List of capitals in the United States

States (highlighted in purple) whose capital city is also its most populous.
States (highlighted in blue) that have changed their capital city at least once.

This is a list of capital cities of the United States, including places that serve or have served as federal, state, insular area, territorial, colonial and Native American capitals.

Washington has been the federal capital of the United States since 1800. Each U.S. state has its own capital city, as do many of its insular areas. Most states have not changed their capital city since becoming a state, but the capital cities of their respective preceding colonies, territories, kingdoms, and republics typically changed multiple times. There have also been other governments within the current borders of the United States with their own capitals, such as the Republic of Texas, Native American nations and other unrecognized governments.

National capitals

The Second Continental Congress and the Congress of the Confederation met at Independence Hall at various times between 1775 and 1782.
Federal Hall in New York City, where the United States Congress convened for the first time under the United States Constitution in 1789
The west front of the current United States Capitol

The cities below served either as official capitals of the United States under the United States Constitution, or, prior to its ratification, sites where the Second Continental Congress or Congress of the Confederation met. (The United States did not have a permanent capital under the Articles of Confederation.)

The current Constitution was ratified in 1787 and gave the Congress the power to exercise "exclusive legislation" over a district that "may, by Cession of particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States."[1] The 1st Congress met at Federal Hall in New York.[2] In 1790, it passed the Residence Act, which established the national capital at a site along the Potomac River that would become Washington, D.C.[3] For the next ten years, Philadelphia served as the temporary capital.[4] There, Congress met at Congress Hall.[5] On November 17, 1800, the 6th United States Congress formally convened in Washington, D.C.[4] Congress has met outside of Washington only twice since: on July 16, 1987, at Independence Hall in Philadelphia, to commemorate the 200th anniversary of ratification of the Constitution;[6] and at Federal Hall National Memorial in New York on September 6, 2002, to mark the first anniversary of the September 11 attacks.[7] Both meetings were ceremonial.

On July 2, 1923, President Warren G. Harding declared Meacham, Oregon, as the nation's capital for the day.[8][9]

CityBuildingStart dateEnd dateDurationRef
Second Continental Congress
Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaIndependence HallJuly 4, 1776 (convened May 10, 1775, prior to independence)December 12, 17765 months and 8 days[10]
Baltimore, MarylandHenry Fite HouseDecember 20, 1776February 27, 17772 months and 7 days[11]
Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaIndependence HallMarch 5, 1777September 18, 17776 months and 13 days[12]
Lancaster, PennsylvaniaCourt HouseSeptember 27, 1777September 27, 17771 day[12]
York, PennsylvaniaCourt House (now Colonial Court House)September 30, 1777June 27, 17788 months and 28 days[12]
Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaCollege Hall of the University of Pennsylvania

(Extensive damage to Independence Hall during the British Occupation of Philadelphia, necesitated this temporary meeting place)

July 2, 1778July 13, 177811 days[13]
Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaIndependence HallJuly 14, 1778March 1, 17812 years, 7 months and 15 days[14]
Congress of the Confederation
Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaIndependence HallMarch 2, 1781June 21, 17832 years, 3 months and 19 days[15]
Princeton, New Jersey[a]Nassau HallJune 30, 1783November 4, 17834 months and 5 days[15]
Annapolis, MarylandMaryland State HouseNovember 26, 1783August 19, 17848 months and 24 days[15]
Trenton, New JerseyFrench Arms TavernNovember 1, 1784December 24, 17841 month and 23 days[15]
New York, New YorkCity HallJanuary 11, 1785October 6, 17883 years, 11 months and 5 days[15]
New York, New YorkWalter Livingston HouseOctober 6, 1788March 3, 17894 months and 25 days[15]
United States Congress
New York, New YorkFederal HallMarch 4, 1789December 5, 17901 year, 9 months and 1 day[15]
Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaCongress HallDecember 6, 1790May 14, 18009 years, 5 months and 8 days[b][15]
District of ColumbiaUnited States CapitolNovember 17, 1800[c]August 24, 1814[d]13 years, 9 months and 7 days[15]
Washington, D.C.Blodgett's HotelSeptember 19, 1814December 7, 18151 year, 2 months and 18 days[17]
Washington, D.C.Old Brick CapitolDecember 4, 1815March 3, 18193 years, 2 months and 27 days[18]
Washington, D.C.United States CapitolMarch 4, 1819Present203 years, 4 months and 7 days[19]

State capitals

Each state has a capital that serves as the seat of its government. Ten of the thirteen original states and 15 other states have changed their capital city at least once; the last state to move its capital city was Oklahoma in 1910.

In the following table, the "Since" column shows the year that the city began serving as the state's capital (or the capital of the entities that preceded it). The MSA/µSA and CSA columns display the population of the metro area the city is a part of, and should not be construed to mean the population of the city's sphere of influence or that the city is an anchor for the metro area. Fields colored light yellow denote that the population is a micropolitan statistical area.

