October 16

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October 16 in recent years
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October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 76 days remain until the end of the year.

Events

Pre-1600

  • 0456Ricimer defeats Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the Western Roman Empire.[1]
  • 0690 – Empress Wu Zetian ascends to the throne of the Tang dynasty and proclaims herself ruler of the Chinese Empire.
  • 0912Abd ar-Rahman III becomes the eighth Emir of Córdoba.[2]
  • 0955 – King Otto I defeats a Slavic revolt in what is now Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
  • 1311 – The Council of Vienne convenes for the first time.[3]
  • 1384Jadwiga is crowned King of Poland, although she is a woman.
  • 1590 – Prince Gesualdo of Venosa murders his wife and her lover.

1601–1900

  • 1736 – Mathematician William Whiston's predicted comet fails to strike the Earth.[4]
  • 1780 – American Revolutionary War: The British-led Royalton raid is the last Native American raid on New England.
  • 1780 – The Great Hurricane of 1780 finishes after its sixth day, killing between 20,000 and 24,000 residents of the Lesser Antilles.[5]
  • 1793 – French Revolution: Queen Marie Antoinette is executed.
  • 1793 – War of the First Coalition: French victory at the Battle of Wattignies forces Austria to raise the siege of Maubeuge.
  • 1805 – War of the Third Coalition: Napoleon surrounds the Austrian army at Ulm.[6]
  • 1813 – The Sixth Coalition attacks Napoleon in the three-day Battle of Leipzig.
  • 1817 – Simón Bolívar sentences Manuel Piar to death for challenging the racial-caste in Venezuela.[7]
  • 1834 – Much of the ancient structure of the Palace of Westminster in London burns to the ground.
  • 1836 – Great Trek: Afrikaner voortrekkers repulse a Matabele attack, but lose their livestock.
  • 1841Queen's University is founded in the Province of Canada.
  • 1843William Rowan Hamilton invents quaternions, a three-dimensional system of complex numbers.
  • 1846William T. G. Morton administers ether anesthesia during a surgical operation.
  • 1847 – The novel Jane Eyre is published in London.
  • 1859 – John Brown leads a raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
  • 1869 – The Cardiff Giant, one of the most famous American hoaxes, is "discovered".
  • 1869 – Girton College, Cambridge is founded, becoming England's first residential college for women.
  • 1875Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah.
  • 1882 – The Nickel Plate Railroad opens for business.

