Medical specialty

A medical specialty is a branch of medical practice that is focused on a defined group of patients, diseases, skills, or philosophy. Examples include children (paediatrics), cancer (oncology), laboratory medicine (pathology), or primary care (family medicine). After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple-year residency to become a specialist.[1]

History of medical specialization

To a certain extent, medical practitioners have long been specialized. According to Galen, specialization was common among Roman physicians. The particular system of modern medical specialties evolved gradually during the 19th century. Informal social recognition of medical specialization evolved before the formal legal system. The particular subdivision of the practice of medicine into various specialties varies from country to country, and is somewhat arbitrary.[2]

Classification of medical specialization

Medical specialties can be classified along several axes. These are:

  • Surgical or internal medicine
  • Age range of patients
  • Diagnostic or therapeutic
  • Organ-based or technique-based

Throughout history, the most important has been the division into surgical and internal medicine specialties. The surgical specialties are those in which an important part of diagnosis and treatment is achieved through major surgical techniques. The internal medicine specialties are the specialties in which the main diagnosis and treatment is never major surgery. In some countries, anesthesiology is classified as a surgical discipline, since it is vital in the surgical process, though anesthesiologists never perform major surgery themselves.

Many specialties are organ-based. Many symptoms and diseases come from a particular organ. Others are based mainly around a set of techniques, such as radiology, which was originally based around X-rays.

The age range of patients seen by any given specialist can be quite variable. Paediatricians handle most complaints and diseases in children that do not require surgery, and there are several subspecialties (formally or informally) in paediatrics that mimic the organ-based specialties in adults. Paediatric surgery may or may not be a separate specialty that handles some kinds of surgical complaints in children.

A further subdivision is the diagnostic versus therapeutic specialties. While the diagnostic process is of great importance in all specialties, some specialists perform mainly or only diagnostic examinations, such as pathology, clinical neurophysiology, and radiology. This line is becoming somewhat blurred with interventional radiology, an evolving field that uses image expertise to perform minimally invasive procedures.

Specialties that are common worldwide

SpecialtyMay be subspecialty ofAge range
of patients
Diagnostic (D) or
therapeutic (T)
Surgical (S) or
internal medicine (I)
Organ-based (O)
or technique-based (T)
Allergy and immunologyInternal medicine
Adolescent medicinePediatrics
Family medicine
Aerospace medicineFamily MedicineAllBothNeitherBoth
CardiologyInternal medicineAdultsTIO
Cardiothoracic surgeryGeneral surgeryAdultsTSO
Child and adolescent psychiatryPsychiatryPediatricTIT
Clinical neurophysiologyNeurologyAllDIBoth
Colorectal surgeryGeneral SurgeryAllBothSO
Developmental pediatricsPediatricsPediatricTINeither
Emergency medicineFamily MedicineAllBothBothBoth
EndocrinologyInternal medicineAdultsTIO
Family MedicineNoneAllBothBothMultidisciplinary
Forensic pathologyPathologyAllDNeitherT
Forensic psychiatryPsychiatryAllDIT
GastroenterologyInternal medicineAdultsTIO
General surgeryNoneAdultsTST
General surgical oncologyGeneral surgeryAdultsTST
GeriatricsFamily medicine
Internal medicine
Geriatric psychiatryGeriatrics
Gynecologic oncologyObstetrics and gynecologyAllTSO
HematologyInternal medicine
Hematologic pathologyHematology
Infectious diseaseInternal medicine
Internal medicineNoneAdultsTINeither
Interventional radiologyRadiologyAllBoth-Multidisciplinary
Intensive care medicineAnesthesiology
Emergency medicine
Internal medicine
Maternal-fetal medicineObstetrics and gynecologyAdultsTSBoth
Medical biochemistryInternal medicineAllDINeither
Medical geneticsNoneAllDINeither
Medical oncologyInternal medicineAdultsDINeither
NephrologyInternal medicineAllTIO
NeurologyInternal medicineAllBothIO
Nuclear medicineNoneAllBothIT
Obstetrics and gynecologyFamily medicineAllTSO
Occupational medicineFamily medicine
Internal medicine
Orthopedic surgeryNoneAllTSO
Oral and maxillofacial surgeryNoneAllTSO
Palliative careFamily Medicine
Internal medicine
Pediatric allergy and immunologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric cardiologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric emergency medicinePediatricsPediatricBothBothBoth
Pediatric endocrinologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric gastroenterologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric hematology and oncologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric infectious diseasePediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric nephrologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric respiratory medicinePediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric rheumatologyPediatricsPediatricTIO
Pediatric surgeryGeneral surgeryPediatricTSO
Physical medicine and rehabilitationNoneAllTIMultidisciplinary
Plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgeryGeneral surgeryAllTSO
PsychiatryFamily medicineAllBothIT
Public healthFamily medicineAllNeitherNeitherT
Radiation oncologyNoneAllTNeitherT
Reproductive endocrinology and infertilityObstetrics and gynecologyAdultsTST
Pulmunology or Respiratory medicineInternal medicineAdultsTIO
RheumatologyInternal medicineAdultsTINeither
Sports medicineFamily medicineAllBothNeitherMultidisciplinary
Thoracic surgeryGeneral surgeryAdultsTST
ToxicologyEmergency MedicineAllBothNeitherO
Transfusion MedicineNoneAllBothNeitherBoth
Vascular surgeryGeneral surgeryAllTSO

