
Chinese name
Chinese珠江三角洲
Chinese abbreviation
Chinese珠三角
Literal meaningZhu (Pearl River) Delta
Second alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese粤江平原
Traditional Chinese粵江平原
Literal meaningYue (Guangdong) river plain
Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macau Greater Bay Area
Simplified Chinese粤港澳大湾区
Traditional Chinese粵港澳大灣區
Portuguese name
PortugueseDelta do Rio das Pérolas

The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region (PRD; Chinese: 珠江三角洲城市圈; pinyin: Zhūjiāng Sānjiǎozhōu Chéngshìquān; Portuguese: Delta do Rio das Pérolas (DRP)) is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary, where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea. It is one of the most densely urbanized regions in the world, and is often considered a megacity. It is now the wealthiest region in South China and one of the wealthiest in the whole of China along with the Yangtze River Delta in East China and Jingjinji in North China. The region's economy is referred to as Pearl River Delta Economic Zone. It is also part of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area.

The PRD is a megalopolis, with future development into a single mega metropolitan area, yet itself is at the southern end of a larger megalopolis running along the southern coast of China, which include metropolises such as Chaoshan, Zhangzhou-Xiamen, Quanzhou-Putian and Fuzhou. The nine largest cities of the PRD had a combined population of 57.15 million at the end of 2013, comprising 53.69% of the provincial population.[1] According to the World Bank Group, the PRD has become the largest urban area in the world in both size and population.[2] The region's traditional language is Cantonese; in the late 20th century and the 21st century, due to the high inflow of migrant workers coming from other regions, Mandarin has gradually became a lingua franca.

The west side of this region, along with Chaoshan, was also the source of much Chinese emigration from the 19th to the mid 20th centuries, including to the Western world, where they formed many Chinatowns. Today, much of the Chinese diaspora in the US, Canada, Australia, Latin America, and much of Southeast Asia traces their ancestry to the west side of this region.

Geography

The river delta, also known as the Golden Delta of Guangdong,[3] is formed by three major rivers, the Xi Jiang (West River), Bei Jiang (North River), and Dong Jiang (East River). The flat lands of the delta are criss-crossed by a network of tributaries and distributaries of the Pearl River. The Pearl River Delta is actually two alluvial deltas, separated by the core branch of the Pearl River. The Bei Jiang and Xi Jiang converge to flow into the South China Sea and Pearl River in the west, while the Dong Jiang only flows into the Pearl River proper in the east.

The Xi Jiang begins exhibiting delta-like characteristics as far west as Zhaoqing, although this city is not usually considered a part of the PRD region. After passing through the Lingyang Gorge and converging with the Bei Jiang, the Xi Jiang opens up and flows as far east as Nansha Qu and as far west as Xinhui. Major distributaries of the Xi include Donghui Shuidao, Jiya Shuidao, Hutiaomen Shuidao, Yinzhou Hu, and the main branch of the Xi Jiang. Jiangmen and Zhongshan are the major cities found in the western section of the delta.

The Bei Jiang enters the delta plains at Qingyuan but doesn't begin to split until near Sanshui. From here the two main distributaries are Tanzhou Shuidao and Shunde Shuidao which form multiple mouths along the west side of the Pearl River's estuary. Two other distributaries, Lubao Yong and Xinan Yong, split from the Bei further north and converge with the Liuxi He to form the main branch of the Pearl River just north of Guangzhou. The other major city in the north section of the delta is Foshan.

The Dong Jiang flows through Huizhou into the delta. It begins diverging northeast of Dongguan into many distributaries, including the Dongguan Shuidao. Distributuares enter the Pearl River as far north as Luogang and as far south as Hu Men (Tiger Gate).

Saltwater crocodiles were present within the Pearl River estuary during antiquity.

Location and demographics

As well as the delta itself, the term Pearl River Delta refers to the dense network of cities that covers nine prefectures of the province of Guangdong, namely Dongguan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Zhaoqing, Zhongshan and Zhuhai and the SARs of Hong Kong and Macau. The 2010/2011 State of the World Cities report, published by the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, estimates the population of the delta region at 120 million people; it is rapidly urbanising.[4]

The eastern side of the PRD (Shenzhen, Dongguan), dominated by foreign capital, is the most developed economically. The western areas (Foshan, Zhuhai, Zhongshan, Jiangmen), dominated by local private capital, are open for development. New transport links between Hong Kong, Macau and Zhuhai in the PRD are expected to open up new areas for development, further integrate the cities, and facilitate trade within the region. The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge, and the proposed Shenzhen–Zhongshan Bridge, currently in the planning phase, will be amongst the longest bridges in the world with a total length of approximately 50 km (31 mi) each.

An 1888 map of the mouth of the Pearl River Delta, showing the locations of Macau and Hong Kong

Until 1985, the PRD had been mainly dominated by farms and small rural villages, but after the economy was reformed and opened, a flood of investment turned it into the land's economic powerhouse. The PRD's startling growth was fueled by foreign investment coming largely from Hong Kong manufacturers that moved their operations into the PRD. In 2003, Hong Kong companies employed 11 million workers in their PRD operations. Lately there have been extreme labour shortages in the region due to runaway economic growth which caused wages to rise by about 20 to 30 percent in the past two years.[5]

Economy

The Pearl River Delta has been one of the most economically dynamic regions of the People's Republic of China since the launch of China's reform programme in 1979. With annual gross domestic product growth of 13.45 percent over three decades since 1978, it is 3.5 percentage points higher than the national average. Since 1978, almost 30% of all foreign investment in China was in the PRD.[6] In 2007 its GDP rose to US$448 billion which makes its economy about the size of Taiwan's[7] and by 2019 this figure has increased to US$2.0 trillion[8] or about the same size as Italy. The abundance of employment opportunities created a pool of wealthy, middle-income, professional consumers with an annual per capita income that puts them among China's wealthiest.[9] Since the onset of China's reform program, the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone has been the fastest growing portion of the fastest growing province in the fastest growing large economy in the world.[10]

The industrial cities in the Pearl River Delta has been called the "Factory of the World" or the "World's Factory" due to the presence of industrial parks populated with factories from foreign investments.[11][12] The target market of the delta region's exports, however, has become increasingly domestic rather than foreign.[13] Dongguan, Zhongshan, Nanhai, and Shunde (the later two are now districts of Foshan) the four cities known as the Four Guangdong Dragons for its high growth rates and rapid development from late the 1980s to the 2000s.

Although the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone encompasses only 0.4 percent of the land area and only 3.2 percent of the 2000 Census population of mainland China, it accounted for 8.7 percent of GDP, 35.8 percent of total trade, and 29.2 percent of utilised foreign capital in 2001. By 2016, the Pearl River Delta accounted for 9.1% of China's GDP.[14] These figures show the remarkable level of economic development to which the Pearl River Delta has been subjected in order to become an 'Economic Zone', as well as the international orientation of the region's economy. This orientation has attracted numerous investors from all over the world who use the Greater Pearl River Delta region as a platform for serving global and Chinese markets.

As of 2008, the Central Government has introduced new labor laws, environmental and other regulations to reduce pollution, industrial disputes, produce safer working conditions and protect the environment. The costs of producing low margin and commodity goods have increased. This is on top of the rising cost for energy, food, transport and the appreciation of the Renminbi against the falling US Dollar. Some manufacturers will need to cut costs by moving up the value chain or moving to more undeveloped regions.[15]

Significance of PRD

Many electronic markets in Huaqiangbei, Shenzhen specialize in selling electronic components to the manufacturers of electric and electronic goods.

The Pearl River Delta has become the world's workshop and is a major manufacturing base for products such as electronic products (such as watches and clocks), toys, garments and textiles, plastic products, and a range of other goods. Much of this output is invested by foreign entities and is geared for the export market. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone accounts for approximately one third of China's trade value.

Private-owned enterprises have developed quickly in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone and are playing an ever-growing role in the region's economy, particularly after year 2000 when the development environment for private-owned enterprises has been greatly relaxed.

