Lower Shawneetown

Lower Shawneetown
15 GP 15
Lower Shawneetown Shannoah historical marker HRoe.jpg
(c) Herb Roe, CC BY-SA 3.0
Bronze historical marker near site
Lower Shawneetown is located in Kentucky
Lower Shawneetown
Approximate location within Kentucky today
LocationSouth Portsmouth, KentuckyGreenup County, Kentucky USA
RegionGreenup County, Kentucky
Coordinates38°43′17.76″N 83°1′22.98″W / 38.7216000°N 83.0230500°W / 38.7216000; -83.0230500
FoundedC. 1733
CulturesShawnee people
Architectural detailsNumber of monuments:
Lower Shawneetown
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
NRHP reference No.83002784[1]
Added to NRHPApril 28, 1983

Lower Shawneetown, also known as Shannoah or Sonnontio, was an 18th-century Shawnee village located within the Lower Shawneetown Archeological District, near South Portsmouth in Greenup County, Kentucky and Lewis County, Kentucky.[2] It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 28, 1983.[1] It is near the Bentley Site, a Madisonville Horizon settlement inhabited between 1400 CE and 1625 CE. There are also four groups of Hopewell tradition mounds, built between 100 BCE and 500 CE, known as the Portsmouth Earthworks.

The community built along the Scioto River at its confluence with the Ohio River on floodplains and terraces. According to historian Richard Warren, "It was a sprawling series of wickiups and longhouses... French and British-allied traders regarded Lower Shawneetown as one of two capitals of the Shawnee tribe."[3] Between about 1734 and 1758 Lower Shawneetown became a center for commerce and diplomacy, "a sort of republic" populated by Shawnee, Iroquois, and Delawares, and supplied by both French and British traders.[3] By 1755, its population exceeded 1,200, making it one of the largest Native American communities in the Ohio Country, second only to Pickawillany. Lower Shawneetown was downstream from the much smaller Upper Shawneetown, established about 1751 at the confluence of the Ohio River and the Kanawha River, near present-day Point Pleasant, West Virginia and known to the Shawnees as Chinoudaista or Chinodahichetha.[4][5][6]

Lower Shawneetown was destroyed by floods in November, 1758, and the population relocated to another site further up the Scioto River.[7]

Foundation and names

1744 map of eastern North America by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin, showing "Village Chouanon" on the Ohio ("Oyo") River, probably the first representation of Lower Shawneetown on any map.

Established in the mid-1730s[8][9][7]: 305 at the confluence of the Scioto and Ohio Rivers, this was one of the earliest known Shawnee settlements on both sides of the Ohio River.[10] The earliest reference to the town is found in a July 27, 1734 letter by François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, describing an English trader's warehouse (probably that of George Croghan and William Trent) in "the home of the Shawnees on the Ohio River."[7]: 305 Historian Charles A. Hanna proposed that the town was established by Shaweygila Shawnees who had been forced out of their home on the Monongahela River by the Six Nations chiefs.[7]: 130[11]: 29 The first reference to the Lower Shawneetown by that name was in a letter by William Trent on October 20, 1748 reporting a murder at Kuskusky, when a Virginia trader there was killed following an altercation over some liquor, "which he was tying up, in order to send to the Lower Shawna Town."[12]: 16–17

The Shawnee name of the town was not recorded, but scholars believe it may have been "Chalahgawtha" or "Chillicothe," both Shawnee words meaning "principal place"[7]: 145–6 and typically applied to villages of the Chalahgawtha division of the Shawnees, who soon dominated the town.[13] On English maps the town was labelled "the Lower Shawonese Town," "the lower Shawanees town," "Lower Shanna Town," "the Shannoah town," or "Shawnoah."[7] The French called it "Saint Yotoc"[14] (which may be a corruption of Scioto), "Sinhioto," "Sononito," "Sonnioto," "Scioto," "Sonyoto," and "Cenioteaux."[14][15]

Population and appearance

Map by historian Charles A. Hanna showing "Shannoah T." on the "Hohio," lower left of map's center. Taken from a trader's map of the Ohio Country, dated 1750-52

Pressure from the growing European populations on the east coast of North America and in southern Canada had caused Native American populations to concentrate in the Ohio River Valley,[11][16] and Lower Shawneetown was situated at a convenient point, accessible to many communities living on tributaries of the Ohio River. The area had Iroquois, Delaware, Wyandot, and Miami communities within a few days' journey. The town also lay near the Seneca Trail, which was used by Cherokees and Catawbas, and the opportunity to trade for furs and to broker political alliances attracted both British and French traders.[13] Within a few years of its establishment, the town became a key center in dealings between Native American tribes and Europeans.[2][7][17] During the 1740s and 1750s, both the British and the French became increasingly concerned about the growing Native American settlements in the region, including Lower Shawneetown's neighbors, Logstown, Pickawillany, Sandusky, and Kittanning. Historian Richard White characterizes such "Indian republics" as multiethnic and autonomous, made up of a variety of smaller disparate social groups: village fragments, extended families, or individuals, often survivors of epidemics and refugees from conflicts with other Native Americans or with Europeans.[18]

Although mainly a Shawnee village, the population included contingents of Seneca and Lenape.[3] After his visit to Lower Shawneetown in 1749, Céloron de Blainville wrote "this village [is] composed for the most part of Chavenois (Shawnee) and Iroquois of the Five Nations...men from the Sault St. Louis (Kahnawake), there are also some from the Lake of Two Mountains (Mohawks of Kanesatake), some Loups from the Miami (Munsee), and nearly all the nations from the territory of Enhault (Pays d'en Haut, the territory of New France to the west of Montreal)."[19]

Lower Shawneetown was surrounded by fertile, alluvial flatlands that were ideal for growing corn, beans, squash, gourds, tobacco, and sunflowers. The remains of charred Northern flint corn have been documented archaeologically.[20]: 20 The area adjacent to the town was rich in natural resources: a mosaic of mixed hardwood forests, flat grassy plains, canebrakes, salt and clear freshwater springs, home to deer, bear, elk, and bison. Wild plants and nut-bearing trees were abundant, and chert-bearing bedrock and clay river banks provided essential materials for tools and pottery.[13]

In a journal entry from February, 1751 Christopher Gist describes the Ohio country in the area of Lower Shawneetown:

All the Way from the Shannoah Town...is fine, rich, level, Land, well timbered with large Walnut, Ash, Sugar Trees, Cherry Trees, &c; it is well watered with a great Number of little Streams or Rivulets, and full of beautiful natural Meadows, covered with wild Rye, blue Grass, and Clover, and abounds with Turkeys, Deer, Elks, and most Sorts of Game, particularly Buffaloes, thirty or forty of which are frequently seen feeding in one Meadow...a most delightful Country. The Ohio and all the large Branches are said to be full of fine Fish of several Kinds, particularly a Sort of Cat Fish of a prodigious Size.[21]

1754 map of British plantations in North America, showing "Shannoah or Lower Shanaws" on the Ohio.

