List of epidemics

17th-century German "plague panel" depicting the triumph of death. Panels of this kind were placed on the walls of houses to warn against the plague. A plague epidemic raged in Augsburg, Bavaria between 1632 and 1635.

This is a list of the largest known epidemics and pandemics caused by an infectious disease. Widespread non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are not included. An epidemic is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time; in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic.[1]

Due to the long time spans, the first plague pandemic (6th century–8th century) and the second plague pandemic (14th century–early 19th century) are shown by individual outbreaks, such as the Plague of Justinian (first pandemic) and the Black Death (second pandemic).

Major epidemics and pandemics

By death toll

Extant epidemics are in boldface. For a given epidemic, the average of its estimated death toll range is used for ranking. If the death toll averages of two or more epidemics are equal, then the smaller the range, the higher the rank. For the historical records of major changes in the world population, see world population.[2][3]

Epidemics and pandemics with at least 1 million deaths
RankEpidemics/pandemicsDiseaseDeath tollGlobal population lostRegional population lostDateLocation
1Black DeathBubonic plague75–200 million17–54%[Note 1]30–60% of European population[4]1346–1353Europe, Asia, and North Africa
2Spanish fluInfluenza A/H1N117–100 million1–5.4%[5][6]1918–1920Worldwide
3Plague of JustinianBubonic plague15–100 million7–56%[Note 1]25–60% of European population[7]541–549North Africa, Europe and West Asia
4HIV/AIDS global epidemicHIV/AIDS36.3 million (as of 2020)[Note 2]1981–presentWorldwide
5COVID-19 pandemicCOVID-196.2–24.3 million (as of 16 April 2022)0.1–0.3%[2]2019[Note 3]–presentWorldwide
6Third plague pandemicBubonic plague12–15 million[Note 2]1855–1960Worldwide
7Cocoliztli epidemic of 1545–1548Cocoliztli5–15 million1–3%[Note 1]27–80% of Mexican population[9]1545–1548Mexico
8Antonine PlagueSmallpox or measles5–10 million3–6%[3]25–33% of Roman population[10]165–180 (possibly up to 190)Roman Empire
91520 Mexico smallpox epidemicSmallpox5–8 million1–2%[Note 1]23–37% of Mexican population[9]1519–1520Mexico
101918–1922 Russia typhus epidemicTyphus2–3 million0.1–0.16%[6][Note 4]1–1.6% of Russian population[11]1918–1922Russia
111957–1958 influenza pandemicInfluenza A/H2N21–4 million0.03–0.1%[2]1957–1958Worldwide
12Hong Kong fluInfluenza A/H3N21–4 million0.03–0.1%[2]1968–1969Worldwide
13Cocoliztli epidemic of 1576Cocoliztli2–2.5 million0.4–0.5%[3]50% of Mexican population[9]1576–1580Mexico
14735–737 Japanese smallpox epidemicSmallpox2 million1%[3]33% of Japanese population[12]735–737Japan
151772–1773 Persian PlagueBubonic plague2 million0.2–0.3%[3][Note 5]1772–1773Persia
16Naples PlagueBubonic plague1.25 million0.2%[3][Note 5]1656–1658Southern Italy
171846–1860 cholera pandemicCholera1 million+0.08%[3]1846–1860Worldwide
181629–1631 Italian plagueBubonic plague1 million0.2%[3][Note 5]1629–1631Italy
191889–1890 flu pandemicInfluenza (disputed)[13][14]1 million0.07%[3]

Depopulation of the Americas

Not included in the above table are many waves of deadly diseases brought by Europeans to the Americas and Caribbean. Western Hemisphere populations were decimated mostly by smallpox, but also typhus, measles, influenza, bubonic plague, cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, mumps, yellow fever, and pertussis. The lack of written records in many places and the destruction of many native societies by disease, war, and colonization make estimates uncertain. Deaths probably numbered in the tens or perhaps over a hundred million, with perhaps 90% of the population dead in the worst-hit areas. Lack of scientific knowledge about microorganisms and lack of surviving medical records for many areas makes attribution of specific numbers to specific diseases uncertain.

Infectious diseases with high prevalence

There have been various major infectious diseases with high prevalence worldwide, but they are currently not listed in the above table as epidemics/pandemics due to the lack of definite data, such as time span and death toll.