Nearly five percent of the world's goods were produced in the Greater Pearl River Delta in 2001, with a total export value of US$289 billion. Over 70,000 Hong Kong companies have factory plants there.[15]

Transportation

Public transport

Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Bay Area Rail Transit Network

Urban rail transport

PRD is served by six different metro systems throughout the metropolitan area consisting of Guangzhou Metro, Shenzhen Metro, MTR, FMetro, Macau Light Rail Transit and Dongguan Rail Transit. In addition, the Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region intercity railway provides regional transit between cities of the PRD.

Buses, taxis and motorcycles

All cities are served by buses and taxis, while some cities may still offer motorcycle service. The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge provides a road connection across the Pearl River between Hong Kong, Macau, and Zhuhai, and is regularly traversed by buses and other public transit.

Air transport

PRD is covered by seven civilian airports, with five in Mainland China and two in special administrative regions. Two of the Mainland Airports have international flights.

Mainland China:

Special administrative regions:

Railway and intercity-rail transport

The entire PRD is fully covered by railway, high-speed rail, or intercity-rail services.

River transport

There are daily high-speed catamaran services throughout the PRD region.

  • Guangzhou Ferry
  • Cotai Jet
  • New World First Ferry
  • TurboJET
  • Star Ferry
  • Hong Kong & Kowloon Ferry
  • Discovery Bay Transportation Services
  • Park Island Transport
  • Fortune Ferry
  • Macao Dragon Company
  • Coral Sea Ferry
  • Chuen Kee Ferry
  • Tsui Wah Ferry

Cities

CityRomanizationStatsInformation & SubdivisionsCity MapImage
Guangzhou
广州 / 廣州
Pinyin: Guǎngzhōu
Canton: Guong2zau1
Yale: Gwóngjāu
Jyutping: Gwong2zau1
Population: 12,700,800
Area: 7,434 km2
Density: 1,708.47/km2
Also known to many English speakers as Canton, Guangzhou is the capital of Guangdong province. It is a port on the Pearl River, navigable to the South China Sea, and is cultural and political center of the Pearl River Delta.


Districts: Yuexiu, Liwan, Haizhu, Tianhe, Baiyun, Huangpu, Panyu, Huadu, Nansha, Zengcheng, Conghua
New Area: Nansha

Administrative Division Guangzhou 2.pngGuangzhou Twin Towers.jpg
Shenzhen
深圳
Pinyin: Shēnzhèn
Canton: Sem1zen3
Yale: Sāmjan
Jyutping: Sam1zan3
Population: 10,357,938
Area: 1,991 km2
Density: 5,202.37/km2
Shenzhen is a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in China. It has been one of the fastest-growing cities in the world due to its proximity to Hong Kong. It also has one of the busiest ports in the world.


Districts: Futian, Luohu, Nanshan, Yantian, Bao'an, Longgang, Pingshan, Longhua, Guangming
New District: Dapeng

Administrative Division Shenzhen 2.pngFutian District 2017.jpg
Zhuhai
珠海
Pinyin: Zhūhǎi
Canton: Ju6oi2
Yale: Jyūhói
Jyutping: Zyu1hoi2
Population: 1,560,229
Area: 1,724 km2
Density: 905.00/km2
Zhuhai plays a similar role to Shenzhen and became the first of the Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in China. Since the late 1970s it has been one of the fastest-growing cities in the Pearl River Delta due to its proximity to Macau.


Districts: Xiangzhou, Doumen, Jinwan
New Area: Hengqin

Administrative Division Zhuhai 2.pngLover's Avenue in Zhuhai.jpg
Foshan
佛山
Pinyin: Fóshān
Canton: Fed1san1
Yale: Fātsāan
Jyutping: Fat1saan1
Population: 7,194,311
Area: 3,848 km2
Density: 1,869.62/km2
Foshan is an old town dated back many centuries. It was famous for its porcelain industry. It is now the third largest city in Guangdong'. The city is relatively affluent when compared to other Chinese cities, and it is home to many large private enterprises. Foshan recently has seen a transformation brought by China's booming economy. City administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment especially in Nanhai District which has closes ties with Guangzhou to form a Guangzhou-Foshan metro in the near future.


Districts: Chancheng, Nanhai, Shunde, Sanshui, Gaoming

Administrative Division Foshan.png39459-Foshan.jpg
Dongguan
东莞 / 東莞
Pinyin: Dōngguǎn
Canton: Dung1gun2
Yale: Dūnggún
Jyutping: Dung1gun2
Population: 8,220,237
Area: 2,465 km2
Density: 3,334.78/km2
Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west. It is also home to the world's largest shopping mall, South China Mall.


Subdistricts: Dongcheng, Guancheng, Nancheng, Wanjiang
Towns: Chang'an, Changping, Chashan, Dalang, Dalingshan, Daojiao, Dongkeng, Fenggang, Gaobu, Hengli, Hongmei, Houjie, Huangjiang, Humen, Liaobu, Machong, Qiaotou, Qingxi, Qishi, Shatian, Shijie, Shilong, Shipai, Tangxia, Wangniudun, Xiegang, Zhangmutou, Zhongtang

Administrative Division Dongguan.pngSkyscrapers in Dongguan, China 2019 15-36-25.jpg
Zhongshan
中山
Pinyin: Zhōngshān
Canton: Zung1san1
Yale: Jūngsāan
Jyutping: Zung1saan1
Population: 3,120,884
Area: 1,783 km2
Density: 1,750.35/km2
Zhongshan is a mid-size city named after Sun Yat-sen (who had the alternate name Sun Zhongshan), who is widely considered to be the "Father of modern China" and was born in Zhongshan's Cuiheng village in 1866. Zhongshan serves as a midway point between Guangzhou and Macau. Zhongshan is known in China for making lamps.


Subdistricts: Dongqu, Nanqu, Shiqi, Xiqu, Wuguishan Subdistrict, ZTHIDZ (Zhongshangang)
Towns: Banfu, Dachong, Dongfeng, Dongsheng, Fusha, Gangkou, Guzhen, Henglan,l Huangpu, Nanlang, Nantou, Minzhong, Sanjiao, Sanxiang, Shaxi, Shenwan, Tanzhou, Xiaolan
New Area: Cuiheng

Administrative Division Zhongshan.pngZhongshan968.jpg
Jiangmen
江门 / 江門
Pinyin: Jiāngmén
Canton: Gong1mun4
Yale: Gōngmùhn
Jyutping: Gong1mun4
Population: 4,448,871
Area: 9,443 km2
Density: 471.12/km2
Jiangmen Port is the second largest river port in Guangdong province. The local government plans to develop a harbour industrial zone with heavy industries such as petrochemical and machinery industries. The port of Jiangmen was known as Kong-Moon when it was forced to open to western trade in 1902. One legacy of this period is a historic waterfront district lined with buildings in the treaty port style. The city has an ongoing renewal project which has restored many of these buildings.


Districts: Jianghai, Pengjiang, Xinhui
County-level Cities: Enping, Taishan, Kaiping, Heshan

Administrative Division Jiangmen.png
Taishan, Jiangmen, Guangdong, China - panoramio.jpg
(c) luchangjiang~鲁昌江, CC BY-SA 3.0
Huizhou
惠州
Pinyin: Hùizhōu
Canton: Wei6zeo1
Yale: Waihjāu
Jyutping: Wai6zau1
Population: 4,597,002
Area: 10,922 km2
Density: 420.89/km2
Huizhou is the most eastern city in the Pearl River Delta region. Huizhou is known for its West Lake scenery. Huizhou gained benefit from the Chinese economic reform of the late 1980s. The blossoming real estate market attracted capital investment from Hong Kong and Taiwan. In the provincial economic development strategy, Huizhou is regarded as a site for a world-class petrochemical industry, as well as a hub for developing information technology, and expanding exports and trade.