1901–present

Births

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1903Cecile de Brunhoff, French author and pianist (d. 2003)
  • 1903 – Big Joe Williams, American Delta blues singer-songwriter and guitarist (d. 1982)
  • 1904Björn Berglund, Swedish actor (d. 1968)
  • 1905Ernst Kuzorra, German footballer and manager (d. 1990)
  • 1906León Klimovsky, Argentinian actor, director, and screenwriter (d. 1996)
  • 1907Richard Titmuss, English sociologist and academic (d. 1973)
  • 1908Olivia Coolidge, English-American author and educator (d. 2006)[14]
  • 1908 – Enver Hoxha, Albanian general and politician, Prime Minister of Albania (d. 1985)
  • 1911Otto von Bülow, German commander (d. 2006)
  • 1912Clifford Hansen, American rancher and politician, 26th Governor of Wyoming (d. 2009)
  • 1918Louis Althusser, Algerian-French philosopher and academic (d. 1990)
  • 1918 – Abraham Nemeth, American mathematician and academic (d. 2013)
  • 1918 – Tony Rolt, English race car driver and engineer (d. 2008)
  • 1919Kathleen Winsor, American journalist and author (d. 2003)[15]
  • 1920Paddy Finucane, Irish fighter pilot and flying ace (d. 1942)
  • 1921Matt Batts, American baseball player and coach (d. 2013)
  • 1921 – Sita Ram Goel, Indian historian, publisher and writer (d. 2003)
  • 1921 – MacKenzie Miller, American horse trainer and breeder (d. 2010)
  • 1922Max Bygraves, English-Australian actor and singer (d. 2012)
  • 1922 – Leon Sullivan, American minister and activist (d. 2001)
  • 1923Linda Darnell, American actress (d. 1965)
  • 1923 – Bert Kaempfert, German conductor and composer (d. 1980)
  • 1923 – Bill McLaren, Scottish rugby player and sportscaster (d. 2010)
  • 1924Gerard Parkes, Irish-Canadian actor (d. 2014)
  • 1925Angela Lansbury, English-American actress, singer, and producer [16]
  • 1926Charles Dolan, American businessman, founded Cablevision and HBO
  • 1927Günter Grass, German novelist, poet, playwright, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2015)
  • 1928Mary Daly, American philosopher and theologian (d. 2010)[17]
  • 1928 – Ann Morgan Guilbert, American actress (d. 2016)
  • 1929Fernanda Montenegro, Brazilian actress
  • 1930John Polkinghorne, English physicist, theologian and priest (d. 2021)
  • 1930 – Carmen Sevilla, Spanish actress
  • 1931Charles Colson, American lawyer and politician (d. 2012)
  • 1931 – Valery Klimov, Ukrainian-Russian violinist and educator
  • 1931 – Rosa Rosal, Filipino actress
  • 1931 – P. W. Underwood, American football player and coach (d. 2013)
  • 1932John Grant, English journalist and politician (d. 2000)
  • 1932 – Henry Lewis, American bassist and conductor (d. 1996)
  • 1932 – Lucien Paiement, Canadian physician and politician (d. 2013)
  • 1933Nobuyo Ōyama, Japanese voice actress
  • 1934Peter Ashdown, English race car driver
  • 1936Peter Bowles, English actor and screenwriter
  • 1936 – Andrei Chikatilo, Ukrainian-Russian serial killer (d. 1994)
  • 1936 – Mladen Koščak, Croatian footballer (d. 1997)
  • 1936 – Akira Machida, Japanese lawyer and judge, 15th Chief Justice of Japan (d. 2015)
  • 1938Carl Gunter, Jr., American politician (d. 1999)
  • 1938 – Nico, German singer-songwriter, model, and actress (d. 1988)
  • 1940Barry Corbin, American actor and producer
  • 1940 – Dave DeBusschere, American basketball player and coach (d. 2003)
  • 1940 – Ivan Della Mea, Italian singer-songwriter, guitarist, and journalist (d. 2009)
  • 1941Tim McCarver, American baseball player, sportscaster, and singer