According to A. Gwynn Henderson, eighteenth-century homes in this community would have resembled those of the Fort Ancient inhabitants:

...Long rectangular buildings with rounded corners constructed of frameworks of wooden posts set singly into the ground and covered with either thatch, bark, mats or skins. Trade blankets or skins provided "doors" at the ends of the houses. Interior partitions broke up the space within each house, and hearths were located in the center of earthen floors. Pits for storage lined the walls; trash was disposed in outdoor pits or on the ground in heaps behind the house. Bundles of dried food hung from the rafters. However, Europeans described some buildings as huts, cabins or houses--structures with squared logs and covered with bark or clapboard. A few even had chimneys.[13]: 34

In 1749 Joseph Pierre de Bonnecamps estimated that the entire town had about 60 cabins,[22] but by 1751, the town consisted of 40 houses on the Kentucky side located along bluffs above the floodplain, and 100 houses on the Ohio side atop a forty-foot river bank lined with sycamores and willows.[13] In the town center there was a 90 feet (27 m) long council house[10] and a large open area or plaza for public events. Houses were clustered together according to kinship, interspersed with gardens, trash heaps and family burial plots.[13]: 34 The remains of 23 individuals have been recovered from 16 graves at the Bentley site, among which there were 19 children and adolescents and four adults.[23] Including its 300 warriors, the town may have had a total population of between 1,200[23][17] and 1,500.[24] In 1753, after a flood destroyed part of the town which had been on the Scioto River's west bank, some residents relocated to the east bank, and others moved to the Kentucky side of the Ohio River.[25][26]

Residents of the town used Raven Rock, a 500-foot-high sandstone rock formation, as a lookout point to observe traffic on the Ohio River. Located about 5.5 miles southwest of the town center, the rock allowed lookouts to survey a 14-mile stretch of the river upstream and downstream.[27]: 169 It is today part of Raven Rock State Nature Preserve.[28]

Visit by the Baron de Longueuil, 1739

The earliest eyewitness account is a report by Charles III Le Moyne, Baron de Longueuil from July 1739. A French military expedition made up of 123 French soldiers and 319 Native American warriors from Quebec, under the command of Longueuil, was on its way to help defend New Orleans from the Chickasaw, who were attacking the city on behalf of England. While on their journey down the Ohio River towards the Mississippi River, they met with local chiefs in a village on the banks of the Scioto, which was probably Lower Shawneetown, "where the Shawnees gave them a friendly reception and furnished reinforcements."[29][7] Among Longueuil's officers was the young Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville, who returned to Lower Shawneetown in 1749.[30]: 250

Visit by Peter Chartier, 1745

In April 1745 Peter Chartier and about 400 Shawnees took refuge in Lower Shawneetown after defying Governor Patrick Gordon in a conflict over the sale of rum to the Shawnees. Chartier, a métis of Shawnee and French-Canadian parentage, opposed the sale of alcohol in Native American communities and threatened to destroy any shipments of rum that he found. He persuaded members of the Pekowi Shawnee to leave Pennsylvania and migrate south. An anonymous French trader visiting Lower Shawneetown brought a letter from the French government in Quebec, and a French flag, and watched as Chartier attempted unsuccessfully to persuade the leaders of Lower Shawneetown to form an alliance with the French:

They held a council to...hear the reading of Longueuil's letter. After this Chartiers took the [French] flag and planted it in front of one of the big chiefs of the village, saying to them: "This is what yours sends you, to continue to [do] the bidding of the general." They all took up arms, saying...they would have nothing to do with it...if the French could bring them back...it was only to make slaves of them...but Chartiers told them that he would not listen to them.[31]

The same French trader witnessed Chartier's Shawnees performing a two-day "Death Feast,"[31] a ceremony conducted before abandoning a village.[32][3] After staying in Lower Shawneetown for a few weeks they left the town on 24 June and proceeded down the Ohio River, then in August headed south into Kentucky to found the community of Eskippakithiki.[31][7][33]

French political concern over Lower Shawneetown's growing influence

The French had focused much attention on Canada, allowing English traders to establish themselves in the Ohio Valley, but in the late 1730s the French began trying to correct this by sending expeditions into the region. Concerned that this vibrant community would be readily influenced by trade goods supplied by the British, the Governor of New France, Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois sent emissaries to Lower Shawneetown in 1741 to try to persuade the Shawnees to relocate to Detroit, but the proposal was rejected.[3][34]

Map of the route followed by Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville along the Ohio River in 1749, drawn by Joseph Pierre de Bonnecamps. "Sinhioto" (Lower Shawneetown) appears at the lower edge.

In February, 1748 Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, French Secretary of State of the Navy (which included the Bureau of the Colonies), wrote that

...it is reported that since the War, [the Shawnees] have been joined by a considerable number of savages of all nations, forming a sort of republic [at Lower Shawnee Town], dominated by some Iroquois of the Five Nations who form part of it; and that, as the English almost entirely supply their needs, it is to be feared that they may succeed in seducing them...I am writing to Monsieur de Vaudreuil regarding that union, so that he may strive to break it.[35]: 11–12

In May, 1749 Antoine Louis Rouillé, the French Foreign minister, described the town as:

...Established at Sonontio, where it forms a sort of republic with a fairly large number of bad characters of various nations who have retired thither...In fact, there is reason to fear that the bad example of the savages...will lead them to do something evil.[35]: 21

He urged the Marquis de la Jonquière, the Governor-General of New France, to send envoys to persuade the Shawnee population of the town to relocate "either to Canada or Louisiana" for fear the British would recruit Shawnee warriors "to stir up the nations and cause them to undertake expeditions against the French." He added: "If you succeed in inducing the [Shawnees] to leave, it [Lower Shawneetown] will be weakened to such an extent that it need no longer be feared." He also suggested that British traders be expelled from Shawnee communities to discourage trade with the British.[35]: 19–22

Visit by Céloron de Blainville, 1749

In the summer of 1749 Pierre Joseph Céloron de Blainville, leading a force of eight officers, six cadets, an armorer, 20 soldiers, 180 Canadians, 30 Iroquois and 25 Abenakis,[14] moved down the Ohio River on a flotilla of 23 large boats and birch-bark canoes, on his "lead plate expedition," burying lead plates at six locations where major tributaries entered the Ohio.[19] The plates were inscribed to claim the area for France. Céloron also sought out British traders and warned them to leave this territory which belonged to France.[13] After stopping to bury a lead plate at the mouth of the Kanawha on 18 August, Céloron approached the town of "St. Yotoc" on 21 August, where a Lenape Indian they met informed them that the town consisted of "about 80 cabins there, and perhaps 100."[36]

Father Bonnecamps, the geographer of Céloron's expedition, wrote:

The situation of the village of the Chaouanons is quite pleasant, at least, it is not masked by the mountains, like the other villages through which we had passed. The Sinhioto River, which bounds it on the west, has given it its name. It is composed of about sixty cabins. The Englishmen there numbered five.[22]

Conference between French and Native American leaders around 1750 by Émile Louis Vernier.

