List of sovereign states

A long row of flags
Flags of the United Nations member and non-member GA observer states in front of the Palace of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland

The following is a list providing an overview of sovereign states around the world with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

The 208 listed states can be divided into three categories based on membership within the United Nations System: 193 UN member states,[1] 2 UN observer states, and 13 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states having undisputed sovereignty (188 states, of which there are 187 UN member states and 1 UN observer state), states having disputed sovereignty (18 states, of which there are 6 UN member states, 1 UN observer state, and 11 de facto states), and states having a special political status (2 states, both in free association with New Zealand).

Compiling a list such as this can be a complicated and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognised as having de facto status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.

Criteria for inclusion

The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood, which was codified by the Montevideo Convention of 1933. The Convention defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states" so long as it was not "obtained by force whether this consists in the employment of arms, in threatening diplomatic representations, or in any other effective coercive measure".[2]

Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all polities that consider themselves sovereign states (through a declaration of independence or some other means) and either:

  • are often regarded as satisfying the declarative theory of statehood, or
  • are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member state

Note that in some cases, there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed. Unique political entities which fail to meet the classification of a sovereign state are considered proto-states.[3][4]

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 208 entities:[5][a]

  • 205 states recognised by at least one UN member state
  • Two states that satisfy the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised only by non-UN member states: Artsakh and Transnistria
  • One state that satisfies the declarative theory of statehood and is not recognised by any other state: Somaliland

The table includes bullets representing entities which are either not sovereign states or have a close association to another sovereign state. It also includes subnational areas where the sovereignty of the titular state is limited by an international agreement. Taken together, these include:

  • States in a free association relationship to another state
  • Two entities controlled by Pakistan which are neither sovereign states, dependent territories, or part of another state: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan
  • Dependent territories of another state, as well as areas that exhibit many characteristics of dependent territories according to the dependent territory page
  • Subnational entities created by international agreements

List of states

Common and formal namesMembership within the UN System[b]Sovereignty dispute[c]Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty[e]
A AAAA AAAA AAA
ZZZUN member states and General Assembly observer statesA AAAZZZ
ZZZAbkhazia → See Abkhazia listing
 AfghanistanA UN member stateA NoneThe de facto ruling government, the  Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, has not been recognised by any state. The United Nations continues to recognise the  Islamic Republic of Afghanistan as the government of Afghanistan.[6][7]
 Albania – Republic of AlbaniaA UN member stateA None
 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of AlgeriaA UN member stateA None
 Andorra – Principality of AndorraA UN member stateA NoneAndorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell,[8] who himself is appointed with approval from the Holy See.
 Angola – Republic of AngolaA UN member stateA None
 Antigua and BarbudaA UN member stateA NoneAntigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[f] with one autonomous region, Barbuda.[g]
 Argentina – Argentine Republic[h]A UN member stateA NoneArgentina is a federation of 23 provinces and one autonomous city.[i]
 Armenia – Republic of ArmeniaA UN member stateNot recognised by Pakistan.Armenia is not recognised by Pakistan due to the dispute over Artsakh.[11][12][13]
ZZZArtsakh → See Artsakh listing
 Australia – Commonwealth of AustraliaA UN member stateA NoneAustralia is a Commonwealth realm[f] and a federation of both states and territories. There are six states, three internal territories, six external territories and one claimed Antarctic external territory. The external territories of Australia are:
 Austria – Republic of AustriaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the European Union.[d] Austria is a federation of nine states.
 Azerbaijan – Republic of AzerbaijanA UN member stateA NoneAzerbaijan contains one autonomous region, Nakhchivan [g] The de facto state of Artsakh has been established in the southwest of Azerbaijan.
 Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of The Bahamas[15]A UN member stateA NoneThe Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[f]
 Bahrain – Kingdom of BahrainA UN member stateA None
 Bangladesh – People's Republic of BangladeshA UN member stateA None
 BarbadosA UN member stateA None
 Belarus – Republic of BelarusA UN member stateA NoneMany states rescinded their recognition of President Alexander Lukashenko following the disputed 2020 election. Lithuania currently recognizes Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya's Coordination Council as the legitimate government of Belarus.[16]
 Belgium – Kingdom of BelgiumA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d] Belgium is a federation of three linguistic communities and three regions.
 BelizeA UN member stateA NoneBelize is a Commonwealth realm.[f]
 Benin – Republic of BeninA UN member stateA None
 Bhutan – Kingdom of BhutanA UN member stateA None
 Bolivia – Plurinational State of BoliviaA UN member stateA None
 Bosnia and HerzegovinaA UN member stateA NoneBosnia and Herzegovina has two constituent entities:

and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative district.[17]

 Botswana – Republic of BotswanaA UN member stateA None
 Brazil – Federative Republic of BrazilA UN member stateA NoneBrazil is a federation of 26 states and one federal district.
 Brunei – Nation of Brunei, the Abode of PeaceA UN member stateA None
 Bulgaria – Republic of BulgariaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
 Burkina FasoA UN member stateA None
ZZZBurma → See Myanmar listing
 Burundi – Republic of BurundiA UN member stateA None
 Cambodia – Kingdom of CambodiaA UN member stateA None
 Cameroon – Republic of CameroonA UN member stateA None
 Canada[j]A UN member stateA NoneCanada is a Commonwealth realm[f] and a federation of ten provinces and three territories.
 Cape Verde – Republic of Cabo Verde[k]A UN member stateA None
 Central African RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Chad – Republic of ChadA UN member stateA None
 Chile – Republic of ChileA UN member stateA None[l]
 China – People's Republic of China[m]A UN member statePartially unrecognised. BClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine China contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Tibet, and Xinjiang.[g] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

