List of research stations in the Arctic

Location of some of the major research stations in the Arctic

A number of governments maintain permanent research stations in the Arctic. Also known as Arctic bases, polar stations or ice stations, these bases are widely distributed across the northern polar region of the earth.

Historically few research stations have been permanent. Most of them were temporary, being abandoned after the completion of the project or owing to lack of funding to continue the research. Some of these were military or intelligence stations (listening posts) created as a result of the proximity of the U.S. and Soviet Union to each other's landmass across the polar region.

Ice stations are constructed on land or on ice that rests on land, while others are drifting ice stations built on the sea ice of the high latitudes of the Arctic Ocean.[1]

Research stations

Station
name
LocationOperating
country
Year
opened
Year
closed
Abisko Scientific Research StationAbisko, Sápmi Sweden1903Active
Adam Mickiewicz University Polar StationPetuniabukta, Svalbard, Norway Poland2011Active
Alomar Observatory[2]Andøya Space, Andøya, Svalbard Norway1994Active
Arctic Yellow River StationNy-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway China2003Active
AWIPEV Arctic Research Station (Jean Corbel Station)Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway France Germany2003Active
Barrow Observatory[3]Point Barrow, Alaska United States1973Active
Begichev Polar StationMaly Begichev Island, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet UnionNAAbandoned
Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Polar Station[4]Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island. Sakha Russia Soviet UnionNAAbandoned
BrønlundhusPeary Land, Greenland Denmark1947Transformed into a museum
Buor-Khaya Polar Station[5]Buor-Khaya Gulf, Sakha Russia Soviet UnionNAAbandoned
Canadian High Arctic Research Station[6] (CHARS) campusCambridge Bay, Nunavut CanadaTBAActive
Centrumsø Research StationCentrum Lake, Greenland Denmark1954Abandoned
Chelyuskin Polar Station[7]Cape Chelyuskin, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet Union1932Active
Chetyrokhstolbovoy Polar Station[8]Medvezhyi Islands, Sakha Russia Soviet Union1933Active
Churchill Northern Studies Centre[9] (CNSC)Churchill, Manitoba Canada1976Active
Czech Arctic Research Station[10]Longyearbyen and Petuniabukta, Svalbard, Norway Czech Republic2014Active
DaneborgWollaston Foreland, Greenland Denmark1944NA
DanmarkshavnDove Bay, Greenland Denmark1906Active
Dirigibile Italia Arctic StationNy-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway Italy1997Active
Dr. Neil Trivett Global Atmosphere Watch ObservatoryAlert, Nunavut Canada1986Active
Dye 3Four different locations in southern Greenland United States19711991
Ernst Krenkel ObservatoryHeiss Island, Arkhangelsk Oblast Soviet Union19561980
Flashline Mars Arctic Research StationDevon Island, Nunavut Canada2001Active
Golomyanniy Island Polar Station[11][12]Sredniy Island, off Severnaya Zemlya Russia Soviet Union1954NA
Heiberg Polar Station[13]Heiberg Islands, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet Union19401995
Himadri[14]Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway India2008Active
Igloolik Research Centre[15]Igloolik, Nunavut Canada1975Active