On that morning, several of Céloron's Native American guides warned him that the town's inhabitants might be preparing to ambush Céloron's force, in the mistaken belief that the French were coming to attack the town. Céloron decided to send a delegation of Kahnawake and Abenaki Indians led by Philippe-Thomas Chabert de Joncaire ahead to announce that the French were not intending to attack them. Hearing that a French military force was approaching, the inhabitants had hastily erected a stockade. Joncaire described it as a "stone fort, strongly built and in good condition for their defense."[36]

As Joncaire's delegation approached the town, warriors manning the stockade fired three shots at them, all of which struck the French flag they were carrying. Joncaire boldly continued, and the Shawnees conducted the party to the council house in the center of the town. There, as Joncaire was explaining the purpose of Céloron's expedition, an Indian interrupted him, "saying that the French deceived them and that they came only to destroy them and their families." With that a number of warriors "rushed to arms, saying that these Frenchmen should be killed" and Céloron and the others waiting upriver in the canoes should be ambushed. Fortunately, "an Iroquois chief averted the storm." With his help, the French-Canadian, Joncaire, who was raised in a Seneca community, was released to return under guard to the canoes waiting upstream with Céloron and the rest of the expedition.[4] The others who had accompanied Joncaire were held hostage by the Shawnees.[36]: 44–49

Céloron selected a guard of fifty reliable soldiers and went to the riverbank opposite the town. As he approached, the Shawnees saluted him by firing their guns into the air. The town's chiefs and elders crossed the river and came with flags and pipes of peace. They had cut the grass to prepare a meeting place and everyone sat together. The men taken hostage with Joncaire were brought forward and handed over. The Shawnees invited Céloron to enter the town and address them in their council house, but he was wary of being ambushed:

I was aware of the weakness of my detachment; two-thirds were recruits who had never made an attack...[The Indians] being much displeased, it would have been a great imprudence to go to their village.[36]

He instead invited them to visit his encampment to hear an announcement. The next day, a canoe bearing a white flag approached Céloron's camp, and Shawnee and Iroquois leaders from Lower Shawneetown met with Céloron. They apologized for the shots fired at the French delegation, saying that they had feared that the French were planning to attack the town.[19]

Céloron negotiated with the leaders of the town for two days but he was unable to persuade them to abandon their loyalty to the English, as "the cheap merchandise which the English furnished was [a] very seducing motive for them to remain attached to the latter." At one point he referred to the visit he had made to Lower Shawneetown as an officer with the Baron de Longueuil in 1739: "What have you done, Shawnese, with the sense you had ten years ago when M. de Longueuil passed here?...You showed to him the kindness of your hearts and your sentiments. He even raised a troop of your young men to follow him."[30] The Shawnee leaders refused to acknowledge any French loyalty, however. On 25 August he summoned the five Pennsylvania traders who were then living in the town and ordered them to leave, stating that "they had no right to trade or aught else on the [Ohio] River."[19] Céloron considered plundering their goods, but as he was confronted by a large and well-armed Shawnee force, he desisted and continued on his way.[37] He wrote in his journal:

My instructions enjoin me to summon the English traders in Sinhioto and instruct them to withdraw on pain of what might ensue, and even to pillage the English should their response be antagonistic, but I am not strong enough and as these traders are well-established in a village and well-supported by the Indians, the attempt would have failed and put the French to shame. I have therefore withdrawn.[36][38]

In his description of the meeting between Céloron and the English traders, Bonnecamps says, "The Englishmen...were ordered to withdraw, and promised to do so," although he adds elsewhere, "firmly resolved, doubtless, to do nothing of the kind, as soon as our backs were turned."[22]

Céloron's expedition was intended to impress the inhabitants of the Ohio River Valley with the capability of the French to maintain control over the region, but it met with defiance and resulted in a weakening of the French position.[18]

Commerce with English traders

1755 map showing "Lor. Shawnee T." at the junction of the Scioto and Ohio rivers, lower left of map's center.

William Trent established a storehouse in Lower Shawneetown in the mid-1730s, and the Shawnees kept it secure in order to encourage further trade with the British. Between 1748 and 1751 the British traders Andrew Montour and George Croghan visited the town three times. In 1749 Croghan built a trading post in Lower Shawneetown (probably outside the town near the main overland trail or the Ohio River bank where traders could beach their canoes), operating in conjunction with his trading posts already established at Pine Creek, Oswegle Bottom, Muskingum, and Pickawillany, dominating the Ohio Valley deerskin trade.[13][39] He may have spent the winter of 1752-1753 in Lower Shawneetown.[7] On August 4, 1752 Trent met there with a group of survivors of the raid on Pickawillany, including the wife and son of Memeskia, the Piankeshaw chief who had been killed in the raid, and presented them with gifts. He engaged in talks with village elders in an attempt to strengthen the alliance between the Shawnees and the British government.[7]: 294

Lower Shawneetown's size and connections to neighboring communities allowed traders to establish storehouses for incoming and outgoing goods, managed by European men who lived in the town year-round and sometimes married Native American women. These trading posts attracted local hunters to bring skins and furs to the town, meaning that a post in Lower Shawneetown could do profitable business with dozens of villages without requiring the traders themselves to travel, as they had done previously. The town's location on the Ohio River allowed traders to send furs and skins by canoe up to Logstown, where they were taken by packhorses over the mountains, transferred into wagons for a fourteen-day journey to Philadelphia and then shipped to London.[13]

On 6 August, 1749 Céloron de Blainville met six English traders near Kittanning, who had left Lower Shawneetown and were on their way to Philadelphia with "fifty horses and about one hundred and fifty bales of furs." Father Joseph Bonnecamps examined the furs and described them as the skins of "bears, otters, cats, précans (possibly raccoons), and roe-deer, with the hair retained, for neither martens nor beavers are seen there."[14]

Visit by Christopher Gist, 1751

In 1750, the Ohio Company hired Christopher Gist, a skilled woodsman and surveyor, to explore the Ohio Valley in order to identify lands for potential settlement, and to undo any French influence lingering after Céloron's expedition. He surveyed the Kanawhan Region and the Ohio Valley tributaries in 1750–1751 and 1753, following the trail of Céloron through the Ohio country, visiting the same Indian towns the French expedition had visited and meeting with chiefs.[4] In 1751 Gist, Croghan and Montour, accompanied by Robert Callender, visited Lower Shawneetown. Gist's journal entry from January, 1751 states:

1755 map by John Mitchell showing "Shawnoah, or Lowr Shawnoes, an English Facty (factory or trading post) lower left of map's center.

Tuesday [January] 29 - Set out...to the Mouth of Sciodoe Creek opposite to the Shannoah Town, here we fired our Guns to alarm the Traders, who soon answered, and came and ferryed Us over to the Town — The Land about the Mouth of Sciodoe Creek is rich but broken fine Bottoms upon the River & Creek. The Shannoah Town is situate upon both Sides the River Ohio, just below the Mouth of Sciodoe Creek, and contains about 300 Men, there are about 40 Houses on the S Side of the River and about 100 on the N Side, with a Kind of State-House of about 90 Feet long, with a light Cover of Bark in which they hold their Councils.[21]

Christopher Gist, surveyor who visited Lower Shawneetown in 1751. Engraving from ‘’Emerson's Magazine and Putnam's Monthly,’’ 1857.[40]

The day after they arrived, Gist, Croghan, Callender and Montour met in the council house with the town's elders and a chief whom Gist identifies as Big Hannaona (probably Big Hominy, also known as Meshemethequater). Croghan made a speech in which he informed the chiefs that "the French offered a large sum of Money to any person who would bring them the said Croghan and Andrew Montour the Interpreter alive, or if dead their scalps." This was apparently a further attempt by the French to drive out the English traders, and Croghan evidently felt safe enough in the community to reveal that there was a bounty on his head. He then promised "a large Present of Goods...which was under the Care of the Governor of Virginia, who had sent Me out to invite them to come and see Him, & partake of their Father's Present next Summer." Big Hannaona responded with a warm speech which concluded: "We hope that the Friendship now subsisting between us & our Brothers will last as long as the Sun Shines or the Moon gives light." The journal terminates with a detailed description of a wedding festival Gist witnessed during his 12-day stay in Lower Shawneetown.[21]

Trade goods

18-century woodcut showing Native Americans with European trade goods that they received in exchange for furs.