Districts: Huicheng, Huiyang
Counties: Boluo, Huidong, Longmen

Administrative Division Huizhou.png
Huicheng, Huizhou, Guangdong, China - panoramio (2).jpg
(c) Qiu Mao, CC BY 3.0
Zhaoqing
肇庆 / 肇慶
Pinyin: Zhàoqìng
Canton: Xiu6 hing3
Yale: Siuhhing
Jyutping: Siu6 hing3
Population: 3,918,085
Area: 14,891 km2
Density: 263.11/km2
Zhaoqing is the most western city in the Pearl River Delta region. It is well known for being a regional tourist hub, a medium-sized provincial "college town" as well as an up-and-coming manufacturing center. Residents from Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other nearby cities, as well as people from Hong Kong and Macau, are known to visit the city on weekend getaways and excursions.


Districts: Duanzhou, Dinghu, Gaoyao
Counties: Guangning, Huaiji, Fengkai, Deqing
County-level City: Sihui

Administrative Division Zhaoqing.png
Duanzhou, Zhaoqing, Guangdong, China - panoramio.jpg
(c) ogwen, CC BY-SA 3.0
Hong Kong
香港
Pinyin: Xiānggǎng
Canton: Hêng1gong2
Yale: Hēunggóng
Jyutping: Hoeng1gong2
Population: 7,061,200
Area: 1,104 km2
Density: 6,396.01/km2
Hong Kong Island was first occupied by British forces in 1841, and then formally ceded from China under the Treaty of Nanjing at the end of the war. Hong Kong remained a crown colony of the United Kingdom until 1997 when it was returned to China. Hong Kong is known as one of the world's leading financial capitals also a major business and cultural hub.


Districts: Central and Western, Eastern, Southern, Wan Chai, Kowloon City, Kwun Tong, Sham Shui Po, Wong Tai Sin, Yau Tsim Mong, Islands, Kwai Tsing, North, Sai Kung, Sha Tin, Tai Po, Tsuen Wan, Tuen Mun, Yuen Long

Map of Hong Kong 18 Districts.svgHong Kong Island Skyline 2009.jpg
Macau
澳门 / 澳門
Pinyin: Àomén
Canton: Ou3mun4
Yale: Oumùhn
Jyutping: Ou3mun4
Population: 544,600
Area: 30 km2
Density: 18,153.33/km2
Macau was the first Portuguese settlement in China in 1557. Macau remained a colony of Portugal until 1999 when it was returned to China. Macau has developed into a notable tourist industry that boasts a wide range of hotels, resorts, stadiums, restaurants and casinos. This makes it one of the richest cities in the world.


Freguesia: Nossa Senhora de Fátima, Santo António, São Lázaro, , São Lourenço, Nossa Senhora do Carmo, São Francisco Xavier
Zone: Cotai

MapOfMacauMunicipalities.svg
Casinos, Macao, 2013-08-08, DD 01.jpg
(c) Diego Delso, CC BY-SA 3.0

