List of states and territories of the United States

A map of the United States showing its 50 states, federal district and five inhabited territories. Note that Alaska, Hawaii, and territories are shown at different scales and that the Aleutian Islands and the uninhabited northwestern Hawaiian Islands are omitted from this map.

The United States of America is a federal republic[1] consisting of 50 states, a federal district (Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States), five major territories, and various minor islands.[2][3] The 48 contiguous states and Washington, D.C., are in North America between Canada and Mexico. Alaska is an exclave in the far northwestern part of North America, connected only to Canada, and Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. Territories of the United States are scattered throughout the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

According to the numerous decisions of the United States Supreme Court, the 50 individual states and the United States as a whole are each sovereign jurisdictions.[4] The states are not administrative divisions of the country; the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution allows states to exercise all powers of government not delegated to the federal government. These include regulating intrastate commerce, running elections, creating local governments, and ratifying constitutional amendments. Each state has its own constitution, grounded in republican principles, and government, consisting of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.[5] All states and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each state is represented by two senators, while representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census.[6] Additionally, each state is entitled to select a number of electors to vote in the Electoral College, the body that elects the president of the United States, equal to the total of representatives and senators in Congress from that state.[7] Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1 of the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to the current total of 50, and each new state is admitted on an equal footing with the existing states.[8]

As provided by Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, Congress exercises "exclusive jurisdiction" over the federal district, which is not part of any state. Prior to passage of the 1973 District of Columbia Home Rule Act, which devolved certain Congressional powers to an elected mayor and council, the district did not have an elected local government. Even so, Congress retains the right to review and overturn laws created by the council and intervene in local affairs.[9] As it is not a state, the district does not have representation in the Senate. However, since 1971, its residents have been represented in the House of Representatives by a non-voting delegate.[10] Additionally, since 1961, following ratification of the 23rd Amendment, the district has been entitled to select three electors to vote in the Electoral College.

In addition to the 50 states and federal district, the United States has sovereignty over 14 territories. Five of them (American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) have a permanent, nonmilitary population, while nine of them do not. With the exception of Navassa Island, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, which are located in the Caribbean, all territories are located in the Pacific Ocean. One territory, Palmyra Atoll, is considered to be incorporated, meaning the full body of the Constitution has been applied to it; the other territories are unincorporated, meaning the Constitution does not fully apply to them. Ten territories (the Minor Outlying Islands and American Samoa) are considered to be unorganized, meaning they have not had an Organic Act enacted by Congress; the four other territories are organized, meaning they have had an Organic Act that has been enacted by Congress. The five inhabited territories each have limited autonomy and a non-voting delegate in Congress, in addition to having territorial legislatures and governors, but residents cannot vote in federal elections.

States

The table below lists the 50 states, with their current capital, largest city,[A] the date they ratified the U.S. Constitution or were admitted to the Union, population and area data, and number of representative(s) in the U.S. House of Representatives.[B]