IndARC[16]Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway India2014Active
International Biological Station Lena-Nordenskiöld[17]Tiksi, Sakha Russia1995Active
Iqaluit Research Centre[18][19]Iqaluit, Nunavut Canada1978Active
Isachsen StationEllef Ringnes Island, Nunavut Canada19481978
Izluchin Polar StationKomsomolets Island, Severnaya Zemlya, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet UnionNAAbandoned
Kevo Research Station[20]Kevo Finland1958Active
Kap Harald MoltkePeary Land, Greenland Denmark1972NA
Kigilyakh Research Station[21]Kigilyakh Peninsula, Bolshoy Lyakhovsky Island, New Siberian Islands Russia Soviet UnionNANA
Kilpisjärvi Biological Station[22][23]Kilpisjärvi Finland1964Active
Kiruna ObservatoryKiruna SwedenNANA
Kluane Lake Research Station[24]Kluane Lake, Yukon Canada1961Active
Koldewey StationNy-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway Germany1991Active, part of APIWEV station
Kolyuchin Polar StationKolyuchin Island, Chukotka Russia Soviet UnionNAAbandoned in the 1990s
Labytnangi Ecological Research Station[25]Labytnangi, Yamalo-Nenets Russia Soviet Union1954Active
Lavrentiya Research StationLavrentiya, Chukotka Russia Soviet UnionNANA
McGill Arctic Research Station[26]Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut Canada1960Active
MestersvigScoresby Land, Greenland Denmark1956Active
Mývatn Research StationMývatn Iceland1975Active
NEEM CampNorthern Greenland ice sheet, Greenland Denmark20082015
Netherlands Arctic Station, Univ Groningen[27]Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway Netherlands1995Active
Nicolaus Copernicus University Polar StationKaffiøyra, Svalbard, Norway Poland1975Active
Station NordPrincess Ingeborg Peninsula, Greenland Denmark1952Active
North IceNorthern Greenland ice sheet, Greenland United Kingdom19521954
Northeast Science Station[28]Chersky, Sakha Russia Soviet Union1977Active
Ny-Ålesund[29]Spitsbergen, Svalbard Norway1967Active
Peschanny Polar StationCape Unslicht, Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya Russia Soviet UnionNAAbandoned
Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory[30][31] (PEARL)Eureka, Nunavut Canada1993Active
Polish Polar StationHornsund, Svalbard, Norway Poland1957Active
Popov Polar Station[32]Bely Island, Yamalo-Nenets Russia Soviet UnionNovember 1, 1933March 2001
Preobrazheniya Polar StationPreobrazheniya Island, Sakha Russia Soviet UnionNAAbandoned
Prima Polar Station[33]Cape Baranov, Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya Russia Soviet UnionNAActive
Provideniya Research StationProvideniya, Chukotka Russia Soviet UnionNANA
Resolute Nunavut Station[34]Resolute, Nunavut Canada1947NA
Russky Island Arctic Station[35]Russky Island, Nordenskiöld Archipelago, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet Union19351999
Samoylov Station[36]Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve, Sakha Russia1998Active
Samuila Polar StationSamuila Island, Komsomolskaya Pravda Islands, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet UnionNAAbandoned
Sermilik StationAmmassalik Island, Greenland Denmark1970Active
Sodankylä Arctic Research Centre[37]Sodankylä FinlandNANA
Solnechny Polar Station[38]Solnechny Bay, Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya Russia Soviet Union1952Abandoned
Stanisław Baranowski Spitsbergen Polar StationWerenskioldbreen, Svalbard, Norway Poland1971Active