StateCapitalSinceArea (mi2)Population (2020 US Census)Rank in state
(city proper)
ProperMSA/µSACSA
 AlabamaMontgomery1846159.8200,603386,047476,2073
 AlaskaJuneau19062716.732,25532,2553
 ArizonaPhoenix1912517.61,608,1394,845,8324,899,1041
 ArkansasLittle Rock1821116.2202,591748,031912,6041
 CaliforniaSacramento185497.9524,9432,397,3822,680,8316
 ColoradoDenver1867153.3715,5222,963,8213,623,5601
 ConnecticutHartford187517.3121,0541,213,5311,482,0864
 DelawareDover177722.439,403181,8517,379,7002
 FloridaTallahassee182495.7196,169384,2988
 GeorgiaAtlanta1868133.5498,7156,089,8156,930,4231
 HawaiiHonolulu184568.4350,9641,016,5081
 IdahoBoise186563.8235,684764,718850,3411
 IllinoisSpringfield183754.0114,394208,640308,5237
 IndianaIndianapolis1825361.5887,6422,111,0402,492,5141
 IowaDes Moines185775.8214,133709,466890,3221
 KansasTopeka185656.0126,587233,1525
 KentuckyFrankfort179214.728,60275,393746,04514
 LouisianaBaton Rouge188076.8227,470870,5692
 MaineAugusta183255.418,899123,64210
 MarylandAnnapolis16946.7340,8122,844,5109,973,3837
 MassachusettsBoston163089.6675,6474,941,6328,466,1861
 MichiganLansing184735.0112,644541,2975
 MinnesotaSaint Paul184952.8311,5273,690,2614,078,7882
 MississippiJackson1821104.9153,701591,978671,6071
 MissouriJefferson City182627.343,228150,30915
 MontanaHelena187514.032,09183,0586
 NebraskaLincoln186774.6291,082340,217361,9212
 NevadaCarson City1861143.458,63958,639657,9586
 New HampshireConcord180864.343,976153,8088,466,1863
 New JerseyTrenton17847.6690,871387,34023,582,64910
 New MexicoSanta Fe161037.387,505154,8231,162,5234
 New YorkAlbany179721.499,224899,2621,190,7276
 North CarolinaRaleigh1792114.6467,6651,413,9822,106,4632
 North DakotaBismarck188326.973,622133,6262
 OhioColumbus1816210.3905,7482,138,9262,544,0481
 OklahomaOklahoma City1910620.3681,0541,425,6951,498,1491
 OregonSalem185545.7175,535433,3533,280,7363
 PennsylvaniaHarrisburg18128.1150,099591,7121,295,2599
 Rhode IslandProvidence190018.5190,9341,676,5798,466,1861
 South CarolinaColumbia1786125.2136,632829,470951,4122
 South DakotaPierre188913.014,09120,7459
 TennesseeNashville1826525.9689,4471,989,5192,118,2331
 TexasAustin1839305.1961,8552,283,3714
 UtahSalt Lake City1858109.1199,7231,257,9362,701,1291
 VermontMontpelier180510.28,07459,807285,3696
 VirginiaRichmond178060.1226,6101,314,4344
 WashingtonOlympia185316.755,605294,7934,953,42123
 West VirginiaCharleston188531.648,864258,859779,9691
 WisconsinMadison183868.7269,840680,796910,2462
 WyomingCheyenne186921.165,132100,5121
[20][21][22]

Insular area capitals

An insular area is a United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nation's federal district. Those insular areas with territorial capitals are listed below.

Capitals of United States Insular Areas
Insular areaAbr.DateCapitalPop. (2010)Notes
American SamoaAS1899Pago Pago3,656Pago Pago refers to both a village and a group of villages, one of which is Fagatogo, the official seat of government stated in the territory's constitution.
GuamGU1898Hagåtña1,051Dededo is the area's largest village.
Northern Mariana IslandsMP1947Saipan48,220
Puerto RicoPR1898San Juan395,326The oldest continuously inhabited U.S. state or territorial capital, San Juan was originally called Puerto Rico while the island was called San Juan Bautista.
U.S. Virgin IslandsVI1917Charlotte Amalie18,481

Former national capitals

Two of the 50 U.S. states, Hawaii and Texas, were once de jure sovereign states with diplomatic recognition from the international community.

Hawaii

During its history as a sovereign nation (Kingdom of Hawaii, 1795–1893; Republic of Hawaii, 1894–1898), five sites served as the capital of Hawaii:

Annexed by the United States in 1898, Honolulu remained the capital, first of the Territory of Hawaii (1900–1959), and then of the state (since 1959).