Subdivision

NameCityTypePopulation
(2010~2011)
Area
(km2)
Density
(/km2)
BaiyunGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict46,7683.0815,184
BeijingGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict53,1350.51104,186
DadongGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict83,4911.0281,853
DatangGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict46,1241.0643,513
Daxin[a]Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict0.60
DengfengGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict92,2184.9818,517
Dongfeng[b]Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict92,2181.40
DongshanGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict74,2992.3032,303
GuangtaGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict68,1280.44154,836
Guangwei[c]Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict0.79
HongqiaoGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict42,2581.5227,801
HualeGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict47,1261.2836,817
HuanghuagangGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict99,5694.4322,476
JiansheGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict52,1100.9356,032
KuangquanGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict90,0363.0129,912
LiuhuaGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict17,2531.819,532
LiurongGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict83,9960.8796,547
Shishu[d]Guangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict0.51
MeihuacunGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict85,4001.7349,364
NonglinGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict50,1521.0846,437
RenminGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict69,2741.5145,876
ZhuguangGuangzhou (Yuexiu)Subdistrict56,3290.9360,568
BaihedongGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict48,2383.1015,560
CaihongGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict54,3481.0651,271
ChajiaoGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict54,9184.0513,560
ChanghuaGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict32,7781.6120,359
ChongkouGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict48,0974.2011,451
DongjiaoGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict35,8894.607,801
DongshaGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict29,0137.903,672
DuobaoGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict32,5810.8637,884
FengyuanGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict59,3370.7876,073
HailongGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict31,8019.493,351
HuadiGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict39,6351.6324,315
HualinGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict46,3090.7264,318
JinhuaGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict54,6701.1647,129
LingnanGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict27,5600.9030,622
LongjinGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict43,5180.5382,109
NanyuanGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict70,0661.8537,873
QiaozhongGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict31,6434.4071,91
ShamianGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict3,3970.3011,323
ShiweitangGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict57,1925.1811,040
XicunGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict45,0693.2713,782
ZhanqianGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict27,4310.9628,573
ZhongnanGuangzhou (Liwan)Subdistrict24,7107.003,530
BinjiangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict72,32416.074,500
ChanggangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict97,9861.9649,992
ChigangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict114,9785.7320,065
FengyangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict162,6419.3017,488
GuanzhouGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict57,86911.205,166
HaichuangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict62,8841.4543,368
HuazhouGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict49,74212.204,077
JianghaiGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict115,1575.3021,727
JiangnanzhongGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict75,2202.3631,872
LongfengGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict102,5612.3843,092
NanhuaxiGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict37,9601.1034,509
NanshitouGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict123,0434.8025,633
NanzhouGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict84,72612.306,888
PazhouGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict29,85110.002,985
RuibaoGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict125,3996.3019,904
ShayuanGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict67,3221.4446,751
SusheGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict67,1031.6839,942
XingangGuangzhou (Haizhu)Subdistrict111,8973.8529,064
ChangxingGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict66,09813.215,003
ChebeiGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict102,7875.6018,354
FenghuangGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict19,53422.99849
HuangcunGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict29,5016.174,781
LiedeGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict22,5223.107,265
LinheGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict59,7323.8015,718
LongdongGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict70,05511.705,987
QianjinGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict59,7004.9012,183
ShadongGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict29,5222.1613,667
ShaheGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict42,8141.2633,979
ShipaiGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict177,1984.3041,208
TangxiaGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict177,8647.4223,970
TianhenanGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict62,9122.0830,246
TianyuanGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict54,7694.0313,590
WushanGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict131,79510.5912,445
XiancunGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict51,2844.0712,600
XinghuaGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict68,1394.2815,920
XintangGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict41,20714.952,756
YuancunGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict81,8315.3715,238
YuangangGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict30,6103.239,476
ZhujiGuangzhou (Tianhe)Subdistrict52,55210.015,249
JingtaiGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict82,22611.407,212
SongzhouGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict106,2749.3011,427
TongdeGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict105,3103.6029,252
HuangshiGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict117,3395.7120,549
TangjingGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict89,8954.2321,251
XinshiGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict76,1463.3621,449
Yuncheng[e]Guangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrictnot established3.74
SanyuanliGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict100,1496.8014,727
TongheGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict89,36224.253,685
JingxiGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict91,9705.5116,691
YongpingGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict124,00014.448,587
JunheGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict124,90919.806,308
JinshaGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict52,65710.205,162
ShijingGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict69,6743.485,321
Baiyunhu[f]Guangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrictnot established16.00
Shimen[g]Guangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrictnot established19.80
JiaheGuangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrict43,8484.008,769
Helong[h]Guangzhou (Baiyun)Subdistrictnot established6.00
RenheGuangzhou (Baiyun)Town127,79574.101,724
TaiheGuangzhou (Baiyun)Town208,589155.371,342
JianggaoGuangzhou (Baiyun)Town161,34395.711,685
ZhongluotanGuangzhou (Baiyun)Town192,322169.401,135
DashaGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict44,64113.103,407
HuangpuGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict64,2557.388,706
HongshanGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict42,1277.305,770
YuzhuGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict59,5299.116,534
WenchongGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict46,87710.074,655
NangangGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict76,74713.745,585
ChangzhouGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict36,47811.503,172
SuidongGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict45,02513.583,315
LilianGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict42,2516.586,421
LuogangGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict45,71780.10570
XiagangGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict44,52814.543,062
DongquGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict85,23554.001,578
LianheGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict49,86751.76963
YongheGuangzhou (Huangpu)Subdistrict55,04434.001,618
JiulongGuangzhou (Huangpu)Town93,265175.10532
ShiqiaoGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict168,70120.158,372
ZhongcunGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict104,59823.414,468
ShibiGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict32,98927.011,221
DashiGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict116,10719.346,003
LuopuGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict89,29425.383,518
DalongGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict129,51524.805,222
DonghuanGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict52,96511.004,815
QiaonanGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict72,69517.854,072
ShatouGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict35,20118.101,944
XiaoguweiGuangzhou (Panyu)Subdistrict131,47020.156,524
NancunGuangzhou (Panyu)Town129,07647.002,746
XinzaoGuangzhou (Panyu)Town27,24814.121,929
HualongGuangzhou (Panyu)Town53,14255.70954
ShilouGuangzhou (Panyu)Town90,381126.50714
ShiqiGuangzhou (Panyu)Town97,43471.261,367
ShawanGuangzhou (Panyu)Town88,69537.452,368
XinhuaGuangzhou (Huadu)Subdistrict381,31129.816,764
Huacheng[i]Guangzhou (Huadu)Subdistrictnot established26.56
Xinya[j]Guangzhou (Huadu)Subdistrict20,52032.98235
Xiuquan[k]Guangzhou (Huadu)Subdistrictnot established54.19
TimianGuangzhou (Huadu)Town9,51691.20104
HuashanGuangzhou (Huadu)Town99,262116.40852
TanbuGuangzhou (Huadu)Town55,797113.33492
ChiniGuangzhou (Huadu)Town56,609160.03353
ShilingGuangzhou (Huadu)Town203,254136.311,491
HuadongGuangzhou (Huadu)Town118,736208.44569
NanshaGuangzhou (Nansha)Subdistrict112,15157.801,940
ZhujiangGuangzhou (Nansha)Subdistrict28,57541.50688
Longxue[l]Guangzhou (Nansha)Subdistrictnot established128.90
WanqingshaGuangzhou (Nansha)Town44,891319.20100
HuanggeGuangzhou (Nansha)Town43,79176.50572
HengliGuangzhou (Nansha)Town30,49254.00564
DongchongGuangzhou (Nansha)Town147,22892.001,600
DagangGuangzhou (Nansha)Town125,01190.071,387
LanheGuangzhou (Nansha)Town73,07874.48981
JiekouGuangzhou (Conghua)Subdistrict96,84621.844,434
ChengjiaoGuangzhou (Conghua)Subdistrict79,085160.00494
JiangbuGuangzhou (Conghua)Subdistrict95,843127.00754
WenquanGuangzhou (Conghua)Town55,194210.90261
LiangkouGuangzhou (Conghua)Town32,829530.6061
LütianGuangzhou (Conghua)Town23,430393.0059
TaipingGuangzhou (Conghua)Town94,369210.32448
AotouGuangzhou (Conghua)Town111,308410.00271
LichengGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Subdistrict191,777132.271,449
ZengjiangGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Subdistrict78,07286.18905
ZhucunGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Subdistrict43,55793.90463
Yongning[m]Guangzhou (Zengcheng)Subdistrictnot established104.14
ZhengguoGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town40,387236.40170
ShitanGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town121,674184.00661
XintangGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town391,28785.094,598
ZhongxinGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town78,293236.00331
PaitanGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town58,337289.50201
XiaolouGuangzhou (Zengcheng)Town33,725136.00247
Xiancun[n]Guangzhou (Zengcheng)Townnot established56.65
HuangbeiShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict113,3827.5015,117
GuiyuanShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict82,69410.907,586
DongmenShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict90,4542.1043,073
CuizhuShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict110,4593.4532,017
DongxiaoShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict100,7793.4828,959
NanhuShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict90,5002.6334,410
SungangShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict64,0044.0315,881
DonghuShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict84,55629.052,910
LiantangShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict85,56913.106,531
QingshuiheShenzhen (Luohu)Subdistrict101,02413.627,417
ShatouShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict226,06118.9011,960
NanyuanShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict108,3983.0036,132
YuanlingShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict88,2613.6724,049
HuafuShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict70,8345.7512,318
FutianShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict234,86112.2519,172
XiangmihuShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict89,4719.988,965
LianhuaShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict168,3929.6017,540
MeilinShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict168,50634.304,912
HuaqiangbeiShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict54,0672.9018,643
FubaoShenzhen (Futian)Subdistrict106,8113.7528,482
NantouShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict163,23716.809,716
NanshanShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict152,31223.906,372
ShaheShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict121,35022.325,436
XiliShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict187,83249.163,820
ShekouShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict87,30412.297,103
ZhaoshangShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict79,65018.364,338
YuehaiShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict157,80714.4010,958
TaoyuanShenzhen (Nanshan)Subdistrict138,85340.003,471
Xin'anShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict410,05630.9013,270
XixiangShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict580,736106.005,478
SonggangShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict398,15364.006,221
ShajingShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict529,04160.008,817
FuyongShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict472,79266.207,141
ShiyanShenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrict248,13964.603,841
Hangcheng[o]Shenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrictnot established
Fuhai[p]Shenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrictnot established
Xinqiao[q]Shenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrictnot established
Yanluo[r]Shenzhen (Bao'an)Subdistrictnot established
GuangmingShenzhen (Guangming)Subdistrict66,54955.801,192
GongmingShenzhen (Guangming)Subdistrict414,358100.304,131
Xinhu[s]Shenzhen (Guangming)Subdistrictnot established
Fenghuang[t]Shenzhen (Guangming)Subdistrictnot established
Yutang[u]Shenzhen (Guangming)Subdistrictnot established
Matian[v]Shenzhen (Guangming)Subdistrictnot established
LonghuaShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict367,52124.8014,819
MinzhiShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict281,65230.699,177
DalangShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict277,68937.207,464
GuanlanShenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrict452,59834.6013,080
Guanhu[w]Shenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrictnot established
Fucheng[x]Shenzhen (Longhua)Subdistrictnot established
LongchengShenzhen (Longgang)Subdistrict260,69677.683,356
LonggangShenzhen (Longgang)Subdistrict215,27364.843,320
HenggangShenzhen (Longgang)Subdistrict94,80140.402,346
BujiShenzhen (Longgang)Subdistrict359,77030.5811,764
BantianShenzhen (Longgang)Subdistrict221,76728.517,778
NanwanShenzhen (Longgang)Subdistrict197,43124.687,999
PinghuShenzhen (Longgang)Subdistrict228,21741.805,459
PingdiShenzhen (Longgang)Subdistrict94,76553.141,783
Baolong[y]Shenzhen (Longgang)Subdistrictnot established
Jihua[z]Shenzhen (Longgang)Subdistrictnot established
Yuanshan[aa]Shenzhen (Longgang)Subdistrictnot established
PingshanShenzhen (Pingshan)Subdistrict205,999127.221,619
KengziShenzhen (Pingshan)Subdistrict94,80140.402,346
Biling[ab]Shenzhen (Pingshan)Subdistrictnot established
Maluan[ac]Shenzhen (Pingshan)Subdistrictnot established
Shijing[ad]Shenzhen (Pingshan)Subdistrictnot established
Longtian[ae]Shenzhen (Pingshan)Subdistrictnot established
DapengShenzhen (Dapeng)Subdistrict46,86782.81565
KuichongShenzhen (Dapeng)Subdistrict61,105103.90588
Nan'aoShenzhen (Dapeng)Subdistrict18,588115.06161
HaishanShenzhen (Yantian)Subdistrict61,8585.5211,206
YantianShenzhen (Yantian)Subdistrict80,64117.84,530
MeishaShenzhen (Yantian)Subdistrict18,06316.831,073
ShatoujiaoShenzhen (Yantian)Subdistrict48,7986.917,061
MeihuaZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict91,1729.809,303
GongbeiZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict105,13010.0010,513
JidaZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict81,08811.706,930
CuixiangZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict106,66128.003,809
ShishanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict56,9568.206,945
XiangwanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict48,48232.401,496
QianshanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict184,73853.003,485
WanziZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Subdistrict26,64530.50873
NanpingZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town70,93460.701,168
TangjiawanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town109,152130.00839
HengqinZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town6,914476.0014
GuishanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town1,74518.0096
Dan'ganZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town1,86040.0046
WanshanZhuhai (Xiangzhou)Town1,20823.0052
BaitengZhuhai (Doumen)Subdistrictnot established17.00
Jing'anZhuhai (Doumen)Town172,732142.001,086
BaijiaoZhuhai (Doumen)Town104,568184.00568