  • Tuberculosis (TB) became epidemic in Europe in the 18th and 19th century, showing a seasonal pattern, and is still taking place globally.[15][16][17] The morbidity and mortality of TB and HIV/AIDS have been closely linked, known as "TB/HIV syndemic".[17][18] According to the World Health Organization, approximately 10 million new TB infections occur every year, and 1.5 million people die from it each year – making it the world's top infectious killer (before COVID-19 pandemic).[17] However, there is a lack of sources which describe major TB epidemics with definite time spans and death tolls.
  • According to the World Health Organization, as of 2019 there are about 296 million people living with chronic hepatitis B, with 1.5 million new infections each year. In 2019, hepatitis B caused about 820,000 deaths, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer).[19] In many places of Asia and Africa, hepatitis B has become endemic.[20] In addition, a person is sometimes infected with both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV, and this population (about 2.7 million) accounts for about 1% of the total HBV infections.[19]
  • According to the World Health Organization, there are approximately 58 million people with chronic hepatitis C, with about 1.5 million new infections occurring per year. In 2019, approximately 290,000 people died from the disease, mostly from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer).[21] There have been many hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics in history.[22][23][24]

Chronology

Events in boldface are ongoing.

EventDateLocationDiseaseDeath toll (estimate)Ref.
1350 BC plague of Megiddo1350 BCMegiddo, land of CanaanAmarna letters EA 244, Biridiya, mayor of Megiddo complains to Amenhotep III of his area being "consumed by death, plague and dust"Unknown[25]
Plague of Athens429–426 BCGreece, Libya, Egypt, EthiopiaUnknown, possibly typhus, typhoid fever or viral hemorrhagic fever75,000–100,000[26][27][28][29]
412 BC epidemic412 BCGreece (Northern Greece, Roman Republic)Unknown, possibly influenzaUnknown[30]
Antonine Plague165–180 (possibly up to 190)Roman EmpireUnknown, possibly smallpox5–10 million[31][32]
Jian'an Plague217Han DynastyUnknown, possibly typhoid fever or viral hemorrhagic feverUnknown[33][34]
Plague of Cyprian250–266EuropeUnknown, possibly smallpoxUnknown[35][36]
Plague of Justinian (beginning of first plague pandemic)541–549Europe and West AsiaBubonic plague15–100 million[7][37][38]
Roman Plague of 590 (part of first plague pandemic)590Rome, Byzantine EmpireBubonic plagueUnknown[39]
Plague of Sheroe (part of First plague pandemic)627–628Bilad al-ShamBubonic plague25,000+
Plague of Amwas (part of first plague pandemic)638–639Byzantine Empire, West Asia, AfricaBubonic plague25,000+[40]
Plague of 664 (part of first plague pandemic)664–689British IslesBubonic plagueUnknown[41]
Plague of 698–701 (part of first plague pandemic)698–701Byzantine Empire, West Asia, Syria, MesopotamiaBubonic plagueUnknown[42]
735–737 Japanese smallpox epidemic735–737JapanSmallpox2 million (approx.13 of Japanese population)[12][43]
Plague of 746–747 (part of first plague pandemic)746–747Byzantine Empire, West Asia, AfricaBubonic plagueUnknown[40]
Black Death (start of the second plague pandemic)1346–1353Eurasia and North AfricaBubonic plague75–200 million (30–60% of European population)[44]
Sweating sickness (multiple outbreaks)1485–1551Britain (England) and later continental EuropeUnknown, possibly an unknown species of hantavirus10,000+[45]
1489 Spain typhus epidemic1489SpainTyphus17,000[46]
1510 influenza pandemic1510Asia, North Africa, EuropeInfluenzaUnknown, around 1% of those infected[47]
1520 Mexico smallpox epidemic1519–1520MexicoSmallpox5–8 million (40% of population)[9]
Cocoliztli epidemic of 1545–15481545–1548MexicoPossibly Salmonella enterica5–15 million (80% of population)[48][49][50][51]
1557 influenza pandemic1557–1559Asia, Africa, Europe, and AmericasInfluenzaUnknown
1561 Chile smallpox epidemic1561–1562ChileSmallpoxUnknown (20–25% of native population)[52]
1563 London plague (part of the second plague pandemic)1563–1564London, EnglandBubonic plague20,100+[53]
Cocoliztli epidemic of 15761576–1580MexicoPossibly Salmonella enterica2–2.5 million (50% of population)[48][49][50][51]