Archeological evidence shows that, by the 1750s, trade had transformed the lives of the residents of the town. Traders brought guns, metal tools, knives, saddles, hatchets, glass and ceramic beads, strouds (a kind of coarse blanket), ruffled and plain shirts, coats, clay tobacco pipes, brass and iron pots, and rum to trade for the furs and skins of deer, elk, bison, bear, beaver, raccoon, fox, wildcat, muskrat, mink and fisher. Town residents wore European-style glass beads, silver earrings, armbands, and brooches, rather than traditional Native American beads and pendants made from shell, animal teeth, or animal bone. Cloth matchcoats, wool blankets, linen skirts and shirts and leather shoes supplemented moccasins and garments manufactured from animal skins. Large cast-iron pots began to replace ceramic vessels in the preparation of salt or maple sugar. Strings of glass beads, metal pendants,[13] silver earrings and brooches[20] of European manufacture were buried along with the dead. European trade goods found at the site include gun spalls and gunflints, gun parts (sideplate, mainspring, ram pipes, and breech plugs), wire-wound and drawn glass beads, tinkling cones, a button, a brass pendant, an earring, cutlery, kettle ears, a key, nails, chisels, hooks, a buckle, a Jew's harp, and pieces of a pair of iron scissors.[2][25][20]

On 29 June, 1752 William Trent had just left Logstown when he learned that during the Raid on Pickawillany, his storehouse there had been plundered. He traveled to Lower Shawneetown, where he met on 3 July in the council-house with Thomas Burney and Andrew McBryer, the two English traders who had escaped during the fighting, who gave Trent a full account of the raid.[41]: 84–86 He later visited the ruined town to recover what remained of his furs, bringing back what survived for safekeeping in Lower Shawneetown.[35]: 129

1753 floods

The portion of Lower Shawneetown east of the Scioto was destroyed by floods in 1753.[42] George Croghan described the event in a journal entry:

On the Ohio, just below the mouth of the Scioto, on a high bank, near forty feet, formerly stood the Shawnesse Town called the Lower Town, which was all carried away, except three or four houses, by a great flood in the Scioto. I was in the town at the time. Though the banks of the Ohio were so high, the water was nine feet [deep] on the top, which obliged the whole Town to take to their canoes, and move with their effects to the hills. The Shawnesse afterwards built their Town on the opposite side of the River, which, during the [French and Indian War], they abandoned...and removed to the Plains of the Scioto.[7]: 155

British traders relocated with the rest of the town's population, intending to maintain their profitable businesses. In the 1918 edition of Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison, George P. Donehoo, Secretary of the Pennsylvania Historical Commission, records:

Shortly after 1753 the village...was destroyed by a flood. The town was then built up on the south side of the Ohio. George Croghan, William Trent and other Indian traders had trading houses at this place. Croghan's large store...was destroyed by the French and Indians in 1754.[26]: 339–340

Expulsion of the English traders, 1754

In 1753 Governor Duquesne sent over two thousand French and Canadian troupes de la marine to the south shore of Lake Erie, under the command of Paul Marin de la Malgue,[43] to build a road and construct a series of forts (Fort Presque Isle, Fort Le Boeuf, and Fort Machault).[44] On 1 September, supplies were sent to this force from Fort de Chartres in Illinois, escorted by one hundred infantry under the command of Captain Demazilière and Lieutenant Portneuf.[7]: 156 They reached the falls of the Ohio (the site of present-day Louisville, Kentucky) and Lt. Portneuf was sent on ahead with nine men to see if Marin's troops were further upriver. Portneuf traveled for a week before reaching Lower Shawneetown. He observed English traders living in the town, as well as a few deserters from the French army, "some of whom had taken wives there." Portneuf was invited to a conference with a Shawnee chief, who "advised him to leave, adding that their young men were beginning to lose their minds and wanted to kill him." Portneuf and his men left that night and returned to Fort de Chartres.[45][46][47]

1755 map by Lewis Evans showing "Lor Shawnee T." to the lower left of map's center.

In January 1754, a Chickasaw man reported a slightly different version of this event to George Croghan:

...We hear that there is a large body of French at the Falls of the Ohio...[with] abundance of Provisions and Powder and Lead with them...coming up the river to meet the Army from Canada coming down. He says a Canoe with Ten French Men in her came up to the Lower Shawonese Town with him, but on some of the English Traders threatening to take them, they set back that night without telling their business.[48]: 75–76

The Shawnees then learned that "several hundreds" of Ottaway warriors "are gathering together on this side Lake Erie...in order to cutt off the Shawonese at the Lower Shawonese Town. The French and Ottaways offered the hatchet (proposed a military alliance) to the Owendats but they refused to join them."[48]

This threat, plus the presence of French troops in the Ohio Valley as well as French military victories at Fort Prince George and the Battle of Fort Necessity, persuaded the residents of Lower Shawneetown and several other communities that the balance of power was about to change, and they expelled the English traders in 1754,[13] as much for their safety as to indicate that they were showing no favor towards the English.[49] George Croghan reported that he had lost his storehouses and their contents at Pine Creek, Logstown, Muskingum and the newly-built storehouse at Lower Shawneetown that he shared with William Trent and Robert Callender:[26] "One large House on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the River Scioto, where the Shawanese had built their new Town, called the Lower Shawanese Town, which House we learn by the Indians is now in the possession of a French Trader." Croghan's cornfields, canoes and bateaux[50] were also confiscated and turned over to French traders by the Shawnees.[7]: 9–10

Visit by Twightwee leaders, 1754

Following the 1752 raid on Pickawillany and subsequent attacks, the leaders of Lower Shawneetown had refused to join the Twightwee Indians in their fight against the French. Even after the expulsion of the English traders, Lower Shawneetown's chiefs remained stubbornly neutral. In October, 1754 Twightwee leaders visited Lower Shawneetown demanding that Shawnee chiefs support them against the French:

You know that the French have invaded our Country on all Sides; Why do you sit so still? Will you be Slaves to the French, and suffer them to be Masters of all the Land and all the Game? Rise up, take the Hatchet, and follow our Example. We kill'd not long ago, Fifty Frenchmen, all Warriors, in one Day. Five other Nations have join'd us; and if you, and your Grandfathers, the Delaware, will but stir, the French will soon be forced to fly.[49]

Shawnee leaders at Lower Shawneetown replied:

Brethren, the Twightwees, We are surpriz'd at your Request. The Six United Nations have desir'd us to sit still, and not mind the French; and that we must keep our Ears and Eyes towards the Six United Nations; and so do our Grandfathers the Delawares. We desire you would spare us and leave our Town before the French hear of you, and come and kill you here, and plunge us into the War, before the Six United Nations begin it.[49]


At least nine captives taken during raids on American pioneer settlements are known to have lived in or visited Lower Shawneetown. Catherine Gougar (1732–1801) was kidnapped in 1744 from her home in Berks County, Pennsylvania and lived in the town for five years.[51][52] She was eventually sold to French-Canadian traders and after two more years in Canada, managed to return home in 1751.[53]

A captive runs the gauntlet between Shawnee warriors.