Texas

During its history as a sovereign nation (Republic of Texas, 1836–1845), seven sites served as the capital of Texas:

Annexed by the United States in 1845, Austin remains the capital of the state of Texas.

Native American capitals

The Navajo Nation Council Chamber in Window Rock, Arizona is the center of government for the Navajo Nation

Some Native American tribes, in particular the Five Civilized Tribes, organized their states with constitutions and capitals in Western style. Others, like the Iroquois, had long-standing, pre-Columbian traditions of a 'capitol' longhouse where wampum and council fires were maintained with special status. Since they did business with the U.S. Federal Government, these capitals can be seen as officially recognized in some sense.

Cherokee Nation

New Echota, now near Calhoun, Georgia, was founded in 1825, realizing the dream and plans of Cherokee Chief Major Ridge. Major Ridge chose the site because of its centrality in the historic Cherokee Nation which spanned parts of Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama, and because it was near the confluence of the Conasauga and Coosawattee rivers. The town's layout was partly inspired by Ridge's many visits to Washington D.C. and to Baltimore, but also invoked traditional themes of the Southeastern ceremonial complex. Complete with the Council House, Supreme Court, Cherokee syllabary printing press, and the houses of several of the Nation's constitutional officers, New Echota served as the capital until 1832 when the state of Georgia outlawed Native American assembly in an attempt to undermine the Nation. Thousands of Cherokee would gather in New Echota for the annual National Councils, camping along the nearby rivers and holding long stomp dances in the park-like woods that were typical of many Southeastern Native American settlements.[23]

The New Echota Council House (since reconstructed)

The Cherokee National council grounds were moved to Red Clay, Tennessee, on the Georgia state line, in order to evade the Georgia state militia. The log cabins, limestone springs, and park-like woods of Red Clay served as the capital until the Cherokee Nation was removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) on the Trail of Tears.[23]

Tahlequah, in present-day Oklahoma, served as the capital of the original Cherokee Nation after Removal. After the Civil War, a turbulent period for the Nation which was involved in its own civil war resulting from pervasive anger and disagreements over removal from Georgia, the Cherokee Nation built a new National Capitol in Tahlequah out of brick. The building served as the capitol until 1907, when the Dawes Act finally dissolved the Cherokee Nation and Tahlequah became the county seat of Cherokee County, Oklahoma. The Cherokee National government was re-established in 1938 and Tahlequah remains the capital of the modern Cherokee Nation; it is also the capital of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians.

Approximately four to eight hundred Cherokees escaped removal because they lived on a separated tract, purchased later with the help of Confederate Colonel William Holland Thomas, along the Oconaluftee River deep in the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina. Some Cherokees fleeing the Federal Army, sent for the "round up," fled to the remote settlements separated from the rest of the Cherokee Territory in Georgia and North Carolina, in order to remain in their homeland.[24] In the 20th century, their descendants organized as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians; its capital is at Cherokee, North Carolina, in the tribally-controlled Qualla Boundary.

Muscogee Creek Nation

After Removal from their Alabama-Georgia homeland, the Creek national government met near Hot Springs which was then part of their new territory as prescribed in the Treaty of Cusseta. Because some Creeks fought with the Confederacy in the American Civil War, the Union forced the Creeks to cede over 3,000,000-acre (1,200,000 ha) - half of their land in what is now Arkansas.[25]

Served as the National capital after the American Civil War. It was probably named after Ocmulgee, on the Ocmulgee river in Macon, a principle Coosa and later Creek town built with mounds and functioning as part of the Southeastern ceremonial complex. However, there were other traditional Creek "mother-towns" before removal. The Ocmulgee mounds were ceded illegally in 1821 with the Treaty of Indian Springs.

Iroquois Confederacy

  • Onondaga (Onondaga privilege c. 1450–present)

The Iroquois Confederacy or Haudenosaunee, which means "People of the Longhouse," was an alliance between the Five and later Six-Nations of Iroquoian language and culture of upstate New York.[26] These include the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and, after 1722, the Tuscarora Nations. Since the Confederacy's formation around 1450, the Onondaga Nation has held privilege of hosting the Iroquois Grand Council and the status of Keepers of the Fire and the Wampum —which they still do at the official Longhouse on the Onondaga Reservation.[27] Now spread over reservations in New York and Ontario, the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee preserve this arrangement to this day in what they claim to be the "world's oldest representative democracy."[28]

Seneca Nation of Indians

The Seneca Nation republic was founded in 1848 and has two capitals that rotate responsibilities every two years. Jimerson Town was founded in the 1960s following the formation of the Allegheny Reservoir. The Senecas also have an administrative longhouse in Steamburg but do not consider that location to be a capital.

