List of countries by hospital beds

Hospital beds per 1000 people in 2013

This is a list of countries by hospital beds per 1000 or 100,000 people, as published by the local governments, international organisation (OECD, E.U.), academic sources or others. The number of beds per people is an important indicator of the health care system of a country.[1] The basic measure focus on all hospital beds, which are variously split and occupied. The classic hospital beds are also called curative beds. For severe patients with risk of organ(s) failure, patients are provided intensive care unit beds (aka ICU bed) or critical care beds (CCB).

Among OECD countries, curative beds' occupancy rate average was 75%, from 94.9% (Ireland) to 61.6% (Greece), with half of the OECD's nation between 70% and 80%.[2]

In 2009, European nations, most of them also part of OECD, had an aggregated total of 2070,000 acute beds and 73,585 (2.8%) critical care beds (CCB) or 11.5CCB/100,000 inhabitants.[3] Germany had 29.2, Portugal 4.2.[3] Aging population leads to increased demand for CCB and difficulties to satisfy it, while both quantity of CCB and availability are poorly documented.[3]

Base capacity for lower-income countries is approximately 0.1 ICU beds per 100,000 citizens.[4][5]

Data

Hospital beds by country
Country (or territory)RegionHospital beds per 1,000 people[6]Occupancy (%)[7]ICU-CCB beds
/100,000 inhabitants
Ventilators
20132014201520162017
 JapanAsia13.3013.2113.1713.1113.0575.50[8] 13.50[9] 45,293
 South KoreaAsia10.9211.5911.6111.9812.27N/A[10] 10.60[11] 9,795
 RussiaEurope9.078.818.358.168.05N/A[12] 8.30[13] 40,000 (27.3 per 100,000 inhabitants)
 GermanyEurope8.288.238.138.068.00[14] 62.10[14] 38.70[15] 25,000
 AustriaEurope7.647.587.547.427.3773.80[16] 21.80[17] 2,500
 HungaryEurope7.046.986.997.007.0265.50[16] 13.80[18] 2,560
 Czech RepublicEurope6.706.686.676.666.6370.10[16] 11.60[19] 3,529
 PolandEurope6.616.636.636.646.62N/A[16] 6.90[20][21] 10,100 (26.6 per 100,000 inhabitants)
 LithuaniaEurope7.287.226.976.696.5673.20[16] 15.50[22]~1,000
 FranceEurope6.286.206.136.065.9875.60[16] 11.60[23] 9,236 (2006)
[24] 7,007 (2009)
 SlovakiaEurope5.805.795.755.785.8267.80[16] 9.20[25] 600
 BelgiumEurope5.935.855.835.765.7681.80[16] 15.90N/A
 LatviaEurope5.805.665.695.725.5771.10[16] 9.70N/A
 Hong KongAsia5.405.405.40N/AN/AN/A[10] 7.10N/A
 EstoniaEurope5.015.014.964.764.6970.40[16] 14.60N/A
 LuxembourgEurope5.175.054.934.814.6670.70[16] 24.80N/A
 SwitzerlandEurope4.684.584.584.554.5382.00[16] 11.00N/A
 SloveniaEurope4.554.544.514.494.5069.50[16] 6.40N/A
 ChinaAsia3.313.573.824.054.34N/A[10] 3.6N/A
 GreeceEurope4.244.244.254.204.21[16] 61.60[26] 11.2N/A
 AustraliaOceania3.743.793.823.84N/AN/A[27] 9.10[28] 1,314
 NorwayEurope3.863.843.763.683.6080.70[16] 8.00[29] 800
 PortugalEurope3.393.323.373.393.3966.80[16] 4.20[30] 1,400
 NetherlandsEurope6.18N/A6.526.446.3255.40[16] 8.40N/A
 FinlandEurope4.874.534.353.973.28N/A[16] 6.10N/A
 ItalyEurope3.313.213.203.173.1878.90[16] 12.50[31] 5,324 (January 2020)
[13] 5,000 (8.3 per 100,000 inhabitants)
 IcelandEurope3.223.163.123.133.06N/A[16] 9.10N/A
 IsraelAsia3.093.083.032.993.0293.30N/A
 SpainEurope2.962.972.982.972.9775.30[16] 9.70N/A
 IrelandEurope2.562.572.922.972.9694.90[16] 6.50N/A
 TurkeyAsia2.652.682.682.752.8168.00[32] 46.50[33] 17,000
 United StatesAmericas2.892.832.802.77N/A64.00[34] 29.40[35] 177,000
[13] 68,000 (18.8 per 100,000 inhabitants)
 New ZealandOceania2.782.752.712.732.71N/A[36] 4.60[37] 334
 DenmarkEurope3.072.692.532.602.61N/A[16] 6.70N/A
 United KingdomEurope2.762.732.612.572.5484.30[16] 6.60[15] 5,000
[13] 8,175 (10.1 per 100,000 inhabitants)
 CanadaAmericas2.712.672.612.582.5291.60[38] 13.50N/A
 SwedenEurope2.592.542.442.342.22N/A[16] 5.80[39] 570
 ChileAmericas2.162.112.142.122.1179.10N/AN/A
 UkraineEuropeN/AN/AN/AN/A8.80N/AN/A[13] 3,600