States of the United States of America
Flag, name and
postal abbreviation[13]
CitiesRatification or
admission[C]
Population
[15]
Total area[16]Land area[16]Water area[16]Number
of Reps.
CapitalLargest[17]mi2km2mi2km2mi2km2
 AlabamaALMontgomeryHuntsvilleDec 14, 1819
5,024,279
52,420135,76750,645131,1711,7754,597
7
 AlaskaAKJuneauAnchorageJan 3, 1959
733,391
665,3841,723,337570,6411,477,95394,743245,384
1
 ArizonaAZPhoenixFeb 14, 1912
7,151,502
113,990295,234113,594294,2073961,026
9
 ArkansasARLittle RockJun 15, 1836
3,011,524
53,179137,73252,035134,7711,1432,961
4
 CaliforniaCASacramentoLos AngelesSep 9, 1850
39,538,223
163,695423,967155,779403,4667,91620,501
53
 ColoradoCODenverAug 1, 1876
5,773,714
104,094269,601103,642268,4314521,170
7
 ConnecticutCTHartfordBridgeportJan 9, 1788
3,605,944
5,54314,3574,84212,5427011,816
5
 DelawareDEDoverWilmingtonDec 7, 1787
989,948
2,4896,4461,9495,0475401,399
1
 FloridaFLTallahasseeJacksonvilleMar 3, 1845
21,538,187
65,758170,31253,625138,88712,13331,424
27
 GeorgiaGAAtlantaJan 2, 1788
10,711,908
59,425153,91057,513148,9591,9124,951
14
 HawaiiHIHonoluluAug 21, 1959
1,455,271
10,93228,3136,42316,6354,50911,678
2
 IdahoIDBoiseJul 3, 1890
1,839,106
83,569216,44382,643214,0459262,398
2
 IllinoisILSpringfieldChicagoDec 3, 1818
12,812,508
57,914149,99555,519143,7932,3956,202
18
 IndianaINIndianapolisDec 11, 1816
6,785,528
36,42094,32635,82692,7895931,537
9
 IowaIADes MoinesDec 28, 1846
3,190,369
56,273145,74655,857144,6694161,077
4
 KansasKSTopekaWichitaJan 29, 1861
2,937,880
82,278213,10081,759211,7545201,346
4
 Kentucky[D]KYFrankfortLouisvilleJun 1, 1792
4,505,836
40,408104,65639,486102,2699212,387
6
 LouisianaLABaton RougeNew OrleansApr 30, 1812
4,657,757
52,378135,65943,204111,8989,17423,761
6
 MaineMEAugustaPortlandMar 15, 1820
1,362,359
35,38091,63330,84379,8834,53711,750
2
 MarylandMDAnnapolisBaltimoreApr 28, 1788
6,177,224
12,40632,1319,70725,1422,6996,990
8
 Massachusetts[D]MABostonFeb 6, 1788
7,029,917
10,55427,3367,80020,2022,7547,134
9
 MichiganMILansingDetroitJan 26, 1837
10,077,331
96,714250,48756,539146,43540,175104,052
14
 MinnesotaMNSt. PaulMinneapolisMay 11, 1858
5,706,494
86,936225,16379,627206,2327,30918,930
8
 MississippiMSJacksonDec 10, 1817
2,961,279
48,432125,43846,923121,5311,5083,907
4
 MissouriMOJefferson CityKansas CityAug 10, 1821
6,154,913
69,707180,54068,742178,0409652,501
8
 MontanaMTHelenaBillingsNov 8, 1889
1,084,225
147,040380,831145,546376,9621,4943,869
1
 NebraskaNELincolnOmahaMar 1, 1867
1,961,504
77,348200,33076,824198,9745241,356
3
 NevadaNVCarson CityLas VegasOct 31, 1864
3,104,614
110,572286,380109,781284,3327912,048
4
 New HampshireNHConcordManchesterJun 21, 1788
1,377,529
9,34924,2148,95323,1873971,027
2
 New JerseyNJTrentonNewarkDec 18, 1787
9,288,994
8,72322,5917,35419,0471,3683,544
12
 New MexicoNMSanta FeAlbuquerqueJan 6, 1912
2,117,522
121,590314,917121,298314,161292757
3
 New YorkNYAlbanyNew York CityJul 26, 1788
20,201,249
54,555141,29747,126122,0577,42919,240
27
 North CarolinaNCRaleighCharlotteNov 21, 1789
10,439,388
53,819139,39148,618125,9205,20113,471
13
 North DakotaNDBismarckFargoNov 2, 1889
779,094
70,698183,10869,001178,7111,6984,397
1
 OhioOHColumbusMar 1, 1803
11,799,448
44,826116,09840,861105,8293,96510,269
16
 OklahomaOKOklahoma CityNov 16, 1907
3,959,353
69,899181,03768,595177,6601,3043,377
5
 OregonORSalemPortlandFeb 14, 1859
4,237,256
98,379254,79995,988248,6082,3916,191
5
 Pennsylvania[D]PAHarrisburgPhiladelphiaDec 12, 1787
13,002,700
46,054119,28044,743115,8831,3123,397
18
 Rhode IslandRIProvidenceMay 29, 1790
1,097,379
1,5454,0011,0342,6785111,324
2
 South CarolinaSCColumbiaCharlestonMay 23, 1788
5,118,425
32,02082,93330,06177,8571,9605,076
7
 South DakotaSDPierreSioux FallsNov 2, 1889
886,667
77,116199,72975,811196,3501,3053,379
1
 TennesseeTNNashvilleJun 1, 1796
6,910,840
42,144109,15341,235106,7989092,355
9
 TexasTXAustinHoustonDec 29, 1845
29,145,505
268,596695,662261,232676,5877,36519,075
36
 UtahUTSalt Lake CityJan 4, 1896
3,271,616
84,897219,88282,170212,8182,7277,064
4
 VermontVTMontpelierBurlingtonMar 4, 1791
643,077
9,61624,9069,21723,8714001,035
1
 Virginia[D]VARichmondVirginia BeachJun 25, 1788
8,631,393
42,775110,78739,490102,2793,2858,508
11
 WashingtonWAOlympiaSeattleNov 11, 1889
7,705,281
71,298184,66166,456172,1194,84212,542
10
 West VirginiaWVCharlestonJun 20, 1863
1,793,716
24,23062,75624,03862,259192497
3
 WisconsinWIMadisonMilwaukeeMay 29, 1848
5,893,718
65,496169,63554,158140,26811,33929,367
8
 WyomingWYCheyenneJul 10, 1890
576,851
97,813253,33597,093251,4707201,864
1

