November 11

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November 11 in recent years
  2021 (Thursday)
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  2018 (Sunday)
  2017 (Saturday)
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  2015 (Wednesday)
  2014 (Tuesday)
  2013 (Monday)
  2012 (Sunday)

November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar; 50 days remain until the end of the year.

Events

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

Births

Pre-1600

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1901Sam Spiegel, American film producer (d. 1985)
  • 1901 – F. Van Wyck Mason, American historian and author (d. 1978)
  • 1904Alger Hiss, American lawyer and convicted spy (d. 1996)
  • 1904 – J. H. C. Whitehead, British mathematician and academic (d. 1960)
  • 1906Brother Theodore, German-American monologuist and comedian (d. 2001)
  • 1907Orestis Laskos, Greek director, screenwriter, and poet (d. 1992)
  • 1909Robert Ryan, American actor (d. 1973)
  • 1909 – Piero Scotti, Italian race car driver (d. 1976)
  • 1911Roberto Matta, Chilean-Italian painter and sculptor (d. 2002)
  • 1912Thomas C. Mann, American lawyer, politician, and diplomat, United States Ambassador to El Salvador (d. 1999)
  • 1914James Gilbert Baker, American astronomer, optician, and academic (d. 2005)
  • 1914 – Taslim Olawale Elias, Nigerian academic and jurist, 2nd Chief Justice of Nigeria (d. 1991)
  • 1914 – Howard Fast, American novelist and screenwriter (d. 2003)
  • 1914 – Henry Wade, American soldier and lawyer (d. 2001)
  • 1914 – Daisy Bates, American activist who played a leading role in the Little Rock Integration Crisis of 1957 (d. 1999)
  • 1915William Proxmire, American soldier, journalist, and politician (d. 2005)
  • 1915 – Anna Schwartz, American economist and author (d. 2012)
  • 1916Robert Carr, English engineer and politician, Lord President of the Council (d. 2012)
  • 1918Stubby Kaye, American entertainer (d. 1997)
  • 1919Kalle Päätalo, Finnish soldier and author (d. 2000)
  • 1920Roy Jenkins, British politician, President of the European Commission (d. 2003)
  • 1920 – Walter Krupinski, German captain and pilot (d. 2000)
  • 1921Terrel Bell, American sergeant, academic, and politician, 2nd United States Secretary of Education (d. 1996)
  • 1922Kurt Vonnegut, American novelist, short story writer, and essayist (d. 2007)[15]
  • 1925John Guillermin, English-American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2015)
  • 1925 – June Whitfield, English actress (d. 2018)
  • 1925 – Jonathan Winters, American actor and screenwriter (d. 2013)
  • 1926Harry Lumley, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 1998)
  • 1926 – Maria Teresa de Filippis, Italian race car driver (d. 2016)
  • 1927Mose Allison, American singer-songwriter and pianist (d. 2016)
  • 1927 – Martin Špegelj, Croatian general and politician, 2nd Croatian Minister of Defence (d. 2014)
  • 1928Ernestine Anderson, American singer (d. 2016)
  • 1928 – Carlos Fuentes, Mexican novelist and essayist (d. 2012)
  • 1929LaVern Baker, American singer (d. 1997)
  • 1929 – Hans Magnus Enzensberger, German author and poet
  • 1929 – Martin Jacomb, English lawyer, businessman, and academic
  • 1930Hugh Everett III, American physicist and mathematician (d. 1982)
  • 1930 – Vernon Handley, English conductor (d. 2008)
  • 1930 – Mildred Dresselhaus, American physicist and academic (d. 2017)
  • 1932Germano Mosconi, Italian journalist (d. 2012)
