October 8

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October 8 in recent years
  2021 (Friday)
  2020 (Thursday)
  2019 (Tuesday)
  2018 (Monday)
  2017 (Sunday)
  2016 (Saturday)
  2015 (Thursday)
  2014 (Wednesday)
  2013 (Tuesday)
  2012 (Monday)

October 8 is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 84 days remain until the end of the year.

Events

Pre-1600

  • 314 – Constantine I defeats Roman Emperor Licinius, who loses his European territories.[1]
  • 451 – The first session of the Council of Chalcedon begins.
  • 876 – Frankish forces led by Louis the Younger prevent a West Frankish invasion and defeat emperor Charles II ("the Bald").
  • 1075Dmitar Zvonimir is crowned King of Croatia.
  • 1200Isabella of Angoulême is crowned Queen consort of England.
  • 1322Mladen II Šubić of Bribir is deposed as the Croatian Ban after the Battle of Bliska.
  • 1480 – The Great Stand on the Ugra River puts an end to Tartar rule over Moscow
  • 1573 – End of the Spanish siege of Alkmaar, the first Dutch victory in the Eighty Years' War.

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1912 – The First Balkan War begins when Montenegro declares war against the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1918World War I: Corporal Alvin C. York kills 28 German soldiers and captures 132 for which he was awarded the Medal of Honor.
  • 1921KDKA in Pittsburgh's Forbes Field conducts the first live broadcast of a football game.
  • 1939World War II: Germany annexes western Poland.[3]
  • 1941 – World War II: During the preliminaries of the Battle of Rostov, German forces reach the Sea of Azov with the capture of Mariupol.
  • 1943 – World War II: Around 30 civilians are executed by Friedrich Schubert's paramilitary group in Kallikratis, Crete.
  • 1944 – World War II: Captain Bobbie Brown earns a Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle of Crucifix Hill, just outside Aachen.
  • 1952 – The Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash kills 112 people.
  • 1956 – The New York Yankees's Don Larsen pitches the only perfect game in a World Series.
  • 1962Der Spiegel publishes an article disclosing the sorry state of the Bundeswehr, and is soon accused of treason.
  • 1967 – Guerrilla leader Che Guevara and his men are captured in Bolivia.
  • 1969 – The opening rally of the Days of Rage occurs, organized by the Weather Underground in Chicago.
  • 1970Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn wins the Nobel Prize in literature.
  • 1973Yom Kippur War: Israel loses more than 150 tanks in a failed attack on Egyptian-occupied positions.
  • 1973 – Spyros Markezinis begins his 48-day term as prime minister in an abortive attempt to lead Greece to parliamentary rule.
  • 1974Franklin National Bank collapses due to fraud and mismanagement; at the time it is the largest bank failure in the history of the United States.
  • 1978 – Australia's Ken Warby sets the current world water speed record of 275.97 knots at Blowering Dam, Australia.
  • 1982 – Poland bans Solidarity and all other trade unions.
  • 1982 – After its London premiere, Cats opens on Broadway and runs for nearly 18 years before closing on September 10, 2000.
  • 1990First Intifada: Israeli police kill 17 Palestinians and wound over 100 near the Dome of the Rock.
  • 1991 – Upon the expiration of the Brioni Agreement, Croatia and Slovenia sever all official relations with Yugoslavia.
  • 2001 – A twin engine Cessna and a Scandinavian Airlines System jetliner collide in heavy fog during takeoff from Milan, Italy, killing 118 people.
  • 2001 – U.S. President George W. Bush announces the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security.
  • 2005 – The 7.6 MwKashmir earthquake leaves 86,000–87,351 people dead, 69,000–75,266 injured, and 2.8 million homeless.
  • 2014Thomas Eric Duncan, the first person in the United States to be diagnosed with Ebola, dies.
  • 2016 – In the wake of Hurricane Matthew, the death toll rises to nearly 900.
  • 2019 – About 200 Extinction Rebellion activists block the gates of Leinster House (parliament) in the Republic of Ireland.[4]
  • 2020Second Nagorno-Karabakh War: Azerbaijan twice deliberately targeted the Church of the Holy Savior Ghazanchetsots of Shusha.[5][6][7]

