List of courts of the United States

The courts of the United States are closely linked hierarchical systems of courts at the federal and state levels. The federal courts form the judicial branch of the federal government of the United States and operate under the authority of the United States Constitution and federal law. The state and territorial courts of the individual U.S. states and territories operate under the authority of the state and territorial constitutions and state and territorial law.

Federal statutes that refer to the "courts of the United States" are referring only to the courts of the federal government, and not the courts of the individual states and counties. Because of the federalist underpinnings of the division between sovereign federal and state governments, the various state court systems are free to operate in ways that vary widely from those of the federal government, and from one another. In practice, however, every state has adopted a division of its judiciary into at least two levels, and almost every state has three levels, with trial courts hearing cases which may be reviewed by appellate courts, and finally by a state supreme court. A few states have two separate supreme courts, with one having authority over civil matters and the other reviewing criminal cases. 47 states and the federal government allow at least one appeal of right from a final judgment on the merits, meaning that the court receiving the appeal must decide the appeal after it is briefed and argued properly. Three states do not provide a right to a first appeal. Rather, they give litigants only a right to petition for the right to have an appeal heard.

State courts often have diverse names and structures, as illustrated below. State courts hear about 98% of litigation; most states have courts of special jurisdiction, which typically handle minor disputes such as traffic citations, and courts of general jurisdiction responsible for more serious disputes.[1]

The U.S. federal court system hears cases involving litigants from two or more states, violations of federal laws, treaties, and the Constitution, admiralty, bankruptcy, and related issues.[2] In practice, about 80% of the cases are civil and 20% criminal.[1] The civil cases often involve civil rights, patents, and Social Security while the criminal cases involve tax fraud, robbery, counterfeiting, and drug crimes.[1] The trial courts are U.S. district courts, followed by United States courts of appeals and then the Supreme Court of the United States. The judicial system, whether state or federal, begins with a court of first instance, whose work may be reviewed by an appellate court, and then ends at the court of last resort, which may review the work of the lower courts.[3]

Institutions which may be considered courts of the United States are listed below.

United States Federal Courts

The geographical boundary of the 12 United States Courts of Appeals

Geographic based jurisdiction

Specific subject-matter jurisdiction

Headquarters of the U.S. Court of Federal Claims on Madison Place in Washington, D.C.
  • United States federal courts with Original Jurisdiction over specific subject matter:
    • United States Tax Court[19]
    • Patent Trial and Appeal Board
    • International Trade Commission
    • United States Court of International Trade[20]
    • United States Court of Federal Claims[21]
    • United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court[22]
    • United States bankruptcy courts[23]
    • Trademark Trial and Appeal Board
    • United States Merit Systems Protection Board
    • United States Alien Terrorist Removal Court
  • Courts with Appellate Jurisdiction over specific subject matter:
    • United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit[24]
    • United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces[25]
      • United States Army Court of Criminal Appeals
      • Navy-Marine Corps Court of Criminal Appeals
      • Air Force Court of Criminal Appeals
      • Coast Guard Court of Criminal Appeals
    • United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims[26]
    • United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review
    • United States Court of Military Commission Review
    • Civilian Board of Contract Appeals
    • Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals
    • Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals
    • Office of Dispute Resolution for Acquisition
    • Board of Immigration Appeals
    • Board of Veterans' Appeals

Former United States Courts

  • Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (before 2012)
  • Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture (1780–1789)
  • Temporary Emergency Court of Appeals (1971–1992)[27]
  • United States circuit courts (1789–1911)
  • United States Commerce Court (1910–1913)[28]
  • United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals (1909–1982)
  • United States Court of Private Land Claims (1891–1904)[29]
  • United States Court for Berlin (1955–1990)
  • United States District Court for the Canal Zone ( -1982)
  • United States Court for China (1906–1943)

Courts by state of the United States


Alabama

State courts of Alabama
  • Supreme Court of Alabama[30]
    • Alabama Court of Civil Appeals[31]
    • Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals[32]
      • Alabama Circuit Courts (41 circuits)[33]
        • Alabama District Courts (67 districts)[33]
        • Alabama Municipal Courts (273 courts)[33]
        • Alabama Probate Courts (68 courts)[33]
    • Alabama Court of the Judiciary[34]

Federal courts located in Alabama

(All United States District Courts in Alabama may be appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit, headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia)

Former federal courts of Alabama

  • United States District Court for the District of Alabama (extinct, subdivided in 1824)

Alaska

State courts of Alaska

Federal courts located in Alaska


Arizona

State courts of Arizona
  • Arizona Supreme Court[41]
    • Arizona Court of Appeals (2 divisions)[42]
      • Superior Court of Arizona (15 counties)[42]
        • Justices of the Peace (county courts) [43] and Arizona Municipal Courts, city trial courts and courts of limited jurisdiction

Federal courts located in Arizona


Arkansas

State courts of Arkansas
  • Arkansas Supreme Court[45]
    • Arkansas Court of Appeals[46]
      • Arkansas Circuit Courts (23 judicial circuits)[47]
        • Arkansas District Courts (formerly Arkansas Municipal Courts) [48]
        • Arkansas City Courts[49]

Federal courts located in Arkansas

Former federal courts of Arkansas

  • United States District Court for the District of Arkansas (extinct, subdivided)

California

Headquarters of the Supreme Court of California, in San Francisco.
State courts of record of California
State quasi-administrative courts of California
  • State Bar Court of California;[55] an administrative court within the judicial branch, subordinate to the California Supreme Court
State administrative courts of California
  • California State Personnel Board, hearing appeals from state human resources matters
  • California Labor Commissioner's Office
  • Office of Administrative Hearings, California Department of General Services[56]
  • California Office of Tax Appeals, hearing appeals from the Franchise Tax Board and California Department of Tax and Fee Administration
  • California Unemployment Insurance Appeals Board, hearing appeals from the Employment Development Department
  • California Office of Administrative Law, when hearing underground regulation petitions[57]

Federal courts located in California

Former federal courts of California

  • United States District Court for the District of California (extinct, subdivided)

Colorado

State courts of Colorado
  • Colorado Supreme Court[62]
    • Colorado Court of Appeals[63]
      • Colorado District Courts (22 judicial districts)[64]
        • Colorado County Courts[65]

Federal courts located in Colorado


Connecticut

State courts of Connecticut
  • Connecticut Supreme Court[67]
    • Connecticut Appellate Court[68]
      • Connecticut Superior Court (13 districts)[69]
      • Connecticut Probate Courts (54 districts)[70]

Federal court located in Connecticut:


Delaware

State courts of Delaware
  • Delaware Supreme Court[72]

Federal courts located in Delaware


Florida

Headquarters of the Florida Supreme Court in Tallahassee.
State courts of Florida