  • 1933Martino Finotto, Italian race car driver (d. 2014)
  • 1933 – Peter B. Lewis, American businessman and philanthropist (d. 2013)
  • 1935Bibi Andersson, Swedish actress (d. 2019)
  • 1936Jack Keller, American songwriter and producer (d. 2005)
  • 1937Vittorio Brambilla, Italian race car driver (d. 2001)
  • 1937 – Stephen Lewis, Canadian politician and diplomat, 14th Canadian Ambassador to the United Nations
  • 1937 – Alicia Ostriker, American poet and scholar
  • 1939Denise Alexander, American actress
  • 1940Barbara Boxer, American journalist and politician
  • 1940 – Dennis Coffey, American guitarist
  • 1942Jonathan Fenby, English journalist and businessman
  • 1942 – Roy Fredericks, Guyanese-American cricketer and politician (d. 2000)
  • 1942 – K. Connie Kang, Korean American journalist and author (d. 2019)[16]
  • 1942 – Diane Wolkstein, American author and radio host (d. 2013)
  • 1943Doug Frost, Australian swim coach
  • 1945Chris Dreja, English guitarist and songwriter
  • 1945 – Vince Martell, American singer and guitarist
  • 1945 – Daniel Ortega, Nicaraguan politician, President of Nicaragua
  • 1946Al Holbert, American race car driver (d. 1988)
  • 1948Andrzej Czok, Polish mountaineer (d. 1986)
  • 1948 – Vincent Schiavelli, American actor (d. 2005)
  • 1948 – Robert John "Mutt" Lange, British-South African record producer and songwriter
  • 1949Ismail Petra of Kelantan, former Sultan of Kelantan (d. 2019)
  • 1949 – Kathy Postlewait, American golfer
  • 1950Mircea Dinescu, Romanian journalist and poet
  • 1950 – Jim Peterik, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1951Kim Peek, American megasavant (d. 2009)
  • 1951 – Marc Summers, American television host and producer
  • 1951 – Fuzzy Zoeller, American golfer
  • 1953Marshall Crenshaw, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1953 – Andy Partridge, English singer-songwriter, guitarist, and record producer
  • 1954Steve Brain, English rugby player
  • 1954 – Mary Gaitskill, American novelist, essayist, and short story writer.
  • 1954 – Roger Slifer, American author, illustrator, screenwriter, and producer (d. 2015)
  • 1955Dave Alvin, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1955 – Jigme Singye Wangchuk, King of Bhutan
  • 1955 – Teri York, Canadian diver[17]
  • 1956Ian Craig Marsh, English guitarist
  • 1956 – Talat Aziz, Ghazal singer
  • 1958Luz Casal, Spanish singer-songwriter and actress
  • 1958 – Kazimieras Černis, Lithuanian astronomer and astrophysicist
  • 1958 – Carlos Lacámara, Cuban-American actor and playwright
  • 1958 – Kathy Lette, Australian-English author
  • 1959Lee Haney, American bodybuilder
  • 1959 – Richard Rowe, English jockey and trainer
  • 1959 – Christian Schwarzenegger, Swiss criminologist and academic
  • 1959 – Carl Williams, American boxer (d. 2013)
  • 1960Colin Harvey, English author and critic (d. 2011)
  • 1960 – Chuck Hernandez, American baseball player and coach
  • 1960 – Paquito Ochoa, Jr., Filipino lawyer and politician, 37th Executive Secretary of the Philippines
  • 1960 – Cristina Odone, Kenyan-Italian journalist and author
  • 1960 – Peter Parros, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1960 – Stanley Tucci, American actor and director
  • 1961Yuri Milner, Russian-born entrepreneur, venture capitalist and physicist
  • 1962Mario Fenech, Maltese-Australian rugby league player and sportscaster
  • 1962 – Georgios Mitsibonas, Greek footballer (d. 1997)
  • 1962 – Demi Moore, American actress, director, and producer