Births

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1901Eivind Groven, Norwegian composer and theorist (d. 1977)
  • 1901 – Mark Oliphant, Australian physicist, humanitarian and politician, Governor of South Australia (d. 2000)
  • 1903Georgy Geshev, Bulgarian chess player (d. 1937)
  • 1904Yves Giraud-Cabantous, French race car driver (d. 1973)
  • 1907Richard Sharpe Shaver, American author and illustrator (d. 1975)
  • 1908Ezekias Papaioannou, Greek-Cypriot politician (d. 1988)
  • 1910Kirk Alyn, American actor (d. 1999)
  • 1910 – Paulette Dubost, French actress (d. 2011)
  • 1910 – Gus Hall, American soldier and politician (d. 2000)
  • 1910 – Helmut Kallmeyer, German chemist and soldier (d. 2006)
  • 1910 – Ray Lewis, Canadian runner (d. 2003)
  • 1913Robert R. Gilruth, American pilot and engineer (d. 2000)
  • 1913 – Marios Makrionitis, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Athens (d. 1959)
  • 1917Billy Conn, American boxer (d. 1993)
  • 1917 – Walter Lord, American historian and author (d. 2002)
  • 1917 – Danny Murtaugh, American baseball player, coach, and manager (d. 1976)
  • 1917 – Rodney Robert Porter, English biochemist and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1985)
  • 1918Halfdan Hegtun, Norwegian radio host and politician (d. 2012)
  • 1918 – Jens Christian Skou, Danish chemist and physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2018)
  • 1919Jack McGrath, American race car driver (d. 1955)
  • 1919 – Kiichi Miyazawa, Japanese politician, 78th Prime Minister of Japan (d. 2007)
  • 1920Frank Herbert, American journalist, photographer, and author (d. 1986)
  • 1921Abraham Sarmiento, Filipino lawyer and jurist (d. 2010)
  • 1922Nils Liedholm, Swedish footballer, coach, and manager (d. 2007)
  • 1922 – Herbert B. Leonard, American production manager and producer (d. 2006)
  • 1924Alphons Egli, Swiss lawyer and politician, 77th President of the Swiss Confederation (d. 2016)
  • 1924 – Aloísio Lorscheider, Brazilian cardinal (d. 2007)
  • 1924 – Thirunalloor Karunakaran, Indian poet and scholar (d. 2006)
  • 1924 – John Nelder, English mathematician and statistician (d. 2010)
  • 1925Álvaro Magaña, Salvadoran economist and politician, President of El Salvador (d. 2001)
  • 1926Raaj Kumar, Indian police officer and actor (d. 1996)
  • 1927Jim Elliot, American missionary and translator (d. 1956)
  • 1927 – César Milstein, Argentinian-English biochemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2002)
  • 1928Didi, Brazilian footballer and manager (d. 2001)
  • 1928 – M. Russell Ballard, American lieutenant and religious leader
  • 1928 – Neil Harvey, Australian cricketer
  • 1928 – Bill Maynard, English actor (d. 2018)
  • 1929Betty Boothroyd, English academic and politician, British Speaker of the House of Commons
  • 1930Pepper Adams, American saxophonist and composer (d. 1986)
  • 1930 – Alasdair Milne, Indian-English director and producer (d. 2013)
  • 1930 – Faith Ringgold, American painter and activist
  • 1930 – Toru Takemitsu, Japanese composer and theorist (d. 1996)
  • 1931Bill Brown, Scottish-Canadian footballer (d. 2004)
  • 1932Ray Reardon, Welsh snooker player and police officer
  • 1934Kader Asmal, South African academic and politician (d. 2011)
  • 1934 – Gerry Hitchens, English footballer and manager (d. 1983)
  • 1934 – James Holshouser, American lawyer and politician, 68th Governor of North Carolina (d. 2013)
  • 1935Albert Roux, French-English chef (d. 2021)
  • 1936Rona Barrett, American journalist and businesswoman
  • 1937Merle Park, British ballerina and educator
  • 1937 – Paul Schell, American lawyer and politician, 50th Mayor of Seattle (d. 2014)
  • 1938William Corlett, English author and playwright (d. 2005)
  • 1938 – Walter Gretzky, Canadian ice hockey coach and author (d. 2021)
  • 1938 – Fred Stolle, Australian-American tennis player and sportscaster
  • 1938 – Bronislovas Lubys, Lithuanian businessman and politician, Prime Minister of Lithuania (d. 2011)
  • 1939Paul Hogan, Australian actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1939Elvīra Ozoliņa, Latvian javelin thrower
  • 1939 – Harvey Pekar, American author and critic (d. 2010)
  • 1939 – Lynne Stewart, American lawyer and criminal (d. 2017)[8]