Stolbovoy Meteorological Station[39]Stolbovoy Island, Sakha Russia Soviet UnionNAAbandoned
Summit StationNear summit of the Greenland ice sheet, Greenland United StatesApril 1989Active
Thule Research Station[40]Pituffik, Greenland Denmark1995Active
Toolik Field Station[41]Toolik Lake, Alaska United States1975Active
Troynoy Island Polar Station[42]Izvestiy TSIK Islands, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet Union1953Active
Tuktoyaktuk Station[43]Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories CanadaNA1997
Tundra Ecosystem Research Station[44][45] (TERS)Daring Lake, Northwest Territories Canada1994Active
Tyrtov Island Polar StationTyrtov Island, Nordenskiöld Archipelago, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet Union19401975
Uedineniya Polar StationUyedineniya Island, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet UnionNA1996
University of Copenhagen Arctic StationQeqertarsuaq, Greenland Denmark1906Active
Ushakov Island Polar StationUshakov Island, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet Union19541980s
Vavilov Meteorological Station[46]October Revolution Island, Severnaya Zemlya Russia Soviet Union19741988
Vize Island Arctic Research StationVize Island, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet UnionNovember 1, 1945NA
Ward Hunt Island Observatory Research Station[47]Ward Hunt Island, Nunavut Canada1957Active
Western Arctic Research Centre[48]Inuvik, Northwest Territories Canada[49]1964Active
Whapmagoostui-Kuujjuarapik Research Complex[50]Whapmagoostui, Quebec Canada1971Active
White Sea Biological Station[51] (WSBS MSU)Chupa, Republic of Karelia Russia Soviet Union1938Active
Willem Barents Biological Station[52]Meduza Bay, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet UnionNANA
Wrangel Island Cape Blossom Station[53]Cape Blossom, Wrangel Island, Chukotka Russia Soviet UnionNANA
Wrangel Island Ushakovskoye Station[54]Ushakovskoye, Wrangel Island, Chukotka Russia Soviet UnionNANA
Yenisei Ecological Station[55]Mirnoye, Turukhansky District, Krasnoyarsk Krai Russia Soviet UnionNANA
Villum Research Station[56]Station Nord, North Greenland Denmark1990Active
Zackenberg StationWollaston Foreland, Greenland Denmark1997Active
ZeppelinZeppelinfjellet, Svalbard Norway1990Active

Drifting ice stations

Station nameHead of the first shiftDrift datesDrift coordinatesDistance
BeganEndedStartFinishKilometresMiles
North Pole-1I.D.PapaninMay 21, 1937February 19, 193889°25′N 78°40′W / 89.417°N 78.667°W / 89.417; -78.667 (North Pole-1 (start))70°40′N 19°16′W / 70.667°N 19.267°W / 70.667; -19.267 (North Pole-1 (finish))2,8501,770
North Pole-2M.M.SomovApril 2, 1950April 11, 195176°03′N 166°36′W / 76.050°N 166.600°W / 76.050; -166.600 (North Pole-2 (start))81°44′N 163°48′W / 81.733°N 163.800°W / 81.733; -163.800 (North Pole-2 (finish))2,6001,600
North Pole-3A.F.TrioshnikovApril 4, 1954April 20, 195585°58′N 175°00′W / 85.967°N 175.000°W / 85.967; -175.000 (North Pole-3 (start))86°00′N 24°00′W / 86.000°N 24.000°W / 86.000; -24.000 (North Pole-3 (finish))1,8651,159
North Pole-4E.I.TolstikovApril 8, 1954April 19, 195775°48′N 178°25′W / 75.800°N 178.417°W / 75.800; -178.417 (North Pole-4 (start))85°52′N 00°00′W / 85.867°N -0.000°E / 85.867; -0.000 (North Pole-4 (finish))6,9704,330