GanwuZhuhai (Doumen)Town57,352190.60300
DoumenZhuhai (Doumen)Town46,549105.77440
LianzhouZhuhai (Doumen)Town34,68188.60391
SanzaoZhuhai (Jinwan)Town82,22196.00856
HongqiZhuhai (Jinwan)Town67,631150.00450
PingshaZhuhai (Jinwan)Town67,149197.00340
NanshuiZhuhai (Jinwan)Town36,962100.00369
ZumiaoFoshan (Chancheng)Subdistrict416,80031.6013,189
ShiwanzhenFoshan (Chancheng)Subdistrict286,22626.6210,752
ZhangchaFoshan (Chancheng)Subdistrict241,14926.509,099
NanzhuangFoshan (Chancheng)Town156,90276.702,045
GuichengFoshan (Nanhai)Subdistrict542,77584.166,449
LishuiFoshan (Nanhai)Town273,91475.383,633
JiujiangFoshan (Nanhai)Town170,17994.751,796
DanzaoFoshan (Nanhai)Town154,955143.501,079
DaliFoshan (Nanhai)Town614,83795.906,411
ShishanFoshan (Nanhai)Town610,514330.601,846
XiqiaoFoshan (Nanhai)Town221,670176.631,254
DaliangFoshan (Shunde)Subdistrict404,30980.195,041
RongguiFoshan (Shunde)Subdistrict449,68780.175,609
LeliuFoshan (Shunde)Subdistrict252,36490.842,778
LunjiaoFoshan (Shunde)Subdistrict184,47959.213,115
BeijiaoFoshan (Shunde)Town270,31092.412,925
LecongFoshan (Shunde)Town259,79577.553350
Jun'anFoshan (Shunde)Town141,73679.361,785
XingtanFoshan (Shunde)Town144,537122.071184
ChencunFoshan (Shunde)Town135,68650.922,664
LongjiangFoshan (Shunde)Town221,88173.783,007
XinanFoshan (Sanshui)Subdistrict283,819178.001,594
YundonghaiFoshan (Sanshui)Subdistrict29,95356.00534
LubaoFoshan (Sanshui)Town40,626105.00386
DatangFoshan (Sanshui)Town46,70498.23475
LepingFoshan (Sanshui)Town134,508198.50677
BainiFoshan (Sanshui)Town64,42566.46969
NanshanFoshan (Sanshui)Town22,610115.62195
HechengFoshan (Gaoming)Subdistrict278,454178.581,559
YangheFoshan (Gaoming)Town53,224246.27216
GengheFoshan (Gaoming)Town46,528365.00127
MingchengFoshan (Gaoming)Town41,838186.50224
GuanchengDongguanSubdistrict162,11613.512,008
DongchengDongguanSubdistrict492,875110.04,480
NanchengDongguanSubdistrict289,25559.04,902.62
WanjiangDongguanSubdistrict244,76550.54,846
ShilongDongguanTown141,85011.312,553
GaobuDongguanTown217,43630.07,247
ZhongtangDongguanTown139,56360.02,326
MachongDongguanTown118,06274.01,595
WangniudunDongguanTown84,78631.52,685
HongmeiDongguanTown58,11433.01,761
ShijieDongguanTown246,96036.06,860
DaojiaoDongguanTown143,10763.02,271
ShatianDongguanTown177,482107.01,658
HoujieDongguanTown438,283126.03,478
HumenDongguanTown638,657178.53,577
Chang'anDongguanTown664,23097.86,791
DalingshanDongguanTown279,414110.02,540
DalangDongguanTown310,889118.02,634
HuangjiangDongguanTown231,39998.02,361
LiaobuDongguanTown418,57887.54,783
FenggangDongguanTown318,97182.53,866
TangxiaDongguanTown482,067128.03,766
QingxiDongguanTown312,639143.02,186
ZhangmutouDongguanTown132,816118.81,117
XiegangDongguanTown99,387103.0964
ChangpingDongguanTown386,378108.03,577
QiaotouDongguanTown166,77456.02,978
QishiDongguanTown121,69351.02,386
HengliDongguanTown204,83050.04,096
DongkengDongguanTown138,81927.55,047
ChashanDongguanTown156,52251.03,069
ShipaiDongguanTown160,20256.02,860
ShiqiZhongshanSubdistrict206,36222.59,171
DongquZhongshanSubdistrict153,47773.12,099
NanquZhongshanSubdistrict64,54825.12,571
XiquZhongshanSubdistrict97,86449.11,993
THIDZ (Zhongshangang)ZhongshanSubdistrict229,997158.71,449
WuguishanZhongshanSubdistrict48,019101.2474
HuangpuZhongshanTown145,01788.31,642
NantouZhongshanTown130,71225.75,086
DongfengZhongshanTown123,56256.22,198
FushaZhongshanTown57,57035.41,626
XiaolanZhongshanTown315,62671.94,389
DongshengZhongshanTown118,05276.71,539
GuzhenZhongshanTown147,44052.22,824
HenglanZhongshanTown103,13575.71,362
SanjiaoZhongshanTown121,77070.11,737
MinzhongZhongshanTown108,417121.8890
NanlangZhongshanTown107,977152.4708
GangkouZhongshanTown113,74871.21,597
DachongZhongshanTown74,27640.61,829
ShenwanZhongshanTown31,39252.4599
SanxiangZhongshanTown200,19793.62,138
BanfuZhongshanTown82,41279.61,035
ShaxiZhongshanTown119,37260.91,960
TanzhouZhongshanTown219,943129.51,698
HuanshiJiangmen (Pengjiang)Subdistrict119,42334.03,512
Canghou[af]Jiangmen (Pengjiang)Subdistrict59,5655.011,913
Didong[ag]Jiangmen (Pengjiang)Subdistrict76,7653.720,747
Beijie[ah]Jiangmen (Pengjiang)Subdistrict58,3748.356,990
BaishaJiangmen (Pengjiang)Subdistrict109,7918.1713,438
ChaolianJiangmen (Pengjiang)Subdistrict29,39512.682,318
TangxiaJiangmen (Pengjiang)Town76,021131.1579
HetangJiangmen (Pengjiang)Town88,08532.02,752
DuruanJiangmen (Pengjiang)Town101,72780.91,257
JiangnanJiangmen (Jianghai)Subdistrict31,7002.711,740
WaihaiJiangmen (Jianghai)Subdistrict94,66646.02,057
LileJiangmen (Jianghai)Subdistrict82,61249.81,658
Jiaobei[ai]Jiangmen (Jianghai)Subdistrict9,3633.72,530
Jiaotou[aj]Jiangmen (Jianghai)Subdistrict35,9724.87,494
HuichengJiangmen (Xinhui)Subdistrict385,177143.862,677
DazeJiangmen (Xinhui)Town37,67783.50451
SiqianJiangmen (Xinhui)Town69,93589.54781
LuokengJiangmen (Xinhui)Town31,527117.88267
ShuangshuiJiangmen (Xinhui)Town87,295207.44420
YamenJiangmen (Xinhui)Town37,963289.09131
ShaduiJiangmen (Xinhui)Town36,95796.25383
GujingJiangmen (Xinhui)Town42,027112.31374
SanjiangJiangmen (Xinhui)Town43,11382.43523
MuzhouJiangmen (Xinhui)Town42,11779.79527
Da'aoJiangmen (Xinhui)Town35,36752.56672
TaichengJiangmen (Taishan)Subdistrict246,844159.71,545
DajiangJiangmen (Taishan)Town46,67469.8668
ShuibuJiangmen (Taishan)Town42,578110.9383
SijiuJiangmen (Taishan)Town37,402260143
BaishaJiangmen (Taishan)Town52,462123426
SanheJiangmen (Taishan)Town36,215250144
ChonglouJiangmen (Taishan)Town32,483125259
DoushanJiangmen (Taishan)Town48,229121.25397
DuhuJiangmen (Taishan)Town42,657164.23259
ChixiJiangmen (Taishan)Town34,450254.2135
DuanfenJiangmen (Taishan)Town45,729300152
GuanghaiJiangmen (Taishan)Town43,465132.58327
HaiyanJiangmen (Taishan)Town73,212330221
WencunJiangmen (Taishan)Town49,565175283
ShenjingJiangmen (Taishan)Town52,767315.3167
BeidouJiangmen (Taishan)Town28,091196143
ChuandaoJiangmen (Taishan)Town28,272254.3111
SanbuJiangmen (Kaiping)Subdistrict173,10032.45,342
ChangshaJiangmen (Kaiping)Subdistrict124,829542,311
ShatangJiangmen (Kaiping)Town24,66788280
ChachengJiangmen (Kaiping)Town26,750138.6193
LongshengJiangmen (Kaiping)Town26,161126207
DashaJiangmen (Kaiping)Town22,298215.6103
MagangJiangmen (Kaiping)Town30,72892.3332
TangkouJiangmen (Kaiping)Town22,62673.5307
ChikanJiangmen (Kaiping)Town37,26061.4606
BaiheJiangmen (Kaiping)Town17,62166.1266
XiangangJiangmen (Kaiping)Town13,28078170
JinjiJiangmen (Kaiping)Town16,493149.5110
YueshanJiangmen (Kaiping)Town46,700121.12385
ChishuiJiangmen (Kaiping)Town25,894145178
ShuikouJiangmen (Kaiping)Town90,83533.12,744
ShapingJiangmen (Kaiping)Subdistrict197,155503,943
LongkouJiangmen (Heshan)Town36,62596381
YayaoJiangmen (Heshan)Town38,85182.3472
GulaoJiangmen (Heshan)Town35,60668.12522
TaoyuanJiangmen (Heshan)Town25,90254479
HechengJiangmen (Heshan)Town32,170178180
GongheJiangmen (Heshan)Town41,33890.07458
ZhishanJiangmen (Heshan)Town32,00961.38521
ZhaiwuJiangmen (Heshan)Town26,254205.06128
Yunxiang[ak]Jiangmen (Heshan)Town12,45336.83338
ShuangheJiangmen (Heshan)Town16,575149.4110
EnchengJiangmen (Enping)Subdistrict197,788162.51,217
HengbeiJiangmen (Enping)Town31,694126.5250
ShengtangJiangmen (Enping)Town25,03856.65441
LiangxiJiangmen (Enping)Town20,091121.75165
ShahuJiangmen (Enping)Town56,217250224
NiujiangJiangmen (Enping)Town23,43091257
JuntangJiangmen (Enping)Town46,475100.6461
DatianJiangmen (Enping)Town27,943202.36138
NajiJiangmen (Enping)Town19,38426074
DahuaiJiangmen (Enping)Town18,62597.2191
DongchengJiangmen (Enping)Town26,12950.4518
QiaodongHuizhou (Huicheng)Subdistrict100,37413.57
QiaoxiHuizhou (Huicheng)Subdistrict159,5918.8
JiangnanHuizhou (Huicheng)Subdistrict74,60228
JiangbeiHuizhou (Huicheng)Subdistrict104,49415
LongfengHuizhou (Huicheng)Subdistrict81,05346
Henan'anHuizhou (Huicheng)Subdistrict181,75545
HuihuanHuizhou (Huicheng)Subdistrict173,85236
ChenjiangHuizhou (Huicheng)Subdistrict138,69483
ShuikouHuizhou (Huicheng)Subdistrict137,286120
XiaojinkouHuizhou (Huicheng)Subdistrict105,55466.7
RuhuHuizhou (Huicheng)Town45,990173
SandongHuizhou (Huicheng)Town35,41067.8
TonghuHuizhou (Huicheng)Town35,706112.5
LilinHuizhou (Huicheng)Town57,47649
Ma'anHuizhou (Huicheng)Town55,41476
HengliHuizhou (Huicheng)Town44,488343
LuzhouHuizhou (Huicheng)Town15,890160
TongqiaoHuizhou (Huicheng)Town30,33531
DanshuiHuizhou (Huiyang)Subdistrict226,70380
QiuchangHuizhou (Huiyang)Subdistrict81,224109.9
AotouHuizhou (Huiyang)Subdistrict58,766110
XiayongHuizhou (Huiyang)Subdistrict19,30480.8
YonghuHuizhou (Huiyang)Town25,575130
LiangjingHuizhou (Huiyang)Town25,04372.6
PingtanHuizhou (Huiyang)Town32,271105
ShatianHuizhou (Huiyang)Town29,27685
XinxuHuizhou (Huiyang)Town83,283158.4
ZhenlongHuizhou (Huiyang)Town46,982115.3
LuoyangHuizhou (Boluo)Town208,739251.62
GongzhuangHuizhou (Boluo)Town46,813299.5
BaitangHuizhou (Boluo)Town50,013161.4
YangcunHuizhou (Boluo)Town41,958120
MabeiHuizhou (Boluo)Town21,69058.6
ShibaHuizhou (Boluo)Town39,149142
TaimeiHuizhou (Boluo)Town34,169183.5
LongxiHuizhou (Boluo)Town88,964115.84
YuanzhouHuizhou (Boluo)Town146,053110
ShiwanHuizhou (Boluo)Town122,80283
LonghuaHuizhou (Boluo)Town26,00962
FutianHuizhou (Boluo)Town38,28686.7
ChangningHuizhou (Boluo)Town39,983117
HuzhenHuizhou (Boluo)Town56,551117.3
YangqiaoHuizhou (Boluo)Town29,86889
GuanyingeHuizhou (Boluo)Town17,309143
HengheHuizhou (Boluo)Town21,421232.88
PinshanHuizhou (Huidong)Subdistrict236,877329.22
DalingHuizhou (Huidong)Subdistrict115,762160.23
BaihuaHuizhou (Huidong)Town63,904203.61
LianghuaHuizhou (Huidong)Town44,122177.7
RenshanHuizhou (Huidong)Town63,662183.3
TieyonHuizhou (Huidong)Town34,653120