  • 1941 – Emma Nicholson, Baroness Nicholson of Winterbourne, English computer programmer and politician
  • 1943Fred Turner, Canadian singer-songwriter and bass player
  • 1944Kaizer Motaung, South African footballer and manager
  • 1945Stefan Buczacki, English horticulturalist, botanist, and television host
  • 1945 – Roger Hawkins, American session drummer
  • 1945 – Paul Monette, American author and poet (d. 1995)
  • 1946Geoff Barnett, English footballer (d. 2021)
  • 1946 – Suzanne Somers, American actress and producer
  • 1947Nicholas Day, English actor
  • 1947 – Terry Griffiths, Welsh snooker player and coach
  • 1947 – Bob Weir, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1947 – David Zucker, American director, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1948Alison Chitty, English production designer and costume designer
  • 1948 – Bruce Fleisher, American golfer
  • 1948 – Hema Malini, Indian actress, director, producer, and politician
  • 1948 – Leo Mazzone, American baseball player and coach
  • 1950Károly Horváth, Romanian-Hungarian cellist, flute player, and composer (d. 2015)
  • 1950 – Angry Grandpa, American internet personality (d. 2017)
  • 1952Christopher Cox, American lawyer and politician
  • 1952 – Cordell Mosson, American bass player (d. 2013)
  • 1952 – Crazy Mohan, Indian actor, screenwriter, and playwright (d. 2019)
  • 1952 – Glenys Thornton, Baroness Thornton, English politician
  • 1953Tony Carey, American keyboard player, songwriter, and producer
  • 1953 – Paulo Roberto Falcão, Brazilian footballer and manager
  • 1954Lorenzo Carcaterra, American author and blogger
  • 1954 – Michael Forsyth, Baron Forsyth of Drumlean, Scottish politician, Secretary of State for Scotland
  • 1954 – Serafino Ghizzoni, Italian rugby player
  • 1954 – Corinna Harfouch, German actress
  • 1955 – Kieran Doherty, Irish Republican hunger striker and politician[18]
  • 1955Ellen Dolan, American actress
  • 1956Marin Alsop, American violinist and conductor
  • 1956 – John Chavis, American football player and coach
  • 1956 – Meg Rosoff, American-English author
  • 1956 – Rudra Mohammad Shahidullah, Bangladeshi poet, author, and playwright (d. 1992)
  • 1957Priidu Beier, Estonian poet and educator
  • 1958Roy McDonough, English footballer and manager
  • 1958 – Tim Robbins, American actor, director, and screenwriter
  • 1959Kevin Brennan, Welsh journalist and politician
  • 1959 – Brian Harper, American baseball player
  • 1959 – Gary Kemp, English singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor
  • 1959 – Philip Maini, Northern Irish mathematician at the University of Oxford
  • 1959 – Tessa Munt, English lawyer and politician
  • 1959 – Jamie Salmon, English-New Zealand rugby player and sportscaster
  • 1959 – Erkki-Sven Tüür, Estonian flute player and composer
  • 1959 – John Whittingdale, English politician
  • 1960Guy LeBlanc, Canadian keyboard player and songwriter (d. 2015)
  • 1960 – Bob Mould, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
  • 1961Marc Levy, French author
  • 1961 – Randy Vasquez, American actor, director, and producer
  • 1961 – Scott O'Hara, American pornographic performer, author, poet, editor and publisher (d. 1998)
  • 1962Flea, Australian-American bass player, songwriter, and actor
  • 1962 – Manute Bol, Sudanese-American basketball player and activist (d. 2010)
  • 1962 – Dmitri Hvorostovsky, Russian opera singer (d. 2017)
  • 1962 – Nico Lazaridis, German footballer
  • 1962 – Tamara McKinney, American skier