North Pole-5N.A.VolkovApril 21, 1955October 8, 195682°10′N 156°51′E / 82.167°N 156.850°E / 82.167; 156.850 (North Pole-5 (start))84°18′N 63°20′E / 84.300°N 63.333°E / 84.300; 63.333 (North Pole-5 (finish))3,6302,260
North Pole-6K.A.SychevApril 19, 1956September 14, 195974°24′N 177°04′W / 74.400°N 177.067°W / 74.400; -177.067 (North Pole-6 (start))82°06′N 03°56′E / 82.100°N 3.933°E / 82.100; 3.933 (North Pole-6 (finish))8,6505,370
North Pole-7V.A.VedernikovApril 23, 1957April 11, 195982°06′N 164°11′W / 82.100°N 164.183°W / 82.100; -164.183 (North Pole-7 (start))85°14′N 33°03′W / 85.233°N 33.050°W / 85.233; -33.050 (North Pole-7 (finish))3,5202,190
North Pole-8V.M.RogachyovApril 27, 1959March 19, 196276°11′N 164°24′W / 76.183°N 164.400°W / 76.183; -164.400 (North Pole-8 (start))83°15′N 132°30′W / 83.250°N 132.500°W / 83.250; -132.500 (North Pole-8 (finish))6,0903,780
North Pole-9V.A.ShamontyevApril 26, 1960March 28, 196177°23′N 163°00′E / 77.383°N 163.000°E / 77.383; 163.000 (North Pole-9 (start))86°36′N 76°00′W / 86.600°N 76.000°W / 86.600; -76.000 (North Pole-9 (finish))2,6601,650
North Pole-10N.A.KornilovOctober 17, 1961April 29, 196475°27′N 177°10′E / 75.450°N 177.167°E / 75.450; 177.167 (North Pole-10 (start))88°32′N 90°30′E / 88.533°N 90.500°E / 88.533; 90.500 (North Pole-10 (finish))3,9602,460
North Pole-11N.N.BryazginApril 16, 1962April 20, 196377°10′N 165°58′W / 77.167°N 165.967°W / 77.167; -165.967 (North Pole-11 (start))81°10′N 139°34′W / 81.167°N 139.567°W / 81.167; -139.567 (North Pole-11 (finish))2,4001,500
North Pole-12L.N.BelyakovApril 30, 1963April 25, 196576°50′N 165°34′W / 76.833°N 165.567°W / 76.833; -165.567 (North Pole-12 (start))81°06′N 145°47′W / 81.100°N 145.783°W / 81.100; -145.783 (North Pole-12 (finish))1,595991
North Pole-13A.Ya. BuzuyevApril 22, 1964April 20, 196773°55′N 161°19′W / 73.917°N 161.317°W / 73.917; -161.317 (North Pole-13 (start))87°55′N 03°32′E / 87.917°N 3.533°E / 87.917; 3.533 (North Pole-13 (finish))3,5452,203
North Pole-14Yu. B.KonstantinovMay 1, 1965February 12, 196672°42′N 175°25′W / 72.700°N 175.417°W / 72.700; -175.417 (North Pole-14 (start))76°59′N 154°49′E / 76.983°N 154.817°E / 76.983; 154.817 (North Pole-14 (finish))1,040650
North Pole-15V.V.PanovApril 15, 1966March 25, 196878°49′N 168°08′E / 78.817°N 168.133°E / 78.817; 168.133 (North Pole-15 (start))85°45′N 10°30′W / 85.750°N 10.500°W / 85.750; -10.500 (North Pole-15 (finish))2,3301,450
North Pole-16Yu. B.KonstantinovApril 10, 1968March 22, 197275°31′N 172°00′W / 75.517°N 172.000°W / 75.517; -172.000 (North Pole-16 (start))86°00′N 85°27′W / 86.000°N 85.450°W / 86.000; -85.450 (North Pole-16 (finish))5,8503,640
North Pole-17N.I.BlinovApril 18, 1968October 16, 196980°30′N 165°26′E / 80.500°N 165.433°E / 80.500; 165.433 (North Pole-17 (start))86°48′N 25°20′E / 86.800°N 25.333°E / 86.800; 25.333 (North Pole-17 (finish))1,7501,090
North Pole-18N.N.OvchinnikovOctober 9, 1969October 24, 197175°10′N 165°02′W / 75.167°N 165.033°W / 75.167; -165.033 (North Pole-18 (start))86°06′N 153°51′E / 86.100°N 153.850°E / 86.100; 153.850 (North Pole-18 (finish))5,2403,260
North Pole-19A.N.ChilingarovNovember 7, 1969April 16, 197374°54′N 160°13′E / 74.900°N 160.217°E / 74.900; 160.217 (North Pole-19 (start))83°08′N 16°17′E / 83.133°N 16.283°E / 83.133; 16.283 (North Pole 19- (finish))6,7054,166