  • 1940Fred Cash, American soul singer
  • 1941Jesse Jackson, American minister and activist
  • 1941 – Shane Stevens, American author (d. 2007)
  • 1941 – George Bellamy, English singer, guitarist, and producer
  • 1942Stanley Bates, English actor and screenwriter
  • 1943Chevy Chase, American comedian, actor, and screenwriter
  • 1943 – R. L. Stine, American author, screenwriter, and producer
  • 1944Ed Kirkpatrick, American baseball player (d. 2010)
  • 1944 – Susan Raye, American country music singer
  • 1946Hanan Ashrawi, Palestinian scholar, activist, and politician
  • 1946 – Jean-Jacques Beineix, French director and producer (d. 2022)
  • 1946 – Dennis Kucinich, American journalist and politician, 53rd Mayor of Cleveland
  • 1946 – Bel Mooney, English journalist and author
  • 1946 – Jon Ekerold, South African motorcycle racer
  • 1947Richard Morris, English archaeologist, historian, and author
  • 1947 – Emiel Puttemans, Belgian runner
  • 1947 – Stephen Shore, American photographer and educator
  • 1947 – Bill Zorn, folk musician[9]
  • 1948Benjamin Cheever, American journalist and author
  • 1948 – Claude Jade, French actress (d. 2006)
  • 1948 – Johnny Ramone, American guitarist and songwriter (d. 2004)
  • 1949Hamish Stuart, Scottish singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
  • 1949 – Sigourney Weaver, American actress and producer
  • 1950Robert "Kool" Bell, American singer-songwriter and bass player
  • 1950 – Blake Morrison, English poet, author, and academic
  • 1951Jack O'Connell, American educator and politician
  • 1951 – Timo Salonen, Finnish race car driver
  • 1951 – Shannon C. Stimson, American philosopher, historian, and theorist
  • 1952Takis Koroneos, Greek basketball player and coach
  • 1952 – Jan Marijnissen, Dutch journalist and politician
  • 1952 – Edward Zwick, American director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1953Robert Saxton, English composer and educator
  • 1954Huub Rothengatter, Dutch race car driver and manager
  • 1955Bill Elliott, American race car driver
  • 1955 – Alain Ferté, French race car driver
  • 1955 – Darrell Hammond, American comedian and actor
  • 1955 – Paul Lennon, Australian politician, 42nd Premier of Tasmania
  • 1955 – Lonnie Pitchford, American singer and guitarist (d. 1998)
  • 1956Jeff Lahti, American baseball player
  • 1956 – Janice E. Voss, American engineer and astronaut (d. 2012)
  • 1957Antonio Cabrini, Italian footballer and manager
  • 1958Steve Coll, American journalist and author
  • 1958 – Bret Lott, American journalist, author, and academic
  • 1958 – Ursula von der Leyen, Belgian-German physician and politician, Defense Minister of Germany
  • 1958 – Ruffin McNeill, American football player and coach
  • 1959Tommy Armour III, American golfer
  • 1959 – Nick Bakay, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1959 – Gavin Friday, Irish singer-songwriter, actor, and producer
  • 1959 – Erik Gundersen, Danish motorcycle racer
  • 1959 – Peter Horrocks, English journalist and producer
  • 1959 – Mike Morgan, American baseball player and coach
  • 1959 – Carlos I. Noriega, Peruvian-American colonel and astronaut
  • 1960Andrea Anastasi, Italian volleyball player and coach
  • 1960 – Reed Hastings, American businessman, co-founded Netflix
  • 1960 – Rano Karno, Indonesian actor and politician
  • 1960 – Ralf Minge, German footballer and manager
  • 1960 – François Pérusse, Canadian singer-songwriter and comedian
  • 1960 – Mike Teague, English rugby player
  • 1961Steven Bernstein, American trumpet player and composer
  • 1961 – Jon Stevens, New Zealand-Australian singer-songwriter
  • 1961 – Simon Burke, Australian actor and producer
  • 1961 – Ted Kooshian, American pianist and composer
  • 1962Richard Lintern, British actor
  • 1962 – Bruno Thiry, Belgian race car driver
  • 1962 – Chen Xiaoxia, Chinese diver
  • 1963Steve Perry, American ska singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1964Jakob Arjouni, German author (d. 2013)
  • 1964 – Ian Hart, English actor
  • 1964 – CeCe Winans, American singer-songwriter
  • 1965Matt Biondi, American swimmer and coach
  • 1965 – Ardal O'Hanlon, Irish comedian, actor, and screenwriter