  • 1962 – James Morrison, Australian trumpet player and composer
  • 1963Billy Gunn, American wrestler and actor
  • 1964Margarete Bagshaw, American painter and potter (d. 2015)
  • 1964 – Calista Flockhart, American actress
  • 1964 – Philip McKeon, American actor (d. 2019)
  • 1965Max Mutchnick, American screenwriter and producer
  • 1965 – Kim Stockwood, Canadian singer-songwriter
  • 1966Benedicta Boccoli, Italian model and actress
  • 1966 – Vince Colosimo, Australian actor
  • 1966 – Alison Doody, Irish model and actress
  • 1967Gil de Ferran, Brazilian race car driver
  • 1967 – David Doak, Northern Irish video game designer
  • 1967 – Frank John Hughes, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
  • 1968David L. Cook, American singer-songwriter and comedian
  • 1968 – Diego Fuser, Italian footballer and manager
  • 1971David DeLuise, American actor and director
  • 1971 – Tomas Pačėsas, Lithuanian basketball player and coach
  • 1972Adam Beach, Canadian actor
  • 1973Jason White, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1974Jon B., American singer-songwriter and producer
  • 1974 – Leonardo DiCaprio, American actor and producer[18]
  • 1974 – Static Major, American singer-songwriter and producer (d. 2008)
  • 1974 – Wajahatullah Wasti, Pakistani cricketer
  • 1975Daisuke Ohata, Japanese rugby player
  • 1976Jason Grilli, American baseball player
  • 1976 – Jesse F. Keeler, Canadian bass player
  • 1977Ben Hollioake, Australian-English cricketer (d. 2002)
  • 1977 – Jill Vedder, American philanthropist, activist and fashion model[19]
  • 1977 – Maniche, Portuguese footballer and manager
  • 1977 – Marsha Mehran, Iranian-American author (d. 2014)
  • 1978Lou Vincent, New Zealand cricketer
  • 1980Willie Parker, American football player and coach
  • 1980 – Edmoore Takaendesa, Zimbabwean-German rugby player
  • 1982Gonzalo Canale, Argentinian-Italian rugby player
  • 1982 – Jeremy Williams, English model, actor, and poet
  • 1983Arouna Koné, Ivorian footballer
  • 1983 – Philipp Lahm, German footballer
  • 1983 – Tatsuhisa Suzuki, Japanese voice actor and singer
  • 1984Stephen Hunt, English footballer
  • 1984 – Birkir Már Sævarsson, Icelandic footballer
  • 1985Osvaldo Alonso, Cuban footballer
  • 1985 – Austin Collie, American football player
  • 1985 – Tiidrek Nurme, Estonian runner
  • 1985 – Jessica Sierra, American singer
  • 1985 – Robin Uthappa, Indian cricketer
  • 1986François Trinh-Duc, French rugby player
  • 1986 – Jon Batiste, American singer and pianist
  • 1986 – Mark Sanchez, American football player
  • 1986 – Victor Cruz, American football player
  • 1987Vinny Guadagnino, American actor
  • 1987 – Chanelle Hayes, English model and singer
  • 1988David Depetris, Argentinian-Slovak footballer
  • 1988 – Mikako Komatsu, Japanese voice actress and singer
  • 1988 – Kyle Naughton, English footballer
  • 1989Nick Blackman, English-Israeli footballer[20]
  • 1989 – Adam Rippon, American figure skater
  • 1989 – Reina Tanaka, Japanese singer
  • 1989 – Lewis Williamson, Scottish race car driver
  • 1990James Segeyaro, Papua New Guinean rugby league player[21]
  • 1990 – Tom Dumoulin, Dutch road bicycle racer[22]
  • 1990 – Georginio Wijnaldum, Dutch footballer[23]
  • 1992Sofía Luini, Argentine tennis player[24]
  • 1993Jamaal Lascelles, English footballer[25]
  • 1994Ellie Simmonds, English swimmer[26]
  • 1994 – Sanju Samson, Indian cricketer[27]
  • 1995Josh Aloiai, New Zealand rugby league player[28]