List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area

The European Union publishes a list of specialties recognized in the European Union, and by extension, the European Economic Area.[3] Note that there is substantial overlap between some of the specialties and it is likely that for example "Clinical radiology" and "Radiology" refer to a large degree to the same pattern of practice across Europe.

List of North American medical specialties and others

In this table, as in many healthcare arenas, medical specialties are organized into the following groups:

  • Surgical specialties focus on manually operative and instrumental techniques to treat disease.
  • Medical specialties that focus on the diagnosis and non-surgical treatment of disease.
  • Diagnostic specialties focus more purely on diagnosis of disorders.
Allergy and immunologyAllergic reactions, asthma, and the immune system
AnesthesiologyAN, PANSurgery[4]Anesthesia
BariatricsDeals with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity.
CardiologyMedicineDisease of the cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular surgerySurgeryThe operation of heart and major blood vessels of the chest.
Clinical laboratory sciencesDiagnostic
  • Transfusion medicine is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood component, including the maintenance of a "blood bank".
  • Cellular pathology is concerned with diagnosis using samples from patients taken as tissues and cells using histology and cytology.
  • Clinical chemistry is concerned with diagnosis by making biochemical analysis of blood, body fluids, and tissues.
  • Hematology is concerned with diagnosis by looking at changes in the cellular composition of the blood and bone marrow as well as the coagulation system in the blood.
  • Clinical microbiology is concerned with the in vitro diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
  • Clinical immunology is concerned with disorders of the immune system and related body defenses. It also deals with diagnosis of allergy.
Application of diagnostic techniques in medical laboratories such as assays, microscope analysis.
DermatologyD, DSMedicineDermatology, Mohs surgerySkin and its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands etc.).
DieteticsRD[5]Food and nutrition
Emergency medicineEMMedicine
  • Disaster medicine
  • Emergency medical services
  • Hospice and palliative medicine
  • International Emergency Medicine and Global Health
  • Medical toxicology
  • Pediatric emergency medicine
  • Research
  • Simulation
  • Sports medicine
  • Toxicology
  • Ultrasound
  • Undersea and hyperbaric medicine
  • Wilderness medicine
The initial management of emergent medical conditions, often in hospital emergency departments or the field.
EndocrinologyMedicineThe endocrine system (i.e., endocrine glands and hormones) and its diseases, including diabetes and thyroid diseases.
Family medicineFMMedicine
  • Addiction medicine
  • Adolescent medicine
  • Anesthesia
  • Emergency medicine
  • Care of the elderly (geriatric medicine)
  • Clinical environmental health
  • Global health
  • HIV care
  • Hospital medicine
  • Indigenous health
  • Low-risk obstetrics
  • Medical education
  • Medical oncology
  • Medical simulation
  • Pain medicine
  • Palliative care
  • Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS)
  • Research
  • Sleep medicine
  • Sports and exercise medicine
  • Women's health
Continuing, comprehensive healthcare for the individual and family, integrating the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences to treat patients of all ages, sexes, organ systems, and diseases.
Forensic medicineMedicine
GastroenterologyGIMedicineThe alimentary tract
General surgeryGSSurgery
  • Colorectal surgery
  • Gastrointestinal surgery
  • Transplant surgery
  • Trauma surgery
GeriatricsIMGMedicine[4]Elderly patients
GynecologyFemale reproductive health
HepatologyMedicineThe liver and biliary tract, usually a part of gastroenterology.
Hospital medicineMedicine
Infectious diseaseIDMedicineDiseases caused by biological agents
Intensive care medicineMedicineLife support and management of critically ill patients, often in an ICU.
Internal MedicineMedicine
Medical researchAnatomy, Biochemistry, Embryology, Genetics, Pharmacology, ToxicologyCare of hospitalized patients
NephrologyMedicineKidney diseases
NeurologyNMedicineDiseases involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems
NeurosurgeryNSSurgeryDisease of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and spinal column.
Obstetrics and gynecologyOB/GYNSurgery[4]
OncologyONMedicineCancer and other malignant diseases, often grouped with hematology.
OphthalmologyOPHSurgeryDiseases of the visual pathways, including the eyes, brain, etc.
Oral and maxillofacial surgeryMaxfacs, OMSSurgery
  • Oral and Craniofacial surgery (Head and neck)
  • Facial cosmetic surgery
  • Craniomaxillofacial trauma
Disease of the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Orthopedic surgeryORSSurgeryHand surgery, surgical sports medicine, adult reconstruction, spine surgery, foot and ankle, musculoskeletal oncology, orthopedic trauma surgery, pediatric orthopedic surgeryInjury and disease of the musculoskeletal system.
Otorhinolaryngology, or ENTORL, ENTSurgeryHead and neck, facial cosmetic surgery, Neurotology, LaryngologyTreatment of ear, nose, and throat disorders. The term head and neck surgery defines a closely related specialty that is concerned mainly with the surgical management of cancer of the same anatomical structures.