  • 1963Brendan Kibble, Australian singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1963 – Timothy Leighton, English physicist and academic
  • 1964Shawn Little, Canadian lawyer and politician (d. 2012)
  • 1964 – James Thompson, American-Finnish author (d. 2014)
  • 1965Kang Kyung-ok, South Korean illustrator
  • 1965 – Tom Tolbert, American basketball player and sportscaster
  • 1966Olof Lundh, Swedish journalist
  • 1966 – Mary Elizabeth McGlynn, American voice actress, singer, and director
  • 1967Michael Laffy, Australian footballer
  • 1967 – Davina McCall, English television host and actress
  • 1968Randall Batinkoff, American actor and producer
  • 1968 – Mark Lee, Singaporean actor and singer
  • 1968 – Francesco Libetta, Italian pianist, composer, and conductor
  • 1968 – Todd Stashwick, American actor and writer
  • 1968 – Elsa Zylberstein, French actress
  • 1969Roy Hargrove, American trumpet player and composer (d. 2018)
  • 1969 – Takao Omori, Japanese wrestler
  • 1969 – Terri J. Vaughn, American actress and producer
  • 1969 – Wendy Wilson, American singer-songwriter
  • 1970Kazuyuki Fujita, Japanese wrestler and mixed martial artist
  • 1970 – Mehmet Scholl, German footballer and manager
  • 1971Chad Gray, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1971 – Paul Sparks, American actor
  • 1971 – Frank Cuesta, Spanish television presenter
  • 1972Adrianne Frost, American comedian, actress, and author
  • 1972 – Darius Kasparaitis, Lithuanian-Russian ice hockey player and coach
  • 1972 – Kordell Stewart, American football player and radio host
  • 1973Justin Credible, American wrestler
  • 1973 – David Unsworth, English footballer and manager
  • 1974Aurela Gaçe, Albanian singer
  • 1974 – Paul Kariya, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1975Ernesto Noel Aquino, Honduran footballer
  • 1975 – Brynjar Gunnarsson, Icelandic footballer
  • 1975 – Jacques Kallis, South African cricketer
  • 1975 – Kellie Martin, American actress, director, and producer
  • 1977John Mayer, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
  • 1980Sue Bird, Israeli-American basketball player
  • 1980 – Timana Tahu, Australian rugby league player
  • 1981Brea Grant, American actress and writer[19]
  • 1981 – Martin Halle, Danish footballer
  • 1981 – Boyd Melson, American boxer
  • 1981 – Anthony Reyes, American baseball player
  • 1982Frédéric Michalak, French rugby player
  • 1982 – Cristian Riveros, Paraguayan footballer
  • 1982 – Prithviraj Sukumaran, Indian actor, singer, and producer
  • 1983Philipp Kohlschreiber, German tennis player
  • 1983 – Kenny Omega, Canadian wrestler
  • 1984François Pervis, French track cyclist
  • 1984 – Rachel Reilly, American talk show host and actress
  • 1985Jay Beagle, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1985 – Verena Sailer, German sprinter
  • 1985 – Casey Stoner, Australian motorcycle racer
  • 1985 – Peter Wallace, Australian rugby league player
  • 1986Nicky Adams, English-Welsh footballer
  • 1986 – Derk Boerrigter, Dutch footballer
  • 1988Zoltán Stieber, Hungarian footballer
  • 1989Dan Biggar, Welsh rugby player
  • 1992Bryce Harper, American baseball player
  • 1992 – Kostas Fortounis, Greek footballer
  • 1992 – Stuart Lightbody, Irish badminton player[20]
  • 1993Caroline Garcia, French tennis player
  • 1994Adam Elliott, Australian rugby league player
  • 1997Charles Leclerc, Monégasque Formula One driver
  • 1997 – Naomi Osaka, Haitian-Japanese tennis player