Federal courts located in Florida

Former federal courts of Florida

  • United States District Court for the District of Florida (extinct, subdivided)

Georgia

State courts of Georgia

Federal courts located in Georgia

Former federal courts of Georgia

  • United States District Court for the District of Georgia (extinct, subdivided)

Hawaii

Aliʻiōlani Hale, in Honolulu, the building where the Hawaiʻi State Supreme Court meets
State courts of Hawaii
  • Hawaiʻi State Supreme Court[96]
    • Hawaii Intermediate Court of Appeals[97]
      • Hawaii state circuit courts (4 circuits)[98]
      • Hawaii State family courts (4 circuits)[99]
      • Hawaii state district courts (including Small Claims Court)[100]
      • Hawaiʻi State Land Court[101]
      • Hawaii Tax Appeal Court[101]

Federal courts located in Hawaii


Idaho

State courts of Idaho
  • Idaho Supreme Court[103]
    • Idaho Court of Appeals[103]
      • Idaho District Courts (7 judicial districts)[104]
        • Idaho Drug Court
        • Idaho Mental Health Court

Federal courts located in Idaho


Illinois

The Dirksen Federal Building in Chicago, headquarters of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.

State courts of Illinois

Federal courts located in Illinois

Former federal courts of Illinois


Indiana

State courts of Indiana
The E. Ross Adair Federal Building, seat of the Fort Wayne division of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Indiana
  • Indiana Supreme Court[113]
    • Indiana Court of Appeals (5 districts; previously Indiana Appellate Court)[114]

Federal courts located in Indiana

Former federal courts of Indiana

  • United States District Court for the District of Indiana (extinct, subdivided)

Iowa

State courts of Iowa
  • Iowa Supreme Court[120]
    • Iowa Court of Appeals[121]
      • Iowa District Courts (8 districts)[122]

Federal courts located in Iowa

Former federal courts of Iowa

  • United States District Court for the District of Iowa (extinct, subdivided)

Kansas

State courts of Kansas
  • Kansas Supreme Court[125]
    • Kansas Court of Appeals[126]
      • Kansas District Courts (31 districts)[127]
        • Kansas Municipal Courts[128]

Federal courts located in Kansas


Kentucky

Kentucky Court of Justice

Under an amendment to the Kentucky Constitution passed by the state's voters in 1975,[130] judicial power in Kentucky is "vested exclusively in one Court of Justice", divided into the following:[131]

Federal courts located in this state
Former federal courts of Kentucky
  • United States District Court for the District of Kentucky (extinct, subdivided)

Louisiana

State courts of Louisiana
Louisiana judicial districts map
  • Louisiana Supreme Court[138]
    • Louisiana Circuit Courts of Appeal (5 circuits)[139]
      • Louisiana District Courts (42 districts)[140]
Federal courts located in Louisiana
The John Minor Wisdom U.S. Courthouse, home of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit in New Orleans
Former federal courts of Louisiana

Maine

State courts of Maine
  • Maine Supreme Judicial Court[144]
    • Maine Superior Court[145]
      • Maine District Courts (13 districts) [146]
      • Maine Problem-Solving Courts[147]

Federal courts located in Maine


Maryland

Maryland judicial circuit map
State courts of Maryland
  • Maryland Court of Appeals[149]
    • Maryland Court of Special Appeals[150]
      • Maryland Circuit Courts (8 judicial circuits)[151]
        • Maryland District Courts (34 locations in 12 judicial districts)[152]

Federal courts located in Maryland

Former federal courts of Maryland


Massachusetts

John Adams Courthouse in Boston, Massachusetts, home to the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court and Massachusetts Appeals Court
State courts of Massachusetts
Judicial courts
Administrative courts
  • Massachusetts Appellate Tax Board[165]
  • Massachusetts Division of Labor Relations[166]

Federal courts located in Massachusetts


Michigan

Judicial circuits map
State courts of Michigan
  • Michigan Supreme Court[168]
    • Michigan Court of Appeals[169]
      • Michigan Circuit Courts[170]
        • Michigan District Courts[170]
        • Michigan Probate Courts[170]
      • Michigan Court of Claims

Federal courts located in Michigan

Former federal courts of Michigan

  • United States District Court for the District of Michigan (extinct, subdivided on February 24, 1863)

Minnesota

Supreme Court Chamber of the Minnesota Supreme Court in the Minnesota State Capitol in Saint Paul.
State courts of Minnesota

Federal courts located in Minnesota


Mississippi

State courts of Mississippi

Federal courts located in Mississippi

Former federal courts of Mississippi

  • United States District Court for the District of Mississippi (extinct, subdivided on June 18, 1838)

Missouri

State courts of Missouri
Missouri State Supreme Court building across from state capitol in Jefferson City.

Federal courts located in Missouri

Former federal courts of Missouri

  • United States District Court for the District of Missouri (extinct, subdivided)

Montana

State courts of Montana
  • Montana Supreme Court[195]
    • Montana District Courts (56 courts, 22 judicial districts)[196][197]
      • Montana Justice Courts[198]
      • Montana City Courts[198]
      • Montana Municipal Courts[198]
    • Montana Youth Courts, Generally assigned to District Court Judges, cases appealed to the Montana Supreme Court.[199]
    • Montana Worker's Compensation Court[197]
    • Montana Water Court[197]
    • Montana Asbestos Claims Court[200]

Federal courts located in Montana


Nebraska

State courts of Nebraska
  • Nebraska Supreme Court[203]
    • Nebraska Court of Appeals[204]
      • Nebraska District Courts (12 districts)[205]
        • Nebraska County Courts (93 courts, one for each county)[206]
        • Nebraska Juvenile Courts[207]
        • Nebraska Workers' Compensation Court[208]
        • Nebraska Problem-Solving Courts and Drug Courts[209]
        • Nebraska Small Claims Courts[210]

Federal courts located in Nebraska


Nevada

State courts of Nevada
The headquarters of the Supreme Court of Nevada in Carson City.
  • Supreme Court of Nevada[212]
    • Nevada Court of Appeals[213]
      • District Courts of Nevada (11 districts)[214]
        • Municipal Courts of Nevada[215]
        • Justice Courts of Nevada[216]

Federal courts located in Nevada


New Hampshire

State courts of New Hampshire

Federal courts located in New Hampshire


New Jersey

State courts of New Jersey
Richard J. Hughes Justice Complex, Trenton, New Jersey: The seat of the New Jersey Supreme Court and the central administrative offices of all statewide courts in New Jersey.
  • New Jersey Supreme Court (previously the New Jersey Court of Errors and Appeals)[224]
    • New Jersey Superior Court (including the Appellate Division; 15 vicinages)[225]
    • New Jersey Tax Court[226]
    • New Jersey Municipal Courts (including Joint Municipal Courts and the Court of the Palisades Interstate Park)[227]