Palliative carePLMMedicineA relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal illnesses including cancer and heart failure.
PathologyPTHDiagnosticUnderstanding disease through examination of molecules, cells, tissues and organs. The term encompasses both the medical specialty that uses tissues and body fluids to obtain clinically useful information and the related scientific study of disease processes.
PediatricsPDMedicineChildren. Like internal medicine, pediatrics has many sub-specialties for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes, and sites of care delivery. Most sub-specialties of adult medicine have a pediatric equivalent such as pediatric cardiology, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric hematology, pediatric oncology, pediatric ophthalmology, and with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents (from newborn to age 16–21, depending on the country).
Pediatric surgerySurgeryTreats a wide variety of thoracic and abdominal (and sometimes urologic) diseases of childhood.
Physical medicine and rehabilitation Or PhysiatryPM&RMedicine
  • Cancer Rehabilitation
  • Pain Management
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Spinal Cord Injury
  • Sports Medicine
  • Pediatrics
  • Hospice & Palliative Medicine
Concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital disorders.
Plastic surgeryPSSurgery
  • Cosmetic surgery
  • Burn
  • Microsurgery
  • Hand surgery
  • Craniofacial surgery
Elective cosmetic surgery as well as reconstructive surgery after traumatic or operative mutilation.
  • Forefoot surgery
  • Midfoot surgery
  • Rearfoot surgery
  • Ankle surgery
  • Soft tissue leg surgery
Elective podiatric surgery of the foot and ankle, lower limb diabetic wound and salvation, peripheral vascular disease limb preservation, lower limb mononeuropathy conditions. Reconstructive foot & ankle surgery.
ProctologyPROMedicine(or Colorectal Surgery) Treats disease in the rectum, anus, and colon.
  • Addiction psychiatry focuses on substance abuse and its treatment.
  • Child and adolescent psychiatry focuses on the care of children and adolescents with mental, emotional, and learning problems including ADHD, autism, and family conflicts.
  • Consultation-Liaison psychiatry focuses on the interface between general medicine and psychiatry.
  • Forensic psychiatry focuses on the interface of psychiatry and law.
  • Geriatric psychiatry focuses on the care of elderly people with mental illnesses including dementias, post-stroke cognitive changes, and depression.
  • Neuropsychiatry focuses on affective, cognitive and behavioral disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system
  • Sleep medicine focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders.
  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine
  • Pain medicine
The bio-psycho-social study of the etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioral disorders. Related fields include psychotherapy and clinical psychology.
PulmonologyMedicineThe lungs and respiratory system. Pulmonology is generally considered a branch of internal medicine, although it is closely related to intensive care medicine when dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation.
Public HealthPublic health focuses on the health of populations. Physicians employed in this field work in policy, research or health promotion, taking a broad view of health that encompasses the social determinants of health.
RadiologyR, DRDiagnostic and Therapeutic
  • Interventional radiology is concerned with using expert imaging of the human body, usually via CT, ultrasound, fluoroscopy, or MRI to perform a breadth of intravascular procedures (angioplasty, arterial stenting, thrombolysis, uterine fibroid embolization), biopsies and minimally invasive oncologic procedures (radiofrequency and cryoablation of tumors & transarterial chemoembolization)
  • Nuclear medicine uses radioactive substances for in vivo and in vitro diagnosis either using imaging of the location of radioactive substances placed into a patient or using in vitro diagnostic tests utilizing radioactive substances.
The use of expertise in radiation in the context of medical imaging for diagnosis or image guided minimally invasive therapy. X-rays, etc.
RheumatologyRHUMedicineAutoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the joints and other organ systems, such as arthritis and other rheumatic diseases.
Surgical oncologySOSurgeryCurative and palliative surgical approaches to cancer treatment.
Thoracic surgeryTSSurgerySurgery of the organs of the thoracic cavity: the heart, lungs, and great vessels.
Transplant surgeryTTSSurgeryTransplantation of organs from one body to another
ToxicologyDiagnostic and Therapeutic
  • Environmental
  • Forensic
  • Occupational
  • Pediatric
Poisonings, Overdoses; Environmental, and Occupational Exposures
Urgent Care MedicineUCMMedicineImmediate medical care offering outpatient care for the treatment of acute and chronic illness and injury
UrologyUSurgeryUrinary tracts of males and females, and the male reproductive system. It is often practiced together with andrology ("men's health").
Vascular surgeryVSSurgeryThe peripheral blood vessels – those outside the chest (usually operated on by cardiovascular surgeons) and outside the central nervous system (treated by neurosurgery)