1582 Tenerife plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1582–1583Tenerife, SpainBubonic plague5,000–9,000[54]
1592–1596 Seneca nation measles epidemic1592–1596Seneca nation, North AmericaMeaslesUnknown[55]
1592–1593 Malta plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1592–1593MaltaBubonic plague3,000[56]
1592–1593 London plague (part of the second plague pandemic)1592–1593London, EnglandBubonic plague19,900+[57]
1596–1602 Spain plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1596–1602SpainBubonic plague600,000–700,000[58]
1600–1650 South America malaria epidemic1600–1650South AmericaMalariaUnknown
1603 London plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1603London, EnglandBubonic plague40,000[59][60][61]
1616 New England infections epidemic1616–1620Southern New England, British North America, especially the Wampanoag peopleUnknown, possibly leptospirosis with Weil syndrome. Classic explanations include yellow fever, bubonic plague, influenza, smallpox, chickenpox, typhus, and syndemic infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis DUnknown (estimated 30–90% of population)[62][63]
1629–1631 Italian plague (part of the second plague pandemic)1629–1631ItalyBubonic plague1 million[64]
1632–1635 Augsburg plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1632–1635Augsburg, GermanyBubonic plague13,712[65]
Massachusetts smallpox epidemic1633–1634Massachusetts Bay Colony, Thirteen ColoniesSmallpox1,000[66]
1634–1640 Wyandot people epidemic1634–1640Wyandot people, North AmericaSmallpox and Influenza15,000–25,000[67]
1637 London plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1636–1637London and Westminster, EnglandBubonic plague10,400[68]
1633–1644 Chinese plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1633–1644ChinaBubonic plague200,000+[69][70]
Great Plague of Seville (part of the second plague pandemic)1647–1652SpainBubonic plague500,000[71]
1648 Central America yellow fever epidemic1648Central AmericaYellow feverUnknown[72]
Naples Plague (part of the second plague pandemic)1656–1658ItalyBubonic plague1,250,000[73]
1663–1664 Amsterdam plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1663–1664Amsterdam, NetherlandsBubonic plague24,148[74]
Great Plague of London (part of the second plague pandemic)1665–1666EnglandBubonic plague100,000[75][76]
1668 France plague (part of the second plague pandemic)1668FranceBubonic plague40,000[77]
1675–1676 Malta plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1675–1676MaltaBubonic plague11,300[78]
1676–1685 Spain plague (part of the second plague pandemic)1676–1685SpainBubonic plagueUnknown[79]
1677–1678 Boston smallpox epidemic1677–1678Massachusetts Bay Colony, British North AmericaSmallpox750–1,000[80]
Great Plague of Vienna (part of the second plague pandemic)1679Vienna, AustriaBubonic plague76,000[81]
1681 Prague plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1681Prague, Czech KingdomBubonic plague83,000[82]
1687 South Africa influenza outbreak1687South AfricaUnknown, possibly influenzaUnknown[83]
1693 Boston yellow fever epidemic1693Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony, British North AmericaYellow fever3,100+[84]
1699 Charleston and Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic1699Charleston and Philadelphia, British North AmericaYellow fever520 (300 in Charleston, 220 in Philadelphia)[85]
1702 New York City yellow fever epidemic1702New York City, British North AmericaYellow fever500[86]
1702–1703 St. Lawrence Valley smallpox epidemic1702–1703New France, CanadaSmallpox1,300[87]
1707–1709 Iceland smallpox epidemic1707–1709IcelandSmallpox18,000+ (36% of population)[88]
Great Northern War plague outbreak (part of the second plague pandemic)1710–1712Denmark, Sweden, LithuaniaBubonic plague164,000[89][90]
1713–1715 North America measles epidemic1713–1715Thirteen Colonies and New France, CanadaMeaslesUnknown[91][92]
Great Plague of Marseille (part of the second plague pandemic)1720–1722FranceBubonic plague100,000+[93]
1721 Boston smallpox outbreak1721–1722Massachusetts Bay ColonySmallpox844[94]
1730 Cádiz yellow fever epidemic1730Cádiz, SpainYellow fever2,200[95]
1732–1733 Thirteen Colonies influenza epidemic1732–1733Thirteen ColoniesInfluenzaUnknown[96]
1733 New France smallpox epidemic1733New France, CanadaSmallpoxUnknown[97]