Navajo Nation

  • Window Rock

Window Rock (Navajo: Tségháhoodzání), Arizona, is a small city that serves as the seat of government and capital of the Navajo Nation (1936–present), the largest territory of a sovereign Native American nation in North America. It lies within the boundaries of the St. Michaels Chapter, adjacent to the Arizona and New Mexico state line. Window Rock hosts the Navajo Nation governmental campus which contains the Navajo Nation Council, Navajo Nation Supreme Court, the offices of the Navajo Nation President and Vice President, and many Navajo government buildings.

Unrecognized national capitals

There have been a handful of self-declared or undeclared nations within the current borders of the United States which were never officially recognized as legally independent sovereign entities; however, these nations did have de facto control over their respective regions during their existence.

Colonies of British America

Stadt Huys, the original city hall of Albany, New York and meeting place of the Albany Congress in 1754.

Prior to the independence of the United States from Great Britain, declared July 4, 1776, several congresses were convened on behalf of some of the colonies of British America. However, these bodies did not address the question of independence from England, and therefore did not designate a national capital. (The Second Continental Congress encompassed the period during which the United States declared independence, but did not itself establish a national capital.)

CityBuildingStart dateEnd dateDurationRef
Albany Congress
Albany, New YorkStadt HuysJune 19, 1754July 11, 175422 days[29]
Stamp Act Congress
New York, New YorkCity HallOctober 7, 1765October 25, 176523 days[30]
First Continental Congress
Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaCarpenters' HallSeptember 5, 1774October 26, 17741 month and 21 days[31]
Second Continental Congress
Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaIndependence HallMay 10, 1775July 4, 1776 (continuing after independence until December 12, 1776)1 year, 1 month and 24 days[32]

Vermont Republic

Before joining the United States as the fourteenth state, Vermont was an independent republic known as the Vermont Republic (1777–1791). Three cities served as the capital of the Republic:

  • Westminster, 1777
  • Windsor, 1777–?
  • Castleton, ?–1791

The current capital of the State of Vermont is Montpelier.

State of Franklin

The State of Franklin was an autonomous, secessionist United States territory created not long after the end of the American Revolution from territory that later was ceded by North Carolina to the federal government. Franklin's territory later became part of the state of Tennessee. Franklin was never officially admitted into the Union of the United States and existed for only four years.

State of Muskogee

The State of Muskogee was a Native American state in Spanish Florida created by the Englishman William Augustus Bowles, who was its "Director General," author of its Constitution, and designer of its flag.[33] It consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles. It existed from 1799 to 1803. It had one capital:

  • Miccosukee,[34] 1799–1803

Republic of West Florida

The Republic of West Florida was a short-lived nation that broke away from the territory of Spanish West Florida in 1810. It comprised the Florida Parishes of the modern state of Louisiana and the Mobile District of the modern states of Mississippi and Alabama. (The Republic of West Florida did not include any part of the modern state of Florida.) Ownership of the area had been in dispute between Spain and the United States, which claimed that it had been included in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. Within two months of the settlers' rebellion and the declaration of an independent nation, President James Madison sent American forces to peaceably occupy the new republic. It was formally annexed by the United States in 1812 over the objections of Spain and the land was divided between the Territory of Orleans and Territory of Mississippi. During its brief existence, the capital of the Republic of West Florida was:

Republic of Indian Stream

The Republic of Indian Stream was an unrecognized independent nation within the present state of New Hampshire.

California Republic

Before being annexed by the United States in 1848 (following the Mexican–American War), a small portion of north-central California declared itself the California Republic, in an act of independence from Mexico, in 1846 (see Bear Flag Revolt). The republic only existed a month before it disbanded itself, to join the advancing American army and therefore became part of the United States.

The original of Todd's Bear Flag, photographed in 1890
Modern flag of the State of California

The very short-lived California Republic was never recognized by the United States, Mexico or any other nation. The flag, featuring a silhouette of a California grizzly bear, a star, and the words "California Republic", became known as the Bear Flag and was later the basis for the official state flag of California.

There was one de facto capital of the California Republic:

Confederate States

Richmond served as the second capital of the Confederate States of America. The city has been Virginia's capital since 1780.

The Confederate States of America (C.S.A.) had two capitals during its existence. The first capital was established February 4, 1861, in Montgomery, Alabama, and remained there until it was moved to Richmond, Virginia, on May 29, 1861, after Virginia seceded on May 23.

The individual state capitals remained the same in the Confederacy as they had been in the Union (U.S.A.), although as the advancing Union Army used those cities for military districts, some of the Confederate governments were relocated or moved out of state, traveling along with secessionist armies.

  • Montgomery, February 4, 1861 – May 29, 1861
  • Richmond, May 29, 1861 – April 3, 1865

Historical state, colonial, and territorial capitals

Most of the original Thirteen Colonies had their capitals occupied or attacked by the British during the American Revolutionary War. State governments operated where and as they could. The City of New York was occupied by British troops from 1776 to 1783. A similar situation occurred during the War of 1812, during the American Civil War in many Confederate states, and during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680–1692 in New Mexico.