  • 1965 – Harri Koskela, Finnish wrestler
  • 1965 – C. J. Ramone, American singer-songwriter and bass player
  • 1966Art Barr, American wrestler (d. 1994)
  • 1966 – Karyn Parsons, American actress and producer
  • 1967Yvonne Reyes, Venezuelan television host and actress
  • 1967 – Teddy Riley, American singer-songwriter and producer
  • 1968Ali Benarbia, Algerian footballer
  • 1968 – Zvonimir Boban, Croatian footballer and sportscaster
  • 1968 – Emily Procter, American actress
  • 1968 – CL Smooth, American rapper and producer
  • 1968 – Leeroy Thornhill, English keyboard player and DJ
  • 1969Jeremy Davies, American actor
  • 1969 – Dylan Neal, Canadian-American actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1970Mathieu Ngudjolo Chui, Congolese colonel
  • 1970 – Matt Damon, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1970 – Anne-Marie Duff, English actress
  • 1970 – Sadiq Khan, English lawyer and politician, Minister of State for Transport, Mayor of London
  • 1970 – Sisaundra Lewis, American singer-songwriter and producer
  • 1970 – Tetsuya Nomura, Japanese video game designer and director
  • 1971Marc Ellis, New Zealand rugby player and television host
  • 1971 – David Gauke, English lawyer and politician
  • 1971 – Pınar Selek, Turkish sociologist, author, and academic
  • 1971 – Monty Williams, American basketball player and coach
  • 1972Terry Balsamo, American guitarist and songwriter
  • 1972 – Stanislav Varga, Slovak footballer and manager
  • 1973Jim Fairchild, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1973 – Kari Korhonen, Finnish cartoonist
  • 1974Kevyn Adams, American ice hockey player and coach
  • 1974 – Fredrik Modin, Swedish ice hockey player
  • 1974 – Koji Murofushi, Japanese hammer thrower
  • 1976Karina Bacchi, Brazilian model and actress
  • 1976 – Galo Blanco, Spanish tennis player and coach
  • 1976 – Renate Groenewold, Dutch speed skater and cyclist
  • 1977Anne-Caroline Chausson, French cyclist
  • 1977 – Jamie Marchi, American voice actress, director, and screenwriter
  • 1977 – Erna Siikavirta, Finnish singer-songwriter and keyboard player
  • 1978Antonino D'Agostino, Italian footballer
  • 1978 – Mick O'Driscoll, Irish rugby player and coach
  • 1979Paul Burchill, English wrestler
  • 1979 – Gregori Chad Petree, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1980Nick Cannon, American actor, rapper, and producer
  • 1981Vladimir Kisenkov, Russian footballer
  • 1981 – Raffi Torres, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1982Phil Mustard, English cricketer
  • 1982 – Miloš Pavlović, Serbian race car driver
  • 1982 – Annemiek van Vleuten, Dutch cyclist
  • 1983Mario Cassano, Italian footballer
  • 1983 – Michael Fraser, Scottish footballer
  • 1983 – Mihkel Kukk, Estonian javelin thrower
  • 1983 – Abhishek Nayar, Indian cricketer
  • 1983 – Travis Pastrana, American motorcycle racer
  • 1984Domenik Hixon, American football player
  • 1985Bruno Mars, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actor
  • 1985 – Eiji Wentz, Japanese singer-songwriter
  • 1985 – Elliphant, Swedish singer-songwriter and rapper
  • 1986Louis Dodds, English footballer
  • 1986 – Michele Sepe, Italian rugby player
  • 1987Frankie Brown, Scottish footballer[10]
  • 1987 – Aya Hirano, Japanese voice actress and singer
  • 1987 – Hassan Maatouk, Lebanese footballer
  • 1987 – Taylor Price, American football player
  • 1989Sione Lousi, New Zealand rugby league player
  • 1989 – Mahmut Temür, Turkish footballer
  • 1989 – Armand Traoré, French footballer
  • 1990Rachel Klamer, Zimbabwean-Dutch triathlete
  • 1991Jordan McLean, Australian rugby league player
  • 1992Maria João Koehler, Portuguese tennis player
  • 1992 – Lidziya Marozava, Belarusian tennis player
  • 1993Garbiñe Muguruza, Spanish tennis player
  • 1993 – Barbara Palvin, Hungarian model and actress
  • 1993 – Molly Quinn, American actress and producer
  • 1993 – Darrell Wallace, Jr., American race car driver
  • 1996Sara Sorribes Tormo, Spanish tennis player[11]
  • 1996 – Sara Takanashi, Japanese ski jumper[12]
  • 1997Bella Thorne, American actress
  • 1999Putthipong Assaratanakul, Thai actor and singer[13]
  • 1999 – Camila Rossi, Brazilian rhythmic gymnast[14]