Deaths

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1904Haritina Korotkevich, Russian heroine (b. 1882)[24]
  • 1908Joseph Leycester Lyne, English monk (b. 1837)
  • 1909Jakub Bart-Ćišinski, German poet and playwright (b. 1856)
  • 1913Ralph Rose, American shot putter, discus, and hammer thrower (b. 1885)
  • 1936Effie Adelaide Rowlands, British writer (b. 1859)
  • 1937Jean de Brunhoff, French poet and playwright (b. 1899)
  • 1946Nuremberg trial executions of the Main Trial:
  • 1947Anna B. Eckstein, German peace activist (b. 1868)[25]
  • 1951Liaquat Ali Khan, Indian-Pakistani lawyer and politician, 1st Prime Minister of Pakistan (b 1895)
  • 1956Jules Rimet, French businessman (b. 1873)
  • 1957John Anthony Sydney Ritson, English rugby player, mines inspector, engineer and educator (b. 1887)
  • 1958Robert Redfield, American anthropologist of Mexico (b. 1897)
  • 1959Minor Hall, American drummer (b. 1897)
  • 1959 – George Marshall, American general and politician, 3rd United States Secretary of Defense, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1880)
  • 1962Gaston Bachelard, French poet and philosopher (b. 1884)
  • 1964Patsy Callighen, Canadian ice hockey player (b. 1906)
  • 1966George O'Hara, American actor and screenwriter (b. 1899)
  • 1968Ellis Kinder, American baseball player (b. 1914)
  • 1971Robin Boyd, Australian architect and educator, designed the Domain Park Flats (b. 1919)
  • 1972Nick Begich, American lawyer and politician (b. 1932)
  • 1972 – Hale Boggs, American lawyer and politician (b. 1914)
  • 1972 – Leo G. Carroll, English-American actor (b. 1886)
  • 1973Gene Krupa, American drummer, composer, and actor (b. 1909)
  • 1975Vittorio Gui, Italian conductor and composer (b. 1885)
  • 1978Dan Dailey, American actor, singer, dancer, and director (b. 1913)
  • 1979Johan Borgen, Norwegian author and critic (b. 1903)
  • 1981Moshe Dayan, Israeli general and politician, 5th Foreign Affairs Minister of Israel (b. 1915)
  • 1981 – Eugene Eisenmann, Panamanian-American lawyer and ornithologist (b. 1906)
  • 1982Mario Del Monaco, Italian tenor (b. 1915)
  • 1983Jakov Gotovac, Croatian composer and conductor (b. 1895)
  • 1986Arthur Grumiaux, Belgian violinist and pianist (b. 1921)
  • 1989Walter Farley, American author and educator (b. 1915)
  • 1989 – Scott O'Dell, American journalist and author (b. 1898)
  • 1989 – Cornel Wilde, American actor (b. 1915)
  • 1990Art Blakey, American drummer and bandleader (b. 1919)
  • 1990 – Jorge Bolet, Cuban-American pianist and educator (b. 1914)
  • 1992Shirley Booth, American actress and singer (b. 1898)
  • 1996Jason Bernard, American actor (b. 1938)
  • 1996 – Eric Malpass, English author (b. 1910)
  • 1997Audra Lindley, American actress (b. 1918)
  • 1997 – James A. Michener, American author and philanthropist (b. 1907)
  • 1998Jon Postel, American computer scientist and academic (b. 1943)
  • 1999Jean Shepherd, American radio host, actor, and screenwriter (b. 1921)
  • 2000Mel Carnahan, American lieutenant, lawyer, and politician, 51st Governor of Missouri (b. 1934)
  • 2000 – Rick Jason, American actor (b. 1923)
  • 2001Etta Jones, American singer-songwriter (b. 1928)
  • 2003Avni Arbaş, Turkish painter (b. 1919)
  • 2003 – Stu Hart, Canadian wrestler and trainer (b. 1915)
  • 2003 – László Papp, Hungarian boxer (b. 1926)
  • 2004Pierre Salinger, American journalist and politician, 11th White House Press Secretary (b. 1925)
  • 2006John Victor Murra, Ukrainian-American anthropologist and academic (b. 1916)
  • 2006 – Valentín Paniagua, Peruvian lawyer and politician, 91st President of Peru (b. 1936)
  • 2007Deborah Kerr, Scottish actress (b. 1921)
  • 2007 – Toše Proeski, Macedonian singer-songwriter (b. 1981)
  • 2008Dagmar Normet, Estonian author and translator (b. 1921)
  • 2010Eyedea, American rapper and producer (b. 1981)
  • 2010 – Barbara Billingsley, American actress (b. 1915) )[26]
  • 2011Dan Wheldon, English race car driver (b. 1978)
  • 2012Frank Moore Cross, American scholar and academic (b. 1921)
  • 2012 – John A. Durkin, American lawyer and politician (b. 1936)
  • 2012 – Mario Gallegos, Jr., American firefighter and politician (b. 1950)
  • 2012 – Bódog Török, Hungarian handball player and coach (b. 1923)
  • 2012 – Eddie Yost, American baseball player and coach (b. 1926)
  • 2013Govind Purushottam Deshpande, Indian playwright and academic (b. 1938)
  • 2013 – George Hourmouziadis, Greek archaeologist and academic (b. 1932)
  • 2013 – Ed Lauter, American actor (b. 1938)[27]
  • 2013 – Laurel Martyn, Australian ballerina and choreographer (b. 1916)
  • 2013 – Robert B. Rheault, American colonel (b. 1925)
  • 2013 – Saggy Tahir, Pakistani-American lawyer and politician (b. 1944)
  • 2014Ioannis Charalambopoulos, Greek colonel and politician, Deputy Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1919)
  • 2014 – Allen Forte, American musicologist and theorist (b. 1926)
  • 2014 – Seppo Kuusela, Finnish basketball player and coach (b. 1934)
  • 2014 – John Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough, English businessman (b. 1926)
  • 2015Richard J. Cardamone, American lawyer and judge (b. 1925)
  • 2015 – James W. Fowler, American psychologist and academic (b. 1940)
  • 2015 – William James, Australian general and physician (b. 1930)
  • 2015 – Vera Williams, American author and illustrator (b. 1927)
  • 2015 – Memduh Ün, Turkish film producer, director, actor and screenwriter (b. 1920)
  • 2016Calvin Carl "Kelly" Gotlieb, Canadian professor and computer scientist (b. 1921)
  • 2017Daphne Caruana Galizia, Maltese journalist and blogger (b. 1964)
  • 2017 – Roy Dotrice, British actor (b. 1923)
  • 2017 – John Dunsworth, Canadian actor (b. 1946)
  • 2017 – Sean Hughes, British-born Irish stand-up comedian (b. 1965)