1735–1741 diphtheria epidemic1735–1741New England, Province of New York, Province of New Jersey, British North AmericaDiphtheria20,000[98]
Great Plague of 1738 (part of the second plague pandemic)1738BalkansBubonic plague50,000[99]
1738–1739 North Carolina smallpox epidemic1738–1739Province of Carolina, Thirteen ColoniesSmallpox7,700–11,700[100]
1741 Cartagena yellow fever epidemic1741Cartagena, ColombiaYellow fever20,000[101]
1743 Sicily plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1743Messina, Sicily, ItalyBubonic plague40,000–50,000[102][103]
1759 North America measles outbreak1759North AmericaMeaslesUnknown[104]
1760 Charleston smallpox epidemic1760Charleston, British North AmericaSmallpox730–940[105][106]
1762 Havana yellow fever epidemic1762Havana, CubaYellow fever8,000[101]
1763 Pittsburgh area smallpox outbreak1763North America, present-day Pittsburgh areaSmallpoxUnknown[107]
Russian plague of 1770–1772 (part of the second plague pandemic)1770–1772RussiaBubonic plague50,000[108]
1772 North America measles epidemic1772North AmericaMeasles1,080[109]
1772–1773 Persian Plague (part of the second plague pandemic)1772–1773PersiaBubonic plague2 million[110]
1775–1776 England influenza outbreak1775–1776EnglandInfluenzaUnknown[111]
1775–1782 North American smallpox epidemic1775–1782Native populations in what is now the Pacific Northwest of the United StatesSmallpox11,000+[112][113]
1778 Spain dengue fever outbreak1778SpainDengue feverUnknown[114]
1788 Pueblo Indians smallpox epidemic1788Pueblo Indians in northern New Spain (what is now the Southwestern United States)SmallpoxUnknown[115]
1789–1790 New South Wales smallpox epidemic1789–1790New South Wales, AustraliaSmallpoxUnknown (50–70% of native population)[116][117]
1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic1793Philadelphia, United StatesYellow fever5,000+[118]
1800–1803 Spain yellow fever epidemic1800–1803SpainYellow fever60,000+[119]
1801 Ottoman Empire and Egypt bubonic plague epidemic1801Ottoman Empire, EgyptBubonic plagueUnknown[120]
1802–1803 Saint-Domingue yellow fever epidemic1802–1803Saint-DomingueYellow fever29,000–55,000[121]
1812 Russia typhus epidemic1812RussiaTyphus300,000[46]
1812–1819 Ottoman plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1812–1819Ottoman EmpireBubonic plague300,000+[122]
1813–1814 Malta plague epidemic (part of the second plague pandemic)1813–1814MaltaBubonic plague4,500[123]
Caragea's plague (part of the second plague pandemic)1813RomaniaBubonic plague60,000[124]
1817–1819 Ireland typhus epidemic1817–1819IrelandTyphus65,000[125]
First cholera pandemic1817–1824Asia, EuropeCholera100,000+[126]
1820 Savannah yellow fever epidemic1820Savannah, Georgia, United StatesYellow fever700[127]
1821 Barcelona yellow fever epidemic1821Barcelona, SpainYellow fever5,000–20,000[128][129]
Second cholera pandemic1826–1837Asia, Europe, North AmericaCholera100,000+[130]
1828–1829 New South Wales smallpox epidemic1828–1829New South Wales, AustraliaSmallpox19,000[131][132]
Groningen epidemic1829NetherlandsMalaria2,800[133]
1829–1833 Pacific Northwest malaria epidemic1829–1833Pacific Northwest, United StatesMalaria, possibly other diseases too150,000[134][135]
1829–1835 Iran plague outbreak1829–1835IranBubonic plagueUnknown[136]
1834–1836 Egypt plague epidemic1834–1836EgyptBubonic plagueUnknown[137]
1837 Great Plains smallpox epidemic1837–1838Great Plains, United States and CanadaSmallpox17,000+[138]
1841 Southern United States yellow fever epidemic1841Southern United States (especially Louisiana and Florida)Yellow fever3,498[139]
1847 North American typhus epidemic1847–1848CanadaTyphus20,000+[140]
1847 Southern United States yellow fever epidemic1847Southern United States (especially New Orleans)Yellow fever3,400[141]
1847–1848 influenza epidemic1847–1848WorldwideInfluenzaUnknown[142]
1848–1849 Hawaii epidemic of infections1848–1849Hawaiian KingdomMeasles, whooping cough, dysentery and influenza10,000[143]
1853 New Orleans yellow fever epidemic1853New Orleans, United StatesYellow fever7,970[128]
Third cholera pandemic1846–1860WorldwideCholera1 million+[144]
1853 Ottoman Empire plague epidemic1853Ottoman EmpireBubonic plagueUnknown[145]
1853 Copenhagen cholera outbreak1853Copenhagen, DenmarkCholera4,737[146]
1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak1854London, EnglandCholera616[147]
1855 Norfolk yellow fever epidemic1855Norfolk and Portsmouth, EnglandYellow fever3,000 (2,000 in Norfolk, 1,000 in Portsmouth)[148]