Deaths

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1928Larry Semon, American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1889)
  • 1931John Monash, Australian general and engineer (b. 1865)
  • 1936Premchand, Indian author and screenwriter (b. 1880)
  • 1936 – Red Ames, American baseball player and manager (b. 1882)
  • 1936 – Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, Ottoman politician, 292nd Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1845)
  • 1936 – William Henry Stark, American businessman (b. 1851)
  • 1942Sergey Chaplygin, Russian physicist, mathematician, and engineer (b. 1869)
  • 1944Wendell Willkie, American captain, lawyer, and politician (b. 1892)
  • 1945Felix Salten, Austrian author and critic (b. 1869)
  • 1952Joe Adams, American baseball player and manager (b. 1877)
  • 1953Nigel Bruce, British actor (b. 1895)
  • 1953 – Kathleen Ferrier, English soprano (b. 1912)
  • 1955Iry LeJeune, American accordion player (b. 1928)
  • 1958Ran Bosilek, Bulgarian author and translator (b. 1886)
  • 1963Remedios Varo, Spanish-Mexican painter (b. 1908)
  • 1967Clement Attlee, English soldier, lawyer, and politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1883)
  • 1970Jean Giono, French author and poet (b. 1895)
  • 1973Gabriel Marcel, French philosopher, playwright, and critic (b. 1889)
  • 1977Giorgos Papasideris, Greek singer-songwriter (b. 1902)
  • 1978Bertha Parker Pallan, American archaeologist (b. 1907)
  • 1979Brian Edmund Baker, English air marshal (b. 1896)
  • 1979 – Jayaprakash Narayan, Indian politician (b. 1902)
  • 1982Fernando Lamas, Argentinian-American actor and director (b. 1916)
  • 1982 – Philip Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker, English runner and politician, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1889)
  • 1983Joan Hackett, American actress (b. 1934)
  • 1985Malcolm Ross, American captain, physicist, and balloonist (b. 1919)
  • 1985 – Gordon Welchman, English-American mathematician and scholar (b. 1906)
  • 1987Konstantinos Tsatsos, Greek scholar and politician, 2nd President of Greece (b. 1899)
  • 1992Willy Brandt, German lawyer and politician, 4th Chancellor of Germany, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1913)
  • 1994Oscar M. Ruebhausen, American lawyer (b. 1912)
  • 1995Christopher Keene, American conductor and educator (b. 1946)
  • 1997Bertrand Goldberg, American architect, designed the Marina City Building (b. 1913)
  • 1999John McLendon, American basketball player and coach (b. 1915)
  • 2000Charlotte Lamb, English author (b. 1937)
  • 2001Dmitry Polyansky, First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union (b. 1917)
  • 2002Phyllis Calvert, English actress (b. 1915)[18]
  • 2002 – Jacques Richard, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1952)
  • 2004James Chace, American historian and author (b. 1931)
  • 2006Mark Porter, New Zealand race car driver (b. 1974)
  • 2007Constantine Andreou, Greek painter and sculptor (b. 1917)
  • 2008Ângelo Carvalho, Portuguese footballer (b. 1925)
  • 2008 – Bob Friend, English journalist (b. 1938)
  • 2008 – Eileen Herlie, Scottish-American actress (b. 1918)
  • 2008 – George Emil Palade, Romanian-American biologist and physician, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1912)
  • 2010Frank Bourgholtzer, American journalist (b. 1919)
  • 2010 – Eileen Crofton, British physician and author (b. 1919)[19]
  • 2011Al Davis, American football player, coach, and manager (b. 1929)
  • 2011 – Mikey Welsh, American guitarist and painter (b. 1971)
  • 2011 – Roger Williams, American pianist (b. 1924)
  • 2012Varsha Bhosle, Indian singer and journalist (b. 1956)
  • 2012 – Marilou Diaz-Abaya, Filipino director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1955)
  • 2012 – Eric Lomax, Scottish captain and author (b. 1919)
  • 2012 – Nawal Kishore Sharma, Indian politician, 20th Governor of Gujarat (b. 1925)
  • 2013Philip Chevron, Irish singer-songwriter and guitarist (b. 1957)
  • 2013 – Paul Desmarais, Canadian businessman and philanthropist (b. 1927)
  • 2013 – Rod Grams, American journalist and politician (b. 1948)
  • 2013 – Rodolphe Kasser, Swiss archaeologist and philologist (b. 1927)
  • 2013 – Andy Pafko, American baseball player and manager (b. 1921)
  • 2013 – Akong Rinpoche, Tibetan-Chinese spiritual leader (b. 1939)
  • 2014Morris Lurie, Australian author and playwright (b. 1938)
  • 2014 – Alden E. Matthews, American missionary (b. 1921)
  • 2014 – Harden M. McConnell, American chemist and academic (b. 1927)
  • 2014 – Zilpha Keatley Snyder, American author (b. 1927)
  • 2014 – Jeen van den Berg, Dutch speed skater (b. 1928)
  • 2015Richard Davies, Welsh-English actor (b. 1926)
  • 2015 – Jim Diamond, Scottish singer-songwriter (b. 1951)
  • 2015 – Dennis Eichhorn, American author and illustrator (b. 1945)
  • 2015 – Lindy Infante, American football player and coach (b. 1940)
  • 2015 – Paul Prudhomme, American chef and author (b. 1940)
  • 2020Whitey Ford, American professional baseball pitcher (b. 1928)[20]