Federal courts located in New Jersey

Former federal courts of New Jersey

  • United States District Court for the District of East Jersey (1801–1802; extinct, merged)
  • United States District Court for the District of West Jersey (1801–1802; extinct, merged)

New Mexico

State courts of New Mexico
  • New Mexico Supreme Court[229]
    • New Mexico Court of Appeals[229]
      • New Mexico District Court (13 judicial districts)[230]
        • New Mexico Magistrate Court[231]
        • Bernalillo County Metropolitan Court[232]
        • New Mexico Municipal Court[230]
        • New Mexico Probate Court[230]

Federal courts located in New Mexico


New York

State courts of New York
The 1842 courthouse of the New York Court of Appeals in Albany

Federal courts located in New York

Former federal courts of New York

  • United States District Court for the District of New York (extinct, subdivided)

North Carolina

State courts of North Carolina

Federal courts located in North Carolina

Former federal courts of North Carolina

  • United States District Court for the District of North Carolina (extinct, subdivided)
  • United States District Court for the District of Edenton (1794–1797; extinct, reorganized)
  • United States District Court for the District of New Bern (1794–1797; extinct, reorganized)
  • United States District Court for the District of Wilmington (1794–1797; extinct, reorganized)
  • United States District Court for the District of Albemarle (1801–1872; extinct, reorganized)
  • United States District Court for the District of Cape Fear (1801–1872; extinct, reorganized)
  • United States District Court for the District of Pamptico (1801–1872; extinct, reorganized)

North Dakota

State courts of North Dakota
  • North Dakota Supreme Court[251]
    • North Dakota District Courts (7 judicial districts)[252]
      • North Dakota Municipal Courts[253]

Federal courts located in North Dakota


Ohio

State courts of Ohio
The Thomas J. Moyer Ohio Judicial Center in Columbus, headquarters of the Supreme Court of Ohio

Federal courts located in this state

Former federal courts of Ohio

  • United States District Court for the District of Ohio (extinct, subdivided)

Oklahoma

State courts of Oklahoma
  • Oklahoma Supreme Court (civil)[261]
  • Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals (criminal)[262]
    • Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals[261]
      • Oklahoma District Courts (26 judicial districts with 77 district courts)[261]
      • Oklahoma Workers' Compensation Court[263]

Federal courts located in Oklahoma


Oregon

State courts of Oregon
Courtroom of the Oregon Supreme Court.

Federal courts located in Oregon


Pennsylvania

State courts of Pennsylvania
  • Supreme Court of Pennsylvania[274]
    • Superior Court of Pennsylvania (3 districts)[275]
    • Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania[276]
      • Pennsylvania Courts of Common Pleas (60 judicial districts)[277]
        • Magisterial District Courts[278]

Former colonial and state courts of Pennsylvania

  • Provincial Court (1684-1722)
  • Orphans' Courts (1688-1968 when merged with Courts of Common Pleas)
  • Justice of the Peace Courts (1682 - now Magisterial District Courts)
  • Court for the Trial of Negroes (1700-1780)
  • District Courts (1811-1873)
  • County Courts (1682-1722)
  • Court of Chancery (1720-1735)
  • High Court of Errors and Appeals (1780-1808)
  • Courts of Quarter Sessions of the Peace (1682-1969)
  • Courts of Oyer and Terminer and General Gaol Delivery (1802-1910)

Federal courts located in Pennsylvania

Former federal courts located in Pennsylvania

  • Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture (1780-1787)
  • United States District Court for the District of Pennsylvania (1789-1815 when it was subdivided)

Rhode Island

State courts of Rhode Island
  • Rhode Island Supreme Court[282]
    • Rhode Island Superior Courts[283]
      • Rhode Island District Courts[284]
      • Rhode Island Family Courts[285]
      • Rhode Island Workers' Compensation Courts[286]
      • Rhode Island Traffic Tribunals[287]

Federal courts located in Rhode Island


South Carolina

State courts of South Carolina

Federal courts located in South Carolina


South Dakota

State courts of South Dakota

  • South Dakota Supreme Court[297]
    • South Dakota Circuit Courts (7 circuits)[298]
    • South Dakota Magistrate Courts[299]

Federal courts located in South Dakota


Tennessee

State courts of Tennessee
  • Tennessee Supreme Court[301]
    • Tennessee Court of Appeals (3 grand divisions)[302]
    • Tennessee Court of Criminal Appeals (3 grand divisions)[303]
      • Tennessee Circuit Courts (31 judicial districts)[304]
      • Tennessee Chancery and Probate Courts (31 judicial districts)[304]
      • Tennessee Criminal Courts (31 judicial districts)[304]
      • Tennessee Municipal and City Courts[304]
      • Tennessee Juvenile and Family Courts[305]
      • Tennessee General Session Courts[306]

Federal courts located in Tennessee

Former federal courts of Tennessee

  • United States District Court for the District of Tennessee (extinct, subdivided)

Texas

State courts of Texas

Federal courts located in Texas

Former federal courts of Texas

  • United States District Court for the District of Texas (extinct, subdivided)

Utah

The Utah Supreme Court meets in the Scott M. Matheson Courthouse.
State courts of Utah
  • Utah Supreme Court[321]
    • Utah Court of Appeals[322]
      • Utah District Courts (8 districts)[323]
      • Utah Juvenile Courts[324]
      • Utah Justice Courts[325]

Federal courts located in Utah


Vermont

State courts of Vermont

Federal courts located in Vermont


Virginia

State courts of Virginia
  • Supreme Court of Virginia[336]
    • Court of Appeals of Virginia[337]
      • Virginia Circuit Court (120 courts divided among 31 judicial circuits)[338]
        • Virginia General District Court (courts in 32 districts)[339]
        • Virginia Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court (courts in 32 districts)[340]

Federal courts located in Virginia

Former federal courts of Virginia


Washington

State courts of Washington

The headquarters of the Washington Supreme Court in Olympia.
  • Washington Supreme Court[344]
    • Washington Court of Appeals (3 divisions)[345]
      • Washington Superior Courts (39 courts of general jurisdiction, one for each county)[346]
        • Washington District Courts (Courts of limited jurisdiction)[347]
        • Washington Municipal Courts (Courts of limited jurisdiction)[348]

Federal courts located in Washington

Former federal courts of Washington

  • United States District Court for the District of Washington (extinct, subdivided)

West Virginia

State courts of West Virginia
  • Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia[351]
    • West Virginia Circuit Courts (31 judicial circuits)[351]
      • West Virginia Family Courts[351]
      • West Virginia Magistrate Courts[351]
      • West Virginia Municipal Courts[351]

Federal courts located in West Virginia

Former federal courts of West Virginia

  • United States District Court for the District of West Virginia (extinct, subdivided)

