# Orders of magnitude (time)

An order of magnitude of time is usually a decimal prefix or decimal order-of-magnitude quantity together with a base unit of time, like a microsecond or a million years. In some cases, the order of magnitude may be implied (usually 1), like a "second" or "year". In other cases, the quantity name implies the base unit, like "century". In most cases, the base unit is seconds or years.

Prefixes are not usually used with a base unit of years. Therefore, it is said "a million years" instead of "a mega year". Clock time and calendar time have duodecimal or sexagesimal orders of magnitude rather than decimal, e.g., a year is 12 months, and a minute is 60 seconds.

The smallest meaningful increment of time is the Planck time―the time light takes to traverse the Planck distance, many decimal orders of magnitude smaller than a second.[1]

The largest realized amount of time, based on known scientific data, is the age of the universe, about 13.8 billion years—the time since the Big Bang as measured in the cosmic microwave background rest frame.[2] Those amounts of time together span 60 decimal orders of magnitude. Metric prefixes are defined spanning 10−24 to 1024, 48 decimal orders of magnitude which may be used in conjunction with the metric base unit of second.

Metric units of time larger than the second are most commonly seen only in a few scientific contexts such as observational astronomy and materials science, although this depends on the author. For everyday use and most other scientific contexts, the common units of minutes, hours (3,600 s or 3.6 ks), days (86,400 s), weeks, months, and years (of which there are a number of variations) are commonly used. Weeks, months, and years are significantly variable units whose length depend on the choice of calendar and are often not regular even with a calendar, e.g., leap years versus regular years in the Gregorian calendar. This makes them problematic for use against a linear and regular time scale such as that defined by the SI, since it is not clear which version is being used.

Because of this, the table below does not include weeks, months, and years. Instead, the table uses the annum or astronomical Julian year (365.25 days of 86,400 seconds), denoted with the symbol a. Its definition is based on the average length of a year according to the Julian calendar, which has one leap year every four years. According to the geological science convention, this is used to form larger units of time by the application of SI prefixes to it; at least up to giga-annum or Ga, equal to 1,000,000,000 a (short scale: one billion years, long scale: one milliard years).

## Less than one second

Units of measure less than a second
Multiple
of a
second
UnitSymbolDefinitionComparative examples & common units
10−44Planck timetPPresumed to be the shortest theoretically measurable time interval
(but not necessarily the shortest increment of time—see quantum gravity)
10−20 ys: One Planck time tP = ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {\hbar G/c^{5}}}}$5.39×10−44 s[3] is the briefest physically meaningful span of time. It is the unit of time in the natural units system known as Planck units.
10−24yoctosecondys[4]Yoctosecond, (yocto- + second), is one septillionth of a second0.3 ys: mean lifetime of W and Z bosons
23 ys: Lower estimated bound on the half-life of isotope 7 of hydrogen (Hydrogen-7)
156 ys: mean lifetime of a Higgs Boson
10−21zeptosecondzsZeptosecond, (zepto- + second), is one sextillionth of one second2 zs: representative cycle time of gamma ray radiation released in the decay of a radioactive atomic nucleus (here as 2 MeV per emitted photon)
4 zs: cycle time of the zitterbewegung of an electron (${\displaystyle \omega =2m_{e}c^{2}/\hbar }$)
247 zs: an experimentally-measured travel time of a photon across a hydrogen molecule, "for the average bond length of molecular hydrogen"[5]
10−18attosecondasOne quintillionth of one second12 as: best timing control of laser pulses.[6]
43 as: shortest laser pulse[7]
10−15femtosecondfsOne quadrillionth of one second1 fs: Cycle time for 300-nanometre light; ultraviolet light; light travels 0.3 micrometres (µm).
140 fs: Electrons have localized onto individual bromine atoms 6Å apart after laser dissociation of Br2.[8]
290 fs: Lifetime of a tauon
10−12picosecondpsOne trillionth of one second1 ps: mean lifetime of a bottom quark; light travels 0.3 millimeters (mm)
1 ps: typical lifetime of a transition state
4 ps: Time to execute one machine cycle by an IBM silicon-germanium transistor
109 ps: Period of the photon corresponding to the hyperfine transition of the ground state of cesium-133, and one 9,192,631,770th of one second by definition
114.6 ps: Time for the fastest overclocked processor as of 2014 to execute one machine cycle.[9]
10−9nanosecondnsOne billionth of one second1 ns: Time to execute one machine cycle by a 1 GHz microprocessor
1 ns: Light travels 30 cm (12 in)
10−6microsecondµsOne millionth of one second1 µs: Time to execute one machine cycle by an Intel 80186 microprocessor
2.2 µs: Lifetime of a muon
4–16 µs: Time to execute one machine cycle by a 1960s minicomputer
10−3millisecondmsOne thousandth of one second1 ms: time for a neuron in human brain to fire one impulse and return to rest[10]
4–8 ms: typical seek time for a computer hard disk
10−2centisecondcsOne hundredth of one second1–2 cs (=0.01–0.02 s): Human reflex response to visual stimuli
1.6667 cs period of a frame at a frame rate of 60 Hz.
2 cs: cycle time for European 50 Hz AC electricity
10−1deciseconddsOne tenth of a second1–4 ds (=0.1–0.4 s): Blink of an eye[11]

