- Crespi d'Adda, UNESCO World Heritage Site
- Nuovo quartiere operaio in Schio
- Villaggio Leumann a Collegno
- Villaggio Frua in Saronno
- Villaggio operaio della Filatura in Tollegno
The town grew out of a textile factory founded in 1833 by the sons of Feliks Lubienski, who owned the land where it was built. They brought in a specialist from France and his newly designed machines. He was French inventor, Philippe de Girard from Lourmarin. He became a director of the firm. The factory town developed during the 19th century into a significant textile mill town in Poland. In honour of Girard, 'Ruda Guzowska' as the original estate was called, was renamed Żyrardów, a toponym derived of the polonised spelling of Girard's name.
Most of Żyrardów's monuments are located in the manufacturing area which dates from the 19th and early 20th centuries. It is widely believed that Żyrardów's textile settlement is the only entire urban industrial complex from the 19th-century to be preserved in Europe.
In the United Kingdom, the term "mill town" usually refers to the 19th century textile manufacturing towns of northern England and the Scottish Lowlands, particularly those in Lancashire (cotton) and Yorkshire (wool).
Some former mill towns have a symbol of the textile industry in their town badge. Some towns may have statues dedicated to textile workers (e.g. Colne) or have a symbol in the badge of local schools (e.g. Ossett School).
|Cheshire mill towns|
|Derbyshire mill towns|
|Greater Manchester mill towns|
Ashton-under-Lyne, Bolton, Bury, Chadderton, Failsworth, Heywood, Hyde, Lees, Leigh, Manchester, Middleton, Oldham, Radcliffe, Ramsbottom, Reddish, Rochdale, Royton, Shaw and Crompton, Stalybridge, Stockport, Wigan
|Lancashire mill towns|
|Yorkshire mill towns|
Batley, Bingley, Bradford, Brighouse, Cleckheaton, Dewsbury, Elland, Halifax, Hebden Bridge, Heckmondwike, Holmfirth, Huddersfield, Keighley, Morley, Mytholmroyd, Ossett, Pudsey, Shipley, Skipton, Sowerby Bridge, Todmorden, Yeadon
On his tour of northern England in 1849, Scottish publisher Angus Reach said:
In general, these towns wear a monotonous sameness of aspect, physical and moral... In fact, the social condition of the different town populations is almost as much alike as the material appearance of the tall chimneys under which they live. Here and there the height of the latter may differ by a few rounds of brick, but in all essential respects, a description of one is a description of all.— Angus Reach, Morning Chronicle, 1849
New England and Northeast
Beginning with Samuel Slater and technological information smuggled out of England by Francis Cabot Lowell, large mills were established in New England in the early to mid 19th century. Mill towns, sometimes planned, built and owned as a company town, grew in the shadow of the industries. The region became a manufacturing powerhouse along rivers like the Housatonic, Quinebaug, Shetucket, Blackstone, Merrimack, Nashua, Cocheco, Saco, Androscoggin, Kennebec or Winooski.
In the 20th century, alternatives to water power were developed, and it became more profitable for companies to manufacture textiles in southern states where cotton was grown and winters did not require significant heating costs. Finally, the Great Depression acted as a catalyst that sent several struggling New England firms into bankruptcy.
|Illinois||Carrier Mills, Harrisburg|
- Company town
- Industrial district
- Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor
- Old Great Falls Historic District, Paterson, NJ
- Sourced from a book entitled Cotton Mills of Greater Manchester, although not all of these towns are within Greater Manchester.
- "Crespi D'Adda UNESCO – Sito ufficiale" (in Italian). Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "Associazione Amici della Scuola del Villaggio Leumann" (in Italian). Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "Abitare a Saronno tra '800 e '900" (PDF) (in Italian). Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- "Villaggio operaio della Filatura" (in Italian). Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Girard, Philippe Henri de". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- "Steel statue tribute of mill girl". BBC. 24 July 2018.
- Williams, Mike; Farnie (1992). Cotton Mills of Greater Manchester. Carnegie Publishing. ISBN 0-9487898-9-1.
- Powell, Rob (1986). In the Wake of King Cotton. Rochdale Art Gallery. p. 12.
- WRITER, ALAN BURKE STAFF. "Leather goes to War at Peabody's Leather Museum".
- "Peabody Institute Library : Online Collections". peabodylibrary.pastperfectonline.com.
Museums and historic sites
- Belknap Mill Society Museum, Laconia, NH
- Slater Mill Historic Site, Pawtucket, RI
- Lowell National Historic Park, Lowell, MA
- Lynn Heritage State Park, Lynn, MA
- The Millyard Museum, Manchester, NH
- Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Historic Corridor
- Southern Textile Heritage Corridor, Vir, NC, SC, Ga, Al
- Museum Lewiston-Auburn, Lewiston, ME
Media files used on this page
The Arlington Cotton Mills, Lawrence, MA; from a 1907 postcard.
Grade crossing arch at Mill Street, showing part of new depots in Attleboro, MA; from a 1908 postcard.
Assawaga Mill, Dayville, CT; from a 1909 postcard. Dayville is a village within Killingly, CT.
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: Attribution
Merrimack Falls, Lawrence, MA; from a c. 1905 postcard.
Lower Falls & Colchester Mills, Winooski, VT; from a 1907 postcard.
Alice Mills Rubber Mfg. Plant, Woonsocket, RI; from a 1911 postcard.
Simeon S. Cook, Lyman A. Cook and Joseph Banigan incorporated the Woonsocket Rubber Company in 1867. It began operations at Island Place near Market Square, and for a time, shared facilities with the Bailey Wringer Company. Eventually, the company occupied 1-½ acres at Island Place including the Falls Yarn Mills.
While the company initially made rollers for the Bailey Manufacturing Company, it later specialized in rubber shoes and boots. Joseph Banigan built machines and developed a process that allowed the Woonsocket Rubber Company to produce the finest rubber shoes and boots in the world. By 1876, the Woonsocket Rubber Company was producing 130 cases of footwear a day.
In 1889, the company built the Alice Mill on Fairmount Street. At the time of its construction, it was the largest rubber mill in the world and employed 1,500 people. Two stair towers project from an immense four story structure. Although utilitarian in purpose, the stair towers also provide visual relief to what would be a facade of overwhelming proportion. By 1890, the Woonsocket Rubber Company was the largest rubber importer in the United States.In 1892, the Woonsocket Rubber Company was sold to the US Rubber Company, but continued to operate under it own name. The company prospered until the 1930's when the Alice mill was closed. It was reopened during the Second World War and remained open until the 1960's. The Alice Mill is currently occupied by Portola Tech Industries, manufacturer of plastic caps and jars for the cosmetic industry.
American Thread Company, Mill No. 1, Willimantic, Connecticut
Noon Hour, Amoskeag Mills, Manchester, NH; from a c. 1912 postcard.
Areal view of the Riegel Mill and the Community Center. Photo by Bill Shannon, 1950
Cumberland Mills, Westbrook, ME; from a c. 1902 postcard.
Hollingsworth & Whitney Paper Mills, Winslow, ME; from a c. 1920 postcard.
Jackson Mills, Nashua, NH; from a 1907 postcard.
A. C. Lawrence Leather Company, Peabody, MA; from a c. 1910 postcard.