China claims, but does not control Taiwan, which is governed by a rival administration (the Republic of China) that claims all of China as its territory.[n]

China is not recognised by 14 UN member states and Vatican City, which, with the exception of Bhutan, all recognise the Republic of China (Taiwan) instead.[o]

ZZZChina, Republic of → See Taiwan listing
 Colombia – Republic of ColombiaA UN member stateA None
 Comoros – Union of the ComorosA UN member stateA NoneComoros is a federation of three islands.[p]
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the[q]A UN member stateA None
 Congo, Republic of the[r]A UN member stateA None
ZZZCook Islands → See Cook Islands listing
 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa RicaA UN member stateA None
ZZZCôte d'Ivoire → See Ivory Coast listing
 Croatia – Republic of CroatiaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
 Cuba – Republic of CubaA UN member stateA None
 Cyprus – Republic of CyprusA UN member stateNot recognised by Turkey[20]Member of the EU.[d] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus.

Cyprus is not recognised by Turkey due to the Cyprus dispute, with Turkey recognising Northern Cyprus.

 Czech Republic[s]A UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
ZZZDemocratic People's Republic of Korea → See Korea, North listing
ZZZDemocratic Republic of the Congo → See Congo, Democratic Republic of the listing
 Denmark, Kingdom ofA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d] The Kingdom of Denmark includes three areas with substantial autonomy:

The metropolitan territory of Denmark, the Faroe Islands and Greenland form the three constituent countries of the Kingdom.[t] The Kingdom of Denmark as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law (in most cases) does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland. See Greenland and the European Union, and Faroe Islands and the European Union for more information.[21][22]

 Djibouti – Republic of DjiboutiA UN member stateA None
 Dominica – Commonwealth of DominicaA UN member stateA None
 Dominican RepublicA UN member stateA None
ZZZDonetsk People's Republic → See Donetsk People's Republic listing
 East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[u]A UN member stateA None
 Ecuador – Republic of EcuadorA UN member stateA None
 Egypt – Arab Republic of EgyptA UN member stateA None
 El Salvador – Republic of El SalvadorA UN member stateA None
 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial GuineaA UN member stateA None
 Eritrea – State of EritreaA UN member stateA None
 Estonia – Republic of EstoniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
 Eswatini – Kingdom of Eswatini[v]A UN member stateA None
 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of EthiopiaA UN member stateA NoneEthiopia is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.
 Fiji – Republic of FijiA UN member stateA NoneFiji contains one autonomous region, Rotuma.[g][23][24]
 Finland – Republic of FinlandA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
  •  Åland is a neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland.[g][w]
 France – French RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d] France contains five overseas regions/departments; French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:
 Gabon – Gabonese RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Gambia, The – Republic of The Gambia[25]A UN member stateA None
 GeorgiaA UN member stateA NoneGeorgia contains two autonomous republics, Adjara and Abkhazia.[g] The latter is under the de facto control of Abkhazia, in South Ossetia de facto state has been formed.
 Germany – Federal Republic of GermanyA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d] Germany is a federation of 16 states.
 Ghana – Republic of GhanaA UN member stateA None
 Greece – Hellenic RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d] Greece contains one autonomous area, Mount Athos.[26]
 GrenadaA UN member stateA NoneGrenada is a Commonwealth realm.[f]
 Guatemala – Republic of GuatemalaA UN member stateA None
 Guinea – Republic of Guinea[y]A UN member stateA None
 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-BissauA UN member stateA None
 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of GuyanaA UN member stateA None
 Haiti – Republic of HaitiA UN member stateA None
ZZZHoly See → See Vatican City listing
 Honduras – Republic of HondurasA UN member stateA None
 HungaryA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
 Iceland[z] – Republic of IcelandA UN member stateA None
 India – Republic of IndiaA UN member stateA NoneIndia is a federation of 28 states and eight union territories.
 Indonesia – Republic of IndonesiaA UN member stateA NoneIndonesia has five autonomous provinces, Aceh, Jakarta, Papua, West Papua, and Yogyakarta.[g]
 Iran – Islamic Republic of IranA UN member stateA None
 Iraq – Republic of IraqA UN member stateA NoneIraq is a federation[p][30] of 19 governorates, four of which make up the autonomous Kurdistan Region.[g]
 Ireland[aa]A UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
 Israel – State of IsraelA UN member statePartially unrecognisedIsrael exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine. It has annexed East Jerusalem,[32] an act not recognised by the international community.[33] Israel has varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although it ended its permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, it is still considered to be the occupying power under international law.[34][35][36][37]

Israel is not recognised as a state by 28 UN members and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The Palestine Liberation Organization, recognised by a majority of UN member states as the representative of the Palestinian people, recognised Israel in 1993.