## One second and longer

In this table, large intervals of time surpassing one second are catalogued in order of the SI multiples of the second as well as their equivalent in common time units of minutes, hours, days, and Julian years.

Units of measure greater than one second
Multiple of a secondUnitSymbolCommon unitsComparative examples & common units
101decaseconddassingle seconds

(1 das = 10 s)

6 das: one minute (min), the time it takes a second hand to cycle around a clock face
102hectosecondhsminutes
(1 hs = 1 min 40 s = 100 s)
2 hs (3 min 20 s): average length of the most popular YouTube videos as of January 2017[12]
5.55 hs (9 min 12 s): longest videos in above study

7.1 hs (11 m 50 s): time for a human walking at average speed of 1.4 m/s to walk 1 kilometre

103kilosecondksminutes, hours, days

(1 ks = 16 min 40 s = 1,000 s)

1 ks: record confinement time for antimatter, specifically antihydrogen, in electrically neutral state as of 2011[13]

1.8 ks: time slot for the typical situation comedy on television with advertisements included
3.6 ks: one hour (h), time for the minute hand of a clock to cycle once around the face, approximately 1/24 of one mean solar day
7.2 ks (2 h): typical length of feature films
86.399 ks (23 h 59 min 59 s): one day with a removed leap second on UTC time scale. Such has not yet occurred.
86.4 ks (24 h): one day of Earth by standard. More exactly, the mean solar day is 86.400 002 ks due to tidal braking, and increasing at the rate of approximately 2 ms/century; to correct for this time standards like UTC use leap seconds with the interval described as "a day" on them being most often 86.4 ks exactly by definition but occasionally one second more or less so that every day contains a whole number of seconds while preserving alignment with astronomical time. The hour hand of an analogue clock will typically cycle twice around the dial in this period as most analogue clocks are 12-hour, less common are analogue 24-hour clocks in which it cycles around once.
86.401 ks (24 h 0 min 1 s): one day with an added leap second on UTC time scale. While this is strictly 24 hours and 1 second in conventional units, a digital clock of suitable capability level will most often display the leap second as 23:59:60 and not 24:00:00 before rolling over to 00:00:00 the next day, as though the last "minute" of the day were crammed with 61 seconds and not 60, and similarly the last "hour" 3601 s instead of 3600.
88.775 ks (24 h 39 min 35 s): one sol of Mars
604.8 ks (7 d): one week of the Gregorian calendar

106megasecondMsweeks to years

(1 Ms = 11 d 13 h 46 min 40 s = 1,000,000 s)

1.6416 Ms (19 d): length of a "month" of the Baha'i calendar

2.36 Ms (27.32 d): length of the true month, the orbital period of the Moon
2.4192 Ms (28 d): length of February, the shortest month of the Gregorian calendar
2.592 Ms (30 d): 30 days, a common interval used in legal agreements and contracts as a proxy for a month
2.6784 Ms (31 d): length of the longest months of the Gregorian calendar
23 Ms (270 d): approximate length of typical human gestational period
31.5576 Ms (365.25 d): length of the Julian year, also called the annum, symbol a.
31.55815 Ms (365 d 6 h 9 min 10 s): length of the true year, the orbital period of the Earth
126.2326 Ms (1461 d 0 h 34 min 40 s): the elected term of the President of the United States or one Olympiad

(1 Gs = over 31 years and 287 days = 1,000,000,000 s)

1.5 Gs: Unix time as of Jul 14 02:40:00 UTC 2017. Unix time being the number of seconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z ignoring leap seconds.