St. Augustine served as Florida's capital from 1565 until the 1820s.[35]

Twenty-two state capitals have been a capital longer than their state has been a state, since they served as the capital of a predecessor territory, colony, or republic. Boston, Massachusetts, has been a capital city since 1630; it is the oldest continuously-running capital in the United States. Santa Fe, New Mexico, is the oldest capital city, having become capital in 1610 and interrupted only by the aforementioned Pueblo Revolt. An even older Spanish city, St. Augustine, Florida, served as a colonial capital from 1565 until about 1820, more than 250 years.

The table below includes the following information:

  1. The state, the year in which statehood was granted, and the state's capital are shown in bold type. NOTE: For the first thirteen states, formerly the Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain on the Atlantic seaboard, the year of statehood is shown as 1776 (United States Declaration of Independence) rather than the subsequent year each state ratified the 1787 United States Constitution. (See List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union.)
  2. The year listed for each capital is the starting date; the ending date is the starting date for the successor unless otherwise indicated.
  3. In many cases, capital cities of historical jurisdictions were outside of a state's present borders. (Those cities are generally indicated with the two-letter abbreviation for the U.S. state in which the former administrative capital is now located.)
Historical capitals in the United States of America
StateCapitalDateNotes
Alabama[36]
Statehood in 1819
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish colony of La Florida.[37]
Savannah (GA)1733Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta (GA)1778
Heard's Fort (GA)1780
Augusta (GA)1781
Savannah (GA)1782
Ebenezer (GA)1782
Savannah (GA)1784
Augusta (GA)1786
Louisville (GA)1796
Natchez (MS)1798Capitals of the Mississippi Territory.
Washington (MS)1802
St. Stephens1817Capital of the Alabama Territory.
Huntsville1819Capitals of the State of Alabama.
Cahawba1820
Tuscaloosa1826
Montgomery1846Capital of the State of Alabama.
(Capital of the Confederate States of America in 1861.)
Alaska[38]
Statehood in 1959
Novo-Arkhangelsk
Sitka
1808Capital of the Russian colony of Alaska.
1867Capital of the Department of Alaska.
1900Capitals of the District of Alaska.
Juneau1906
1912Capital of the Territory of Alaska.
1959Capital of the State of Alaska.
Arizona[39]
Statehood in 1912
Santa Fe (NM)1848Capital of the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico 1848–1850.
1850Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850–1912.
Mesilla (NM)1862Capital of the Confederate Territory of Arizona (southern New Mexico and Arizona 1862).
San Antonio (TX)1862Capital of the government-in-exile of the Confederate Territory of Arizona 1862–1865.
Fort Whipple1864Capitals of the U.S. Territory of Arizona.
Prescott1864
Tucson1867
Prescott1877
Phoenix1889
1912Capital of the State of Arizona.
Arkansas[40]
Statehood in 1836
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory).
1805Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
1812Capital of the Missouri Territory.
Arkansas Post1819Capitals of the Arkansaw Territory.[41]
Little Rock1821
1836Capital of the State of Arkansas.[41]
(Washington was the Confederate state capital 1863–1865.)
California[42]
Statehood in 1850
Loreto (BCS)1770Capitals of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España colonies of las Californias.
Presidio Reál de San Carlos de Monterey