According to the 2022 Medscape Physician Compensation Report, physicians on average earn $339K annually. Primary care physicians earn $260K annually while specialists earned $368K annually.[6]

The table below details the average range of salaries for physicians in the US of medical specialties:[7][8]

SpecialtyAverage salary (USD)Average hours


Average salary/hour (USD)
Allergy & Immunology$298K
Emergency medicine$373K44180
Cardiac Surgery218,684 to $500,000
Critical care$369K
Infectious disease$260K
Internal medicine$264K5558
Family medicine$255K5158
Obstetrics and Gynecology$336K5983
Orthopedic surgery$557K56
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery360,000 to $625,21053
Physical Medicine & Rehabiliation$322K
Podiatry170,800 to $315,1504580
Preventative medicine$243K
Pulmonary medicine$353K55
Radiology (diagnostic)$437K56
Surgery (general)$402K58
Neurosurgery350,000 to $705,000132
Plastic surgery$576K114

Specialties by country

Australia and New Zealand

There are 15 recognised specialty medical Colleges in Australia.[9][10][11] The majority of these are Australasian Colleges and therefore also oversee New Zealand specialist doctors. These Colleges are:

Specialist CollegeMajor Subspecialties Approximate number of specialist doctors/trainees
Australasian College for Emergency MedicinePaediatric emergency medicine5,000
Australasian College of Dermatologists700
Australasian College of Sport and Exercise PhysiciansExercise Medicine350
Australian and New Zealand College of AnaesthetistsPain medicine7,000
Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine4,500
College of Intensive Care MedicinePaediatric Intensive care1,200
Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators800
Royal Australasian College of PhysiciansAddiction medicine, Cardiology, Clinical Genetics, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Geriatrics, Haematology, Infectious diseases, Immunology, Neonatal, Nephrology, Neurology, Occupational, Oncology, Paediatrics, Palliative medicine, Public Health, Rehabilitation, Respiratory, Rheumatology, Sexual Health25,000
Royal Australasian College of SurgeonsCardiothoracic, General surgery, Head & neck, Neurosurgery, Orthopaedics, Paediatric surgery, Plastics, Urology, Vascular9,000
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and GynaecologistsObstetrics, Gynaecology, Fertility medicine, Obstetric ultrasound, Gynaecological oncology, Urogynaecology2,500
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists1,100
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists5,000
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of RadiologistsDiagnostic, Interventional, Ultrasound, Nuclear medicine3,500
Royal Australian College of General Practitioners40,000
Royal College of Pathologists of AustralasiaAnatomical, Chemical, Clinical, Forensic, Genetic, Haematological, Immunological, Microbiological Pathology1,000

In addition, the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons supervises training of specialist medical practitioners specializing in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in addition to its role in the training of dentists. There are approximately 260 faciomaxillary surgeons in Australia.[12]

The Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners is a distinct body from the Australian Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. There are approximately 5100 members of the RNZCGP.

Within some of the larger Colleges, there are sub-faculties, such as: Australasian Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine within the Royal Australasian College of Physicians

There are some collegiate bodies in Australia that are not officially recognised as specialities by the Australian Medical Council but have a college structure for members, such as: Australasian College of Physical Medicine