2.5 Gs: (79 a): typical human life expectancy in the developed world
3.16 Gs: (100 a): one century
31.6 Gs: (1000 a, 1 ka): one millennium, also called a kilo-annum (ka)
63.8 Gs: approximate time since the beginning of the Anno Domini era as of 2019 – 2,019 years, and traditionally the time since the birth of Jesus Christ
194.67 Gs: Approximate lifespan of time capsule Crypt of Civilization, 28 May 1940 – 28 May 8113
363 Gs: (11.5 ka): time since the beginning of the Holocene epoch
814 Gs: (25.8 ka): approximate time for the cycle of precession of the Earth's axis

1012terasecondTsmillennia to geological epochs

(1 Ts = over 31,600 years = 1,000,000,000,000 s)

3.1 Ts (100 ka): approximate length of a glacial period of the current Quaternary glaciation epoch

31.6 Ts (1000 ka, 1 Ma): one mega-annum (Ma), or one million years
79 Ts (2.5 Ma): approximate time since earliest hominids of genus Australopithecus
130 Ts (4 Ma): the typical lifetime of a biological species on Earth
137 Ts (4.32 Ma): the length of the mythic unit of mahayuga, the Great Age, in Hindu mythology.

1015petasecondPsgeological eras, history of Earth and the Universe2 Ps: approximate time since the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event, believed to be caused by the impact of a large asteroid into Chicxulub in modern-day Mexico. This extinction was one of the largest in Earth's history and marked the demise of most dinosaurs, with the only known exception being the ancestors of today's birds.

7.9 Ps (250 Ma): approximate time since the Permian-Triassic extinction event, the actually largest known mass extinction in Earth history which wiped out 95% of all extant species and believed to have been caused by the consequences of massive long-term volcanic eruptions in the area of the Siberian Traps. Also, the approximate time to the supercontinent of Pangaea. Also, the length of one galactic year or cosmic year, the time required for the Sun to complete one orbit around the Milky Way Galaxy.
16 Ps (510 Ma): approximate time since the Cambrian explosion, a massive evolutionary diversification of life which led to the appearance of most existing multicellular organisms and the replacement of the previous Ediacaran biota.
22 Ps (704 Ma): approximate half-life of the uranium isotope 235U.
31.6 Ps (1000 Ma, 1 Ga): one giga-annum (Ga), one billion years, the largest fixed time unit used in the standard geological time scale, approximately the order of magnitude of an eon, the largest division of geological time.
+1 Ga: The estimated remaining habitable lifetime of Earth, according to some models. At this point in time the stellar evolution of the Sun will have increased its luminosity to the point that enough energy will be reaching the Earth to cause the evaporation of the oceans and their loss into space (due to the uv flux from the Sun at the top of the atmosphere dissociating the molecules), making it impossible for any life to continue.
136 Ps (4.32 Ga): The length of the legendary unit kalpa in Hindu mythology, or one day (but not including the following night) of the life of Brahma.
143 Ps (4.5 Ga): The age of the Earth by our best estimates. Also the approximate half-life of the uranium isotope 238U.
315 Ps (10 Ga): approximate lifetime of a main-sequence star similar to our Sun.
435 Ps (13.8 Ga): The approximate age of the Universe

1018exasecondEsfuture cosmological timeAll times of this length and beyond are currently theoretical as they surpass the elapsed lifetime of the known universe.

1.08 Es (+34 Ga): time to the Big Rip according to some models, but this is not favored by existing data. This is one possible scenario for the ultimate fate of the Universe. Under this scenario, dark energy increases in strength and power in a feedback loop that eventually results in the tearing apart of all matter down to subatomic scale due to the rapidly increasing negative pressure thereupon
300 – 600 Es (10 000 – 20 000 Ga): The estimate lifetime of low-mass stars (red dwarfs)

1021zettasecondZs3 Zs (+100 000 Ga): The remaining time until the end of Stelliferous Era of the universe under the heat death scenario for the ultimate fate of the Universe which is the most commonly-accepted model in the current scientific community. This is marked by the cooling-off of the last low-mass dwarf star to a black dwarf. After this time has elapsed, the Degenerate Era begins.

9.85 Zs (311 000 Ga): The entire lifetime of Brahma in Hindu mythology.

1024 and onwardyottasecond and beyondYs and on600 Ys (9×1018 a): The radioactive half-life of bismuth-209 by alpha decay, one of the slowest-observed radioactive decay processes.