North Pole-20Yu. P.TikhonovApril 22, 1970May 17, 197275°56′N 175°22′E / 75.933°N 175.367°E / 75.933; 175.367 (North Pole-20 (start))81°44′N 166°47′W / 81.733°N 166.783°W / 81.733; -166.783 (North Pole-20 (finish))3,7802,350
North Pole-21G.I.KizinoApril 30, 1972May 17, 197474°06′N 178°15′E / 74.100°N 178.250°E / 74.100; 178.250 (North Pole-21 (start))86°16′N 143°35′E / 86.267°N 143.583°E / 86.267; 143.583 (North Pole-21 (finish))3,6052,240
North Pole-22V.G.MorozSeptember 13, 1973April 8, 198276°16′N 168°31′W / 76.267°N 168.517°W / 76.267; -168.517 (North Pole-22 (start))86°10′N 00°00′W / 86.167°N -0.000°E / 86.167; -0.000 (North Pole-22 (finish))17,06910,606
North Pole-23V.M.PiguzovDecember 5, 1975November 1, 197873°51′N 178°25′W / 73.850°N 178.417°W / 73.850; -178.417 (North Pole-23 (start))87°40′N 22°31′W / 87.667°N 22.517°W / 87.667; -22.517 (North Pole-23 (finish))5,7863,595
North Pole-24I.K.PopovJune 23, 1978November 19, 198076°45′N 163°00′E / 76.750°N 163.000°E / 76.750; 163.000 (North Pole-24 (start))86°03′N 29°40′E / 86.050°N 29.667°E / 86.050; 29.667 (North Pole-24 (finish))5,6523,512
North Pole-25V.S.SidorovMay 16, 1981April 20, 198475°01′N 168°35′E / 75.017°N 168.583°E / 75.017; 168.583 (North Pole-25 (start))85°50′N 122°15′W / 85.833°N 122.250°W / 85.833; -122.250 (North Pole-25 (finish))5,7543,575
North Pole-26V.S.SidorovMay 21, 1983April 9, 198678°30′N 174°46′E / 78.500°N 174.767°E / 78.500; 174.767 (North Pole-26 (start))82°46′N 170°31′W / 82.767°N 170.517°W / 82.767; -170.517 (North Pole-26 (finish))5,3803,340
North Pole-27Yu. P.TikhonovJune 2, 1984May 20, 198778°31′N 160°30′E / 78.517°N 160.500°E / 78.517; 160.500 (North Pole-27 (start))86°28′N 09°02′W / 86.467°N 9.033°W / 86.467; -9.033 (North Pole-27(finish))5,6553,514
North Pole-28A.F.ChernyshovMay 21, 1986January 23, 198980°40′N 168°29′E / 80.667°N 168.483°E / 80.667; 168.483 (North Pole-28 (start))79°40′N 03°09′E / 79.667°N 3.150°E / 79.667; 3.150 (North Pole-28 (finish))7,6344,744
North Pole-29V.V.LukinJune 10, 1987August 19, 198880°22.8′N 112°59′E / 80.3800°N 112.983°E / 80.3800; 112.983 (North Pole-29 (start))84°42.8′N 56°34.3′W / 84.7133°N 56.5717°W / 84.7133; -56.5717 (North Pole-29 (finish))2,6861,669
North Pole-30V.M.PiguzovOctober 9, 1987April 4, 199174°18′N 171°24′W / 74.300°N 171.400°W / 74.300; -171.400 (North Pole-30 (start))82°31′N 126°26′W / 82.517°N 126.433°W / 82.517; -126.433 (North Pole-30 (finish))7,6754,769
North Pole-31V.S.SidorovOctober 22, 1988July 25, 199176°35′N 153°10′W / 76.583°N 153.167°W / 76.583; -153.167 (North Pole-31 (finish))73°33′N 161°04′W / 73.550°N 161.067°W / 73.550; -161.067 (North Pole-31 (finish))5,4753,402
North Pole-32V.S.KoshelevApril 25, 2003March 6, 200487°52.5′N 148°03′E / 87.8750°N 148.050°E / 87.8750; 148.050 (North Pole-32 (start))84°41′N 03°33′W / 84.683°N 3.550°W / 84.683; -3.550 (North Pole-32 (finish))2,4181,502
North Pole-33A.A.VishnevskySeptember 9, 2004October 5, 200585°05′N 156°31′E / 85.083°N 156.517°E / 85.083; 156.517 (North Pole-33 (start))86°14′N 95°54′E / 86.233°N 95.900°E / 86.233; 95.900 (North Pole-33 (finish))3,1561,961
North Pole-34T.V.PetrovskySeptember 19, 2005May 25, 200685°39′N 115°19′E / 85.650°N 115.317°E / 85.650; 115.317 (North Pole-34 (start))87°26′N 07°39′E / 87.433°N 7.650°E / 87.433; 7.650 (North Pole-34 (finish))2,0321,263
North Pole-35Vladimir Chupun[57]September 21, 2007July 22, 200881°30′N 103°54′E / 81.500°N 103.900°E / 81.500; 103.900 (North Pole-35 (start))81°00′N 31°18′E / 81.000°N 31.300°E / 81.000; 31.300 (North Pole-35 (finish))3,6142,246