Monterey


1777
1804Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España province of Alta California.
1821Capital of the Mexican province of Alta California.
1846Capital of the U.S. military government of California.
1849Capital of the Provisional Government of California.
Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe1850Capitals of the State of California.
Vallejo1852
Benicia1853
Sacramento[e]1854
Colorado[43]
Statehood in 1876
Denver City[44]1859Capitals of the extralegal Territory of Jefferson.
Golden City1860
Denver City1861Capitals of the Territory of Colorado.
Colorado City1862
Golden City1862
Denver[45]1867
1876Capital of the State of Colorado.
Connecticut
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam (NY)1625Capital of the Netherlands colony of New Netherland.
Hartford1639Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut 1639–1686.
New-Haven1640Capital of the English Colony of New-Haven until its merger into the Connecticut Colony in 1662.
Boston (MA)1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Hartford1689Capital of the English Colony of Connecticut.
joint capitals1701Hartford and New-Haven served as the "co-capitals" of the English Colony of Connecticut, with the Assembly holding its May session in Hartford and its October session in New-Haven.
1707Hartford and New-Haven joint capitals of the British Colony of Connecticut.
1776Hartford and New Haven joint capitals of the State of Connecticut.
Hartford1875Capital of the State of Connecticut.
Delaware
Statehood in 1776
Fort Kristina1638Capital of the Swedish colony of Nya Sverige.
Fort Amsterdam
Nieuw-Amsterdam
New-York
Nieuw-Oranje
New-York (NY)
1655Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
1664Capital of the English Colony of New-York.
1673Capital of the Dutch military government of New Netherland.
1674Capital of the English Colony of New-York.
Philadelphia (PA)1682Capital of the English Colony of Pennsylvania.
New Castle1704Capital of the English Lower Counties on the Delaware.
1707Capital of the British Lower Counties on the Delaware.
1776Capitals of the State of Delaware.
Dover1777
Florida[46]
Statehood in 1845
Fort de la Caroline1564Capital of the French colony of La Caroline 1564–1565.
San Agustín
St. Augustine
1565Capital of the Spanish province of La Florida 1565–1763.[37]
1763Capital of the British province of East Florida 1763–1783.
1783Capital of the Spanish province of Florida Oriental 1783–1821.
Santa María de Ochuse
Pensacola
1763Capital of the British province of British West Florida 1763–1783.
1783Capital of the Spanish province of Florida Occidental 1783–1821.
Tallahassee1824Capital of the Florida Territory.
1845Capital of the State of Florida.
Georgia[47]
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish province of La Florida.[37]
Savannah1733Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta1778
Heard's Fort1780
Augusta1781
Savannah1782
Ebenezer1782
Savannah1784
Augusta1786
Louisville1796
Milledgeville1807
Macon1864
Milledgeville1865
Atlanta1868
Hawaii
Statehood in 1959
Lahaina1820Capitals of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
Honolulu1845
1894Capital of the Republic of Hawaii.
1898Capital of the Territory of Hawaii.
1959Capital of the State of Hawaiʻi.
Idaho[48]
Statehood in 1890
Oregon City (OR)1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.[49]
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (all of Idaho 1848–1853, southern Idaho 1853–1859).
Salem (OR)1851
Olympia (WA)1853Capital of the Territory of Washington (northern Idaho 1853–1859, all of Idaho 1859–1863).
Lewiston1863Capitals of the Territory of Idaho.
Boise1865
1890Capital of the State of Idaho.
Illinois[50]
Statehood in 1818
Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes (IN)1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia1809Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
1818Capitals of the State of Illinois.
Vandalia1820
Springfield1839
Indiana
Statehood in 1816
Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes1800Capitals of the Territory of Indiana.
Corydon1813
1816Capitals of the State of Indiana.
Indianapolis1825
Iowa[51]
Statehood in 1846
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory).
1805Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
1812Capital of the Missouri Territory (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI)1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont (WI)1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington1837
1838Capitals of the Territory of Iowa.
Iowa City1841
1846Capitals of the State of Iowa.
Des Moines1857
Kansas[52]
Statehood in 1861
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory).
1805Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
1812Capital of the Missouri Territory (1812–1821).
Pawnee1855Capital of the Kansas Territory (July 2 – 6).
Shawnee Mission1855Capital of the Kansas Territory.
Lecompton1856Capital de jure (pro-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
TopekaCapital de facto (anti-slavery) of the Territory of Kansas.
Minneola1858Declared capital by territorial legislature, although this action was later declared void.[53]
Topeka1861Capital of the State of Kansas.
Kentucky[54]
Statehood in 1792
Williamsburg (VA)1699Capital of the English Colony of Virginia.
1707Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond (VA)1780
Frankfort1792Capital of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
(The government initially met at Lexington but Frankfort was quickly named the capital. Bowling Green was the rival Confederate state capital 1861–62).
Louisiana[55]
Statehood in 1812
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish province of La Florida.[37]
La Mobile (AL)1702Capitals of the French colony of La Louisiane.
Bilocci (MS)1720
La Nouvelle-Orléans
Nueva Orleans
New Orleans
1722
1763Capital of the Spanish district of Baja Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of La Basse-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the Territory of Orleans.
1812Capitals of the State of Louisiana.
Donaldsonville1830
New Orleans1831
Baton Rouge1849
Opelousas1862
Shreveport1863
New Orleans1865
Baton Rouge1882
Maine[56]
Statehood in 1820
Île Sainte-Croix1604Capitals of the French colony of l'Acadie.
Port-Royal (NS)1605
Boston (MA)1630Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
1689Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
1691Capital of the English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707Capital of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1774Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1776Capital of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
1780Capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Portland1820Capital of the State of Maine.
1827Capital de facto of the State of Maine.
AugustaCapital de jure of the State of Maine.
1832Capital of the State of Maine.
Maryland[57]
Statehood in 1776
St. Mary's City1634Capital of the English proprietary Colony of Maryland.
Anne Arundel's Towne
Annapolis