 Italy – Italian RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[g]
 Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire[ab]A UN member stateA None
 JamaicaA UN member stateA NoneJamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[f]
 JapanA UN member stateA None
 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of JordanA UN member stateA None
 Kazakhstan – Republic of KazakhstanA UN member stateA None
 Kenya – Republic of KenyaA UN member stateA None
 Kiribati – Republic of KiribatiA UN member stateA None
 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of KoreaA UN member stateBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine North Korea is not recognised by three UN members, France, Japan, and South Korea, the last of which claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.[38]
 Korea, South – Republic of KoreaA UN member stateBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine South Korea has one autonomous region, Jejudo.[g][39]

South Korea is not recognised by North Korea, which claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

ZZZKosovo → See Kosovo listing
 Kuwait – State of KuwaitA UN member stateA None
 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Laos – Lao People's Democratic RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Latvia – Republic of LatviaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
 Lebanon – Lebanese RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Lesotho – Kingdom of LesothoA UN member stateA None
 Liberia – Republic of LiberiaA UN member stateA None
 Libya – State of LibyaA UN member stateA None
 Liechtenstein – Principality of LiechtensteinA UN member stateA None
 Lithuania – Republic of LithuaniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
ZZZLuhansk People's Republic → See Luhansk People's Republic listing
 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of LuxembourgA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
ZZZMacedonia → See North Macedonia listing
 Madagascar – Republic of MadagascarA UN member stateA None
 Malawi – Republic of MalawiA UN member stateA None
 Malaysia – Federation of MalaysiaA UN member stateA NoneMalaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
 Maldives – Republic of MaldivesA UN member stateA None
 Mali – Republic of MaliA UN member stateA None
 Malta – Republic of MaltaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall IslandsA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of MauritaniaA UN member stateA None
 Mauritius – Republic of MauritiusA UN member stateA NoneMauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[g]
 Mexico – United Mexican StatesA UN member stateA NoneMexico is a federation of 31 states and one autonomous city.

The Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities have de facto autonomy.

 Micronesia, Federated States ofA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of four states.
 Moldova – Republic of MoldovaA UN member stateA NoneMoldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and the Left Bank of the Dniester. The latter and a city, Bender (Tighina), is under the de facto control of Transnistria.
 Monaco – Principality of MonacoA UN member stateA None
 MongoliaA UN member stateA None
 MontenegroA UN member stateA None
 Morocco – Kingdom of MoroccoA UN member stateA NonePart of the Moroccan-claimed Western Sahara is controlled by the partially recognised Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
 Mozambique – Republic of MozambiqueA UN member stateA None
 Myanmar – Republic of the Union of Myanmar[ac]A UN member stateA NoneWa State is a de facto autonomous state within Myanmar. The United Nations has not recognized the de facto ruling government of Myanmar, the State Administration Council.[7]
ZZZNagorno-Karabakh → See Artsakh listing
 Namibia – Republic of NamibiaA UN member stateA None
 Nauru – Republic of NauruA UN member stateA None
   Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of NepalA UN member stateA NoneNepal is a federation composed of 7 provinces.
 Netherlands, Kingdom of theA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d] The Kingdom of the Netherlands includes four areas with substantial autonomy:

Metropolitan Netherlands, Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten form the four constituent countries of the Kingdom. Three overseas parts of the Netherlands (Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatius) are special municipalities of metropolitan Netherlands.[ad] The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law only wholly applies to parts within Europe.

 New ZealandA UN member stateA NoneNew Zealand is a Commonwealth realm,[f] and has one dependent territory and one claimed Antarctic dependent territory:

The New Zealand Government acts for the entire Realm of New Zealand in all international contexts, which has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 49 and 18 UN members respectively.[40][41] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[42] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

 Nicaragua – Republic of NicaraguaA UN member stateA NoneNicaragua contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[g]
 Niger – Republic of the NigerA UN member stateA None
 Nigeria – Federal Republic of NigeriaA UN member stateA NoneNigeria is a federation of 36 states and one federal territory.
ZZZNiue → See Niue listing
ZZZNorth Korea → See Korea, North listing
 North Macedonia – Republic of North Macedonia[ae]A UN member stateA None
ZZZNorthern Cyprus → See Northern Cyprus listing
 Norway – Kingdom of NorwayA UN member stateA NoneNorway has two unincorporated areas in Europe:
  •  Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Svalbard Treaty.
  •  Jan Mayen is an uninhabited island that is an integral part of Norway, although unincorporated.

Norway has one dependent territory and two claimed Antarctic dependent territories in the Southern Hemisphere:

 Oman – Sultanate of OmanA UN member stateA None
 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of PakistanA UN member stateA NonePakistan is a federation of four provinces and one capital territory. Pakistan exercises control over certain portions of Kashmir, but has not officially annexed any of it,[43][44] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[45][46] The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan proper:

Azad Kashmir describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government.[47][48][49] These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign, as they do not fulfil the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defence) are performed by Pakistan.[48][50][51]