North Pole-36Yuri KatrayevSeptember 7, 2008August 24, 200982°32′N 144°56′E / 82.533°N 144.933°E / 82.533; 144.933 (North Pole-36 (start))85°53′N 26°41′W / 85.883°N 26.683°W / 85.883; -26.683 (North Pole-36 (finish))2,9051,805
North Pole-37Sergey LesenkovSeptember 7, 2009May 31, 201081°28′N 164°35′W / 81.467°N 164.583°W / 81.467; -164.583 (North Pole-37 (start))80°04′N 140°40′W / 80.067°N 140.667°W / 80.067; -140.667 (North Pole-37 (finish))2,0761,290
North Pole-38Tomash PetrovskiyOctober 14, 2010September 20, 201176°07′N 176°32′W / 76.117°N 176.533°W / 76.117; -176.533 (North Pole-38 (start))83°53′N 154°18′W / 83.883°N 154.300°W / 83.883; -154.300 (North Pole-38 (finish))3,0241,879
North Pole-39Alexander IpatovOctober 2, 2011September 15, 201284°10′N 148°49′W / 84.167°N 148.817°W / 84.167; -148.817 (North Pole-39 (start))83°57′N 96°44′W / 83.950°N 96.733°W / 83.950; -96.733 (North Pole-39 (finish))1,8851,171
North Pole-40Nikolai FomichevOctober 1, 2012June 7, 201385°21′N 142°53′W / 85.350°N 142.883°W / 85.350; -142.883 (North Pole-40 (start))82°25′N 130°25′W / 82.417°N 130.417°W / 82.417; -130.417 (North Pole-40 (finish))1,7361,079
North Pole-2015Dmitrij MamadalievApril 11, 2015August 9, 201589°34′N 17°08′W / 89.567°N 17.133°W / 89.567; -17.133 (North Pole-2015 (start))86°15′N 07°52′W / 86.250°N 7.867°W / 86.250; -7.867 (North Pole-2015 (finish))714444
Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC Expedition)Markus RexOctober 4, 2019July 30, 202085°00′N 137°00′E / 85.000°N 137.000°E / 85.000; 137.000 (MOSAiC (start))[58]N/A1,7001,100
  • Fletcher's Ice Island, US (1952 - 1978)

In fiction

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "North Pole drifting stations (1930s-1980s)". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
  2. ^ Alomar Observatory
  3. ^ Barrow Observatory - NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory
  4. ^ Soviets gather geographic data in Arctic - CIA
  5. ^ Deserted Buor-Khaya Polar Station
  6. ^ Welcome to the Canadian High Arctic Research Station Campus
  7. ^ On northernmost tip of Eurasian mainland, a showoff of Northern Fleet capacity; Navy vessels put ashore a group of Arctic soldiers at Cape Chelyuskin, 77° North, by Atle Staalesen, The Barents Observer
  8. ^ История полярных арктических станций с 30-х годов XX века (History of polar arctic stations from the 1930s in the XX century)
  9. ^ Churchill Northern Studies Centre
  10. ^ Czech Arctic Research Station
  11. ^ Golomyanniy Station in Severnaya Zemlya
  12. ^ Книга: Два года на северной земле
  13. ^ "ДИКСОН — СНЕЖНОЙ АРКТИКИ СТОЛИЦА. К 90-ЛЕТИЮ НАЧАЛА НАБЛЮДЕНИЙ НА о. ДИКСОН". Archived from the original on November 21, 2011.
  14. ^ Stensdal, Iselin (2013). "Asian Arctic Research 2005-2012" (PDF). Fridtjof Nansen Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
  15. ^ Igloolik Research Centre, Igloolik, Igloolik Island, NU
  16. ^ India Deploys its First Sub-Surface Ocean Moored Observatory in the Arctic
  17. ^ International Biological Station (IBS) “Lena-Nordenskiold”, Lena River Delta
  18. ^ Iqaluit Research Centre
  19. ^ Iqaluit Research Centre, Nunavut Arctic College (Nunavut Research Institute)
  20. ^ "Kevo Research Station - Turun yliopisto". Archived from the original on 2019-02-23. Retrieved 2016-12-13.