Holidays and observances

References

  1. ^ For the consensus on dating of the battle of Cibalae in 316, see A.S. Christensen, L. Baerentzen, Lactantius the Historian, Museum Tusculanum Press, 1980, p.23, W. Treadgold, A history of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford University Press, 1997, p. 34, D.S. Potter, p. 378 and C. Odahl, p. 164. For the alternative dating at 314 see, among others, Ramsay MacMullen, Constantine, Routledge, 1987, p. 67 and A. H. M. Jones, Constantine and the Conversion of Europe, The English University Press, 1948, p. 127
  2. ^ Hemphill, Stephanie (27 November 2002). "Peshtigo: a tornado of fire revisited". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved 16 August 2020.
  3. ^ Leslie, Roy Francis (19 May 1983). The History of Poland Since 1863. Cambridge University Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-521-27501-9.
  4. ^ "Extinction Rebellion: Dublin activists block Irish parliament gates". BBC News. Oct 8, 2019. Retrieved Oct 11, 2019.
  5. ^ "Azerbaijan: Attack on Church Possible War Crime". Human Rights Watch. 2020-12-16. Retrieved 2021-04-17.
  6. ^ "Nagorno-Karabakh: Armenia accuses Azerbaijan of shelling Shusha cathedral". BBC News. 8 October 2020. Archived from the original on 8 October 2020.
  7. ^ "Church bombed to ruins - Journalists were injured during second attack – one of them is fighting for his life". bild.de. BILD.de. 8 October 2020. Archived from the original on 10 October 2020.
  8. ^ Fried, Joseph P. (8 March 2017). "Lynne Stewart, Lawyer Imprisoned in Terrorism Case, Dies at 77". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
  9. ^ Dicaire, David (2011). The folk music revival, 1958-1970 : biographies of fifty performers and other influential people. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-7864-6352-7. OCLC 747713048.
  10. ^ "Frankie Brown". Bristol City. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  11. ^ "Tennis Sara Sorribes Tormo - ESPN". m.espn.com. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  12. ^ "Sara TAKANASHI". Olympic Channel. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  13. ^ "วันเกิด "บิวกิ้น" พา #Happy22ndBILLKINDay พุ่งติดเทรนด์!! อันดับ 1". TNN Online (in Thai). Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  14. ^ "Rhythmic Gymnastics | Team Profile: Brazil - Pan American Games Lima 2019". wrsd.lima2019.pe. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  15. ^ Cunningham, George Godfrey (1837). Lives of Eminent and Illustrious Englishmen: From Alfred the Great to the Latest Times, on an Original Plan. A. Fullarton. pp. 57–60.
  16. ^ Taplin, Glen W. (1972). Middle American governors. Scarecrow Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-8108-0465-4.
  17. ^ De la Puente, José Agustín (2003). Miguel Grau (in Spanish). Lima: Instituto de Estudios Históricos-Marítimos del Perú. p. 16. ISBN 9972-633-02-0.
  18. ^ "Phyllis Calvert | British actress". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  19. ^ "Obituary: Lady Eileen Crofton, MBE, Doctor and founder of Action on Smoking and Health". www.scotsman.com. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  20. ^ "Notable deaths in 2020". Reuters. Archived from the original on 2020-04-08. Retrieved 2020-10-23.

External links