2020 coronavirus pandemic

A patient and clinicians in an intensive care unit

The availability of CCB-ICU beds,[40] mechanical ventilation[41][42] and ECMO devices[43] generally closely associated with hospital beds has been described as a critical bottleneck in responding to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The lack of such devices dramatically raises the mortality rate of COVID-19.

In early March, the UK government supported a strategy to develop natural herd immunity, drawing sharp criticism from medical personnel and researchers.[44] Various forecasts by Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team, made public on March 16, suggested that the peak number of cases in the UK would require between 100 and 225 CCBs / 100,000 inhabitants,[45] if proper mitigation or no mitigation strategies are put into force, respectively. These requirements would both exceed the UK's current capacities of 6.6[3]–14[45] CCB / 100,000 inhabitants. In the best case scenario, the peak caseload would require 7.5 times the current number of available ICU beds.[46] Around March 16, the UK government changed trajectory toward a more standard mitigation/suppression strategy.[44]

In France, around March 15, the Grand Est region was the first to express the scarcity of CCB limiting its handling of the crisis.[47] Assistance-publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), which manages most hospitals in the French capital area (~10 million inhabitants), reported the need for 19 400 ICUs.[48] Current capacity is reported to be between 1500[48] and 350,[49] depending on the source.

In Europe, the company Löwenstein Medical producing 1500 ICU-level ventilators and 20,000 home-level ventilator per year for France alone, pointed out of the current high demand and production shortage. Based in Germany, all their components are European and not relying on Chinese supply chains. As for production ramp up, the company has increased the production of mobile ventilators, that are more basic and can be assembled in half an hour, yet able to support patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.[50] Due to the coronavirus pandemic, in March 2020 the German government ordered 16.500 units for ventilation and intubation from two German companies.[51] According to the company spokesman, a second bottleneck is the number of available medical staff, trained for such medical devices.[50]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Health Care Resources". stats.oecd.org. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  2. ^ Health at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, 9. Health care activities : Hospital beds and discharges rates. www.oecd-ilibrary.org. Health at a Glance. 2019. pp. 194–195. doi:10.1787/4dd50c09-en. ISBN 9789264382084. S2CID 243639541. Archived from the original on 2020-04-28. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  3. ^ a b c d Rhodes, A.; Ferdinande, P.; Flaatten, H.; Guidet, B.; Metnitz, P. G.; Moreno, R. P. (2012-10-01). "The variability of critical care bed numbers in Europe". Intensive Care Medicine. 38 (10): 1647–1653. doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2627-8. ISSN 1432-1238. PMID 22777516.
  4. ^ Bradley, Jane (2020-04-09). "In Scramble for Coronavirus Supplies, Rich Countries Push Poor Aside". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-04-10.
  5. ^ Murthy, Srinivas; Leligdowicz, Aleksandra; Adhikari, Neill K. J. (2015-01-24). "Intensive Care Unit Capacity in Low-Income Countries: A Systematic Review". PLOS ONE. 10 (1): e0116949. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1016949M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116949. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4305307. PMID 25617837.