Wisconsin

State courts of Wisconsin

Federal courts located in Wisconsin

Former federal courts of Wisconsin

  • United States District Court for the District of Wisconsin (extinct, subdivided)

Wyoming

State courts of Wyoming
  • Wyoming Supreme Court[360]
    • Wyoming District Courts (9 districts)[361]
      • Wyoming Circuit Courts[362]

Federal courts located in Wyoming


Courts in the District of Columbia

  • District of Columbia Court of Appeals[364]
    • Superior Court of the District of Columbia[365]

Federal courts located in the District of Columbia

Former federal courts in the District of Columbia


Courts of the Territories of the United States

American Samoa

Guam

  • Supreme Court of Guam[368]
    • Superior Court of Guam[369]

United States territorial court

Northern Mariana Islands

  • Northern Mariana Islands Supreme Court[371]
    • Northern Mariana Islands Superior Court[372]

United States territorial court

  • United States District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands[373]

Panama Canal Zone

Puerto Rico

  • Supreme Court of Puerto Rico (Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico)[375]
    • Circuit Court of Appeals of Puerto Rico (Tribunal de Apelaciones)[376]
    • * Courts of First Instance of Puerto Rico (Tribunal de Primera Instancia; 13 divisions)[377]

Federal courts located in Puerto Rico:

United States Virgin Islands

  • United States Virgin Islands Supreme Court[379]
    • United States Virgin Islands Superior Court (2 divisions)[380]

United States territorial court


Extraterritorial courts of the United States

U.S. judicial system in popular culture

Due to its involvement in the resolution of crimes and conflicts, which are an intricate part of drama, the U.S. judicial system is often portrayed in American literature and films.

Several Hollywood films such as A Few Good Men (1992) and Runaway Jury (2003) are set around its courts.