Deaths

Pre-1600

  • 405Arsacius of Tarsus, Tarsian archbishop (b. 324)
  • 683Yazid I, Muslim caliph (b. 647)
  • 865Petronas, Byzantine general
  • 865 – Antony the Younger, Byzantine monk and saint (b. 785)
  • 875Teutberga, queen of Lotharingia
  • 1028Constantine VIII, Byzantine emperor (b. 960)
  • 1078Udo of Nellenburg, Archbishop of Trier (during the siege of Tübingen)
  • 1089 – Saint Peter Igneus, Italian Benedictine monk
  • 1130Teresa of León, Countess of Portugal, Portuguese regent (b. 1080)
  • 1189 – King William II of Sicily ("the Good") (b. 1153)
  • 1285 – King Peter III of Aragon (b. 1239)
  • 1331Stefan Uroš III Dečanski of Serbia (b. c. 1285)
  • 1561Hans Tausen, Danish reformer (b. 1494)
  • 1583Gerald FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Desmond, Irish rebel

1601–1900

1901–present

  • 1917Liliuokalani of Hawaii (b. 1838)[29]
  • 1918George Lawrence Price, Canadian soldier (b. 1892)
  • 1919Pavel Chistyakov, Russian painter and educator (b. 1832)
  • 1921Léon Moreaux, French target shooter (b. 1852)
  • 1931Shibusawa Eiichi, Japanese businessman (b. 1840)
  • 1939Bob Marshall, American author and activist (b. 1901)
  • 1940Muhittin Akyüz, Turkish general and diplomat (b. 1870)
  • 1944Munir Ertegun, Turkish diplomat (b. 1883)
  • 1945Jerome Kern, American composer (b. 1885)
  • 1949Loukas Kanakaris-Roufos, Greek lawyer and politician, Greek Minister of Foreign Minister (b. 1878)
  • 1950Alexandros Diomidis, Greek banker and politician, 145th Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1875)
  • 1953Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine (b. 1866)
  • 1961Behiç Erkin, Turkish colonel and politician, Turkish Minister of Environment and Urban Planning (b. 1876)
  • 1962Joseph Ruddy, American swimmer and water polo player (b. 1878)
  • 1965Luis Arturo González López Guatemalan supreme court judge and briefly acting president (b. 1900)
  • 1968Jeanne Demessieux, French pianist and composer (b. 1921)[30]
  • 1972Berry Oakley, American bass player (b. 1948)
  • 1973Artturi Ilmari Virtanen, Finnish chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1895)
  • 1973 – Richard von Frankenberg, German race car driver and journalist (b. 1922)
  • 1974Alfonso Leng, Chilean dentist, composer, and academic (b. 1894)
  • 1976Alexander Calder, American sculptor (b. 1898)
  • 1977Abraham Sarmiento, Jr., Filipino journalist and activist (b. 1950)
  • 1979Dimitri Tiomkin, Ukrainian-American composer and conductor (b. 1894)
  • 1980Vince Gair, Australian politician, 27th Premier of Queensland (b. 1901)
  • 1984Martin Luther King, Sr., American pastor, missionary, and activist (b. 1899)
  • 1985Pelle Lindbergh, Swedish ice hockey player (b. 1959)
  • 1985 – Arthur Rothstein, American photographer and educator (b. 1915)
  • 1988Charles Groves Wright Anderson, South African-Australian colonel and politician (b. 1897)
  • 1988 – William Ifor Jones, Welsh conductor and organist (b. 1900)
  • 1990Attilio Demaría, Argentinian footballer (b. 1909)
  • 1990 – Sadi Irmak, Turkish physician and politician, 17th Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1904)
  • 1990 – Alexis Minotis, Greek actor and director (b. 1898)
  • 1990 – Yiannis Ritsos, Greek poet and playwright (b. 1909)
  • 1993Erskine Hawkins, American trumpet player and bandleader (b. 1914)
  • 1993 – John Stanley, American author and illustrator (b. 1914)