Mary Draper Ingles (1732–1815) was kidnapped during the Draper's Meadow massacre in July 1755, along with her two sons, her sister-in-law Bettie Robertson Draper, and her neighbor Henry Lenard (or Leonard),[54][55][56] all of whom were taken to Lower Shawneetown.[35]: 20 Upon arrival at the town, the prisoners were made to undergo the ritual of running the gauntlet:

When their Warriors arrive within half a Mile of their Towns, it is their custom to whip those who have been so unfortunate as to fall into their Hands, all the Remainder of the Way till they get to the Town, and that it was in this Manner our poor unhappy Neighbors from Virginia had been treated by them.[57]

According to her son, Mary was not required to do this.[58] Mary stayed in the town for about three weeks, during which time her sons were taken from her and adopted by Shawnee families. Mary's sister-in-law Bettie was given to a widowed Cherokee chief.[59] French traders were living in the town at that time, selling cloth, and Mary demonstrated her skill in sewing shirts, for which she was paid "in goods." Mary was eventually taken to Big Bone Lick to make salt by boiling brine. She and another captive escaped in mid-October, 1755, and walked several hundred miles to return home.[56][60] One source states that Mary's neighbor Henry Leonard also escaped.[61]

An article in the New-York Mercury of 16 February 1756, describing Mary's capture and escape mentions that, while in Lower Shawneetown, she saw "a considerable Number of English Prisoners, who have been taken Captives from the Frontiers of Virginia."[57] The same newspaper article states that she saw Captain Samuel Stalnaker (1715-1769), who had been captured during a raid on his homestead on the north fork of the Holston River in Virginia on June 18, 1755.[57] Several sources, including a letter from Governor Robert Dinwiddie dated 21 June 1756, report that he later escaped.[62][63][64][65][66] The Pennsylvania Gazette reported:

"Williamsburg, June 11 -- Capt. Stalnacker, who was taken Prisoner by the Shawnese, the 18th of June last, on Holston's River, and has been at the Shawnese Town, and Ouabach [Wabash] Fort ever since, till the tenth of last Month, when he made his Escape from them, is come to this Town, and informs us, that on the evening before he made his escape (9 May, 1756), 1,000 Indians and six French officers came to the Shawnese Town, destined for Fort Duquesne, to wait there some time to see whether any attempt would be made upon it, and if not, to disperse themselves, and fall upon the Frontiers of Virginia and Pennsylvania."[67][68][66]

Moses Moore and Isham Bernat were captured in Virginia and taken to Lower Shawneetown in the spring of 1758. Bernat was living at his plantation near the Irwin River when he was taken prisoner by a party of Shawnees, Wyandots, Delawares and Mingoes on 31 March 1758. Moore was hunting beaver in Augusta County when he was taken prisoner by a party of Wyandots in April, 1758. They were held for a few days in Lower Shawneetown before escaping and walking for 23 days to reach Pittsburgh.[12][7]

Destruction and relocation, 1758

1764 map showing the site of the relocated "Lower Shawneese Town" on the upper Scioto (spelled Sioto here), seen just below the center of the page, where Chillicothe, Ohio was later built.

John P. Hale states that in about November, 1758,

... a very extreme, if not unprecedented, flood in the rivers swept off a greater part of the town, and it was never rebuilt at that place; but the tribe moved its headquarters ... up the Scioto and built up successively the Old and New Chillicothe, or Che-le-co-the Towns. There remained a Shawnee village at the mouth of the Scioto, which was then built upon the other side, the present site of the city of Portsmouth.[69]

In his journal under the date 28 November 1758, Croghan writes:

Set off at seven o'clock, in company with six Delawares, and that night arrived at Logs Town, which we found deserted by its late inhabitants. On inquiring the reason of their speedy flight, the Delawares informed me the Lower Shanoes [inhabitants of Lower Shawneetown] had removed off the River up Sihotta [Sciota], to a great plain called Moguck, and sent for those that lived here to come there and live with them, and quit the French, and at the same time the deputies of the Six Nations, which I had sent from Easton, came and hastened their departure.[70][7]: 378

When Mary Jemison, a captive of the Seneca, spent the winter at the mouth of the Scioto River in 1758–1759, Lower Shawneetown had been abandoned and relocated further up the Scioto River.[26]: 360–361 This new village was Chalahgawtha at the site of present-day Chillicothe, Ohio.[7]

James Everett Seaver, who co-authored Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison (1824), says:

In 1758, the first year of Mary Jemison's going there, the Shawnees moved their town (the Lower Shawnee Town) from the mouth of the Scioto to the upper plains of the Scioto, sending for the Shawnees of Logstown to join them there and possibly also for the Shawnees of the [Upper] Shawnee Town at the mouth of the Great Kanawha to do the same.[26]: 365


Thomas Hutchins' 1778 map of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina shows both the relocated "Lower Shawanoe T." on the upper Scioto (upper right quadrant of map), as well as the "Old Shawanoe T." at the mouth of the Scioto on the Ohio River (to the right of map's center).

A. Gwynn Henderson argues that multiethnic "supervillages" such as Lower Shawneetown might be considered early Native American city-states because of their political autonomy and the new opportunities they created for different tribes as well as for the interaction of Native Americans with Europeans:

"The intermarriage and ethnic diversity within these settlements created a multitude of new kinship and social situations, adding layers of ethnic, social, and village relationships. Thus, the potential for factionalism and the development of different European responses may have been even greater in these villages than in traditional single-ethnic villages. As autonomous communities, these republics existed politically beyond the control of the French, British, and even the Six Nations at Onondaga, and their residents were responsible only to themselves. Thus, they had the freedom to make decisions based on their own needs, traditions, and cultural proscriptions, and they could ally themselves with whomever they wished or change their alliances when it suited their needs.[13]

Lower Shawneetown's diversity prevented it from operating as a political entity, however. Independent factions, themselves often divided, responded individually to events, to the frustration of European envoys. Community leaders were rarely able to unify a majority in backing policy decisions, which prevented Europeans from establishing firm diplomatic relations with Lower Shawneetown as they did (to some extent) at Logstown.[13]

Lower Shawneetown Archeological District

The Lower Shawneetown Archeological District, in Greenup County, Kentucky and Lewis County, Kentucky near South Portsmouth, is a 335 acres (1.36 km2) historic district which was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.[71]

It is Address restricted[72].