References

  1. ^ a b c American Bar Association (2004). How the Legal System Works: The Structure of the Court System, State and Federal Courts. In ABA Family Legal Guide.
  2. ^ USCourts.gov. Comparing Federal and State Court Systems Archived 2009-10-18 at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ Public Services Department. INTRODUCTION TO THE COURT SYSTEM Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine. Syracuse University College of Law.
  4. ^ "United States District Courts". Uscourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  5. ^ "The Federal Judiciary – United States Courts of Appeals". Uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  6. ^ "US Courts for the First Circuit". Ca1.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  7. ^ "Home". Ca2.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  8. ^ "Third Judicial Circuit". Ca3.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  9. ^ United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. "United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit". Ca4.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  10. ^ "U.S. Court of Appeals, 5th Circuit". Ca5.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  11. ^ "US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit". Ca6.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  12. ^ "Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals". Ca7.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  13. ^ "U.S. Court Court of Appeals – Welcome". Ca8.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  14. ^ "United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit". Ca9.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  15. ^ "The U.S. Tenth Circuit Court of Appeals". Ca10.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  16. ^ webmaster@ca11.uscourts.gov. "United States Court of Appeals, Eleventh Circuit". Ca11.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  17. ^ "U.S. Court of Appeals – D.C. Circuit – Home". Cadc.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  18. ^ David Bozovich of Web Services, U.S. Government Printing Office. "Supreme Court of the United States". supremecourt.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  19. ^ "United States Tax Court: Home". Ustaxcourt.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  20. ^ "Website of the United States Court of International Trade". Cit.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  21. ^ "US Court of Federal Claims". Uscfc.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  22. ^ "Federal Judicial History | Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court". Fjc.gov. Archived from the original on September 28, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  23. ^ "United States Bankruptcy Courts". Uscourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  24. ^ "United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit". Cafc.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  25. ^ "U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces". Armfor.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  26. ^ "USCAVC – United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims". Vetapp.uscourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-01-17. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  27. ^ Federal Judicial Center. "History of the Federal Judiciary". Archived from the original on November 20, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-17.
  28. ^ "Records of the United States Commerce Court". Archives.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  29. ^ Joseph Ragland, Outline of the Jurisdiction and Procedure of the Federal Courts (1917), p. 112, §80.
  30. ^ Alabama Appellate Courts Technology Division. "Alabama Judicial System Online – Supreme Court". Judicial.state.al.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  31. ^ Alabama Appellate Courts Technology Division. "Alabama Judicial System Online – Court of Civil Appeals". Judicial.state.al.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  32. ^ Alabama Appellate Courts Technology Division. "Alabama Judicial System Online – Court of Criminal Appeals". Judicial.state.al.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  33. ^ a b c d Alabama Unified Judicial System Structure Archived 2010-05-27 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Alabama Appellate Courts Technology Division. "Alabama Judicial System Online – Court of the Judiciary – Overview". Judicial.state.al.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  35. ^ "Northern District of Alabama Internet Site NDAL". Alnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  36. ^ "United States District Court – Middle Alabama". Almd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  37. ^ "Alabama Southern District Court – US District Court". Als.uscourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  38. ^ a b Alaska Appellate Courts Archived 2008-12-24 at the Wayback Machine.
  39. ^ a b Alaska Trial Courts Archived 2008-12-18 at the Wayback Machine.
  40. ^ "U.S. District Court for the District of Alaska Home Page". Akd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  41. ^ "Arizona Supreme Court". Arizona Supreme Court. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
  42. ^ a b [1].
  43. ^ "General Information About the Justice Courts". Superiorcourt.maricopa.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-20. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  44. ^ "U.S. District Court of Arizona". Azd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  45. ^ "Supreme Court". Courts.state.ar.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-21. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  46. ^ "Court of Appeals". Courts.state.ar.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  47. ^ "Circuit Court". Courts.state.ar.us. Archived from the original on August 4, 2011. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  48. ^ "District Court". Courts.state.ar.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-23. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  49. ^ "City Courts". Courts.state.ar.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  50. ^ "United States District Court Arkansas Eastern District". Are.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  51. ^ "United States District Court – Western District of Arkansas". Arwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  52. ^ "California Courts: Courts: Supreme Court". Courtinfo.ca.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  53. ^ "California Courts: Courts: Courts of Appeal". Courtinfo.ca.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  54. ^ "California Courts: Courts: Superior Courts". Courtinfo.ca.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  55. ^ https://www.statebarcourt.ca.gov/
  56. ^ https://www.dgs.ca.gov/OAH/About
  57. ^ Cal. Government Code § 11340.5 subd. (b)
  58. ^ "CACD Home Page". Cacd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  59. ^ http://www.caed.uscourts.gov/
  60. ^ http://www.cand.uscourts.gov/
  61. ^ "United States District Court - CASD - Welcome to CASD". Casd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  62. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-08-12. Retrieved 2008-12-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  63. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-12-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  64. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2002-10-07. Retrieved 2008-12-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  65. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2002-10-07. Retrieved 2008-12-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  66. ^ "United States District Court for the District of Colorado". Cod.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  67. ^ "Overview of the Supreme Court". Jud.state.ct.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-20. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  68. ^ "Appellate Court of Connecticut". Jud.state.ct.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  69. ^ "Connecticut Superior Court". Jud.state.ct.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  70. ^ "Connecticut Probate Court". Jud.state.ct.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  71. ^ Website of the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut
  72. ^ "First State Judiciary – Supreme Court Welcome!". Courts.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  73. ^ "First State Judiciary – Court of Chancery Welcome!". Courts.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  74. ^ "First State Judiciary – Superior Court of Delaware-Official Web Site". Courts.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  75. ^ "First State Judiciary – Family Court Welcome!". Courts.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  76. ^ "First State Judiciary – Court of Common Pleas Welcome!". Courts.delaware.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  77. ^ "USDC". Ded.uscourts.gov. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  78. ^ "Florida Supreme Court". Floridasupremecourt.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  79. ^ "District Courts". Flcourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  80. ^ "Circuit Courts". Flcourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  81. ^ "County Courts". Flcourts.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  82. ^ "Welcome to the Northern District of Florida". Flnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  83. ^ Linda H. Wade-Bahr. "United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida". Flmd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  84. ^ "Florida Southern District Court". Flsd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  85. ^ "The Supreme Court of Georgia :: gasupreme.us :: Home". Gasupreme.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  86. ^ "Court of Appeals of Georgia: 47 Trinity Ave., Suite 501, Atlanta, GA 30334". Gaappeals.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  87. ^ "Judicial Branch of Georgia :: Superior Courts". Georgiacourts.org. Archived from the original on 2009-01-22. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  88. ^ "Judicial Branch of Georgia :: State Courts". Georgiacourts.org. Archived from the original on 2009-01-22. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  89. ^ "Judicial Branch of Georgia :: Magistrate Courts". Georgiacourts.org. Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  90. ^ "Judicial Branch of Georgia :: Juvenile Courts". Georgiacourts.org. Archived from the original on 2008-08-25. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  91. ^ "Judicial Branch of Georgia :: Probate Courts". Georgiacourts.org. Archived from the original on 2009-01-26. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  92. ^ "Welcome to the Homepage of the Judicial Branch of Georgia". Georgiacourts.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-09. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  93. ^ "NDGA: Internet Home". Gand.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  94. ^ "U.S. District Court – Middle District of Georgia". Gamd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  95. ^ "Southern District of Georgia". Gasd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  96. ^ "Hawai`i State Judiciary – Courts – Hawai`i Supreme Court – Hawai`i Supreme Court". Courts.state.hi.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  97. ^ "Hawai`i State Judiciary – Courts – Intermediate Court of Appeals – Intermediate Court of Appeals". Courts.state.hi.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  98. ^ "Hawai`i State Judiciary – Courts – Circuit Courts – Circuit Courts". Courts.state.hi.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  99. ^ "Hawai`i State Judiciary – Courts – Family Courts – Family Courts". Courts.state.hi.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  100. ^ "Hawai`i State Judiciary – Courts – District Courts – District Courts". Courts.state.hi.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  101. ^ a b Hawaii Land and Tax Appeal Courts Archived 2008-12-20 at the Wayback Machine.
  102. ^ "US District Court – District of Hawaii". Hid.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  103. ^ a b Idaho State Judiciary.
  104. ^ "Idaho District Court Websites". Isc.idaho.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  105. ^ "US Courts – District of Idaho Internet". Id.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  106. ^ "Illinois Supreme Court Home Page". State.il.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  107. ^ "Illinois Appellate Court Home Page". State.il.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  108. ^ "Illinois Circuit Court General Information". State.il.us. Archived from the original on 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  109. ^ "Northern District of Illinois – U.S. Courts". Ilnd.uscourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-01-17. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  110. ^ "Central District of Illinois – U.S. Courts". Ilcd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  111. ^ "Southern District of Illinois – U.S. Courts". Ilsd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  112. ^ a b U.S. District Courts of Illinois Legislative history.
  113. ^ "Welcome to the Website of the Indiana Supreme Court!". In.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  114. ^ "IN.gov/judiciary/appeals :: Indiana Court of Appeals". In.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  115. ^ "Welcome to the Website of the Indiana Tax Court". In.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  116. ^ a b c Indiana Trial Courts.
  117. ^ a b c Indiana Trial Courts: Types of Courts.
  118. ^ "Northern District of Indiana – United States District Court". Innd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  119. ^ "U.S. District Court – Southern District of Indiana". Insd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  120. ^ "Supreme Court". Judicial.state.ia.us. Archived from the original on 2006-04-28. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  121. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2008-12-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  122. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-10-21. Retrieved 2009-09-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  123. ^ "US District Court | Northern District of Iowa". Iand.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  124. ^ "Southern District of Iowa". Iasd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  125. ^ "Kansas Judicial Branch – Supreme Court". Kscourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  126. ^ "Kansas Judicial Branch – Court of Appeals". Kscourts.org. Archived from the original on 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  127. ^ "Kansas Judicial Branch – District Courts". Kscourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  128. ^ "Kansas Judicial Branch – Municipal Courts". Kscourts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  129. ^ http://www.ksd.uscourts.gov/