  6. ^ "Hospital beds". OECD. Archived from the original on 2021-06-05. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  7. ^ Oecd (2019). Health at a Glance 2019: OECD Indicators, 9. Health care activities : Hospital beds and discharges rates. Health at a Glance. pp. 194–195. doi:10.1787/4dd50c09-en. ISBN 9789264382084. S2CID 243639541.
  8. ^ "ICU等の病床に関する国際比較について" [International comparison of ICU beds] (PDF). Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan. May 6, 2020.
  9. ^ "国内の病院における人工呼吸器等の取扱台数推計値" [Estimated number of ventilators handled in domestic hospitals] (PDF). Japanese Association for Acute Medicine. May 2020.
  10. ^ a b c Phua, J.; Farug, M.; Kulkarni, Atul; Redjeki, Ike (2020-01-01). "Critical Care Bed Capacity in Asian Countries and Regions". Critical Care Medicine. 48 (5): 654–662. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000004222. PMID 31923030. S2CID 210150861.
  11. ^ "국민건강보험공단, 건강보험심사평가원<건강보험통계>". 2020-03-28. Archived from the original on 2021-02-26. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  12. ^ "Страница не найдена". Russian Government.
  13. ^ a b c d e Meduza. "The ventilator problem". meduza.io. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
  14. ^ a b "DIVI-Intensivregister Tagesreport 2020–05–19". Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin e.V. 2020-05-19.
  15. ^ a b "There Aren't Enough Ventilators to Cope With the Coronavirus". 2020-03-18.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Rhodes, A.; Ferdinande, P.; Flaatten, H.; Guidet, B.; Metnitz, P. G.; Moreno, R. P. (2012-10-01). "The variability of critical care bed numbers in Europe". Intensive Care Medicine. 38 (10): 1, 647–1, 653. doi:10.1007/s00134-012-2627-8. ISSN 1432-1238. PMID 22777516. S2CID 13403606.
  17. ^ "Die Ruhe vor dem Ansturm in die Spitäler". 2020-03-22.
  18. ^ "Újabb gazdasági intézkedéseket jelentett be Orbán". 2020-03-23. Archived from the original on 2021-06-08. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  19. ^ "Český open source plicní ventilátor CoroVent shání peníze na výrobu pro nemocnice". 2020-03-27. Archived from the original on 2021-03-08. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  20. ^ "Poland has time for action". 2020-03-10.
  21. ^ "Walka z koronawirusem. Ile w Polsce jest urządzeń do wspomagania oddychania?". 2020-03-11.
  22. ^ Aurelijus Veryga, in a press conference
  23. ^ "Société : Toute l'actualité Société sur Le Parisien". www.leparisien.fr. Archived from the original on 2021-06-08. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  24. ^ "Respirators" (PDF). SNMRHP.
  25. ^ "Nový model nákazy: Pri vrchole môže byť 170-tisíc nakazených, pri pomalšom šírení sa kríza natiahne do 2021". 2020-03-31.
  26. ^ "Greece Plans to add more Hospital Beds". 4 May 2020. Archived from the original on 2021-09-08. Retrieved 2021-09-08.
  27. ^ "Doctors Stark Coronavirus Warning". 7News Australia.
  28. ^ "Dead link". Sage Publishing.
  29. ^ Mossing, Julianne Bråten (2020-03-13). "Mener helsemyndighetene overdriver intensivkapasiteten i Norge". NRK (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2020-03-25.
  30. ^ "Covid-19. Apenas 5% dos doentes podem precisar de um ventilador". 2020-03-25.
  31. ^ "Coronavirus, quanti posti in terapia intensiva ci sono in Italia?". 2020-03-16. Archived from the original on 2021-06-08. Retrieved 2021-06-08.
  32. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-06-08. Retrieved 2021-06-08.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ "Koronavirüs: Solunum cihazı nedir, Türkiye'de kaç adet var?". 2020-03-30.