It includes the Lower Shawneetown village site, graves/burials, and more in six contributing sites and was listed for its information potential.[1]

Portsmouth floodwall murals

In 1992 muralist Robert Dafford was commissioned to create a series of murals depicting the history of Portsmouth, Ohio, on the floodwall,[73] built in 1937 to protect the city from periodic floods after the Ohio River flood of 1937. Between 1992 and 2003 Dafford created 65 paintings[74] covering Ohio history from the Hopewell mound builders to the present day. The first mural shows how the Hopewell mounds near Portsmouth might have appeared soon after their construction.[75] The second mural depicts Lower Shawneetown as it might have appeared on a winter day in 1730.[76] The third mural shows Pierre-Joseph Céloron de Blainville meeting with Native American residents of Lower Shawneetown and a few British traders during his visit on 25 August, 1749.[77][78][79]

See also


  1. ^ a b c "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-11-02. Archived from the original on 2013-02-20.
  2. ^ a b c Sharp, William E. (1996). "Chapter 6: Fort Ancient Farmers". In Lewis, R. Barry (ed.). Kentucky Archaeology. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 170–176. ISBN 0-8131-1907-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e Stephen Warren, Worlds the Shawnees Made: Migration and Violence in Early America, UNC Press Books, 2014ISBN 1469611732
  4. ^ a b c Phillip R. Shriver, "Lower Shawnee Town on the Eve of the French and Indian War," Ohio Archaeologist, Vol 40:3, Summer 1990, pp 16-21
  5. ^ Andrew Lee Feight, "Lower Shawnee Town and Celoron's Expedition," Scioto Historical, accessed November 22, 2020
  6. ^ Robert F. Maslowski, "Appalachian Migrations: Historic and Prehistoric. In Instances of Prehistoric and Historic Archaeology in the Mountainous Areas of the Eastern United States: Papers from Upland Archaeology in the East Symposium XI, Clarence R. Geir, Compiler, pp. 49-63. James Madison University, 2012
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Charles Augustus Hanna, The Wilderness Trail: Or, The Ventures and Adventures of the Pennsylvania Traders on the Allegheny Path, Volumes 1 and 2, Putnam's sons, 1911
  8. ^ A. Gwynn Henderson, David Pollack, "A Native History of Kentucky: Selections from Chapter 17: Kentucky," in Native America: A State-by-State Historical Encyclopedia, edited by Daniel S. Murphree, Volume 1, pages 393-440; Greenwood Press, Santa Barbara, CA. 2012
  9. ^ O'Donnell, James H. Ohio's First Peoples, p. 31. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2004.ISBN 0-8214-1525-5 (paperback),ISBN 0-8214-1524-7 (hardcover)
  10. ^ a b Foster, Emily (2000-08-24). The Ohio Frontier: An Anthology of Early Writings. The University Press of Kentucky. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8131-0979-4.
  11. ^ a b Caudill, Courtney B., ""Mischiefs So Close to Each Other": External Relations of the Ohio Valley Shawnees, 1730-1775." Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects. Paper 1539625770, May 1992
  12. ^ a b Samuel Hazard, ed. Pennsylvania Archives: 1st Series: Selected and Arranged from Original Documents in the Office of the Secretary of the Commonwealth, Conformably to Acts of the General Assembly, February 15, 1851, and March 1, 1852. Pennsylvania, Secretary of the Commonwealth. J. Severns, 1853
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m A. Gwynn Henderson, "The Lower Shawnee Town on Ohio: Sustaining Native Autonomy in an Indian "Republic"." In Craig Thompson Friend, ed., The Buzzel about Kentuck: Settling the Promised Land, University Press of Kentucky, 1999; pp. 25-56.ISBN 0813133394
  14. ^ a b c d O. H. Marshall, "De Celoron's Expedition to the Ohio in 1749, Magazine of American History, March, 1878, p. 146.
  15. ^ Ermine Wheeler Voegelin, An Ethnohistorical Report on the Indian Use and Occupancy of Royce Area 11, Ohio and Indiana, 2 vols. (New York: Garland Press, 1974), vol 1, p. 261.
  16. ^ Jerry E. Clark, "A System Model of Shawnee Indian Migration," Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Vol VII, 1979.
  17. ^ a b Gordon Calloway, The Shawnees and the War for America, The Penguin library of American Indian history; Penguin, 2007.ISBN 0670038628
  18. ^ a b Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650–1815 Cambridge studies in North American Indian history, Cambridge University Press, 1991.ISBN 1139495682
  19. ^ a b c d "Celeron de Bienville". Ohio History Central. Ohio Historical Society. Retrieved 2019-05-13.
  20. ^ a b c A. Gwynn Henderson, "Dispelling the Myth: Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Indian Life in Kentucky," The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, Vol. 90, No. 1, The KentuckyImage (Bicentennial Issue), pp. 1-25, Kentucky Historical Society
  21. ^ a b c The Journal of Christopher Gist, 1750–1751 From Lewis P. Summers, 1929, Annals of Southwest Virginia, 1769–1800. Abingdon, VA.
  22. ^ a b c "Relation du voyage de la Belle Rivière faite en 1749, sous les ordres de M. de Céloron," in Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed., The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, 73 vols. Cleveland: Burrow Brothers, 1896-1901, vol. 69; pp. 181-83.
  23. ^ a b Henderson, A. Gwynn (2008), "Chapter 6:Mississippi Period" (PDF), in David Pollack (ed.), The Archaeology of Kentucky:An update, Kentucky Heritage Council, pp. 830–832, retrieved 2020-11-23
  24. ^ Henry F. Dobyns, William R. Swagerty, Their Number Become Thinned: Native American Population Dynamics in Eastern North America, ACLS Humanities E-Book; Native American historic demography series; Newberry Library. Center for the History of the American Indian, University of Tennessee Press, 1983.ISBN 0870494007
  25. ^ a b David Pollack and A. Gwynn Henderson, "A Preliminary Report on the Contact Period Occupation at Lower Shawneetown (15GP15), Greenup County, Kentucky". paper presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the Central States Anthropological Society on April 9, 1982.
  26. ^ a b c d e James Everett Seaver, Charles Delamater Vail A Narrative of the Life of Mary Jemison: The White Woman of the Genesee, American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society, 1918.
  27. ^ David Osborne, Raisin' Cane in Appalachia, Trafford PublishingISBN 1466988339
  28. ^ Andrew Lee Feight, "Raven Rock State Nature Preserve," Scioto Historical, accessed 26 Nov 2020
  29. ^ The Expedition of Baron De Longueuil, 1739-1740, translated by Donald H. Kent, Sylvester Stevens, ed., 1953. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
  30. ^ a b Henry W. Temple, "Logstown," The Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, Vol. 1, No. 1. January , 1918. Pittsburg: Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania
  31. ^ a b c "Anonymous Diary of a Trip from Detroit to the Ohio River, May 22 - August 24, 1745," in PAPIERS CONTRECOEUR Le Conflit Angelo - Francias Sur L' Ohio De 1745 a 1756. English translation of documents in the Quebec Seminary by Donald Kent, 1952
  32. ^ Guy Lanoue, "Female Rituals of the Iroquois," Université de Montréal.