Holidays and observances

References

  1. ^ John of Antioch, fragment 202; translated by C.D. Gordon, Age of Attila, p. 116
  2. ^ "'Abd ar-Rahman III". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  3. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Council of Vienne (1311-12)". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  4. ^ "This Month in Physics History". Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  5. ^ "The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492-1996". www.nhc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  6. ^ "Battle of Ulm | German history". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  7. ^ "Piar, Manuel Carlos (1782-1817) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed". blackpast.org. 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  8. ^ Carletta, David M.; Harris, Charles H. (2010). "Review of The Secret War in EI Paso: Mexican Revolutionary Intrigue, 1906-1920, Charles H. Harris III". International Social Science Review. 85 (3/4): 153–155. JSTOR 41887460.
  9. ^ BARNES, JAMES J.; BARNES, PATIENCE P.; CAREY, ARTHUR E. (1986). "An English Translation of Hitler's "Mein Kampf" Printed in Germany, ca. 1940". The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America. 80 (3): 374–377. doi:10.1086/pbsa.80.3.24303851. JSTOR 24303851. S2CID 192972565.
  10. ^ Vaheri-Hyvärinen-Saari: Hanna-Marjut – Hylyt.net (in Finnish)
  11. ^ M/S Hanna Marjut – Wrecksite.eu
  12. ^ "Million Man March » Center for Remote Sensing » Boston University". Archived from the original on 2017-10-12. Retrieved 2017-10-16.
  13. ^ Smith, Jessie Carney; Phelp, Shirelle (1996). Notable Black American Women Book 2. New York: Gale Research. p. 589. ISBN 978-0-81034-749-6.
  14. ^ Cullinan, Bernice E.; Person, Diane Goetz (2005). The Continuum Encyclopedia of Children's Literature. London: Continuum. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-8264-1778-7.
  15. ^ Vinson, James; Kirkpatrick, Daniel Lane (1982). Twentieth-Century Romance and Gothic Writers. London: Macmillan. p. 706. ISBN 978-0-3333-2138-6.
  16. ^ Larkin, Colin (2000). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Stage and Film Musicals. London: Virgin with Muse. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-7535-0375-1.
  17. ^ Korte, Anne-Marie (2014). "Mary Daly". In Oppy, Graham; Trakakis, Nick N. (eds.). Twentieth-Century Philosophy of Religion. London: Routledge. p. 245. ISBN 978-1-3157-2959-6.
  18. ^ "Kieran Doherty,Died August 2nd, 1981". www.bobbysandstrust.com.
  19. ^ Grant, Brea [@breagrant] (2019-10-16). "It's my birthday..." (Tweet). Archived from the original on 2019-10-16. Retrieved 2019-10-16 – via Twitter.
  20. ^ "Players: Stuart Lightbody". bwfbadminton.com. Badminton World Federation. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  21. ^ "Gregory XIV | pope". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  22. ^ Lassner, Martin (18 July 2011). "Johann Rudolf Stadler". Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse (DHS) (in French). Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  23. ^ "Marie-Antoinette | Facts, Biography, & French Revolution". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  24. ^ Smetanin, Alexander Ivanovich (1991). Оборона Порт-Артура (in Russian). Moscow: Voennoe Izd-vo. p. 103. ISBN 978-5-2030-0488-8.
  25. ^ Lammel, Wolfgang (30 June 2018). "Vision Weltfrieden: Die Pazifistin Anna B. Eckstein". Sonntagsblatt (in German). Munich. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  26. ^ McLellan, Dennis (October 16, 2010). "Barbara Billingsley, Mother on 'Leave It to Beaver', Dies at 94". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 17, 2010. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  27. ^ "Veteran character actor Ed Lauter dies at age 74". The San Francisco Chronicle. October 17, 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-10-20. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
  28. ^ "Boss's Day in the United States". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  29. ^ "International Days". www.un.org. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2021.

External links