Third plague pandemic1855–1960WorldwideBubonic plague12–15 million (India and China)[149][150]
1855–1857 Montevideo yellow fever epidemic1855–1857Montevideo, UruguayYellow fever3,400 (first wave; 900, second wave; 2,500)[151]
1857 Lisbon yellow fever epidemic1857Lisbon, PortugalYellow fever6,000[128]
1857 Victoria smallpox epidemic1857Victoria, AustraliaSmallpoxUnknown[152]
1857–1859 Europe and the Americas influenza epidemic1857–1859Europe, North America, South AmericaInfluenzaUnknown[153]
1862 Pacific Northwest smallpox epidemic1862–1863Pacific Northwest, Canada and United StatesSmallpox20,000+[154][155][156]
1861–1865 United States typhoid fever epidemic1861–1865United StatesTyphoid fever80,000[157]
Fourth cholera pandemic1863–1875Middle EastCholera600,000[158]
1867 Sydney measles epidemic1867Sydney, AustraliaMeasles748[159]
1871 Buenos Aires yellow fever epidemic1871Buenos Aires, ArgentinaYellow fever13,500–26,200[160]
1870–1875 Europe smallpox epidemic1870–1875EuropeSmallpox500,000[161][162]
1875 Fiji measles outbreak1875FijiMeasles40,000[163]
1875–1876 Australia scarlet fever epidemic1875–1876AustraliaScarlet fever8,000[159]
1876 Ottoman Empire plague epidemic1876Ottoman EmpireBubonic plague20,000[164]
1878 New Orleans yellow fever epidemic1878New Orleans, United StatesYellow fever4,046[121]
1878 Mississippi Valley yellow fever epidemic1878Mississippi Valley, United StatesYellow fever13,000[121]
Fifth cholera pandemic1881–1896Asia, Africa, Europe, South AmericaCholera298,600[165]
1885 Montreal smallpox epidemic1885Montreal, CanadaSmallpox3,164[166]
1889–1890 influenza pandemic1889–1890WorldwideInfluenza or Human coronavirus OC43 / HCoV-OC43[14][167] (disputed)1 million[168]
1894 Hong Kong plague (part of the third plague pandemic)1894–1929Hong KongBubonic plague20,000+[169]
Bombay plague epidemic (part of the third plague pandemic)1896–1905Bombay, IndiaBubonic plague20,788[170]
1896–1906 Congo Basin African trypanosomiasis epidemic1896–1906Congo BasinAfrican trypanosomiasis500,000[171]
1899 Porto plague outbreak (part of the third plague pandemic)1899Porto, PortugalBubonic plague132[172]
Sixth cholera pandemic1899–1923Europe, Asia, AfricaCholera800,000+[173]
San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 (part of the third plague pandemic)1900–1904San Francisco, United StatesBubonic plague119[174]
1900 Sydney bubonic plague epidemic (part of the third plague pandemic)1900AustraliaBubonic plague103[175]
1900–1920 Uganda African trypanosomiasis epidemic1900–1920UgandaAfrican trypanosomiasis200,000–300,000[171]
Papua New Guinea kuru epidemic1901–2009Papua New GuineaKuru2,700–3,000+[176][177]
1903 Fremantle plague epidemic (part of the third plague pandemic)1903Fremantle, Western AustraliaBubonic plague4[178]
1906 malaria outbreak in Ceylon1906–1936CeylonMalaria80,000[179]
Manchurian plague (part of the third plague pandemic)1910–1911ChinaPneumonic plague60,000[180]
1915 encephalitis lethargica pandemic1915–1926WorldwideEncephalitis lethargica500,000[181][182][183]
1916 United States polio epidemic1916United StatesPoliomyelitis7,130[184]
1918 influenza pandemic ('Spanish flu')1918–1920WorldwideInfluenza A virus subtype H1N1
H1N1 virus
17–100 million[185][186][187]
1918–1922 Russia typhus epidemic1918–1922RussiaTyphus2–3 million[188]
1924 Los Angeles pneumonic plague outbreak1924Los Angeles, United StatesPneumonic plague30[189]
1924–1925 Minnesota smallpox epidemic1924–1925Minnesota, United StatesSmallpox500[190]
1927 Montreal typhoid fever epidemic1927Montreal, CanadaTyphoid fever538[191]
1929–1930 psittacosis pandemic1929–1930WorldwidePsittacosis100+[192]
Croydon typhoid outbreak of 19371937Croydon, United KingdomTyphoid fever43[193]
1937 Australia polio epidemic1937AustraliaPoliomyelitisUnknown[194]
1940 Sudan yellow fever epidemic1940SudanYellow fever1,627[195]
1942–1944 Egypt malaria epidemic1942–1944EgyptMalariaUnknown[137][196]
1946 Egypt relapsing fever epidemic1946EgyptRelapsing feverUnknown[137][196]
1947 Egypt cholera epidemic1947EgyptCholera10,277[137][196][197]
1948–1952 United States polio epidemic1948–1952United StatesPoliomyelitis9,000[184]
1957–1958 influenza pandemic ('Asian flu')1957–1958WorldwideInfluenza A virus subtype H2N21–4 million[185][198][199]
1960–1962 Ethiopia yellow fever epidemic1960–1962EthiopiaYellow fever30,000[200]