Federal district

Federal district of the United States
Name and
postal abbreviation[13]
EstablishedPopulation
[15]
Total area[16]Land area[16]Water area[16]Number
of Reps.
mi2km2mi2km2mi2km2
 District of ColumbiaDCJul 16, 1790[18]689,5456817661158718

Territories

This list does not include Indian reservations which have limited tribal sovereignty, nor Freely Associated States which participate in some U.S. government programs but are not under U.S. sovereignty.

  States and federal district        Inhabited territories        Uninhabited territories

Inhabited territories

Inhabited territories of the United States
Name and
postal abbreviation[13]
CapitalAcquired
[20]
Territorial status[21]Population[15][22]Total area[16]Land area[16]Water area[16]Number
of Reps.
mi2km2mi2km2mi2km2
 American SamoaASPago Pago[23]1900
Unincorporated, unorganized[F]
49,710
5811,505761985051,307
 GuamGUHagåtña[25]1899
Unincorporated, organized
153,836
5711,478210543361935
 Northern Mariana IslandsMPSaipan[26]1986
Unincorporated, organized[G]
47,329
1,9765,1171824721,7934,644
 Puerto RicoPRSan Juan[27]1899
Unincorporated, organized[G]
3,285,874
5,32513,7913,4248,8681,9014,924
 U.S. Virgin IslandsVICharlotte Amalie[28]1917
Unincorporated, organized
87,146
7331,8981343485991,550

Uninhabited territories

Territories of the United States with no indigenous population
NameAcquired[20]Territorial status[21]Land area[I]
mi2km2
Baker Island[29]1856
Unincorporated; unorganized
0.92.2
Howland Island[29]1858
Unincorporated, unorganized
0.61.6
Jarvis Island[30]1856
Unincorporated, unorganized
2.25.7
Johnston Atoll[31]1859
Unincorporated, unorganized
12.6
Kingman Reef[32]1860
Unincorporated, unorganized
0.0050.01
Midway Atoll[J][34]1867
Unincorporated, unorganized
37.8
Navassa Island[35]1858[K]
Unincorporated, unorganized
37.8
Palmyra Atoll[L][37]1898
Incorporated, unorganized
1.53.9
Wake Island[M][38]1899[N]
Unincorporated, unorganized
2.56.5

Disputed territories

Territories claimed but not administered by the United States
NameClaimed
[20]
Territorial status[40]AreaAdministered by[40]Also claimed by[40]
mi2km2
Bajo Nuevo Bank (Petrel Island)[20]1869
Unincorporated, unorganized
(disputed sovereignty)
56145[O][41] Colombia Jamaica
 Nicaragua
Serranilla Bank[20]1880
Unincorporated, unorganized
(disputed sovereignty)
4631,200[P][42] Colombia Honduras
 Nicaragua