  130. ^ Kentucky State Board of Elections. "Amendment (May 29, 1975)" (PDF). Kentucky Court of Justice. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 28, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  131. ^ "Section 109". Kentucky Constitution. Legislative Research Commission (Kentucky). Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  132. ^ "Kentucky Supreme Court". Kentucky Court of Justice. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  133. ^ "Kentucky Court of Appeals". Kentucky Court of Justice. Archived from the original on 2008-10-07. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  134. ^ "Kentucky Circuit Courts". Kentucky Court of Justice. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  135. ^ "Kentucky District Courts". Kentucky Court of Justice. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  136. ^ "US District Court KYED – Home". Kyed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  137. ^ "United States District Court – Western District of Kentucky". Kywd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  138. ^ "The Louisiana Supreme Court". Lasc.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  139. ^ "map02.asp". Lasc.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  140. ^ "map01.asp". Lasc.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  141. ^ "U.S. District Court – Eastern District of Louisiana". Laed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  142. ^ "Louisiana Middle District: Home". Lamd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  143. ^ "USDC Home". Lawd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  144. ^ "Maine Judicial Branch: Supreme Court". Courts.state.me.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  145. ^ "Maine Judicial Branch: Superior Court". Courts.state.me.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  146. ^ "Maine Judicial Branch: District Court". Courts.state.me.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  147. ^ "Maine Judicial Branch: Specialized Court". Courts.state.me.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  148. ^ "United States District Court – District of Maine". Med.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  149. ^ "Court of Appeals of Maryland". Courts.state.md.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  150. ^ Theresa Thomas. "Maryland Court of Special Appeals". Courts.state.md.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  151. ^ "Circuit Courts Directory". Courts.state.md.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  152. ^ Roberta Warnken/Ken Brown. "District Court of Maryland". Courts.state.md.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  153. ^ "U.S. District Court District of Maryland". Mdd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  154. ^ a b Federal Judicial History: Federal Courts of the District of Columbia Archived October 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  155. ^ "Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court – Home Page". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  156. ^ "Appeals Court of Massachusetts". Mass.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-08-01. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  157. ^ "The Massachusetts Court System". Mass.gov. Archived from the original on December 5, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  158. ^ "Superior Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Archived from the original on August 1, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  159. ^ "District Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Archived from the original on March 16, 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  160. ^ "Boston Municipal Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  161. ^ "Land Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  162. ^ "Housing Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Archived from the original on August 1, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  163. ^ "Juvenile Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Archived from the original on August 28, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  164. ^ "Probate and Family Court Department – Main Information Page". Mass.gov. Archived from the original on November 20, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  165. ^ "Appellate Tax Board: Who We Are". Mass.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  166. ^ "Massachusetts Division of Labor Relations – Home Page". Mass.gov. Archived from the original on March 13, 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
  167. ^ "United States District Court – District of Massachusetts". Mad.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  168. ^ "Michigan Supreme Court". Courts.michigan.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  169. ^ "Michigan Court of Appeals". Courtofappeals.mijud.net. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  170. ^ "United States District Court – Eastern District of Michigan". Mied.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  171. ^ "United States District Court – Western District of Michigan". Miwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  172. ^ Minnesota Judicial Branch Supreme Court website.
  173. ^ Minnesota Judicial Branch Court of Appeals website Archived 2014-03-30 at the Wayback Machine.
  174. ^ Minnesota Judicial Branch District Courts website.
  175. ^ "Welcome to the Minnesota Tax Court". Taxcourt.state.mn.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  176. ^ "Minnesota Workers' Compensation Court of Appeals". Workerscomp.state.mn.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  177. ^ "United States District Court – District of Minnesota". Mnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  178. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Supreme Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  179. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Court of Appeals". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  180. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Chancery Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  181. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Circuit Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  182. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – County Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  183. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Justice Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  184. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Justice Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  185. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Drug Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  186. ^ "State of Mississippi Judiciary – Youth Court". Mssc.state.ms.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  187. ^ "U.S. District Court : Northern Mississippi". Msnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  188. ^ "USDC Home Page". Mssd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  189. ^ "Supreme Court". Courts.mo.gov. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  190. ^ "Court of Appeals". Courts.mo.gov. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  191. ^ "Circuit Courts". Courts.mo.gov. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
  192. ^ "United States District Court". Moed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  193. ^ "Welcome to the Western District of Missouri". Mow.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  194. ^ "Montana Supreme Court". Montanacourts.org. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  195. ^ "MT – District Court". Montanacourts.org. Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  196. ^ a b c "Montana Supreme Court". State of Montana. Archived from the original on 2010-08-05. Retrieved 2010-08-08.
  197. ^ a b c Montana Courts of Limited Jurisdiction Archived 2008-12-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  198. ^ "Youth Court". Judicial Branch. State of Montana. 2017. Retrieved February 24, 2017.
  199. ^ Larson, Seaborn (November 28, 2017). "Montana Asbestos Court created to take on hundreds of unresolved cases". Great Falls Tribune. Archived from the original on April 10, 2018. Retrieved April 10, 2018.
  200. ^ http://www.mtd.uscourts.gov/
  201. ^ http://www.mtb.uscourts.gov/
  202. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-01-22. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  203. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  204. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  205. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  206. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  207. ^ "Nebraska Workers' Compensation Court – Homepage". Wcc.ne.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  208. ^ "Nebraska Judicial Branch". Supremecourt.ne.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-02-01. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  209. ^ "Small Claims Self-Help for the State of Nebraska". Cdp3t0c1.cdp.state.ne.us. Archived from the original on December 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  210. ^ "US District Court – Nebraska". Ned.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  211. ^ "Nevada Appellate Courts". Supreme Court of Nevada. Retrieved 2017-10-05.
  212. ^ "Court of Appeals". Supreme Court of Nevada. Retrieved 2017-10-05.
  213. ^ "District Courts". Supreme Court of Nevada. Retrieved 2017-10-05.
  214. ^ "Municipal Courts". Supreme Court of Nevada. Retrieved 2017-10-05.
  215. ^ "Justice Courts". Supreme Court of Nevada. Retrieved 2017-10-05.
  216. ^ "U.S. District Court – District of Nevada – Home". United States District Court, District of Nevada. Retrieved 2017-10-05.
  217. ^ "New Hampshire Supreme Court". Courts.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  218. ^ "New Hampshire Superior Court". Courts.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  219. ^ "New Hampshire District Court". Courts.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  220. ^ "Family Division index". Courts.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  221. ^ "New Hampshire Probate Court". Courts.state.nh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  222. ^ "USDC – District of New Hampshire – Welcome". Nhd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  223. ^ "Supreme Court". Judiciary.state.nj.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  224. ^ "Appellate Division". Judiciary.state.nj.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  225. ^ "Tax Court of New Jersey". Judiciary.state.nj.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  226. ^ "Municipal Court Services". Judiciary.state.nj.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  227. ^ "U.S. District Court of New Jersey". Njd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  228. ^ a b "New Mexico Supreme Court". Nmsupremecourt.nmcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  229. ^ a b c New Mexico Courts: About the Courts.
  230. ^ http://www.nmcourts.gov/othercourts/nmmagistratecourts.html
  231. ^ http://www.metrocourt.state.nm.us/xnet/
  232. ^ "United States Courts – District of New Mexico". Nmcourt.fed.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  233. ^ "New York State Court of Appeals Home Page". Nycourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  234. ^ "Appellate Divisions". Courts.state.ny.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  235. ^ "Court Structure". Courts.state.ny.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  236. ^ "New York Courts Online Guide". Courtreference.com. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  237. ^ "New York State Court of Claims". Nyscourtofclaims.courts.state.ny.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  238. ^ "Town & Village Courts". Courts.state.ny.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  239. ^ U.S.D.C, Eastern New York – Systems Department. "Home". Nyed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  240. ^ "U.S. District Court – Northern District of New York". Nynd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  241. ^ "U.S. District Court • Southern District of New York". .nysd.uscourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  242. ^ U.S. District Court for the Western District of New York
  243. ^ "About Supreme Court". Nccourts.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  244. ^ "About Court of Appeals". Nccourts.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  245. ^ "Superior Court". Nccourts.org. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  246. ^ "District Courts". Nccourts.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  247. ^ "Welcome to the Eastern District of North Carolina". Nced.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  248. ^ "U. S. District Court". Ncmd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  249. ^ "NCWD Home". Ncwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  250. ^ "North Dakota Supreme Court". Court.state.nd.us. Archived from the original on 2008-09-14. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  251. ^ "District Courts". Court.state.nd.us. Archived from the original on 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  252. ^ "North Dakota Municipal Courts". Court.state.nd.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  253. ^ US District Court-ND Webmaster. "U.S. District Court of North Dakota". Ndd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  254. ^ "Welcome to the Supreme Court of Ohio". Sconet.state.oh.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-24. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  255. ^ "Ohio District Courts of Appeal". Sconet.state.oh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  256. ^ "Court of Claims of Ohio". Cco.state.oh.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  257. ^ a b c Structure of the Ohio Trial Courts.
  258. ^ "US District Court, Northern District of Ohio". Ohnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  259. ^ "United States District Court – Southern District of Ohio". Ohsd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  260. ^ a b c Oklahoma Court System.