There are some collegiate bodies in Australia of Allied Health non-medical practitioners with specialisation. They are not recognised as medical specialists, but can be treated as such by private health insurers, such as: Australasian College of Podiatric Surgeons


Specialty training in Canada is overseen by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and the College of Family Physicians of Canada. For specialists working in the province of Quebec, the Collège des médecins du Québec also oversees the process.


In Germany these doctors use the term Facharzt.


Specialty training in India is overseen by the Medical Council of India, responsible for recognition of post graduate training and by the National Board of Examinations. Education of Ayurveda in overseen by Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM), the council conducts UG and PG courses all over India, while Central Council of Homoeopathy does the same in the field of Homeopathy.


In Sweden, a medical license is required before commencing specialty training. Those graduating from Swedish medical schools are first required to do a rotational internship of about 1.5 to 2 years in various specialties before attaining a medical license. The specialist training lasts 5 years.[13]

United States

There are three agencies or organizations in the United States that collectively oversee physician board certification of MD and DO physicians in the United States in the 26 approved medical specialties recognized in the country. These organizations are the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and the American Medical Association (AMA); the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS) and the American Osteopathic Association; the American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS) and the American Association of Physician Specialists (AAPS). Each of these agencies and their associated national medical organization functions as its various specialty academies, colleges and societies.

Certifying boardNational organizationPhysician type

All boards of certification now require that medical practitioners demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for a chosen specialty. Recertification varies by particular specialty between every seven and every ten years.

In the United States there are hierarchies of medical specialties in the cities of a region. Small towns and cities have primary care, middle sized cities offer secondary care, and metropolitan cities have tertiary care. Income, size of population, population demographics, distance to the doctor, all influence the numbers and kinds of specialists and physicians located in a city.[14]


A population's income level determines whether sufficient physicians can practice in an area and whether public subsidy is needed to maintain the health of the population. Developing countries and poor areas usually have shortages of physicians and specialties, and those in practice usually locate in larger cities. For some underlying theory regarding physician location, see central place theory.[14]

The proportion of men and women in different medical specialties varies greatly.[15] Such sex segregation is largely due to differential application.[16]

Satisfaction and burnout

A survey of physicians in the United States came to the result that dermatologists are most satisfied with their choice of specialty followed by radiologists, oncologists, plastic surgeons, and gastroenterologists.[17] In contrast, primary care physicians were the least satisfied, followed by nephrologists, obstetricians/gynecologists, and pulmonologists.[17] Surveys have also revealed high levels of depression among medical students (25 - 30%) as well as among physicians in training (22 - 43%), which for many specialties, continue into regular practice.[18][19] A UK survey conducted of cancer-related specialties in 1994 and 2002 found higher job satisfaction in those specialties with more patient contact. Rates of burnout also varied by specialty.[20]