  34. ^ "United States Resource Availability for COVID-19". 2020-03-19. Retrieved 2020-04-14. Number of ICU beds: 96,596 (divided by population of 328.2 million)
  35. ^ Horn, Daniel M. (2020-03-22). "Opinion | How to Solve the Ventilator Shortage". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-22.
  36. ^ ANZICS CORE (February 2020). Australian & New Zealand Intensive Care Society Centre for Outcome Resource Evaluation 2017-18 report (PDF) (Report). ANZICS. p. 10. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  37. ^ Ventilators and ICU bed capacity (PDF) (Report). Ministry of Health, New Zealand. 29 April 2020. p. 1. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  38. ^ Adhikari NK, Fowler RA, Bhagwanjee S, Rubenfeld GD (October 16, 2010). "Critical care and the global burden of critical illness in adults" (PDF). The Lancet. 376 (9, 749): 1, 339–46. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60446-1. PMC 7136988. PMID 20934212. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  39. ^ TT, Anja Haglund / (March 19, 2020). "Tusentals respiratorer borta sedan 90-talet". Svenska Dagbladet. Archived from the original on December 12, 2020. Retrieved June 8, 2021 – via www.svd.se.
  40. ^ Srivastava, Ranjana (2020-03-16). "Now more than ever, we have to be honest about intensive care beds | Ranjana Srivastava". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  41. ^ Kliff, Sarah; Satariano, Adam; Silver-Greenberg, Jessica; Kulish, Nicholas (2020-03-18). "There Aren't Enough Ventilators to Cope With the Coronavirus". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-18.
  42. ^ Daugherty Biddison, E. Lee; Faden, Ruth; Gwon, Howard S.; Mareiniss, Darren P.; Regenberg, Alan C.; Schoch-Spana, Monica; Schwartz, Jack; Toner, Eric S. (2019-04-01). "Too Many Patients…A Framework to Guide Statewide Allocation of Scarce Mechanical Ventilation During Disasters". Chest. 155 (4): 848–854. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2018.09.025. ISSN 0012-3692. PMID 30316913. S2CID 52978628.
  43. ^ Ronco, Claudio; Navalesi, Paolo; Vincent, Jean Louis (2020-03-01). "Coronavirus epidemic: preparing for extracorporeal organ support in intensive care". The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 8 (3): 240–241. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30060-6. ISSN 2213-2600. PMC 7154507. PMID 32035509.
  44. ^ a b Stieb, Matt (2020-03-16). "U.K. Only Grasped in the 'Last Few Days' It Had the Exact Wrong Coronavirus Plan". Intelligencer. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  45. ^ a b Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team (2020-03-16). "Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand" (PDF).
  46. ^ Batchelor, George (2020-03-15). "Hospitals could need 7.5 times the number of critical care beds to treat virus patients". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  47. ^ "Coronavirus : dans le Grand Est, "pratiquement tous les lits de réanimation sont occupés"". Europe 1.
  48. ^ a b "Covid-19 : l'AP-HP s'attend à faire face à une vague d'hospitalisation bien plus haute que prévu". Le Monde.fr (in French). 2020-03-17. Retrieved 2020-03-17.
  49. ^ See Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris.
  50. ^ a b "Coronavirus : la demande en ventilateurs et respirateurs artificiels est devenue "colossale", explique un spécialiste dans le matériel médical". Franceinfo (in French). 2020-03-17. Retrieved 2020-03-23.
  51. ^ "Löwenstein Medical in Rheinland-Pfalz: Wichtiger Auftrag: Diese deutsche Firma soll neue Beatmungsgeräte liefern". www.noz.de (in German). 17 March 2020. Retrieved 2020-03-30.

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