1.310019×1012 Ys (4.134105×1028 years): The time period equivalent to the value of 13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.13.0.0.0.0 in the Mesoamerican Long Count, a date discovered on a stela at the Coba Maya site, believed by archaeologist Linda Schele to be the absolute value for the length of one cycle of the universe[14][15]
2.6×1017 Ys (8.2×1033 years): the smallest possible value for proton half-life consistent with experiment[16]

1029 Ys (3.2×1045 years): the largest possible value for the proton half-life, assuming that the Big Bang was inflationary and that the same process that made baryons predominate over antibaryons in the early Universe also makes protons decay[17]
6×1053 Ys (2×1066 years): approximate lifespan of a black hole with the mass of the Sun[18]
5.4×1093 Ys (1.7×10106 years): approximate lifespan of a supermassive black hole with a mass of 20 trillion solar masses[18]
${\displaystyle 10^{10^{10^{76.66}}}}$ Ys: scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing an isolated black hole of stellar mass[19] This time assumes a statistical model subject to Poincaré recurrence. A much simplified way of thinking about this time is that in a model in which history repeats itself arbitrarily many times due to properties of statistical mechanics, this is the time scale when it will first be somewhat similar (for a reasonable choice of "similar") to its current state again.
${\displaystyle 10^{10^{10^{10^{2.08}}}}}$ Ys: scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black hole with the mass of the observable Universe.[19]
${\displaystyle {10}^{{10}^{{10}^{{10}^{{10}^{1.1}}}}}\approx {10}^{{10}^{{10}^{3,883,775,501,690}}}}$ Ys: scale of an estimated Poincaré recurrence time for the quantum state of a hypothetical box containing a black hole with the estimated mass of the entire Universe, observable or not, assuming Linde's Chaotic Inflationary model with an inflaton whose mass is 10−6 Planck masses.[19]

Other
MultiplesUnitSymbol
6×101 seconds1 minutem
6×101 minutes1 hourh (hr)
2.4×101 hours1 dayd

## References

1. ^ "Planck Time | COSMOS". astronomy.swin.edu.au. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
2. ^ "WMAP- Age of the Universe". wmap.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
3. ^ "CODATA Value: Planck time". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
4. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. Available at: http://www.bartleby.com/61/21/Y0022100.html Archived 10 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 19 December 2007. note: abbr. ys or ysec
5. ^ Grundmann, Sven; Trabert, Daniel; et al. (16 October 2020). "Zeptosecond birth time delay in molecular photoionization". Science. 370 (6514): 339–341. arXiv:2010.08298. Bibcode:2020Sci...370..339G. doi:10.1126/science.abb9318. PMID 33060359. S2CID 222412229. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
6. ^
7. ^ Gaumnitz, Thomas; Jain, Arohi; Pertot, Yoann; Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Ardana-Lamas, Fernando; Wörner, Hans Jakob (2017). "Streaking of 43-attosecond soft-X-ray pulses generated by a passively CEP-stable mid-infrared driver". Optics Express. 25 (22): 27506–27518. Bibcode:2017OExpr..2527506G. doi:10.1364/OE.25.027506. hdl:20.500.11850/211882. PMID 29092222.
8. ^ Li, Wen; et al. (23 November 2010). "Visualizing electron rearrangement in space and time during the transition from a molecule to atoms". PNAS. 107 (47): 20219–20222. Bibcode:2010PNAS..10720219L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1014723107. PMC 2996685. PMID 21059945.
9. ^ Chiappetta, Marco (23 September 2011). "AMD Breaks 8 GHz Overclock with Upcoming FX Processor, Sets World Record. The record has been surpassed with 8794 MHz of overclocking with AMD FX 8350". HotHardware. Archived from the original on 10 March 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
10. ^ "Notebook". www.noteaccess.com.
11. ^ Eric H. Chudler. "Brain Facts and Figures: Sensory Apparatus: Vision". Retrieved 10 October 2011.
12. ^ "YouTube Statistics and Your Best Video Length for Different Videos". Video Production Washington DC - MiniMatters. 11 March 2014.
13. ^ Alpha Collaboration; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kemp, S. L.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; et al. (5 June 2011). "Confinement of antihydrogen for 1,000 seconds". Nature Physics. 7 (7): 558–564. arXiv:1104.4982. Bibcode:2011NatPh...7..558A. doi:10.1038/nphys2025. S2CID 17151882.
14. ^ Falk, Dan (2013). In search of time the science of a curious dimension. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1429987868.
15. ^ G. Jeffrey MacDonald "Does Maya calendar predict 2012 apocalypse?" USA Today 27 March 2007.
16. ^ Nishino, H. et al. (Super-K Collaboration) (2009). "Search for Proton Decay via
p+