Seventh cholera pandemic1961–1975WorldwideCholera (El Tor strain)36,000[201]
Hong Kong flu1968–1970WorldwideInfluenza A virus subtype H3N2
H3N2 virus
1–4 million[185][198][199]
1971 Staphorst polio epidemic1971Staphorst, NetherlandsPoliomyelitis5[202]
1972 Yugoslav smallpox outbreak1972YugoslaviaSmallpox35[203]
London flu1972–1973United StatesInfluenza A virus subtype H3N21,027[204]
1973 Italy cholera epidemic1973ItalyCholera (El Tor strain)24[205]
1974 smallpox epidemic of India1974IndiaSmallpox15,000[206]
1977 Russian flu1977–1979WorldwideInfluenza A virus subtype H1N1700,000[207][208]
Sverdlovsk anthrax leak1979RussiaAnthrax105[209]
HIV/AIDS pandemic1981–presentWorldwideHIV/AIDS
Human immunodeficiency virus
36.3 million (as of 2020)[210]
1984 Western Sahara plague1984Western SaharaBubonic plague64
1986 Oju yellow fever epidemic1986Oju, NigeriaYellow fever5,600+[211]
1987 Mali yellow fever epidemic1987MaliYellow fever145[212]
1988 Shanghai hepatitis A epidemic1988Shanghai, ChinaHepatitis A31–47[213][214][215]
1991 Bangladesh cholera epidemic1991BangladeshCholera8,410–9,432[216]
1991 Latin America cholera epidemic1991–1993Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Mexico, El Salvador, GuatemalaCholera8,000[217][218]
1994 plague in India1994IndiaBubonic plague and Pneumonic plague56[219]
United Kingdom BSE outbreak1996–2001United KingdomVariant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease / vCJD178[220][221]
1996 West Africa meningitis epidemic1996West AfricaMeningitis10,000[222]
1998–1999 Malaysia Nipah virus outbreak1998–1999MalaysiaNipah virus infection105[223]
1998–2000 Democratic Republic of the Congo Marburg virus outbreak1998–2000Democratic Republic of the CongoMarburg virus128[224]
2000 Central America dengue epidemic2000Central AmericaDengue fever40+[225]
2001 Nigeria cholera epidemic2001NigeriaCholera400+[226]
2001 South Africa cholera epidemic2001South AfricaCholera139[227][228]
2002–2004 SARS outbreak2002–2004WorldwideSevere acute respiratory syndrome / SARS774[229]
2003–2019 Asia and Egypt avian influenza epidemic2003–2019China, Southeast Asia and EgyptInfluenza A virus subtype H5N1455[230]
2004 Indonesia dengue epidemic2004IndonesiaDengue fever658[231]
2004 Sudan Ebola outbreak2004SudanEbola7[232]
2004–2005 Angola Marburg virus outbreak2004-2005AngolaMarburg virus227[224]
2005 dengue outbreak in Singapore2005SingaporeDengue fever27[233]
2006 Luanda cholera epidemic2006Luanda, AngolaCholera1,200+[234]
2006 Ituri Province plague epidemic2006Ituri Province, Democratic Republic of the CongoBubonic plague61[235][236]
2006 India malaria outbreak2006IndiaMalaria17[237]
2006 dengue outbreak in India2006IndiaDengue fever50+[238]
2006 dengue outbreak in Pakistan2006PakistanDengue fever50+[239]
2006 Philippines dengue epidemic2006PhilippinesDengue fever1,000[240]
2006–2007 East Africa Rift Valley fever outbreak2006–2007East AfricaRift Valley fever394[241]
Mweka Ebola epidemic2007Democratic Republic of the CongoEbola187[242]
2007 Ethiopia cholera epidemic2007EthiopiaCholera684[243]
2007 Iraq cholera outbreak2007IraqCholera10[244]
2007 Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Mexico dengue fever epidemic2007Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, MexicoDengue fever183[245]
2007 Uganda Ebola outbreak2007UgandaEbola37[232]
2007 Netherlands Q-fever epidemic2007–2018NetherlandsQ-fever95[246]
2008 Brazil dengue epidemic2008BrazilDengue fever67[247]
2008 Cambodia dengue epidemic2008CambodiaDengue fever407[248]
2008 Chad cholera epidemic2008ChadCholera123[249]
2008–2017 China hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic2008–2017ChinaHand, foot, and mouth disease3,322+[250]
2008 India cholera epidemic2008IndiaCholera115[251]
2008 Madagascar plague outbreak2008MadagascarBubonic plague18+[252]
2008 Philippines dengue epidemic2008PhilippinesDengue fever172[253]
2008–2009 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak2008–2009ZimbabweCholera4,293[254]
2009 Bolivian dengue fever epidemic2009BoliviaDengue fever18[255]
2009 Gujarat hepatitis outbreak2009IndiaHepatitis B49[256]
Queensland 2009 dengue outbreak2009Queensland, AustraliaDengue fever1+ (503 cases)[257]
2009–2010 West African meningitis outbreak2009–2010West AfricaMeningitis1,100[258]
2009 swine flu pandemic2009–2010WorldwideInfluenza A virus subtype H1N1Lab confirmed deaths: 18,449 (reported to the WHO)[259]