PinghaiHuizhou (Huidong)Town60,323136
JilongHuizhou (Huidong)Town78,77399
HuangbuHuizhou (Huidong)Town83,75697.7
DuozhuHuizhou (Huidong)Town63,039408.96
AndunHuizhou (Huidong)Town36,297369.5
GaotanHuizhou (Huidong)Town7,399193
BaokouHuizhou (Huidong)Town7,565146.8
BaipenzhuHuizhou (Huidong)Town12,25874
LongchengHuizhou (Longmen)Subdistrict81,835115.5
PinglingHuizhou (Longmen)Subdistrict36,533143
MazhaHuizhou (Longmen)Town22,12854.5
YonghanHuizhou (Longmen)Town47,680215
LongtianHuizhou (Longmen)Town17,810195.5
LongtanHuizhou (Longmen)Town22,306257
DipaiHuizhou (Longmen)Town13,991211
LonghuaHuizhou (Longmen)Town33,423179
LongjiangHuizhou (Longmen)Town23,16754.5
LantianHuizhou (Longmen)Township7,716169
ChengdongZhaoqing (Duanzhou)Subdistrict212,71817.8
ChengxiZhaoqing (Duanzhou)Subdistrict114,83710.3
Chengbei[al]Zhaoqing (Duanzhou)Subdistrict
Chengnan[am]Zhaoqing (Duanzhou)Subdistrict
HuanggangZhaoqing (Duanzhou)Subdistrict88,27278
MugangZhaoqing (Duanzhou)Subdistrict63,51559.5
KengkouZhaoqing (Dinghu)Subdistrict22,40695.5
GuichengZhaoqing (Dinghu)Subdistrict29,93023.3
Guangli SubdistrictZhaoqing (Dinghu)Subdistrict25,77528
Yong'anZhaoqing (Dinghu)Town29,73280.5
ShapuZhaoqing (Dinghu)Town15,598105.8
FenghuangZhaoqing (Dinghu)Town9,110145
LianhuaZhaoqing (Dinghu)Town32,13967
Nan'anZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Subdistrict81,88636.5
HetaiZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town33,660150
LechengZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town24,33794
ShuinanZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town11,598126
LubuZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town63,488254
XiaoxiangZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town30,964200
DawanZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town34,535108
XinqiaoZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town39,26541.8
BaizhuZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town36,977128
LiantangZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town58,429125
HuodaoZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town41,358228
JiaotangZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town33,060130
HuilongZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town25,426124.25
BaituZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town71,430108.4
JinduZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town43,623101.23
JinliZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town93,792141.3
XiangangZhaoqing (Gaoyao)Town29,29296.6
PaishaZhaoqing (Guangning)Town20,527154
TanpuZhaoqing (Guangning)Town20,844132.6
JiangtunZhaoqing (Guangning)Town43,155238.12
Lianhe[an]Zhaoqing (Guangning)Town
LuogangZhaoqing (Guangning)Town9,442105
BeishiZhaoqing (Guangning)Town16,458230
KengkouZhaoqing (Guangning)Town21,002181
ChikengZhaoqing (Guangning)Town12,596181
NanjieZhaoqing (Guangning)Town118,259189.3
BinhengZhaoqing (Guangning)Town38,523171.33
Shijian[ao]Zhaoqing (Guangning)Town
WuheZhaoqing (Guangning)Town17,639116.32
HengshanZhaoqing (Guangning)Town34,355137.5
MugeZhaoqing (Guangning)Town12,634126.05
ShijuZhaoqing (Guangning)Town9,27283.56
GushuiZhaoqing (Guangning)Town35,334263.7
ZhouziZhaoqing (Guangning)Town13,90188.53
HuaichengZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town146,839262.02
ZhagangZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town17,66584.83
Ao'ziZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town32,777206.32
WenlangZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town16,54286.16
GansaZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town17,429132.21
FenggangZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town30,477277
QiashuiZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town28,193529
LiangcunZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town64,95288.9
DagangZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town59,455116
GangpingZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town30,11653.78
LengkengZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town95,881160.2
ManingZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town38,91358
LangangZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town17,593210
YongguZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town36,709189
ShidongZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town54,347325
QiaotouZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town44,647213
ZhongzhouZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town77.1140,524200.4
LianmaiZhaoqing (Huaiji)Town32,394119
ShuaiZhaoqing (Huaiji)Township7,57977.11
JiangkouZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town65,160177
JiangchuanZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town8,286120.08
BaigouZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town12,125142.3
DazhouZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town12,514161.84
YulaoZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town18,187118
He'erkouZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town21,483368
LianduZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town24,838256
XinghuaZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town23,277156.3
LuodongZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town21,205136.83
ChanggangZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town20,497152.64
PingfengZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town16,901107.67
NanfengZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town71,479306
DayukouZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town11,279129
DupingZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town8,913130.54
JinzhuangZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town27,247127.08
Chang'anZhaoqing (Fengkai)Town34,867139.04
DechengZhaoqing (Deqing)Subdistrict58,87817.5
XinxuZhaoqing (Deqing)Town23,892138
HuilongZhaoqing (Deqing)Town17,401132.2
GuanxuZhaoqing (Deqing)Town30,379292
MaxuZhaoqing (Deqing)Town20,214163.75
GaoliangZhaoqing (Deqing)Town28,944300
MocunZhaoqing (Deqing)Town28,625300
YongfengZhaoqing (Deqing)Town19,924160
WulongZhaoqing (Deqing)Town14,207136
BozhiZhaoqing (Deqing)Town15,308115.3
FengcunZhaoqing (Deqing)Town27,344160
YuechengZhaoqing (Deqing)Town31,544221
JiushiZhaoqing (Deqing)Town24,551152.6
DongchengZhaoqing (Sihui)Subdistrict101,42846
ChengzhongZhaoqing (Sihui)Subdistrict142,57784
ZhenshanZhaoqing (Sihui)Subdistrict35,922100.68
LongfuZhaoqing (Sihui)Town17,979103
DedouZhaoqing (Sihui)Town18,35189.7
WeizhengZhaoqing (Sihui)Town12,04763.9
LuoyuanZhaoqing (Sihui)Town5,94526
JingkouZhaoqing (Sihui)Town12,669101
DashaZhaoqing (Sihui)Town46,12080
ShigouZhaoqing (Sihui)Town16,170142
HuangtianZhaoqing (Sihui)Town10,74389.6
JiangguZhaoqing (Sihui)Town27,17782.4
XiamaoZhaoqing (Sihui)Town24,579107.5
Central and WesternHong KongDistrict251,51912.420,102
EasternHong KongDistrict588,09418.531,664
SouthernHong KongDistrict278,65538.87,083
Wan ChaiHong KongDistrict152,6089.815,788
Sham Shui PoHong KongDistrict380,8559.339,095
Kowloon CityHong KongDistrict377,35110.036,178
Kwun TongHong KongDistrict622,15211.252,123
Wong Tai SinHong KongDistrict420,1839.345,540
Yau Tsim MongHong KongDistrict307,8786.940,136
Kwai TsingHong KongDistrict511,16723.322,421
NorthHong KongDistrict304,134136.62,055
Sai KungHong KongDistrict436,627129.63,135
Sha TinHong KongDistrict630,27368.78,842
Tai PoHong KongDistrict296,853136.12,156
Tsuen WanHong KongDistrict304,63761.74,679
Tuen MunHong KongDistrict487,54682.86,057
Yuen LongHong KongDistrict578,529138.43,858
IslandsHong KongDistrict141,327175.1783
Nossa Senhora de FátimaMacauFreguesia211,8003.266,187
Santo AntónioMacauFreguesia120,6001.1109,636
São LázaroMacauFreguesia31,9000.653,166
MacauFreguesia46,1003.413,558
São LourençoMacauFreguesia47,2001.047,200
Nossa Senhora do CarmoMacauFreguesia78,0007.610,263
São Francisco XavierMacauFreguesia4,0007.6526
CotaiMacauFreguesian/a5.8n/a
  1. ^ Merged into Renmin Subdistrict
  2. ^ Merged into Liurong Subdistrict
  3. ^ Merged into Beijing Subdistrict
  4. ^ Merged into Guangta Subdistrict
  5. ^ Split from Xinshi Subdistrict
  6. ^ Split from Shijing Subdistrict
  7. ^ Split from Shijing Subdistrict
  8. ^ Split from Jiahe Subdistrict
  9. ^ Split from Xinhua Subdistrict
  10. ^ Formerly known as Yayao
  11. ^ Split from Xinhua Subdistrict
  12. ^ Split from Wanqingsha Town
  13. ^ Split from Xintang Town
  14. ^ Split from Xintang Town
  15. ^ Split from Xixiang Subdistrict
  16. ^ Split from Fuyong Subdistrict
  17. ^ Split from Shajing Subdistrict
  18. ^ Split from Songgang Subdistrict
  19. ^ Split from Guangming & Gongming Subdistrict
  20. ^ Split from Guangming & Gongming Subdistrict
  21. ^ Split from Gongming Subdistrict
  22. ^ Split from Gongming Subdistrict
  23. ^ Split from Guanlan Subdistrict
  24. ^ Split from Longhua Subdistrict
  25. ^ Split from Longgang Subdistrict
  26. ^ Split from Buji Subdistrict
  27. ^ Split from Henggang Subdistrict
  28. ^ Split from Pingshan Subdistrict
  29. ^ Split from Pingshan Subdistrict
  30. ^ Split from Pingshan Subdistrict
  31. ^ Split from Kengzi Subdistrict
  32. ^ Merged into Baisha Subdistrict
  33. ^ Merged into Baisha Subdistrict
  34. ^ Merged into Baisha Subdistrict
  35. ^ Merged into Jiangnan Subdistrict
  36. ^ Merged into Jiangnan Subdistrict
  37. ^ Merged into Shishan Town
  38. ^ Merged into Chengdong & Chengxi Subdistrict
  39. ^ Merged into Chengdong & Chengxi Subdistrict
  40. ^ Merged into Jiangtun Town
  41. ^ Merged into Binheng Town

