Anishinaabe-Anishinini Distribution Map.svg
Distribution of Anishinaabe peoples; the Oji-Cree are depicted by the orange band.
Regions with significant populations
Canada (Ontario, Manitoba)
Oji-Cree, English
Related ethnic groups
Ojibwe, Cree

The Oji-Cree are a First Nation in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba, residing in a narrow band extending from the Missinaibi River region in Northeastern Ontario at the east to Lake Winnipeg at the west.

The Oji-Cree people are descended from historical intermarriage between the Ojibwa and Cree cultures, but are generally considered a nation distinct from either of their ancestral groups. They are considered one of the component groups of Anishinaabe, and reside primarily in a transitional zone between traditional Ojibwa lands to their south and traditional Cree lands to their north. Historically, the Oji-Cree were identified by the British and Canadian governments as "Cree." The Oji-Cree have identified with the Cree (or more specifically, the Swampy Cree) and not with the Ojibwa located to the south of them. Traditionally, they were called Noopiming-ininiwag (People in the Woods) by the Ojibwe. Oji-Cree at Round Lake First Nation were known as Ajijaakoons (little cranes), due to their chief's name, Ajijaak. The Oji-Cree identify by the autonym Anishinaabe or Anishinini (Original Human).

Their language and culture also derive from mixed Ojibwa and Cree traditions. Anishininimowin (the Oji-Cree language) is more closely related to Ojibwa structurally, although its literary tradition more closely resembles that of Cree. Anishinaabemowin has about 12,600 speakers.[1]

Oji-Cree bands


Further reading

  • Favel, Fred. Northern Lights and Satellites Kenina Kakekayash, Oji-Cree, Director of Radio, Wawatay Radio Network. [Ottawa]: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, 2001.ISBN 0-662-65945-7
  • Long, John. Treaty No. 9: Making the Agreement to Share the Land in Far Northern Ontario in 1905. Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2010.ISBN 0-77353-760-0
  • Macfie, John, and Basil Johnston. Hudson Bay Watershed A Photographic Memoir of the Ojibway, Cree, and Oji-Cree. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1991.ISBN 1-55002-088-9
  • Rogers, Edward S. and Garth Taylor. "Northern Ojibwa" in Handbook of North American Indians: Subarctic. William C. Sturtevant, editor. Government Printing Office, 1978.ISBN 0-160-04578-9
  • Triggs-Raine BL, et al. 2002. "HNF-1alpha G319S, a Transactivation-Deficient Mutant, Is Associated with Altered Dynamics of Diabetes Onset in an Oji-Cree Community". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 99, no. 7: 4614–9.
  • Valentine, Lisa Philips. "Making It Their Own /Severn Ojibwe Communicative Practices", Anthropological Horizons, 7. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1995.ISBN 0-8020-0643-4
  • Valentine, Lisa Philips. "Work to Create the Future You Want" Contemporary Discourse in a Severn Ojibwe Community. 1990.

Media files used on this page

Anishinaabe-Anishinini Distribution Map.svg
Author/Creator: DarrenBaker, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Anishinaabe and Anishinini distribution around 1800.