  • 1994John A. Volpe, American soldier and politician, 61st Governor of Massachusetts (b. 1908)
  • 1994 – Tadeusz Żychiewicz, Polish journalist, historian, and publicist (b. 1922)
  • 1997Rod Milburn, American hurdler and coach (b. 1950)
  • 1997 – William Alland, American film producer and writer (b. 1916)
  • 1998Frank Brimsek, American ice hockey player and soldier (b. 1913)
  • 1998 – Paddy Clancy, Irish singer and actor (b. 1922)
  • 1999Mary Kay Bergman, American voice actress (b. 1961)
  • 1999 – Jacobo Timerman, Argentinian journalist and author (b. 1923)
  • 2000Sandra Schmitt, German skier (b. 1981)
  • 2001Erna Viitol, Estonian sculptor (b. 1920)
  • 2002 – Frances Ames, South African neurologist, psychiatrist, and human rights activist (b. 1920)
  • 2003Miquel Martí i Pol, Catalan poet (b. 1929)
  • 2004Dayton Allen, American comedian and voice actor (b. 1919)
  • 2004 – Yasser Arafat, Palestinian engineer and politician, 1st President of the Palestinian National Authority, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1929)
  • 2004 – Richard Dembo, French director and screenwriter (b. 1948)
  • 2005Moustapha Akkad, Syrian-American director and producer (b. 1930)
  • 2005 – Patrick Anson, 5th Earl of Lichfield, English photographer (b. 1939)
  • 2005 – Peter Drucker, Austrian-American author, theorist, and educator (b. 1909)
  • 2006Belinda Emmett, Australian actress (b. 1974)
  • 2007Delbert Mann, American director and producer (b. 1920)
  • 2008Herb Score, American baseball player and sportscaster (b. 1933)
  • 2008 – Mustafa Şekip Birgöl, Turkish colonel (b. 1903)
  • 2010Marie Osborne Yeats, American actress and costume designer (b. 1911)
  • 2011Francisco Blake Mora, Mexican lawyer and politician, Mexican Secretary of the Interior (b. 1966)
  • 2012Lam Adesina, Nigerian educator and politician, Governor of Oyo State (b. 1939)
  • 2012 – Joe Egan, English rugby player and coach (b. 1919)
  • 2012 – Rex Hunt, English lieutenant, pilot, and diplomat, Governor of the Falkland Islands (b. 1926)
  • 2012 – Victor Mees, Belgian footballer (b. 1927)
  • 2012 – Harry Wayland Randall, American photographer (b. 1915)
  • 2013John Barnhill, American basketball player and coach (b. 1938)
  • 2013 – Domenico Bartolucci, Italian cardinal and composer (b. 1917)
  • 2013 – Bob Beckham, American singer-songwriter (b. 1927)
  • 2013 – John S. Dunne, American priest and theologian (b. 1929)
  • 2013 – Atilla Karaosmanoğlu, Turkish economist and politician, 33rd Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1931)
  • 2014John Doar, American lawyer and activist (b. 1921)
  • 2014 – Big Bank Hank, American rapper (b. 1956)
  • 2014 – Philip G. Hodge, American engineer and academic (b. 1920)
  • 2014 – Harry Lonsdale, American chemist, businessman, and politician (b. 1932)
  • 2014 – Carol Ann Susi, American actress (b. 1952)
  • 2015Rita Gross, American theologian and author (b. 1943)
  • 2015 – Nathaniel Marston, American actor and producer (b. 1975)
  • 2016Victor Bailey, American singer and bass player (b. 1960)
  • 2016 – Robert Vaughn, American actor (b. 1932)
  • 2017Chiquito de la Calzada, Spanish singer, actor and comedian (b. 1932)
  • 2021F. W. de Klerk, South African lawyer and politician, former State President of South Africa, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1936)[31]