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ The largest city is the city in a state with the largest population in the city proper (as opposed to metropolitan area).
  2. ^ Each state is entitled to at least one representative. Current federal law sets the number of voting members of the House of Representatives at 435, which are apportioned among states every ten years according to their relative population.[11] Each state is also entitled to two senators.[12]
  3. ^ The original 13 states became sovereign in July 1776 upon agreeing to the United States Declaration of Independence, and each joined the first Union of states between 1777 and 1781, upon ratifying the Articles of Confederation.[14] These states are presented in the order in which each ratified the 1787 Constitution, thus joining the present federal Union of states. Subsequent states are listed in the order of their admission to the Union, and the date given is the official establishment date set by Act of Congress. For further details, see List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
  4. ^ a b c d Uses the term commonwealth rather than state in its full official name
  5. ^ a b c d e Represented by a non-voting delegate in the House of Representatives.[19]
  6. ^ Although not organized through a federal organic act or other explicit Congressional directive on governance, the people of American Samoa adopted a constitution in 1967, and then in 1977, elected territorial officials for the first time.[24]
  7. ^ a b Organized as a commonwealth.
  8. ^ Represented by a non-voting resident commissioner in the House of Representatives.[19]
  9. ^ Excluding lagoon
  10. ^ Although there are no indigenous inhabitants, around 40 United States Fish and Wildlife Service staff and service contractors live on the island at any given time.[33]
  11. ^ U.S. sovereignty is disputed by Haiti.[36]
  12. ^ Although there are no indigenous inhabitants, between four and 20 Nature Conservancy, employees, United States Fish and Wildlife Service staff, and researchers live on the island at any given time.[33]
  13. ^ Although there are no indigenous inhabitants, as of 2009, around 150 U.S. 150 U.S. military personnel and civilian contractors were living on the island, staffing the Wake Island Airfield and communications facilities.[38]
  14. ^ U.S. sovereignty is disputed by the Republic of Marshall Islands.[39]
  15. ^ This is the approximate figure for the land area of the bank, and does not include the surrounding territorial waters.
  16. ^ This figure includes the total land area of the Serranilla Bank and the water area of its lagoon, but not the surrounding territorial waters.

References

  1. ^ Onuf, Peter S. (1983). The Origins of the Federal Republic: Jurisdictional Controversies in the United States, 1775–1787. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1167-2.
  2. ^ "Common Core Document of the United States of America: Submitted With the Fourth Periodic Report of the United States of America to the United Nations Committee on Human Rights concerning the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights". U.S. Department of State, via The Office of Website Management, Bureau of Public Affairs. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  3. ^ "U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution" (PDF). Government Accountability Office. November 1997. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
  4. ^ Radan, 2007, p. 12
  5. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions About the Minnesota Legislature". Minnesota State Legislature. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
  6. ^ Burnett, Kristin D. "Congressional Apportionment (2010 Census Briefs C2010BR-08)" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 19, 2011.
  7. ^ Elhauge, Einer R. "Essays on Article II: Presidential Electors". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on July 24, 2017. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  8. ^ "Doctrine of the Equality of States". Justia Law. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  9. ^ "DC Home Rule". Council of the District of Columbia. Archived from the original on November 17, 2011.
  10. ^ Tarr, David R.; Benenson, Bob, eds. (2012). Elections A to Z (4th ed.). Sage Publications. p. 165. ISBN 9780872897694. Archived from the original on May 27, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
  11. ^ "The Permanent Apportionment Act of 1929: June 11, 1929". Washington, D.C.: Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Archived from the original on January 30, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  12. ^ "The Senate and the United States Constitution". www.senate.gov. Washington, D.C.: Secretary of the Senate. Archived from the original on January 19, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  13. ^ a b c "Appendix B: Two–Letter State and possession Abbreviations". Postal Addressing Standards. Washington, D.C.: United States Postal Service. May 2015. Archived from the original on March 5, 2018. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  14. ^ Jensen, Merrill (1959). The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774–1781. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. xi, 184. ISBN 978-0-299-00204-6.
  15. ^ a b c "RESIDENT POPULATION FOR THE 50 STATES, THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AND PUERTO RICO: 2020 CENSUS" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 16, 2018. Retrieved March 3, 2018. ... provides land, water and total area measurements for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and the Island Areas. The area measurements were derived from the Census Bureau's Master Address File/Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) database. The land and water areas, ... reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER database through August, 2010.
  17. ^ "State and Local Government Finances and Employment" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 2012. p. 284. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 17, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
  18. ^ "The History of Washington, DC". Destination DC. March 15, 2016. Archived from the original on March 6, 2018. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  19. ^ a b "Directory of Representatives". Washington, D.C.: U.S. House of Representatives. Archived from the original on March 5, 2018. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
  20. ^ a b c d e "Acquisition Process of Insular Areas". Office of Insular Affairs. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2013.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  21. ^ a b "Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior. June 12, 2015. Archived from the original on July 13, 2018. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  22. ^ 2020 Population of U.S. Island Areas Just Under 339,000, U.S. Census Bureau, October 28, 2021.
  23. ^ "American Samoa". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  24. ^ "Islands We Serve: American Samoa". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior. June 11, 2015. Archived from the original on March 9, 2018. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  25. ^ "Guam". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  26. ^ "Northern Mariana Islands". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  27. ^ "Puerto Rico". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  28. ^ "Virgin Islands". The World Factbook. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  29. ^ a b "Baker Island". Office of Insular Affairs. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  30. ^ "Jarvis Island". Office of Insular Affairs. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  31. ^ "Johnston Island". Office of Insular Affairs. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  32. ^ "Kingman Reef National Wildlife Refuge". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  33. ^ a b "United States Pacific Islands Wildlife Refuges". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
  34. ^ "Midway Atoll". Office of Insular Affairs. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  35. ^ "Navassa Island". Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior. June 12, 2015. Archived from the original on August 15, 2016. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
  36. ^ Colon, Yves (September 25, 1998). "U.S., Haiti Squabble Over Control of Tiny Island". Miami Herald. Webster University. Archived from the original on August 30, 2016. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
  37. ^ "Palmyra Atoll". Office of Insular Affairs. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  38. ^ a b "Wake Island". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
  39. ^ Earnshaw, Karen (December 17, 2016). "Enen Kio (a.k.a. Wake Island): Island of the kio flower". Marshall Islands Guide. Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Archived from the original on April 1, 2018. Retrieved March 4, 2018.
  40. ^ a b c Lewis, Martin W. (March 21, 2011). "When Is an Island Not An Island? Caribbean Maritime Disputes". GeoCurrents. Archived from the original on April 22, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  41. ^ "US Minor Outlying Islands – Bajo Nuevo Bank". Geocaching. June 6, 2017. Archived from the original on July 11, 2015. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  42. ^ "Cayo Serranilla" (in Spanish). Eco Fiwi. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2017.