Estimated death toll: 284,000 (possible range 151,700–575,400)[260]
2010s Haiti cholera outbreak2010–2019HaitiCholera (strain serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa)10,075[261]
2010–2014 Democratic Republic of the Congo measles outbreak2010–2014Democratic Republic of the CongoMeasles4,500+[262][263]
2011 Vietnam hand, foot, and mouth disease epidemic2011VietnamHand, foot and mouth disease170[264][265]
2011 dengue outbreak in Pakistan2011PakistanDengue fever350+[266]
2012 yellow fever outbreak in Darfur, Sudan2012Darfur, SudanYellow fever171[267]
2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak2012–presentWorldwideMiddle East respiratory syndrome / MERS-CoV941 (as of 8 May 2021)[268][269]
2013 dengue outbreak in Singapore2013SingaporeDengue fever8
2013 Vietnam measles outbreak2013–2014VietnamMeasles142[270]
Western African Ebola virus epidemic2013–2016Worldwide, primarily concentrated in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra LeoneEbola
Ebola virus virion
11,323+[271][272][273]
2013–2014 chikungunya outbreak2013–2015AmericasChikungunya183[274]
2013–19 avian influenza epidemic2013–2019ChinaInfluenza A virus subtype H7N9616[275]
2014 Madagascar plague outbreak2014–2017MadagascarBubonic plague292[276]
Flint water crisis2014–2015Flint, Michigan, United StatesLegionnaires' disease12[277]
2014 Odisha jaundice outbreak2014–2015IndiaPrimarily Hepatitis E, but also Hepatitis A36[278]
2015 Indian swine flu outbreak2015IndiaInfluenza A virus subtype H1N12,035[279][280][281]
2015–2016 Zika virus epidemic2015–2016WorldwideZika virus53[282]
2016 Angola and Democratic Republic of the Congo yellow fever outbreak2016Angola and Democratic Republic of the CongoYellow fever498 (377 in Angola, 121 in Congo)[283]
2016–2021 Yemen cholera outbreak2016–2021YemenCholera3,981 (as of December 2020)[284]
2017 dengue outbreak in Peshawar2017Peshawar, PakistanDengue fever69[285]
2017 Gorakhpur Japanese encephalitis outbreak2017IndiaJapanese encephalitis1,317[286]
2017 dengue outbreak in Sri Lanka2017Sri LankaDengue fever440[287]
2018 Nipah virus outbreak in Kerala2018IndiaNipah virus infection17[288]
Kivu Ebola epidemic2018–2020Democratic Republic of the Congo and UgandaEbola2,280[289][290][291]
2018 NDM-CRE outbreak in Italy2018–presentItalyNew Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae31 (as of September 2019)[292]
2019 measles outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo2019–2020Democratic Republic of the CongoMeasles7,018+[293]
2019–2020 New Zealand measles outbreak2019–2020New ZealandMeasles2[294]
2019 Philippines measles outbreak2019PhilippinesMeasles415[295]
2019 Kuala Koh measles outbreak2019Kuala Koh, MalaysiaMeasles15[296]
2019 Samoa measles outbreak2019SamoaMeasles83[297]
2019–2020 dengue fever epidemic2019–2020Asia-Pacific, Latin AmericaDengue fever3,930[298]
2019 Nigeria Lassa fever epidemic2019–presentNigeriaLassa fever247 (as of May 2021)[299]
COVID-19 pandemic2019–presentWorldwideCoronavirus disease 2019 / COVID-196.2–24.3 million (as of 16 April 2022)[300][301][302][303]
2020 Democratic Republic of the Congo Ebola outbreak2020Democratic Republic of the CongoEbola55[304]
2020 Nigeria yellow fever epidemic2020–presentNigeriaYellow fever296 (as of 31 December 2020)[305]
2021 India black fungus epidemic2021–presentIndiaBlack fungus / COVID-19 associated mucormycosis4,332[306]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d The estimates of global population at the time vary non-trivially (no consensus). The current estimates are based on the available population data from estimates of historical world population and.[2][3]
  2. ^ a b Global population changed significantly (not due to the epidemic) during the period of this epidemic.
  3. ^ The COVID-19 pandemic started as a regional outbreak/epidemic of COVID-19 in China in late 2019. The World Health Organization declared it as a "pandemic" on 11 March 2020.[8] The starting time of this epidemic is thus 2019, regardless of the time when it was formally recognized as a pandemic.
  4. ^ Epidemic typhus was not limited to Russia and several million citizens died in Poland and Romania. However, due to lack of exact data, only the Russian epidemic is included.
  5. ^ a b c No accurate data about the local population at the time of this epidemic.