  33. ^ Lucien Beckner, "Eskippakithiki, The Last Indian Town in Kentucky," The Filson Club History Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 4, Oct 1932. Louisville, KY, pp 355-382
  34. ^ Watkins et al., Michigan historical collections, vols. 1-39, by Michigan Historical Commission, Michigan State Historical Society, Pioneer Society of the State of Michigan, Pioneer and Historical Society of the State of Michigan, Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society, Michigan State Historical Society. Lansing, 1876
  35. ^ a b c d e Thwaites, Reuben Gold. The French Regime in Wisconsin and the Northwest, Vol I 1634-1760. State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1908
  36. ^ a b c d e Orsamus Holmes Marshall, Andrew Arnold Lambing, Expedition of Céloron to the Ohio Country in 1749, F.J. Heer Printing Company, 1921
  37. ^ Ian K. Steele, Setting All the Captives Free: Capture, Adjustment, and Recollection in Allegheny Country, Vol. 71 of McGill-Queen's Native and Northern Series; McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 2013.ISBN 0773589899
  38. ^ Allan W. Eckert, That Dark and Bloody River: Chronicles of the Ohio River Valley, Random House 1995, 2011ISBN 0307790460
  39. ^ Volwiler, Albert T. George Croghan and the Westward Movement, 1741–1782. Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1926
  40. ^ Annosanah: A Novel Based on the Life of Christopher Gist
  41. ^ William Trent, Journal of Captain William Trent from Logstown to Pickawillany, A.D. 1752, Cincinnati: William Dodge, 1871
  42. ^ Andrew Lee Feight, "Lower Shawnee Town and the Flood of 1753," Lower Scioto Blog , posted on December 24, 2007
  43. ^ W. J. Eccles, "Paul Marin de La Malgue," in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 3, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed March 15, 2021
  44. ^ Kathleen Lugarich, "Constructing the French Forts of the Ohio Country," Fort Pitt Museum, October 9, 2015
  45. ^ Le Chevalier de Kerlérec, The Last Years of French Louisiana, translated by Marc de Villiers du Terrage, Carl A. Brasseaux; University of Southwestern Louisiana. Center for Louisiana Studies, 1982
  46. ^ Le Chevalier de Kerlérec, Les dernières années de la Louisiane française, Librairie Orientale & Américaine E. Guilmoto, 1905
  47. ^ Kerlérec, Louis Billouart, l'Affaire de la Louisiane: un déni de justice sous le règne de Louis XV: essai de réhabilitation de Louis Billouart de Kervaségan, chevalier de Kerlérec, gentilhomme breton, capitaine des vaisseaux du roy, brigadier des armées du roy, dernier gouverneur français de la Louisiane. France: Portes du large, 2003.
  48. ^ a b Thwaites, Reuben Gold, Early Western Travels, 1748-1846: Journals of Conrad Weiser (1748), George Croghan (1750-1765), Christian Frederick Post (1758), and Thomas Morris (1764). Vol. 2. Clark, 1904.
  49. ^ a b c Colonial records of Pennsylvania: Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania from the organization to the termination of the proprietary government, Vol. 6. April 1754 - January 1756. Theo. Fenn, Harrisburg 1851.
  50. ^ William McCullough Darlington, Christopher Gist's Journals: With Historical, Geographical and Ethnological Notes and Biographies of His Contemporaries by William M. Darlington. J. R. Weldin & Company, 1893.
  51. ^ Caroline S. Coldren, "Catherine Gougar Goodman," monograph, April 1940; Family History Library.
  52. ^ Catherine Gougar Goodman
  53. ^ Frank Warner, "Catherine Gougar," Ohio History, Volume 31; Ohio Historical Society., 1922.
  54. ^ Brown, Ellen Apperson. "What Really Happened at Drapers Meadows? The Evolution of a Frontier Legend" (PDF). Virginia History Exchange.
  55. ^ Cummings, Kathy. "Walking in Their Footsteps: The Journey of Mary Ingles". Pioneer Times.
  56. ^ a b Jennings, Gary (August 1968). "An Indian Captivity". American Heritage Magazine. 19 (5).
  57. ^ a b c Contemporary newspaper account of Mary Ingles' escape in the New York Mercury, 26 January 1756, p. 3, col. 1; in Early Documents Relating to Mary Ingles and the Escape from Big Bone Lick, transcribed by James Duvall, Boone County Public Library, Burlington, KY 2008
  58. ^ Ingles, John (1824). The Narrative of Col. John Ingles Relating to Mary Ingles and the Escape from Big Bone Lick (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  59. ^ Addington, Luther F. (1967). "Captivity of Mary Draper Ingles". Historical "Sketches of Southwest Virginia. Southwest Virginia Historical Society. Publication No 2.
  60. ^ "James Duvall, "Mary Ingles and the Escape from Big Bone Lick," Boone County Public Library, 2009" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
  61. ^ Lyman Chalkley, Chronicles of the Scotch-Irish Settlement in Virginia: Extracted from the Original Court Records of Augusta County, 1745-1800, Volume 2. Augusta County (Va.): The Commonwealth Printing Company, 2010; p. 510.
  62. ^ Robert A. Brock, ed. The official records of Robert Dinwiddie, Lieutenant-governor of the Colony of Virginia, 1751-1758, Richmond: The Society, 1883-84; p. 447.
  63. ^ Lewis Preston Summers, History of Southwest Virginia, 1746-1786, Washington County, 1777-1870, J.L. Hill Print. Company, 1903.
  64. ^ Indian Attacks of 1755-1758 in Augusta County, VA
  65. ^ Pendleton, William Cecil. History of Tazewell County and Southwest Virginia: 1748-1920. W. C. Hill printing Company, Richmond, 1920; p. 175
  66. ^ a b "Captain Samuel Stalnaker, Colonial Soldier and Early Pioneer," excerpted from Leo Stalnaker, Captain Samuel Stalnaker, Colonial Soldier and Early Pioneer and Some of His Descendents, 1938.
  67. ^ Pennsylvania Gazette, July 1, 1756
  68. ^ Knight Wees, "The Stalnaker Family," from the Randolph Enterprise, Thursday, August 25th, 1932
  69. ^ John P. Hale, Trans-Allegheny pioneers: historical sketches of the first white settlements west of the Alleghenies, Cincinnati: The Graphic Press, 1886.
  70. ^ William M. Darlington, ed. Christopher Gist's Journals, with Historical, Geographical and Ethnological Notes and Biographies of His Contemporaries, Pittsburgh, J. R. Weldin & Co., 1893; Part 4: 1750-51
  71. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Lower Shawneetown Archeological District". National Park Service. With accompanying pictures
  72. ^ Federal and state laws and practices restrict general public access to information regarding the specific location of this resource. In some cases, this is to protect archeological sites from vandalism, while in other cases it is restricted at the request of the owner. See:Knoerl, John; Miller, Diane; Shrimpton, Rebecca H. (1990), Guidelines for Restricting Information about Historic and Prehistoric Resources, National Register Bulletin, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, OCLC 20706997.
  73. ^ Frances Killea, "Floodwall Murals, Portsmouth," Ohio Magazine, July 2018, www.ohiomagazine.com
  74. ^ Michael Harding, "Snapshots: The Portsmouth Flood Wall Murals," July 31, 2018
  75. ^ William Fischer, Jr., "The Mound Builders Mural," Taken: September 2, 2012
  76. ^ William Fischer, Jr., "Early Shawnee Village, 1730," Taken: September 2, 2012
  77. ^ William Fischer, Jr., "Céloron de Blainville," Taken: September 2, 2012
  78. ^ Portsmouth Ohio Murals
  79. ^ William Fischer, Jr., "Scioto County, Experience Our Heritage," September 10, 2012