  261. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-06-25. Retrieved 2008-12-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  262. ^ webmaster@owcc.state.ok.us. "Oklahoma Workers' Compensation Court". Owcc.state.ok.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-27. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  263. ^ "U.S. District Court – OKED". Oked.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  264. ^ "Northern District of Oklahoma". Oknd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  265. ^ "US District Court – Western District of Oklahoma". Okwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  266. ^ "Oregon Supreme Court". Ojd.state.or.us. Archived from the original on January 22, 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  267. ^ "Court of Appeals Judges". Ojd.state.or.us. Archived from the original on 2008-07-13. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  268. ^ "Circuit Courts". Ojd.state.or.us. Archived from the original on October 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  269. ^ a b Oregon Justice Courts.
  270. ^ "Oregon Blue Book: Municipal Courts". Bluebook.state.or.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  271. ^ "Tax Court Home". Ojd.state.or.us. Archived from the original on March 31, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  272. ^ "U.S. District Court – Oregon". Ord.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  273. ^ "Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System". Aopc.org. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  274. ^ "Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System". Aopc.org. Archived from the original on May 31, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  275. ^ "Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System". Aopc.org. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  276. ^ "Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System". Aopc.org. Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  277. ^ "Pennsylvania Unified Judicial System". Aopc.org. Archived from the original on 2008-12-29. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  278. ^ "U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, Clerk's Office". Paed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  279. ^ "Welcome to the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of PA". Pamd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  280. ^ http://www.pawd.uscourts.gov/
  281. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary Supreme Court Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  282. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary Superior Court Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  283. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary District Court Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  284. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary Family Court Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  285. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary Workers' Compensation Court Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  286. ^ "Rhode Island Judiciary Traffic Homepage". Courts.ri.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  287. ^ "United States District Court, District of Rhode Island Home Page". Rid.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  288. ^ "SC Judicial Department Supreme Court". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  289. ^ "SCJD Court of Appeals". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  290. ^ "SC Judicial Department". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  291. ^ "SC Judicial Department". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  292. ^ "SC Judicial Department". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  293. ^ "SC Judicial Department". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  294. ^ "SC Judicial Department". Judicial.state.sc.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  295. ^ "USDC District of South Carolina". Scd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  296. ^ "Unified Judicial System". Sdjudicial.com. Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  297. ^ "Unified Judicial System". Sdjudicial.com. Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  298. ^ "Unified Judicial System". Sdjudicial.com. Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  299. ^ "USDC-SD Main Index". Sdd.uscourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-01-18. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  300. ^ "Tennessee Supreme Court". Tsc.state.tn.us. Archived from the original on 2002-03-22. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  301. ^ "Court of Appeals". Tsc.state.tn.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  302. ^ "Court of Criminal Appeals". Tsc.state.tn.us. Archived from the original on 2010-07-31. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  303. ^ a b c d National Center for State Courts – Tennessee Court Structure Archived 2008-12-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  304. ^ "Tennessee Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges". State.tn.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  305. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-07-23. Retrieved 2008-12-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  306. ^ "US District Courts – Eastern District of Tennessee". Tned.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  307. ^ "| United States District Court". Tnmd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  308. ^ "United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee". Tnwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  309. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Welcome to the official site of the Supreme Court of Texas!". Supreme.courts.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  310. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Welcome to the official site of the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals!". Cca.courts.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  311. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Texas Courts Online | Courts | Courts of Appeals". Courts.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  312. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Texas Courts Online | Courts | District Courts". Courts.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2009-01-06. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  313. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Texas Courts Online | Courts | County Courts". Courts.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2013-06-14. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  314. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Texas Courts Online | Courts | Justice of the Peace Courts". Courts.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  315. ^ Texas Office of Court Administration. "Texas Courts Online | Courts | Municipal Courts". Courts.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  316. ^ "Welcome to the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas". Txed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  317. ^ "U.S. District Court – Northern District of Texas". Txnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  318. ^ "Southern District of Texas Public Website Home Page". Txs.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  319. ^ "U.S. Courts, Western District of Texas". Txwd.uscourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  320. ^ "Utah State Courts – Supreme Court". Utcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  321. ^ "Utah State Courts – Court of Appeals". Utcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  322. ^ "Utah State Courts – District Court". Utcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  323. ^ "Utah State Courts – Juvenile Courts". Utcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  324. ^ "Utah State Courts – Justice Courts". Utcourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  325. ^ "U.S. District Court, District Of Utah Internet Home Page". Utd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  326. ^ "Home Page of Supreme Court". Vermontjudiciary.org. Archived from the original on June 18, 2004. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  327. ^ "Vermont Superior Court: General Information". Vermontjudiciary.org. Archived from the original on April 26, 2004. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  328. ^ "Home Page of District Court". Vermontjudiciary.org. Archived from the original on August 31, 2004. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  329. ^ "Home Page of District Court". Vermontjudiciary.org. Archived from the original on August 31, 2004. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  330. ^ "Vermont Environmental Court: General Information". Vermontjudiciary.org. Archived from the original on June 19, 2004. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  331. ^ "Vermont Family Court: General Information". Vermontjudiciary.org. Archived from the original on February 16, 2003. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  332. ^ "Vermont Probate Information". Vermontjudiciary.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  333. ^ "Vermont Judicial Bureau". Archived from the original on 2014-12-05.
  334. ^ "United States District Court – Home Page". Vtd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  335. ^ "Supreme Court of Virginia". Courts.state.va.us. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  336. ^ "Court of Appeals of Virginia". Courts.state.va.us. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  337. ^ "Circuit Courts". Courts.state.va.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  338. ^ "General District Courts". Courts.state.va.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  339. ^ "Juvenile & Domestic Relations District Courts". Courts.state.va.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  340. ^ "U.S.D.C. Eastern District of Virginia". Vaed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  341. ^ "US District Court - VAWD". Vawd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  342. ^ Federal Judicial History: Federal Courts of the District of Columbia Archived October 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  343. ^ "Washington Courts". Courts.wa.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  344. ^ "Washington Courts". Courts.wa.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  345. ^ "Trial Courts with web sites". Courts.wa.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  346. ^ "Trial Courts with web sites". Courts.wa.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  347. ^ "Trial Courts with web sites". Courts.wa.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  348. ^ "U.S. District Court Eastern District of Washington". Waed.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  349. ^ "U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington – Federal Courthouse – Seattle and Tacoma". Wawd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  350. ^ a b c d e The West Virginia Judicial System.
  351. ^ "US District Court, WVN". Wvnd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  352. ^ "United States District Court – Southern District of West Virginia". Wvsd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  353. ^ "Wisconsin Court System - Supreme Court". Wicourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  354. ^ "Wisconsin Court System - Court of Appeals". Wicourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-05-11. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  355. ^ "Wisconsin Court System - Circuit courts". Wicourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  356. ^ "Wisconsin Court System - municipal courts". Wicourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  357. ^ "Wisconsin Eastern District Federal Courthouse - Welcome to the Eastern District of Wisconsin's Web Site". Wied.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  358. ^ U.S. District Court, Western District of Wisconsin. "United States District Court, Western District of Wisconsin". Wiwd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  359. ^ "Wyoming Judicial Branch". Courts.state.wy.us. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  360. ^ "Wyoming Judicial Branch". Courts.state.wy.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-23. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  361. ^ "Wyoming Judicial Branch". Courts.state.wy.us. Archived from the original on 2008-12-22. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  362. ^ "Official Webpage Of The U.S. District Court For The District Of Wyoming". Wyd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  363. ^ "District of Columbia Court of Appeals – Welcome". Dcca.state.dc.us. Archived from the original on 2008-10-04. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  364. ^ "Superior Court of the District of Columbia – Welcome". Dccourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  365. ^ Maureen A. Lawrie. "U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia". Dcd.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  366. ^ "American Samoa – Guide to Court Resources". Usdoj.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-01-16. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  367. ^ "Unified Courts of Guam – Supreme Court of Guam". Justice.gov.gu. Archived from the original on 2006-07-02. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  368. ^ "Unified Courts of Guam". Justice.gov.gu. Archived from the original on 2006-07-02. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  369. ^ "District Court of Guam". Gud.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  370. ^ "Supreme Court". Justice.gov.mp. Archived from the original on 2009-01-06. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  371. ^ "Superior Court". Justice.gov.mp. Archived from the original on 2009-01-24. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  372. ^ "United States District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands". Nmid.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  373. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt: Executive Order 7676 – THE CANAL ZONE JUDICIARY". Presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  374. ^ Tribunal Supremo de Puerto Rico (in Spanish)
  375. ^ Tribunal de Apelaciones de Puerto Rico (in Spanish)
  376. ^ Tribunal de Primera Instancia de Puerto Rico (in Spanish)
  377. ^ "US District Court – Puerto Rico District". Prd.uscourts.gov. Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  378. ^ "Welcome to the website of the Supreme Court of the Virgin Islands". Visupremecourt.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  379. ^ "Welcome to the V.I. Superior Court Online". Visuperiorcourt.org. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  380. ^ "Web Site of the District Court of the Virgin Islands". Vid.uscourts.gov. Retrieved 2008-12-17.
  381. ^ Teemu Ruskola, Law's Empire: The Legal Construction of 'America' in the 'District of China'
  382. ^ Joseph Ragland, Outline of the Jurisdiction and Procedure of the Federal Courts (1917), p. 112–13, §81.