Holidays and observances

Popular culture

References

  1. ^ George Lillie Craik (1850). Pictorical History of England. W.S. Orr & Company. p. 195.
  2. ^ Lange, Greg (February 15, 2003). "Washington is admitted as the 42nd state to the United States of America on November 11, 1889". Historylink.org. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011. Retrieved November 10, 2010.
  3. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 727-22 N7030U Salt Lake City International Airport, UT (SLC)". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2021-11-11.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ "Huge Explosion Reportedly Kills Scores in N. Korea Border Town". Reuters. November 3, 1991. Retrieved July 6, 2019. The news agency said the explosion was much more powerful than a blast in the southern South Korean city of Iri in 1977 when a freight train carrying dynamite blew up, killing 56 people and injuring 1,300.
  5. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Fokker F-27 Friendship 600 RP-C6888 Manila-Ninoy Aquino International Airport (MNL) [Manila Bay]". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2020-11-12.
  6. ^ Staff, the CNN Wire (2011-11-11). "Mexican minister who fought drug cartels killed in crash". CNN. Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  7. ^ News, Gillan Ropero, ABS-CBN (2020-11-14). "Typhoon Ulysses deaths climb to 67: disaster council". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  8. ^ "Severe Weather Bulletin #18 for Typhoon 'Ulysses' (Vamco)" (PDF). PAGASA. 11 November 2020. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  9. ^ "Henry IV | Holy Roman emperor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 July 2020. Retrieved 16 October 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ Barrett, Anne (September 23, 2004). "Whiteley, Martha Annie (1866–1956), chemist". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/46421. ISBN 9780198614128. Retrieved 2019-08-12. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  12. ^ Petit, Jérôme (2016). "Rājacandra". Jainpedia. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  13. ^ "Victor Emmanuel III | king of Italy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  14. ^ "Сухарева Груня Ефимовна, Москва, Востряковское — еврейские кладбища | Иудаизм и евреи на Toldot.ru". Toldot.ru — Иудаизм и евреи (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-04-27.
  15. ^ "Kurt Vonnegut | Biography, Facts, & Books". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  16. ^ Kim, Hyung-Chan (1999). "K. Connie Kang". In Kim, Hyung-Chan; Cordova, Dorothy C. L.; Fujita, Stephen S.; Ng, Franklin; Singh, Jane (eds.). Distinguished Asian Americans: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-0-313-28902-6.
  17. ^ "Teri YORK - Olympic Diving | Canada". International Olympic Committee. 15 June 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Leonardo DiCaprio". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
  19. ^ Jill_McCormick at Fashion Model Directory
  20. ^ "ESPNFC: Soccer Nick Blackman". m.espn.com.
  21. ^ "James Segeyaro". National Rugby League. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  22. ^ "Tom Dumoulin - Player Profile - Cycling". Eurosport UK. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  23. ^ "Factfile: Georginio Wijnaldum". Newcastle United Football Club. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  24. ^ "Sofia Luini". ESPN (in Spanish). Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  25. ^ "MK Dons: Karl Robinson 'furious' over Jamaal Lascelles leak". BBC Sport. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  26. ^ Brown, Oliver (15 September 2012). "Ellie Simmonds, golden girl of the Paralympics, says she will never forget the feeling and doesn't want it to end". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  27. ^ "Sanju Samson profile and biography, stats, records, averages, photos and videos".
  28. ^ "Official NRL profile of Josh Aloiai for Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles - NRL". nrl.com. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  29. ^ Craig, Bryan (2003). "Liliuokalani, Queen". In Schlup, Leonard; Ryan, James G. (eds.). Historical Dictionary of the Gilded Age. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharp. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-76560-331-9.
  30. ^ Randel, Don Michael (1996). The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-67437-299-3.
  31. ^ Lacey, Marc (November 11, 2021). "F.W. de Klerk, Last President of Apartheid South Africa, Dies at 85". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2021.

External links