 Palau – Republic of PalauA UN member stateA NoneUnder Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 State of Palestine – State of PalestineA UN General Assembly observer state; member of 2 UN specialized agenciesPartially unrecognised.The State of Palestine, declared in 1988, is not recognised as a state by Israel but has received diplomatic recognition from 138 states.[52] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control over much of the territory that it proclaimed.[53] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.[54] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO,[55] UNIDO and other international organizations.[56]
 Panama – Republic of PanamaA UN member stateA None
 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New GuineaA UN member stateA NonePapua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[f] with one autonomous region, Bougainville.[g]
 Paraguay – Republic of ParaguayA UN member stateA None
 Peru – Republic of PeruA UN member stateA None
 Philippines – Republic of the PhilippinesA UN member stateA NoneThe Philippines contains one autonomous region, Bangsamoro.[g]
 Poland – Republic of PolandA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
 Portugal – Portuguese RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d] Portugal contains two autonomous regions, the Azores and Madeira.[g]
ZZZPridnestrovie → See Transnistria listing
 Qatar – State of QatarA UN member stateA None
ZZZRepublic of Korea → See Korea, South listing
ZZZRepublic of the Congo → See Congo, Republic of the listing
 RomaniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
 Russia – Russian FederationA UN member stateA NoneRussia is a federation of 85 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[g]
 Rwanda – Republic of RwandaA UN member stateA None
ZZZSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → See Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic listing
 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and NevisA UN member stateA NoneSaint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[f] and is a federation[p] of two islands, St. Kitts and Nevis.
 Saint LuciaA UN member stateA NoneSaint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[f]
 Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesA UN member stateA NoneSaint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[f]
 Samoa – Independent State of SamoaA UN member stateA None
 San Marino – Republic of San MarinoA UN member stateA None
 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and PríncipeA UN member stateA NoneSão Tomé and Príncipe contains one autonomous province, Príncipe.[g]
 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaA UN member stateA None
 Senegal – Republic of SenegalA UN member stateA None
 Serbia – Republic of SerbiaA UN member stateA NoneSerbia contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[g] The latter is under the de facto control of Kosovo.
 Seychelles – Republic of SeychellesA UN member stateA None
 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra LeoneA UN member stateA None
 Singapore – Republic of SingaporeA UN member stateA None
 Slovakia – Slovak RepublicA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
 Slovenia – Republic of SloveniaA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
 Solomon IslandsA UN member stateA NoneSolomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[f]
 Somalia – Federal Republic of SomaliaA UN member stateA NoneSomalia is a federation of six states. Two, Puntland and Galmudug, have self-declared autonomy, while one, Somaliland, is de facto independent.
ZZZSomaliland → See Somaliland listing
 South Africa – Republic of South AfricaA UN member stateA None
ZZZSouth Korea → See Korea, South listing
ZZZSouth Ossetia → See South Ossetia listing
 South Sudan – Republic of South SudanA UN member stateA NoneSouth Sudan is a federation of 10 states and three administrative areas.
  • The Abyei Area is a zone with "special administrative status" established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005. It is de jure a condominium of South Sudan and Sudan, but de facto administered by two competing administrations and the United Nations.[57][58]
 Spain – Kingdom of SpainA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d] Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities and two special autonomous cities.[g][af]
 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka[ag]A UN member stateA None
 Sudan – Republic of the SudanA UN member stateA NoneSudan is a federation of 18 states.
  • The Abyei Area is a zone with "special administrative status" established by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005. It is de jure a condominium of South Sudan and Sudan, but de facto administered by two competing administrations and the United Nations.[57][58]
ZZZSudan, South → See South Sudan listing
 Suriname – Republic of SurinameA UN member stateA None
ZZZSwaziland → See Eswatini listing
 Sweden – Kingdom of SwedenA UN member stateA NoneMember of the EU.[d]
  Switzerland – Swiss ConfederationA UN member stateA NoneSwitzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
 Syria – Syrian Arab RepublicA UN member stateA NoneThe Syrian National Coalition, which is recognised as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.

Syria has one self-declared autonomous region: Rojava.

ZZZTaiwan (Republic of China) → See Taiwan listing
 Tajikistan – Republic of TajikistanA UN member stateA NoneTajikistan contains one autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[g]
 Tanzania – United Republic of TanzaniaA UN member stateA NoneTanzania contains one autonomous region, Zanzibar.[g]
 Thailand – Kingdom of ThailandA UN member stateA None
ZZZThe Bahamas → See Bahamas, The listing
ZZZThe Gambia → See Gambia, The listing
ZZZTimor-Leste → See East Timor listing
 Togo – Togolese RepublicA UN member stateA None
 Tonga – Kingdom of TongaA UN member stateA None
ZZZTransnistria → See Transnistria listing
 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and TobagoA UN member stateA NoneTrinidad and Tobago contains one autonomous region, Tobago.[g]
 Tunisia – Republic of TunisiaA UN member stateA None
 Turkey – Republic of TurkeyA UN member stateA None
 Turkmenistan – Republic of TurkmenistanA UN member stateA None
 TuvaluA UN member stateA NoneTuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[f]
 Uganda – Republic of UgandaA UN member stateA None
 UkraineA UN member stateA NoneUkraine contains one autonomous region, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea,[g] which is under the de facto control of Russia, along with neighbouring Sevastopol. Parts of the Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts are under the de facto control of Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics.
 United Arab EmiratesA UN member stateA NoneThe United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.
 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandA UN member stateA NoneThe United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[f] consisting of four constituent countries; England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following 13 overseas territories and one claimed Antarctic dependent territory:

The British monarch also has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown Dependencies:

 United States – United States of AmericaA UN member stateA NoneThe United States is a federation of 50 states, one federal district, and one incorporated territory. Additionally, the Federal government of the United States has sovereignty over 13 unincorporated territories. Of these territories, the following five are inhabited possessions:

It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:

It also disputes sovereignty over the following two territories:

Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:

 Uruguay – Oriental Republic of UruguayA UN member stateA None
 Uzbekistan – Republic of UzbekistanA UN member stateA NoneUzbekistan contains one autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[g]
 Vanuatu – Republic of VanuatuA UN member stateA None
  Vatican City – Vatican City StateA UN General Assembly observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agenciesA NoneAdministered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic relations to 183 states. This figure consists of 180 UN member states, the Cook Islands, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and the State of Palestine.[59] In addition, the European Union and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta maintain diplomatic relations with the Holy See. The Holy See is a member of three UN specialized agencies (ITU, UPU, and WIPO) and the IAEA, as well as being a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State")[54] and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.
 Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of VenezuelaA UN member stateA NoneVenezuela is a federation of 23 states, one capital district, and federal dependencies.
 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of VietnamA UN member stateA None
ZZZWestern Sahara → See Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic listing
 Yemen – Republic of YemenA UN member stateA None
 Zambia – Republic of ZambiaA UN member stateA None
 Zimbabwe – Republic of ZimbabweA UN member stateA None
ZZZUN member states and General Assembly observer statesA ZZZZZZ
ZZZABB
ZZZ↓ Other states ↓D AAAZZZ
 Abkhazia – Republic of AbkhaziaD No membershipBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Syria, Venezuela, Artsakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[60] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
 Artsakh – Republic of Artsakh[ah]D No membershipBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine A de facto independent state,[61][62][63] recognised only by Abkhazia,[64] South Ossetia[64] and Transnistria.[64][65] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[66]
 Cook IslandsD Member of eight UN specialized agenciesA None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands maintains diplomatic relations with 52 other states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[42] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Donetsk People's RepublicD No membershipBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine Recognised by Russia, South Ossetia and the Luhansk People's Republic.[67] Claimed in whole by Ukraine as part of Donetsk Oblast.
 Kosovo – Republic of KosovoD Member of two UN specialized agenciesBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo was placed under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 1999.[68] Kosovo declared independence in 2008, and it has received diplomatic recognition from 112 UN member states and the Republic of China, while 18 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.[69] Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
 Luhansk People's RepublicD No membershipBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine Recognised by Russia, South Ossetia and the Donetsk People's Republic.[67] Claimed in whole by Ukraine as part of Luhansk Oblast.
 NiueD Member of five UN specialized agenciesA None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, Niue maintains diplomatic relations with 20 other states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[42] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern CyprusD No membershipBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine Recognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[70]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicD No membershipBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine Recognised at some stage by 84 UN member states, 43 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian–African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian–African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
 Somaliland – Republic of SomalilandD No membershipBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine A de facto independent state,[61][71][72][73][74] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia.[75]
 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia–the State of AlaniaD No membershipBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine A de facto independent state,[76] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Syria, Venezuela, Abkhazia, Artsakh, and Transnistria. Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administration of South Ossetia.[77]
 Taiwan – Republic of China[m]D No membership, former membership until 1971Partially unrecognised. BClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine A state competing (nominally) for recognition with the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China (ROC) controls the island of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, and Pratas Island, as well as Taiping Island and Zhongzhou Reef of the Spratly Islands, and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[78] The ROC is recognised by 13 UN member states and the Holy See as of 9 December 2021, none of which recognise the PRC. Additionally, one UN member (Bhutan) has refrained from recognising either the ROC or the PRC.

In addition to these relations, the ROC also maintains unofficial relations[79] with 58 UN member states, one self-declared state (Somaliland), three territories (Guam, Hong Kong, and Macau), and the European Union via its representative offices and consulates under the One China principle. Taiwan has the 31st-largest diplomatic network in the world with 110 offices.[80]

The territory of the ROC is claimed in whole by the PRC.[n] The ROC participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership under the designation of "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu". The ROC was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the UN Security Council. See China and the United Nations.

 Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian RepublicD No membershipBClaimed by AfghanistanClaimed by GeorgiaClaimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Mauritius Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Claimed by Spain Claimed by Argentina Claimed by Ukraine A de facto independent state,[61] recognised only by Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia.[60] Claimed in whole by Moldova.[81]
ZZZ↑ Other states ↑D ZZZZZZ
ZZZZZZZZZZZZ

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is not included, as despite being a sovereign entity it lacks territory and does not claim statehood. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.
  2. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[1] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  3. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranational union. The EU has 27 member states.[14]
  5. ^ Information is included on:
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Commonwealth realm refers to any member state of the Commonwealth of Nations whose head of state is (currently) Queen Elizabeth II. Each realm is separate, independent, and a sovereign state; see Relationship of the realms.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see List of autonomous areas by country.[9]
  8. ^ The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  9. ^ Argentina's claimed Antarctic territory of Argentine Antarctica (Antártida Argentina) is one of five constituent departments of the province Tierra del Fuego.[10]
  10. ^ The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  11. ^ The government of Cape Verde declared "Cabo Verde" to be the official English name of the country in 2013.[18]
  12. ^ Chile's claimed Antarctic territory of the Chilean Antarctic (Antártica Chilena) is a commune of the Antártica Chilena Province of the Magallanes Region.
  13. ^ a b The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, or by another alternative name.
  14. ^ a b In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CCP established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC. In the view of the United Nations, no member of the organisation withdrew as a consequence of this but the ROC representatives declared that they were withdrawing. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  15. ^ See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of China.
  16. ^ a b c More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.[19]
  17. ^ Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  18. ^ Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
  19. ^ A simpler official short name has been encouraged by the Czech government, "Czechia". This variant remains uncommon, but has been adopted by several companies and organisations. See Name of the Czech Republic.
  20. ^ The designation "Denmark" can refer either to metropolitan Denmark or to the entire Danish Realm (for example in international organizations).
  21. ^ The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the official English name of the country.
  22. ^ Formerly referred to as the Kingdom of Swaziland, its official name until 2018.
  23. ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  24. ^ France's claimed Antarctic territory of Adélie Land (Terre Adélie) is one of five constituent districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
  25. ^ Also known as Guinea-Conakry.
  26. ^ While sometimes referred to as the "Republic of Iceland"[27][28] and sometimes its counterpart Lýðveldið Ísland in Icelandic, the official name of the country is simply "Iceland".[29] One example of the former is the name of the Constitution of Iceland, which in Icelandic is Stjórnarskrá lýðveldisins Íslands and literally means "the Constitution of the republic of Iceland". However, note that in this usage "republic" is not capitalised.
  27. ^ "Ireland" is the official name of the country in English. "Republic of Ireland" (the official description in English) and "Éire" (the official name in Irish) have sometimes been used unofficially to distinguish the state from the larger island of Ireland, however, this is officially deprecated.[31] See names of the Irish state.
  28. ^ The government of Ivory Coast uses "Côte d'Ivoire" as the official English name of the country.
  29. ^ The country's official name of Myanmar, adopted in 1989, has been mixed and controversial, with the former name Burma still being used in many cases. See Names of Myanmar.
  30. ^ The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to metropolitan Netherlands or to the entire Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations).
  31. ^ Formerly known constitutionally as the "Republic of Macedonia" from 1991 to 2019 and under the international designation of "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM) from 1993 to 2019 due to the Macedonia naming dispute with Greece. Following the Prespa agreement going into effect in February 2019, the country was renamed "North Macedonia".
  32. ^ Spain holds several small overseas territories scattered along the Mediterranean coast bordering Morocco, known as the plazas de soberanía.
  33. ^ Formerly known as Ceylon until 1972.
  34. ^ Formerly known as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, its official name from 1991 to 2017