1694Capital of the English Province of Maryland.
1707Capital of the British Province of Maryland.
1776Capital of the State of Maryland.
(Capital of the United States of America 1783–1784.)
Massachusetts
Statehood in 1776
Plimouth1620Capital of the English Colony of New-Plimouth 1620–1686.
Boston1630Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1630–1686.
1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America 1686–1689.
Plimouth1688Capital of the dissident Colony of New-Plimouth 1688–1692.
Boston1689Capital of the dissident Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1689–1692.
1692Capital of the English Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707Capital of the British Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1774Capital of the dissident Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1776Capital of the State of Massachusetts Bay.
1780Capital of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Michigan[58]
Statehood in 1837
Marietta (OH)1788Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (all of Michigan 1788–1800, eastern Michigan 1800–1803).
Chillicothe (OH)1800
Vincennes (IN)Capitals of the Territory of Indiana (western Michigan 1800–1803; all of Michigan 1803–1805, a portion of the Upper Peninsula 1805–1816).
Corydon (IN)1813
Detroit1805Capital of the Territory of Michigan (Lower Peninsula 1805–1818, all of Michigan 1818–1837).
(Detroit was occupied by British Armed Forces 1812–1813).
1837Capitals of the State of Michigan.
Lansing1847
Minnesota[59]
Statehood in 1858
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana 1765–1800.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane (west of Mississippi River 1800–1804).
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804–1805).
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (west of Mississippi River 1805–1812).
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (west of Mississippi River 1812–1821).
Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio (east of Mississippi River 1788–1800).
Vincennes (IN)1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana (east of Mississippi River 1800–1809).
Kaskaskia (IL)1809Capital of the Territory of Illinois (east of Mississippi River 1809–1818).
Detroit (MI)1818Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Mississippi River 1818–1834, all of Minnesota 1834–1836).
Belmont (WI)1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington (IA)1837
1838Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1838–1841).
Madison (WI)Capital of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Mississippi River 1838–1848).
Iowa City (IA)1841Capital of the Territory of Iowa (west of Mississippi River 1841–1846).
Saint Paul1849Capital of the Territory of Minnesota.
1858Capital of the State of Minnesota.
Mississippi[60]
Statehood in 1817
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish province of La Florida.[37]
Savannah (GA)1733Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Georgia.
1755Capital of the British Province of Georgia.
1776Capitals of the State of Georgia.
Augusta (GA)1778
Heard's Fort (GA)1780
Augusta (GA)1781
Savannah (GA)1782
Ebenezer (GA)1782
Savannah (GA)1784
Augusta (GA)1786
Louisville (GA)1796
Natchez1798Capitals of the Territory of Mississippi.
Washington1802
Natchez1817Capitals of the State of Mississippi.
Jackson1821
Missouri
Statehood in 1821
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of La Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory).
1805Capital of the Louisiana Territory.
1812Capital of the Missouri Territory.
Saint Charles1821Capitals of the State of Missouri.
(A Confederate state government in exile operated from Neosho 1861–1863, and from Marshall, Texas, 1863–1865).
Jefferson City1826
Montana[61]
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1763–1800.)
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane (east of Continental Divide 1800–1804).
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide under the authority of the Indiana Territory 1804–1805).
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana (east of Continental Divide 1805–1812).
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (east of Continental Divide 1812–1821).
Fort Vancouver (WA)1825Capital de facto of the Oregon Country (west of Continental Divide 1818–1843).
Oregon City (OR)1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1843–1848).
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon (west of Continental Divide 1848–1853).
Salem (OR)1851
Olympia (WA)1853Capital of the Territory of Washington (west of Continental Divide 1853–1863).
Omaha (NE)1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (east of Continental Divide 1854–1861).
Yankton (SD)1861Capital of the Territory of Dakota (east of Continental Divide 1861–1863).
Lewiston (ID)1863Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Bannack1864Capitals of the Territory of Montana.
Virginia City1865
Helena1875
1889Capital of the State of Montana.
Nebraska
Statehood in 1867
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory).
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Omaha1854Capitals of the Territory of Nebraska.
Lancaster
Lincoln
1867
1867Capital of the State of Nebraska.
Nevada[62]
Statehood in 1864
Fillmore (UT)1850Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City (UT)1858
Genoa1861Capital of the Territory of Nevada.
Carson City1861Capital of the Territory of Nevada.
1864Capital of the State of Nevada.
New Hampshire[63]
Statehood in 1776
Boston (MA)1630Capital of the English Colony of Massachusetts Bay.
Portsmouth1680Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire.
Boston (MA)1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Portsmouth1689Capital of the dissident Province of New Hampshire.
1691Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire.
1698Capital of the English Province of New Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1707Capital of the British Province of New Hampshire under jurisdiction of the Royal Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
1741Capital of the British Province of New Hampshire.
Exeter1775Capital of the Revolutionary War government of New Hampshire.
1776Capitals of the State of New Hampshire.
Concord1808
New Jersey
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam (NY)1625Capital of the Dutch colony of New Netherland.
1652Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth)1665Capital of the English Province of New Jersey.
Perth Amboy1673Capital of the English Province of East Jersey 1673–1688.
BurlingtonCapital of the English Province of West Jersey 1673–1688.
Boston (MA)1688Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America 1688–1689.
Perth Amboy1689Capital of the English Province of East Jersey 1689–1702.
BurlingtonCapital of the English Province of West Jersey 1689–1702.
joint capitals1702East Jersey and West Jersey were re-united as the English Province of New Jersey in 1702. Perth Amboy and Burlington served jointly as the capital until 1784.
1707Joint capitals of the British Province of New Jersey.
1776Joint capitals of the State of New Jersey.
Trenton1784Capital of the State of New Jersey.
(Capital of the United States of America in 1784).
New Mexico
Statehood in 1912
San Juan de los Caballeros1598Capitals of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís1610
El Paso del Norte (now Ciudad Juárez CHH)1680Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España province-in-exile of Santa Fe de Nuevo México (Pueblo Revolt 1680–1692).
La Villa Real de la Santa Fé de San Francisco de Asís