External links

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Flag of California. This version is designed to accurately depict the standard print of the bear as well as adhere to the official flag code regarding the size, position and proportion of the bear, the colors of the flag, and the position and size of the star.
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The state flag of Mississippi, created in 2020 and adopted in 2021. Known as the "New Magnolia", it was the final design selected by the Commission to Redesign the Mississippi State Flag in 2020.
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Flag of the State of Nevada. The flag is described in Nevada Revised Statutes Chapter 235, Sec. 20 as follows: The body of the flag must be of solid cobalt blue. On the field in the upper left quarter thereof must be two sprays of Sagebrush with the stems crossed at the bottom to form a half wreath. Within the sprays must be a five-pointed silver star with one point up. The word “Nevada” must also be inscribed below the star and above the sprays, in a semicircular pattern with the letters spaced apart in equal increments, in the same style of letters as the words “Battle Born.” Above the wreath, and touching the tips thereof, must be a scroll bearing the words “Battle Born.” The scroll and the word “Nevada” must be golden-yellow. The lettering on the scroll must be black-colored sans serif gothic capital letters.
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The flag of the U.S. state of Ohio, officially known as the "Ohio Burgee"
Flag of Oklahoma.svg
Flag of Oklahoma, adopted in November 2006.
Flag of Oregon.svg
Flag of Oregon (obverse): The flag was adopted by the state on February 26, 1925.[1] The state seal was decided in 1903.[2][3]
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Flag of Utah. Please do not revert to the "21:58, July 26, 2011" or any earlier version, as those versions are factually inaccurate.
Flag of Guam.svg
The flag of Guam, courtesy an e-mail from the author of xrmap. Modifications by Denelson83.
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Flag of Jamaica.svg
Flag of Jamaica. “The sunshine, the land is green, and the people are strong and bold” is the symbolism of the colours of the flag. GOLD represents the natural wealth and beauty of sunlight; GREEN represents hope and agricultural resources; BLACK represents the strength and creativity of the people. The original symbolism, however, was "Hardships there are, but the land is green, and the sun shineth", where BLACK represented the hardships being faced.
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North America (orthographic projection)
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Orthographic map of the Americas with national borders added
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Map of the United States — the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the 5 major territories
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Insular areas of the United States
  Inhabited territories
  Uninhabited territories
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The greater coat of arms of the United States of America, as depicted on passports, embassies and the Great Seal.