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    *Gawerc, Michelle (2012). Prefiguring Peace: Israeli-Palestinian Peacebuilding Partnerships. Lexington Books. p. 44. ISBN 9780739166109. In other words, while Israel maintained that its occupation of Gaza ended with its unilateral disengagement Palestinians – as well as many human right organizations and international bodies – argued that Gaza was by all intents and purposes still occupied.
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  69. ^ "Sijera Leone je 18. država koja je povukla priznanje tzv. Kosova" − http://www.mfa.gov.rs/
  70. ^ The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 17 January 2006.
  71. ^ Kreuter, Aaron (2010). "Self-Determination, Sovereignty, and the Failure of States: Somaliland and the Case for Justified Secession" (PDF). Minnesota Journal of International Law. University of Minnesota Law School. 19:2: 380–381. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013. Considering each of these factors, Somaliland has a colorable argument that it meets the theoretical requirements of statehood. ... On these bases, Somaliland appears to have a strong claim to statehood.
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  74. ^ Arieff, Alexis. "De Facto Statehood? The Strange Case of Somaliland" (PDF). Yale Journal of International Affairs. International Affairs Council at Yale (Spring/Summer 2008): 1–79. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011.
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  76. ^ Jansen, Dinah (2009). "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm". Geopolitics Vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security. Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie: 222–242. ISBN 978-1-896440-61-3. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
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  81. ^ Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester

Bibliography

Media files used on this page

Flag of Albania.svg
Flag of Albania
Flag of Australia (converted).svg

Flag of Australia, when congruence with this colour chart is required (i.e. when a "less bright" version is needed).

