Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse
|Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine|
|Reign||13 June 1877 – 13 March 1892|
|Born||12 September 1837|
Prinz-Carl-Palais, Darmstadt, Grand Duchy of Hesse, German Confederation
|Died||13 March 1892 (aged 54)|
New Palace, Darmstadt, Grand Duchy of Hesse, German Empire
|Burial||17 March 1892|
Rosenhöhe, Darmstadt, Grand Duchy of Hesse, German Empire
(m. 1862; died 1878)
Countess Alexandrina Hutten-Czapska
(m. 1884; annulled 1884)
|Father||Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine|
|Mother||Princess Elisabeth of Prussia|
Louis IV (German: Ludwig IV; 12 September 1837 – 13 March 1892) was the Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine from 13 June 1877 until his death in 1892. Through his own and his children's marriages he was connected to the British Royal Family, to the Imperial House of Russia and to other reigning dynasties of Europe.
Louis was born at the Prinz-Karl-Palais in Darmstadt, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine in the German Confederation, the first son and child of Prince Charles of Hesse and by Rhine (23 April 1809 – 20 March 1877) and Princess Elisabeth of Prussia (18 June 1815 – 21 March 1885), granddaughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia. As his father's elder brother Louis III (1806-1877), the reigning Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, had been married to his first wife since 1833 without legitimate children and from 1868 was married morganatically, Prince Louis was from birth second-in-line to the grand ducal throne, after his father.
On 1 July 1862, Louis married Princess Alice, a daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. On the day of the wedding, the Queen issued a royal warrant granting her new son-in-law the style of Royal Highness in the United Kingdom. The Queen also subsequently made Prince Louis a knight of the Order of the Garter.
Although an arranged marriage orchestrated by the bride's father Albert, Prince Consort, the couple did have a brief period of courtship before betrothal and wed willingly, even after the death of the Prince Consort left Queen Victoria in a protracted state of grief that cast a pall over the nuptials. Becoming parents in less than a year following their marriage, the young royal couple found themselves strapped financially to maintain the lifestyle expected of their rank. Princess Alice's interest in social services, scientific development, hands-on child-rearing, charity and intellectual stimulation were not shared by Louis who, although dutiful and benevolent, was bluff in manner and conventional in his pursuits. The death of the younger of their two sons, Frittie, who was afflicted with hemophilia and suffered a fatal fall from a palace window before his third birthday in 1873, combined with the wearying war relief duties Alice had undertaken in 1870, evoked a crisis of spiritual faith for the princess in which her husband does not appear to have shared.
The Austrians were defeated in the War, and the Hessian grand duchy was in jeopardy of being awarded as the spoils of war to victorious Prussia, which annexed some of Austria's other allies (Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau). Hesse-Darmstadt appears to have been spared this fate only by a cession of territory and the close dynastic kinship between its ruler and the Emperor of Russia (Alexander II's consort, Empress Maria Alexandrovna, was the sister of Hesse's Grand Duke Louis III and of Prince Charles).
In the Franco-Prussian War Prince Louis fought on the side of Prussia and the North German Confederation; commanding the 25th Division. He was credited with courageous military service, especially at the Battle of Gravelotte, which also afforded him the opportunity of mending the previous war's grievances with the House of Hohenzollern by fighting on the same side as his brother-in-law and future emperor, Crown Prince Frederick William of Prussia. He had good relationship with Frederick William and his wife Victoria, the Princess Royal, all of his lifetime. He also visited him on his deathbed in 1888.
Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
In March 1877, Louis became heir presumptive to the Hessian throne when his father died and, less than three months later, found himself reigning grand duke upon the demise of his uncle, Louis III.
A year and a half later, however, Grand Duke Louis was stricken with diphtheria along with most of his immediate family. He recovered; but his four-year-old daughter Marie succumbed, along with his wife of 16 years. From then on, he reigned and raised his five surviving children alone. His daughter Alix married Tsar Nicholas II two years after his death in 1894.
Grand Duchess Alice having died in 1878, Louis IV contracted a morganatic marriage on 30 April 1884 in Darmstadt (on the eve of the wedding of his eldest daughter, for which Queen Victoria and other relatives of his first wife were gathered in the Hessian capital) with Countess Alexandrine Hutten-Czapska (3 September 1854 – 8 May 1941), daughter of Count Adam Hutten-Czapski and Countess Marianna Rzewuska. She was the former wife of Aleksander von Kolemin, the Russian chargé d'affaires in Darmstadt. But the couple, facing objections from the Grand Duke's in-laws, separated within a week and the marriage was annulled within three months. As a compensation, she received the title Countess von Romrod on 31 May 1884 and a financial compensation. Alexandrine later married for the third time to Basil von Bacheracht.