Pearl River mega-city

A 2011 article in British newspaper The Telegraph reported on a "Turn The Pearl River Delta Into One" project. The stated goal was to "mesh the transport, energy, water and telecommunications networks of the nine cities together."[16] (Hong Kong and Macau were not included.) However, the Chinese government denied that such a project existed.[17]

Pollution

Removal of floating trash from the surface of the Pearl River in Guangzhou

The Pearl River Delta is notoriously polluted,[18] with sewage and industrial waste treatment facilities failing to keep pace with the growth in population and industry in the area. A large portion of the pollution is brought about by factories run by Hong Kong manufacturers in the area. Much of the area is frequently covered with a brown smog. This has a strong effect on the pollution levels in the delta.[19]

Pollution is a great risk to the Chinese white dolphins that inhabit the area.

On March 22, 2007 the World Bank approved a $96 million loan to the PRC government to reduce water pollution in the Pearl River Delta.[20] On December 23, 2008 it was announced that ¥48.6 billion (about $7.1 billion) will be spent on the river by mid-2010 to clean up the river's sewage problems quoted by Zhang Hu, the director of Guangzhou municipal bureau of water affairs. The city will build about 30 water treatment plants, which will treat 2.25 million tonnes of water per day. The program hopes to cut down the amount of sewage in the area by 85%, and was also of fundamental importance for the 2010 Asian Games held in Guangzhou from November 12, 2010 to November 27, 2010.[21]

In October 2009, Greenpeace East Asia released a report, "Poisoning the Pearl River" that detailed the results of a study it conducted in which 25 samples were collected from five manufacturing facilities in the Greater Pearl River Delta. The study concluded that all the facilities sampled were discharging waste-water containing chemicals with proven or suspected hazardous properties including beryllium, copper, manganese, and heavy metals, as well as high levels of organic chemicals.[22] These substances are associated with a long list of health problems such as cancer, endocrine disruption, renal failure and damage to the nervous system as well being known to harm the environment. Three of the five facilities sampled (Qingyuan Top Dragon Co. Ltd, Wing Fung P.C. Board Co. Ltd. and Techwise Qingyuan Circuit Co. Ltd. ) contained concentrations of chemicals which exceeded the limits set by Guangdong provincial effluent standards. These companies were then subjected to a Clean Production Audit according to Article 28 of China's Cleaner Production Promotion Law.[23] Guangdong Environmental Protection Bureau took a stance against the companies by blacklisting them.

Pearl River Delta is a strong source of greenhouse gases as well. Although it is hard to estimate overall greenhouse gas emissions from such a large megacity, scientists have shown that Pearl River Delta exhibits one of the strongest anomalies in carbon dioxide concentration around the world. This enhancement is easily discernible from satellite observations.[24]

See also

  • Bocca Tigris
  • Metropolitan regions of China
  • Yangtze River Delta
  • Yellow River Delta and Bohai Sea
  • National Central City
  • Huangpu Bridge
  • Humen Pearl River Bridge
  • Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge
  • Shenzhen-Zhongshan Bridge

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy" 广东男性比女性多了500万 人口总量增长放缓_新浪广东城事_新浪广东 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-09-26. Retrieved 2014-07-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ World Bank Report Provides New Data to Help Ensure Urban Growth Benefits the Poor, The World Bank Group, 26 Jan 2015
  3. ^ Atlas of China, page 123. SinoMaps Press, 2007.
  4. ^ Vidal, John (March 22, 2010). "UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
  5. ^ "Labor shortage to affect Pearl River Delta hardest".
  6. ^ "A Stronger Pearl River Delta" (PDF).
  7. ^ "Achievements, challenges in China's Pearl River Delta plan".
  8. ^ "National Data".
  9. ^ "Economic Backdrop of the PRD" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2012-05-18.
  10. ^ "Introducing the Pearl River Delta". Archived from the original on 2012-07-25. Retrieved 2012-05-18.
  11. ^ Mukul Devichand (15 December 2011). "Can China keep its workers happy as strikes and protests rise?". BBC Radio 4, Crossing Continents.
  12. ^ Rahul Jacob (30 November 2011). "Talk is cheap in the world's factory".
  13. ^ "How Hong Kong's poorer workers can gain from Greater Bay Area". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  14. ^ "PRD Economic Profile | HKTDC". china-trade-research.hktdc.com. Retrieved 2020-01-05.
  15. ^ a b China's low costs are on the rise dallasnews.com 2008-08-19 Retrieved 2010-01-09
  16. ^ China to create largest mega city in the world with 42 million people telegraph.co.uk 2011-01-29 Retrieved 2011-01-29
  17. ^ Guandong denies ambitious megacity plan Archived 2012-05-11 at the Wayback Machine CCTV News English 2011-01-30
  18. ^ Wong, S.C.; Li, X.D.; Zhang, G.; Qi, S.H.; Min, Y.S. (2002). "Heavy metals in agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China". Environmental Pollution. 119 (1): 33–44. doi:10.1016/s0269-7491(01)00325-6. hdl:10397/2566. PMID 12125727.
  19. ^ Wang, Wen-Xiong; Rainbow, Philip S. (2020). Environmental Pollution of the Pearl River Estuary, China (1e ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 125. ISBN 978-3-662-61834-9. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  20. ^ World Bank loans China $96 mln for delta environment Reuters alertnet.org 2007-03-22 Retrieved 2010-01-09
  21. ^ Guangzhou contributes 48.6 bln yuan to clean up Pearl River xinhuanet.com 2008-12-24 Retrieved 2010-01-09
  22. ^ "Greenpeace welcomes Guangdong's move to blacklist 20 polluting companies".
  23. ^ "Poisoning the Pearl River: 2nd Edition".
  24. ^ Labzovskii, Lev D.; Jeong, Su-Jong; Parazoo, Nicholas C. (November 2019). "Working towards confident spaceborne monitoring of carbon emissions from cities using Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2". Remote Sensing of Environment. 233: 111359. Bibcode:2019RSEnv.233k1359L. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2019.111359.

Further reading

  • Ma 马向明, Xiangming (April 2012). "The integration of the city-region of the Pearl River Delta 珠江三角洲城市区域的一体化: Integration of city-region of the PRD". Asia Pacific Viewpoint. 53 (1): 97–104. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8373.2012.01478.x.

External links

Coordinates:22°32′N 113°44′E / 22.533°N 113.733°E / 22.533; 113.733

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