See also

  • Branches of medicine
  • Interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine, including
    • Occupational medicine – branch of clinical medicine that provides health advice to organizations and individuals concerning work-related health and safety issues and standards. See occupational safety and health.
    • Disaster medicine – branch of medicine that provides healthcare services to disaster survivors; guides medically related disaster preparation, disaster planning, disaster response and disaster recovery throughout the disaster life cycle and serves as a liaison between and partner to the medical contingency planner, the emergency management professional, the incident command system, government and policy makers.
    • Preventive medicine – part of medicine engaged with preventing disease rather than curing it. It can be contrasted not only with curative medicine, but also with public health methods (which work at the level of population health rather than individual health).
    • Medical genetics – the application of genetics to medicine. Medical genetics is a broad and varied field. It encompasses many different individual fields, including clinical genetics, biochemical genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, the genetics of common diseases (such as neural tube defects), and genetic counseling.
  • Specialty Registrar
  • Federation of National Specialty Societies of Canada
  • Society of General Internal Medicine


  1. ^ "Different Types of Doctors: Find the Specialist You Need". Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  2. ^ Weisz G (Fall 2003). "The Emergence of Medical Specialization in the Nineteenth Century". Bull Hist Med. 77 (3): 536–574. doi:10.1353/bhm.2003.0150. PMID 14523260. S2CID 23694173.
  3. ^ "Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications". European Parliament and Council. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  4. ^ a b c – new grouping of the medical specialties Archived April 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ "Becoming a Registered Dietitian". Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  6. ^ "Medscape Physician Compensation Report 2022: Incomes Gain, Pay Gaps Remain". Medscape. Retrieved 2022-07-23.
  7. ^ "Medscape Physician Compensation Report 2022: Incomes Gain, Pay Gaps Remain". Medscape. Retrieved 2022-07-23.
  8. ^ Katzowitz, Josh (2022-02-02). "How Much Do Doctors Make? [Salary by Specialty 2022] | White Coat Investor". The White Coat Investor - Investing & Personal Finance for Doctors. Retrieved 2022-07-23.
  9. ^ Council of Presidents of Medical Colleges,
  10. ^ Medical Board of Australia,
  11. ^ "What sort of doctor do you want to be? Medical specialties in Australia". 15 May 2014.
  12. ^ "What is ANZAOMS? - ANZAOMS".
  13. ^ "Specialty training / residency". Lund University, Faculty of Medicine. 2015-05-20. Retrieved 2016-11-26.
  14. ^ a b Smith, Margot Wiesinger (1979). "A guide to the delineation of medical care regions, medical trade areas, and hospital service areas". Public Health Reports. 94 (3): 248–254. JSTOR 4596085. PMC 1431844. PMID 582210.
  15. ^ "These medical specialties have the biggest gender imbalances". American Medical Association. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  16. ^ Woolf, Katherine; Jayaweera, Hirosha; Unwin, Emily; Keshwani, Karim; Valerio, Christopher; Potts, Henry (2019). "Effect of sex on specialty training application outcomes: A longitudinal administrative data study of UK medical graduates". BMJ Open. 9 (3): e025004. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025004. PMC 6429837. PMID 30837254.
  17. ^ a b "Medscape: Medscape Access".
  18. ^ Rotenstein, Lisa S.; Ramos, Marco A.; Torre, Matthew; Segal, J. Bradley; Peluso, Michael J.; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan; Mata, Douglas A. (2016-12-06). "Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". JAMA. 316 (21): 2214–2236. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.17324. ISSN 1538-3598. PMC 5613659. PMID 27923088.
  19. ^ Douglas A. Mata, Marco A. Ramos, Narinder Bansal, Rida Khan, Constance Guille, Emanuele Di Angelantonio & Srijan Sen (2015). "Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA. 314 (22): 2373–2383. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.15845. PMC 4866499. PMID 26647259.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Taylor, Cath; Graham, Jill; Potts, Henry WW; Richards, Michael A.; Ramirez, Amanda J. (2005). "Changes in mental health of UK hospital consultants since the mid-1990s". The Lancet. 366 (9487): 742–744. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67178-4. PMID 16125591. S2CID 11391979.

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