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Further reading

External links

Media files used on this page

Coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2.png
Author/Creator: Alexey Solodovnikov (Idea, Producer, CG, Editor), Valeria Arkhipova (Scientific Сonsultant), Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Scientifically accurate atomic model of the external structure of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a strain (genetic variant) of the coronavirus that caused Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), first identified in Wuhan, China, during December 2019

Each separate locus (amorphous blob) is an atom of:

  cobalt: membrane
  crimson: E protein
  green: M protein
  orange: glucose (glycan)
  turquoise : S (spike) glycoprotein
Yersinia pestis fluorescent.jpeg
Yersinia pestis, Direct Fluorescent Antibody Stain (DFA), 200x Magnification. CDC 2057 - US Government public domain image
Ebola virus virion.jpg
Ebola virus virion. Created by GC microbiologist Cynthia Goldsmith, this colorized transmission electron micrograph (TEM) revealed some of the ultrastructural morphology displayed by an Ebola virus virion.
1607-35 Pesttafel Augsburg anagoria.JPG
Plague panel with the triumph of death. Panels of this kind were placed on the walls of houses to warn against the plague. A plague epidemy raged in Augsburg between 1607 and 1636.
HIV-budding-Color.jpg
Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding (in green) from cultured lymphocyte. This image has been colored to highlight important features; see PHIL 1197 for original black and white view of this image. Multiple round bumps on cell surface represent sites of assembly and budding of virions.
Reconstructed Spanish Flu Virus.jpg
This negative stained transmission electron micrograph (TEM) showed recreated 1918 influenza virions that were collected from the supernatant of a 1918-infected Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell culture 18 hours after infection.

In order to sequester these virions, the MDCK cells were spun down (centrifugation), and the 1918 virus present in the fluid was immediately fixed for negative staining.

Dr. Terrence Tumpey, one of the organization’s staff microbiologists and a member of the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID), recreated the 1918 influenza virus in order to identify the characteristics that made this organism such a deadly pathogen. Research efforts such as this, enables researchers to develop new vaccines and treatments for future pandemic influenza viruses.

The 1918 Spanish flu epidemic was caused by an influenza A (H1N1) virus, killing more than 500,000 people in the United States, and up to 50 million worldwide. The possible source was a newly emerged virus from a swine or an avian host of a mutated H1N1 virus. Many people died within the first few days after infection, and others died of complications later. Nearly half of those who died were young, healthy adults. Influenza A (H1N1) viruses still circulate today after being introduced again into the human population in the 1970s.