  21. ^ "Kigilyakh". Mapcarta. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  22. ^ Kilpisjärvi Biological Station
  23. ^ University of Helsinki - Kilpisjärvi Biological Station
  24. ^ Kluane Lake Research Station
  25. ^ Labytnangi Ecological Research Station
  26. ^ McGill Arctic Research Station (MARS)
  27. ^ "The Netherlands Arctic Station".
  28. ^ BBC news report
  29. ^ UK Arctic Research Station
  30. ^ Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory
  31. ^ Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory, PEARL
  32. ^ Popov Polar Station
  33. ^ Фотогалерея: 2004 - "Полярное Кольцо" - Местонахождение: 17 мая, Северная Земля, о.Большевик, м.Баранова, п/ст Примах
  34. ^ Nuclear Explosion Monitoring (NEM)
  35. ^ F. Romanenko, O. Shilovtseva. Russian-Soviet polar stations and their role in the Arctic Seas exploration. Moscow State University, Geography Department, 1998
  36. ^ Samoylov Station
  37. ^ FMI ARC
  38. ^ "Polyarnaya Stantsiya Solnechnaya". Mapcarta. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
  39. ^ Северный морской путь оснащается современными приборами навигации
  40. ^ Thule Research Station
  41. ^ Toolik Field Station
  42. ^ Luhn, Alec; Hunt, Elle (14 September 2016). "Besieged Russian Scientists Drive Away Polar Bears". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  43. ^ Tuktoyaktuk, N.W.T.
  44. ^ Tundra Ecosystem Research Station
  45. ^ "Tundra Ecosystem Research Station (TERS)". Archived from the original on 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2016-12-21.
  46. ^ Bassford, Robin; Siegert, Martin; Dowdeswell, Julian; Oerlemans, Johannes; Glazovsky, Andrey; Macheret, Yuri (February 2006). "Quantifying the Mass Balance of Ice Caps on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian High Arctic. I: Climate and Mass Balance of the Vavilov Ice Cap". Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. university of Colorado. 38 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1657/1523-0430(2006)038[0001:QTMBOI]2.0.CO;2. hdl:20.500.11820/b0c68834-118f-4e1f-8d83-4768fda0c71f. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  47. ^ Ward Hunt Island Observatory Research Station; Centre d’études nordiques (CEN)/ Centre for Northern Studies
  48. ^ Western Arctic Research Centre
  49. ^ "Western Arctic Research Centre (WARC)". Archived from the original on 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2016-12-21.
  50. ^ CEN Whapmagoostui-Kuujuarapik Research Station
  51. ^ White Sea Biological Station (WSBS MSU)
  52. ^ Willem Barents Biological Station
  53. ^ State Nature Reserve “Wrangel Island
  54. ^ "Ministry of Natural Resources of the russian Federation – History of Wrangel Island". Archived from the original on 2005-02-27. Retrieved 2019-10-13.
  55. ^ Enisei Ecological Station “Mirnoe”
  56. ^ <www.villumresearchstation.dk><Goodsite, M. Skov, H. Asmund, G. Bennike, O. Feilberg, A. Glasius, M. Gross, A. Hermanson, M.H. (2014) Pilot Study of Contaminants near Station Nord, a Military Airbase and Research Station in NE Greenland. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Sustainable Cities and Military Installations: Climate Change Impact on Energy and Environmental Security. Conference paper 177-98. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-7161-1_10.>
  57. ^ Скалина, Ирина (10 July 2008). "Опасный дрейф; Полярников эвакуируют на судне "Михаил Сомов"" (web). Российская газета. Retrieved 2008-07-12. (Russian/English)Skalina, Irina (July 10, 2008). "A dangerous drift; Polarnik evacuated on the ship "Mikhail Somov"" (web). Google Translation. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved 2008-07-12.
  58. ^ "MOSAiC - eoportal directory".

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