See Flag of Australia.svg for main file information.
Flag of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.svg
Flago de la Kokosinsuloj, uzo ne oficiala
Flag of Norfolk Island.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of Austria.svg
Flag of Austria with the red in the Austrian national colours which was official ordered within the Austrian Armed Forces (Bundesheer) in the characteristic “Pantone 032 C” (since May 2018 the Red is ordered in the characteristic “Pantone 186 C”.)
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg
The civil ensign and flag of Belgium. It is identical to Image:Flag of Belgium.svg except that it has a 2:3 ratio, instead of 13:15.
Flag of Brazil.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg
Flag of Canada introduced in 1965, using Pantone colors. This design replaced the Canadian Red Ensign design.
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg
The proportions of this flag are 3:2; however, there is no official definition for the correct proportions and also 5:3 is widely used.
Flag of Chile.svg
It is easy to put a border around this flag image
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg
The national flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Created according to the 2006 constitution : Son emblème est le drapeau bleu ciel, orné d’une étoile jaune dans le coin supérieur gauche et traversé en biais d’une bande rouge finement encadrée de jaune. (Its symbol is a sky blue flag, decorated with a yellow star in the upper left corner and crossed in the diagonal by a red strip with thin yellow borders) It seems to be identical, except for a lighter field hue, to the 1966–1971 flag.
Flag of Croatia.svg
It is easy to put a border around this flag image
Flag of Dominica.svg
Author/Creator: See File history below for details., Licence: CC0
The Flag of Dominica.
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg
The flag of the Dominican Republic has a centered white cross that extends to the edges. This emblem is similar to the flag design and shows a bible, a cross of gold and 6 Dominican flags. There are branches of olive and palm around the shield and above on the ribbon is the motto "Dios,Patria!, Libertad" ("God, Country, Freedom") and to amiable freedom. The blue is said to stand for liberty, red for the fire and blood of the independence struggle and the white cross symbolized that God has not forgotten his people. "Republica Dominicana". The Dominican flag was designed by Juan Pablo Duarte, father of the national Independence of Dominican Republic. The first dominican flag was sewn by a young lady named Concepción Bona, who lived across the street of El Baluarte, monument where the patriots gathered to fight for the independence, the night of February 27th, 1844. Concepción Bona was helped by her first cousin María de Jesús Pina.
Flag of Ecuador.svg
Made by author of Xramp, first uploaded by Denelson83 as Flag of Ecuador.svg, modifications by Husunqu.
Flag of Estonia.svg
Flag of Estonia 7:11, blue PANTONE 285C.
Flag of Ethiopia.svg
Flag of Ethiopia
Flag of Fiji.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flags of New Caledonia.svg
Drapeaux de la France et de la Nouvelle-Calédonie côte-à-côte.
Flag of Greece.svg
Flag of Greece (since 1978) and Naval Ensign of Greece (since 1828)
Flag of Haiti.svg
The national and official state flag of Haiti; arms obtained from http://www.webchantier.com/. The civil flag can be found at here.
Flag of Iceland.svg
The Flag of Iceland.
  • Horizontal aspect ratio: 7:1:2:1:14;
  • Vertical aspect ratio: 7:1:2:1:7.
Flag of India.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence:
Flag of Iran.svg
Flag of Iran. The tricolor flag was introduced in 1906, but after the Islamic Revolution of 1979 the Arabic words 'Allahu akbar' ('God is great'), written in the Kufic script of the Qur'an and repeated 22 times, were added to the red and green strips where they border the white central strip and in the middle is the emblem of Iran (which is a stylized Persian alphabet of the Arabic word Allah ("God")).
The official ISIRI standard (translation at FotW) gives two slightly different methods of construction for the flag: a compass-and-straightedge construction used for File:Flag of Iran (official).svg, and a "simplified" construction sheet with rational numbers used for this file.
Flag of Ireland.svg
Note that the green portion of the flag was designed to represent the majority Catholic residents of the island, the orange side the minority Protestant and the white middle part peace and harmony between them.
Flag of Israel.svg
Flag of Israel. Shows a Magen David (“Shield of David”) between two stripes. The Shield of David is a traditional Jewish symbol. The stripes symbolize a Jewish prayer shawl (tallit).
Flag of Italy.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Côte d'Ivoire.svg
Flag of the Ivory Coast, written by Jon Harald Søby, modified by Zscout370. The colors match to what is reported at http://fotw.vexillum.com/flags/ci.html.
Flag of Jamaica.svg
Flag of Jamaica. “The sunshine, the land is green, and the people are strong and bold” is the symbolism of the colours of the flag. GOLD represents the natural wealth and beauty of sunlight; GREEN represents hope and agricultural resources; BLACK represents the strength and creativity of the people. The original symbolism, however, was "Hardships there are, but the land is green, and the sun shineth", where BLACK represented the hardships being faced.
Flag of Japan.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Laos.svg
Flag of Laos
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg
Flag of Liechtenstein
Flag of Malaysia.svg
Flag of Malaysia – Jalur Gemilang (Stripes of Glory)
Flag of Maldives.svg
Flag of Maldives. The colours used are Pantone 186 C for red and Pantone 348 C for green.
Flag of Mauritania.svg
Flag of Mauritania, adopted in 2017. The National Assembly added red stripes to the top and bottom edges to represent “the blood shed by the martyrs of independence”.
Flag of Mexico.svg
Flag of Mexico Official version of the Flag of the United Mexican States or Mexico, adopted September 16th 1968 by Decree (Published August 17th 1968), Ratio 4:7. The previous version of the flag displayed a slightly different Coat of Arms. It was redesigned to be even more resplendent due to the upcoming Mexico City 1968 Olympic Games; According to Flag of Mexico, the colors are Green Pantone 3425 C and Red Pantone 186 C. According to [1] or [2], that translates to RGB 206, 17, 38 for the red, and RGB 0, 104, 71 for the green.
Flag of Montenegro.svg
Flag of the Republic of Montenegro (adopted on 13 July 2004) - RGB colours, official 1:2 dimensions and construction details based partly on the templates: Flag (Government of Montenegro) and Coat of arms (Government of Montenegro).
Flag of Namibia.svg
Flag of Namibia
Flag of Aruba.svg
The flag of Aruba
Flag of Curaçao.svg
The flag of Curaçao is a blue field with a horizontal yellow stripe slightly below the midline and two white, five-pointed stars in the canton. The geometry and colors are according to the description at Flags of the World.
Flag of New Zealand.svg
Flag of New Zealand. Specification: http://www.mch.govt.nz/nzflag/description.html , quoting New Zealand Gazette, 27 June 1902.
Flag of Norway.svg
Flag of Norway. The colors approximately correspond to Pantone 200 C (deep red) and 281 C (dark blue).
Flag of Gilgit-Baltistan.svg
Author/Creator: UsmanKhan, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
the provincial flag of the Gilgit-Baltistan semi-province of Pakistan.
Flag of Papua New Guinea.svg
Flag of Papua New Guinea
Colours: Pantone 186 C for red and 116 C for yellow
Flag of Portugal.svg
Flag of Portugal, created by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), officially adopted by Portuguese government in June 30th 1911 (in use since about November 1910). Color shades matching the RGB values officially reccomended here. (PMS values should be used for direct ink or textile; CMYK for 4-color offset printing on paper; this is an image for screen display, RGB should be used.)
Flag of Rwanda.svg
Flag of Rwanda. The flag ratio is 2:3 with the stripes being 2:1:1. Colors are the following officially: Pantone 299 C 2X (blue), RAL 6029 (green), RAL 1023 (yellow) and RAL 1003 (golden yellow). (As of 03/08/2010, the only color used is the Pantone 299 C, which is from here. The rest of the colors are RAL shades from here.)
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg
Flag of São Tomé and Príncipe
Flag of Senegal.svg
Flag of Senegal
Flag of Slovenia.svg
The flag of Slovenia.
"The construction sheet for the coat of arms and flag of the Republic of Slovenia
is issued in the Official Gazette Uradni list Republike Slovenije #67, 27 October 1994
as the addendum to the Law on the coat of arms and flag."
Flag of Spain.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Sweden.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Syria.svg
It is easy to put a border around this flag image
Flag of Thailand.svg
The national flag of Kingdom of Thailand since September 2017; there are total of 3 colours:
  • Red represents the blood spilt to protect Thailand’s independence and often more simply described as representing the nation.
  • White represents the religion of Buddhism, the predominant religion of the nation
  • Blue represents the monarchy of the nation, which is recognised as the centre of Thai hearts.
Flag of Tonga.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of Tuvalu.svg
Author/Creator: Nightstallion (original)
Zscout370 (most recent), Licence: CC0
Flag of Tuvalu.