Grand Duke Ludwig IV died on 13 March 1892, of a heart attack in the New Palace in Darmstadt and was succeeded by his son, Ernest Louis. After his second marriage, he was largely excluded from his first wife's British royal family, but his funeral was attended by Victoria, the Empress Dowager of Germany, by the Dowager Duchess of Albany, and by the Duke and Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, by the Duke and Duchess of Connaught, by the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augusterburg and by the Duke and Duchess of Argyll. It was not attended by his other two surviving in-laws, the Prince and Princess of Wales or by Queen Victoria due to her poor health. His remains are buried at Rosenhöhe, the mausoleum for the Grand Ducal House outside of Darmstadt.
|By Princess Alice:|
|Victoria Alberta Elisabeth Mathilde Marie||5 April 1863||24 September 1950||m. 30 April 1884 Prince Louis of Battenberg, later Marquess of Milford-Haven (24 May 1854-11 September 1921); 2 sons, 2 daughters (including Queen Louise of Sweden). She was the maternal grandmother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, consort of Queen Elizabeth II.|
|Elisabeth Alexandra Louise Alice||1 November 1864||18 July 1918||Took the name Yelisaveta Fyodorovna on her baptism into the Russian Orthodox Church; m. 15 June 1884 Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia (11 May 1857-17 February 1905), the seventh child and fifth son of Tsar Alexander II of Russia; had no issue|
|Irene Louise Marie Anne||11 July 1866||11 November 1953||m. 24 May 1888 Prince Henry of Prussia (14 August 1862-20 April 1929), son of Frederick III, German Emperor; had 3 sons. Irene passed hemophilia on to two of her three sons: Prince Waldemar of Prussia and Prince Henry of Prussia.|
|Ernest Louis||25 November 1868||9 October 1937||Succeeded as Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine, 13 March 1892 abdicated 9 November 1918; m. (1), 9 April 1894 his first cousin Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (25 November 1876-2 March 1936); 1 son (stillborn) and 1 daughter, div. 21 December 1901. m. (2), 2 February 1905, Princess Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms-Lich (17 September 1871-16 November 1937); 2 sons.|
|Frederick William Augustus Victor Leopold Louis||7 October 1870||29 May 1873||Suffered from haemophilia and died from internal bleeding after a fall from a window at age two and a half.|
|Alix Victoria Helena Louise Beatrice||6 June 1872||17 July 1918||Took the name Alexandra Feodorovna on her baptism into the Russian Orthodox Church; m. 26 November 1894 Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868-17 July 1918); 1 son and 4 daughters. Their only son, Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia, suffered from hemophilia.|
|Marie Victoria Feodore Leopoldine||24 May 1874||16 November 1878||Died of diphtheria at age four.|
- German orders and decorations
- Hesse-Kassel: Knight of the Golden Lion, 9 January 1857
- Anhalt: Grand Cross of the Order of Albert the Bear
- Bavaria: Knight of St. Hubert, 1863
- Brunswick: Grand Cross of the Order of Henry the Lion
- Ernestine duchies: Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order, 1863
- Nassau: Knight of the Gold Lion of Nassau, June 1863
- Oldenburg: Grand Cross of the Order of Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig, with Golden Crown and Collar, 5 July 1877
- Saxony: Knight of the Rue Crown, 1877
- Württemberg: Grand Cross of the Württemberg Crown, 1865
- Foreign orders and decorations
- Austria-Hungary: Grand Cross of the Royal Hungarian Order of St. Stephen, 1880
- Principality of Bulgaria:
- Grand Cross of St. Alexander
- Order of Bravery, 2nd Class
- Denmark: Knight of the Elephant, 23 September 1878
- Kingdom of Greece: Grand Cross of the Redeemer
- Kingdom of Italy: Grand Cross of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
- Ottoman Empire: Order of Osmanieh, 1st Class
- Kingdom of Portugal: Grand Cross of the Tower and Sword
- Kingdom of Romania: Grand Cross of the Star of Romania
- Spain: Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III, with Collar, 8 October 1883
- Kingdom of Serbia:
- Sweden-Norway: Knight of the Seraphim, 21 September 1881
- United Kingdom: Stranger Knight of the Garter, 5 July 1862
- Russian Empire:
|Ancestors of Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse|
- Willis, Daniel A., ‘’The Descendants of King George I of Great Britain’’, Clearfield Company, 2002, p. 717.ISBN 0-8063-5172-1
- Eilers, Marlene. Queen Victoria's Descendants. Rosvall Royal Books, Falkoping, Sweden, 1997. pp. 49-50. 141, 175.ISBN 91-630-5964-9
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Hessen (1892), Genealogy pp. 1-2
- Hof- und Staats ... Hessen (1855), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 8
- Hof- und Staats- ... Hessen (1855), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 37
- Hof- und Staats- ... Hessen (1855), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen" p. 130
- Kurfürstlich Hessisches Hof- und Staatshandbuch: 1859. Waisenhaus. 1859. p. 16.