External links

Media files used on this page

Information icon4.svg
Author/Creator:

penubag (color adjustments)

, Licence: PD

An i icon for templates and the like

Ohio State Office Building 1.jpg
Author/Creator: Sixflashphoto, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
The Thomas J. Moyer Ohio Judicial Center, Ohio State Office Building, is home to the Supreme Court of Ohio. Behind one can see from the left the Huntington Center and the Verne Riffe State Office Building near the center. Located at 65 S. Front St. it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places
053107-5thCircuit.jpg
Author/Creator: Bobak Ha'Eri, Licence: CC BY 3.0
The John Minor Wisdom U.S. Courthouse, home of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, New Orleans, Louisiana.
John Adams Courthouse SJC Massachusetts.JPG
(c) Swampyank at English Wikipedia, CC BY 3.0
My 2008 photo of the John Adams Courthouse, home to the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts.
FlaSupremeCrtBldgFeb08.JPG
Florida Supreme Court Building, Tallahassee, Florida
WACapitolTempleOfJustice.jpg
Author/Creator: User:Cacophony, Licence: CC BY 2.5
The Temple of Justice at the Washington State Capitol in Olympia, Washington.
Mathesoncourthouse.jpg
Scott M. Matheson Courthouse -- home of the Utah Supreme Court.
Maryland judicial circuit map.png
Map of Maryland judicial circuits
Louisiana judicial districts map.png
Map of Louisiana judicial districts
Scale of justice.svg
Balanza de la Justicia
CourtofAppealsPano.jpg
Author/Creator: UpstateNYer, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
New York State Court of Appeals in Albany, New York, the state's highest judicial body
Michigan judicial circuit map.png
Map of Michigan judicial circuits
Mo-supreme-court.jpg
Author/Creator: The original uploader was Americasroof at English Wikipedia., Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Missouri Supreme Court Building across from Missouri State Capitol in Jefferson City, Missouri. Photo by poster in September 2007.
Aliiolanihale.jpg
Author/Creator: Cumulus Clouds, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Aliʻiōlani Hale, Honolulu, Hawaii
Supreme Court of Nevada in Carson City.jpg
Author/Creator: Coolcaesar, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
The Supreme Court of Nevada's main courthouse in Carson City, Nevada. Photographed on July 4, 2020 by user Coolcaesar.
Chicago Federal Center.jpg
View of Federal Center in Chicago, Illinois
OregonSCInteriorStich.jpg
Author/Creator: Cacophony, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
The interior of the Supreme Court of the State of Oregon.
Supremecourtofcaliforniamaincourthouse.jpg
Author/Creator: Coolcaesar at English Wikipedia, Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
The Earl Warren Building and Courthouse (former California State Building) — at Civic Center Plaza in the San Francisco Civic Center, California.
Credits
HughesComplex.jpg
The building in which the New Jersey Supreme Court meets.
HistoricMNsupreme.JPG
Author/Creator: Jonathunder, Licence: CC BY-SA 4.0
Historic Minnesota Supreme Court Chamber in the Minnesota State Capitol