e+

π0
and
p+

μ+

π0
in a Large Water Cherenkov Detector". Physical Review Letters. 102 (14): 141801. arXiv:0903.0676. Bibcode:2009PhRvL.102n1801N. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.141801. PMID 19392425. S2CID 32385768.
17. ^ Adams, Fred C.; Laughlin, Gregory (1 April 1997). "A dying universe: the long-term fate and evolutionof astrophysical objects". Reviews of Modern Physics. 69 (2): 337–372. arXiv:astro-ph/9701131. Bibcode:1997RvMP...69..337A. doi:10.1103/revmodphys.69.337. ISSN 0034-6861. S2CID 12173790.
18. ^ a b Page, Don N. (15 January 1976). "Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole". Physical Review D. American Physical Society (APS). 13 (2): 198–206. Bibcode:1976PhRvD..13..198P. doi:10.1103/physrevd.13.198. ISSN 0556-2821. See in particular equation (27).
19. ^ a b c Page, Don N. (25 November 1994). "Information Loss in Black Holes and/or Conscious Beings?". In Fulling, S.A. (ed.). Heat Kernel Techniques and Quantum Gravity. Discourses in Mathematics and its Applications. Texas A&M University. p. 461. arXiv:hep-th/9411193. Bibcode:1994hep.th...11193P. ISBN 978-0-9630728-3-2. S2CID 18633007.

WPtimetracer.png
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC BY 2.5
WP:Timeline Tracer logo
Nuvola apps edu mathematics blue-p.svg
Author/Creator: David Vignoni (original icon); Flamurai (SVG convertion); bayo (color), Licence: GPL
Square root of x formula. Symbol of mathematics.
Crab Nebula.jpg
This is a mosaic image, one of the largest ever taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, of the Crab Nebula, a six-light-year-wide expanding remnant of a star's supernova explosion. Japanese and Chinese astronomers recorded this violent event in 1054 CE, as did, almost certainly, Native Americans.

The orange filaments are the tattered remains of the star and consist mostly of hydrogen. The rapidly spinning neutron star embedded in the center of the nebula is the dynamo powering the nebula's eerie interior bluish glow. The blue light comes from electrons whirling at nearly the speed of light around magnetic field lines from the neutron star. The neutron star, like a lighthouse, ejects twin beams of radiation that appear to pulse 30 times a second due to the neutron star's rotation. A neutron star is the crushed ultra-dense core of the exploded star.

The Crab Nebula derived its name from its appearance in a drawing made by Irish astronomer Lord Rosse in 1844, using a 36-inch telescope. When viewed by Hubble, as well as by large ground-based telescopes such as the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, the Crab Nebula takes on a more detailed appearance that yields clues into the spectacular demise of a star, 6,500 light-years away.

The newly composed image was assembled from 24 individual Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 exposures taken in October 1999, January 2000, and December 2000. The colors in the image indicate the different elements that were expelled during the explosion. Blue in the filaments in the outer part of the nebula represents neutral oxygen, green is singly-ionized sulfur, and red indicates doubly-ionized oxygen.
He1523a.jpg
Author/Creator: ESO, European Southern Observatory, Licence: CC BY 4.0
Artist's impression of "the oldest star of our Galaxy": HE 1523-0901
• About 13.2 billion years old
• Approximately 7500 light years far from Earth
• Published as part of Hamburg/ESO Survey in the May 10 2007 issue of The Astrophysical Journal
Earth-moon.jpg
This view of the rising Earth greeted the Apollo 8 astronauts as they came from behind the Moon after the fourth nearside orbit. Earth is about five degrees above the horizon in the photo. The unnamed surface features in the foreground are near the eastern limb of the Moon as viewed from Earth. The lunar horizon is approximately 780 kilometers from the spacecraft. Width of the photographed area at the horizon is about 175 kilometers. On the Earth 240,000 miles away, the sunset terminator bisects Africa.
Sun earth moon.png
Sun Earth and Moon usual representation
WikiProject Geology.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC BY-SA 2.5