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Thomas Hutchins Map of Henry Bouquet's 1764 Expedition.jpg
A GENERAL MAP of the COUNTRY on the OHIO and MUSKINGHAM Shewing the Situation of the INDIAN = TOWNS with respect to the ARMY under the Command of COLONEL BOUQUET by Tho's Hutchins Ass't Engineer

A Topographical PLAN of that part of the INDIAN = COUNTRY through which Army under the Command of COLONEL BOUQUET marched in the Year 1764 by Tho's Hutchins. Ass't Engineer

The wilderness trail; or, The ventures and adventures of the Pennsylvania traders on the Allegheny path, with some new annals of the Old West, and the records of some strong men and some bad ones (14758414386).jpg
Author/Creator: Hanna, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1863-1950, Licence: No restrictions

Identifier: wildernesstrail02hann (find matches)
Title: The wilderness trail; or, The ventures and adventures of the Pennsylvania traders on the Allegheny path, with some new annals of the Old West, and the records of some strong men and some bad ones
Year: 1911 (1910s)
Authors: Hanna, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1863-1950
Subjects: Indians of North America Indians of North America
Publisher: New York, London, G.P. Putnam's Sons
Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries
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70 W. 6 M., good Land, but void of Timber, Meadows upon theCreek, fine Runs for Mills. 1 The path crossed the Beaver at its mouth, where the town of Rochester nowstands. 2 The trail went northwest from the mouth of Beaver Creek, passing over thesite of the present village of West Salem, Penna.,to a point a little southeast from whatis now New Lisbon, Ohio, on nearly the same line as the present road from Beaver toNew Lisbon.—Darlington. The path entered Ohio about two miles South from what is now Achor vil-lage, in the present township of Middleton, Columbiana County; traversed thattownship and Elk Run Township; entered Centre Township at Section 25; passedthrough Wayne Township, and thence southwesterly through what is now FranklinTownship. 3 Darlington says the course was near the northwest corner of the presentWayne Township, Columbiana County, Ohio; thence to a point near Hanover,(in samecounty; running a little south of Bayard to the Big Sandy Creek near Oneida, CarrollCounty.
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A Portion of Lewis Evanss Map of 1755, with Pownalls 1776 Additions. Lower Shawnee Town ; or Chillicothe on the Ohio 145 Thursday, 6. Rained all Day so that we were obliged to continuein our Camp. Friday, 7. Set out SW. 8 M. crossing the said Elks Eye Creekto a Town of the Ottaways,1 a Nation of French Indians; an old FrenchMan (named Mark Coonce)2 who had married an Indian Woman of theSix Nations lived here; the Indians were all out a hunting; the old Manwas very civil to me, but after I was gone to my Camp, upon his under-standing I came from Virginia, he called Me the Big Knife. There arenot above six or eight Families belonging to this Town. Saturday, 8. Stayed in the Town. Sunday, 9. Set out down the said Elks Eye Creek S. 45 W. 6 M.to Margarets Creek, a Branch of the said Elks Eye Creek.3 Monday, Dec. 10. The same Course (S. 45 W.) 2 M. to a largeCreek. Tuesday, 11. The same Course 12 M.; killed 2 Deer. Wednesday, 12. The same course 8 M.; encamped by the Side ofElks Eye Creek.4

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S.E.C.C. design of the Hero Twins based on a Mississippian culture shell engraving from the Spiro Mounds site. Modified from original to add background transparency.
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Iroquois with various goods, presumably western goods which they traded for. Histoire de l'Amérique septentrionale: divisée en quatre tomes
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Native American activity. From p. 76
A new map of the western parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina; comprehending the River Ohio, and all the rivers, which fall into it; part of the River Mississippi, the whole LOC gm71002165.jpg
Scale ca. 1:1,270,000. Hand colored. Prime meridian: Philadelphia and London. Relief shown pictorially and by hachures. Includes descriptive and historical notes. Supplements the author's A topographical description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina. Brown, Lloyd Arnold. Early maps of the Ohio Valley. 51 LC Maps of North America, 1750-1789, 789 Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image. Vault AACR2: 100; 440; 651/1; 651/2; 700/1
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Conference Between the French and Indian Leaders Around a Ceremonial Fire by Vernier.
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Drawing of Gist from Emerson's magazine and Putnam's monthly, Volume 5, NO 40, 1857
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Mitchell Map - A map of the British and French dominions in North America,...; 1757
Lower Shawneetown Shannoah historical marker HRoe.jpg
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Historical marker located at en:Lower Shawneetown near en:South Portsmouth, Kentucky in Greenup County. Inscription: Shannoah First village in Kentucky built by Shawnee Indians and French traders. Was visited January 1751 by Christopher Gist, George Croghan, Andrew Montour, Robert Kallendar and a servant. Located on the site of an earlier Fort Ancient settlement, it stood 500 yards northwest of these Adena earthworks. Erected by the National Society of Colonial Dames of America in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. June 1946
A map of the British American plantations, extending from Boston in New England to Georgia - including all the back settlements in the respective provinces as far as the Mississipi LOC 2017585923.jpg
Relief shown pictorially. Shows area east of the Mississippi from Niagara Falls to Port Royal, S.C. Includes illustrated cartouche. Prime meridian: Ferro. From the Gentlemen's Magazine, vol. 24, July 1754. LC copy mounted on paper mounted on cloth. LC Maps of North America, 1750-1789, 708 Available also through the Library of Congress Web site as a raster image.
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Title: The wilderness trail; or, The ventures and adventures of the Pennsylvania traders on the Allegheny path, with some new annals of the Old West, and the records of some strong men and some bad ones
Year: 1911 (1910s)
Authors: Hanna, Charles A. (Charles Augustus), 1863-1950
Subjects: Indians of North America Indians of North America
Publisher: New York, London, G.P. Putnam's Sons
Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries
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A Traders Map of the Ohio < From the orisinal MS. in the Library •.! CcnsrcM. Lower Shawnee Town ; or Chillicothe on the Ohio 157 Trent had started to build was in possession of the French, and the Eng-lish Traders had left the Ohio country, not to return for five years. In the original manuscript account of Losses occasioned by theFrench and Indians driving the English Traders off the Ohio, in 1754,made by George Croghan at Carlisle, April 24, 1756, the following itemof property is mentioned, belonging to William Trent, George Croghan,Robert Calendar, and Michael Teaff, Traders in Company: One largeHouse on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the River Scioto, where theShawanese had built their new Town, called the Lower ShawaneseTown, which House we learn by the Indians is now in the possession of aFrench Trader, £200. Mrs. Mary Draper Ingles, who was carried off from Vances (orVauxs) Fort in Augusta County, Virginia, by the Shawnees in June, 1756,zwas taken by them to the Lowe

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