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1888), "Großherzogliche Orden" p. 61
- Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Königreichs Bayern: 1870. Landesamt. 1870. p. 10.
- Staatshandbücher für das Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (1884), "Herzogliche Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden" p. 31
- Staats- und Adreß-Handbuch des Herzogthums Nassau (1866), "Herzogliche Orden" p. 9
- Hof- und Staatshandbuch des Großherzogtums Oldenburg0: 1878. Schulze. 1878. p. 34.
- Königlich Preussische Ordensliste (in German), vol. 1, Berlin, 1886, pp. 6, 14, 935
- Staatshandbuch für den Freistaat Sachsen (1878) (in German), "Königliche Ritter-Orden", p. 3
- Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Württemberg (1873), "Königliche Orden" p. 32
- A Szent István Rend tagjai
- "Liste des Membres de l'Ordre de Léopold", Almanach Royal Officiel (in French), 1863, p. 52 – via Archives de Bruxelles
- Jørgen Pedersen (2009). Riddere af Elefantordenen, 1559–2009 (in Danish). Syddansk Universitetsforlag. p. 465. ISBN 978-87-7674-434-2.
- Militaire Willems-Orde: Hessen-Darmstadt, Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig IV. Karl Grossherzog von (in Dutch)
- "Real y Distinguida Orden de Carlos III", Guía Oficial de España (in Spanish), 1887, p. 149, retrieved 21 March 2019
- Sveriges statskalender (PDF) (in Swedish), 1884, p. 380, retrieved 8 March 2021 – via gupea.ub.gu.se
- Shaw, Wm. A. (1906) The Knights of England, I, London, p. 61
Media files used on this page
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Flag of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha 1911-1920; Ratio (2:3)
Flag of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha 1826-1911; Ratio (2:3)
Flag of the Kingdom of Saxony; Ratio (2:3)
↑ Civil flag or Landesfarben of the Habsburg monarchy (1700-1806)
↑ Merchant ensign of the Habsburg monarchy (from 1730 to 1750)
↑ Flag of the Austrian Empire (1804-1867)
↑ Civil flag used in Cisleithania part of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918)
House colours of the House of Habsburg
Flag of Portugal, land use (1830-1910).
Flag of Portugal, land use (1830-1910).
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Flag of Russia
Flag of the Kingdom of Württemberg; Ratio (3:5)
Flag of the duchy of Saxe-Coburg & Gotha 1826-1911; Ratio (2:3)
Flag of the Duchy of Anhalt and also flag of Augsburg
Flag of the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Mecklenburg-Schwerin; Ratio (2:3)
Flag of the Kingdom of Greece (1863-1924; 1935-1973).
Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine
Portrait of Elizaveta Fedorovna of Russia
Swedish merchant flag 1844-1905
Flag of the Grand Duchy of Hesse without arms; Ratio (4:5)
Príncipe Frederico de Hesse
Flag of Norway In 1844 a union badge combining Norwegian and Swedish colors was placed at the hoist of both countries' flags. The badge was popularly called Sildesalaten ("the herring salad") from its resemblance to a herring salad. Initially, the union flag was popular in Norway, since it clearly denoted the equal status of the two united states. But as the union with Sweden became increasingly less popular, the Norwegian parliament abolished the union badge from the national (merchant) and state flags in 1899. At the dissolution of the union in 1905, the badge was removed from the navy flag as well. Sweden kept it in all flags until 1905.
Flag of the duchy of Brunswick; Ratio (2:3)
Princess Marie of Hesse and by Rhine in 1878
Ernst Lodewijk van Hessen