FIAV 111111.svg
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Flag of the United Kingdom, Union Jack or Union Flag in a 1:2 ratio (typical on British warships and also the rank flag of an admiral of the fleet).
Flag of Anguilla.svg
Flag of Anguilla (adopted on 30 May 1990) - RGB colours, 1:2 dimensions and construction details based partly on the templates: Flag of Anguilla – A Brief History
Flag of Gibraltar.svg
Flag of Gibraltar
Flag of the Pitcairn Islands.svg
The flag of the Pitcairn Islands, arms courtesy an e-mail from the author of xrmap and the Blue Ensign from Image:Government Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands.svg
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands
Flag of the Isle of Man.svg
Author/Creator: Edited by Reisio, Alkari, e.a., Licence: CC0
Flag of the Isle of Man
Flag of the United States.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Flag of Guam.svg
The flag of Guam, courtesy an e-mail from the author of xrmap. Modifications by Denelson83.
Flag of the Northern Mariana Islands.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC0
Flag of the Vatican City.svg
Author/Creator: Unknown authorUnknown author, Licence: CC0
Flag of the Vatican City.
Flag of Donetsk People's Republic.svg
Flag of Donetsk Republic, from 2010 to 2014 and from 2018. Donetsk Republic is a pro-Russian separatist organization operating in Donetsk, Ukraine.
Flag of Lugansk People's Republic.svg
Flag of self-proclaimed Luhan'sk People's Republic. Enshrined in law, which can not be described as official, because issued by a unrecognized republic of any UN country (Luhan'sk Republic of People is Republic, that funded by government of Russian Federation in whole or in part
Flag of the Luhansk People's Republic.svg
Flag of self-proclaimed Luhan'sk People's Republic. Enshrined in law, which can not be described as official, because issued by a unrecognized republic of any UN country (Luhan'sk Republic of People is Republic, that funded by government of Russian Federation in whole or in part
Flag of South Ossetia.svg
Flag of South Ossetia
Flag of Transnistria (state).svg
Flag of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Pridnestrovie, Transdniestria, Transnistria). The flag's reverse omits the hammer and sickle
P countries-vector.svg
Author/Creator: Al MacDonald, he:משתמש:נעמה מ and Offnfopt, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Vector to replace File:P countries.png, used oval instead of circle to keep it consistent with the other P icons
The Earth seen from Apollo 17.jpg
"The Blue Marble" is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula.
The Blue Marble (remastered).jpg
Full disk view of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometres (18,000 mi). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula.
The Earth seen from Apollo 17 with transparent background.png
"The Blue Marble" is a famous photograph of the Earth taken on December 7, 1972 by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft en route to the Moon at a distance of about 29,000 kilometers (18,000 statute miles). It shows Africa, Antarctica, and the Arabian Peninsula.
Solar system.jpg
This is a montage of planetary images taken by spacecraft managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA. Included are (from top to bottom) images of Mercury, Venus, Earth (and Moon), Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The spacecraft responsible for these images are as follows:
  • the Mercury image was taken by Mariner 10,
  • the Venus image by Magellan,
  • the Earth and Moon images by Galileo,
  • the Mars image by Mars Global Surveyor,
  • the Jupiter image by Cassini, and
  • the Saturn, Uranus and Neptune images by Voyager.
  • Pluto is not shown as it is no longer a planet. The inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, and Mars) are roughly to scale to each other; the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) are roughly to scale to each other. PIA 00545 is the same montage with Neptune shown larger in the foreground. Actual diameters are given below:
  • Sun (to photosphere) 1,392,684 km
  • Mercury 4,879.4 km
  • Venus 12,103.7 km
  • Earth 12,756.28 km
  • Moon 3,476.2 km
  • Mars 6,804.9 km
  • Jupiter 142,984 km
  • Saturn 120,536 km
  • Uranus 51,118 km
  • Neptune 49,528 km
Flag of the Republika Srpska.svg
Flag of the Serb Republic (not to be confused with the Republic of Serbia).
Flag of Denmark (state).svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Palais des Nations unies, à Genève.jpg
Author/Creator: Groov3, Licence: CC0
Le siège des Nations Unies vues à partir des grilles de la Place des Nations, à Genève. Au fond, on aperçoit l'aile de l'immeuble qui abrite l'organisme Recherche des Nations Unies pour le développement social