Santa Fe
1692Capital of the Spanish Virreinato de la Nueva España province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
1821Capital of the Mexican province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
1824Capital of the Mexican territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México.
1846Capital of the U.S. military government of New Mexico 1846.
1846Capital of the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico 1846–1850.
1850Capital of the U.S. Territory of New Mexico 1850–1912.
Santa Fe1912Capital of the State of New Mexico.
New York
Statehood in 1776
Fort Amsterdam
Nieuw-Amsterdam
New-York
Nieuw-Oranje
New-York
1625Capital of the Dutch colony of New Netherland (Novum Belgium).
1652Capital of the Dutch province of New Netherland.
1664Capital of the English Province of New York.
1673Capital of the Dutch military government of New Netherland.
1674Capital of the English Province of New York.
Boston (MA)1688Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
New-York1689Capital of the dissident government of New-York.
1691Capital of the English Province of New York.
1707Capital of the British Province of New York.
1776Capitals of the State of New York.
Kingston1777
Hurley1777
Poughkeepsie1777
New York1788Capital of the State of New York.
(Capital of the United States of America 1785–1788 and 1789–1790).
Albany1797Capital of the State of New York.
North Carolina
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish province of la Florida.[37]
Charlestown (SC)1670Capital of the English Province of Carolina.
1707Capital of the British Province of Carolina.
New Bern1712Capital of the British Province of North Carolina.
1776Capitals of the State of North Carolina.
Fayetteville1789
Raleigh1794
North Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory).
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI)1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1834–1836).
Belmont (WI)1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1836–1838).
Burlington (IA)1837
1838Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1838–1846).
Iowa City (IA)1841
Saint Paul (MN)1849Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River and White Earth River 1849–1858).
Omaha (NE)1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River or White Earth River 1854–1861).
Yankton (SD)1861Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
Bismarck1883
1889Capital of the State of North Dakota.
Ohio
Statehood in 1803
Marietta1788Capitals of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Chillicothe1800
1803Capitals of the State of Ohio.
Zanesville1810
Chillicothe1812
Columbus1816
Oklahoma
Statehood in 1907
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory).
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri.
Arkansas Post (AR)1819Capitals of the Territory of Arkansaw[41] (south of the parallel 36°30' north 1819–1824, southeastern Oklahoma 1824–1828).
Little Rock (AR)1821
Fort Gibson1824De facto capital of the Indian Territory.
Tahlequah1838Capital of the Cherokee Nation.
Tuskahoma1838Capital of the Choctaw Nation.
Tishomingo1855Capital of the Chickasaw Nation.
Wewoka1866Capital of the Seminole Nation.
Okmulgee1867Capital of the Creek Nation.
Pawhuska1872Capital of the Osage Nation.
Guthrie1889Capital of the Territory of Oklahoma.
1907Capitals of the State of Oklahoma.
Oklahoma City1910
Oregon[64]
Statehood in 1859
Champoeg1843Temporary capital of the disputed Oregon Country.
Oregon City1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.[49]
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem1851
Corvallis1855
Salem1855
1859Capital of the State of Oregon.
Pennsylvania[65]
Statehood in 1776
Philadelphia1682Capital of the English proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
1707Capital of the British proprietary Colony of Pennsylvania.
1776Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(Capital of the United States of America 1776, 1777, 1778–1783, and 1790–1800).
Lancaster1799Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
(Capital of the United States of America 1777).
Harrisburg1812Capital of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island
Statehood in 1776
Providence1636Capital of the English Colony of Providence 1636–1644.
Portsmouth1639Capital of the English Colony of Aquidneck Island 1639–1644.
1644Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island.
Providence1644Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
Boston (MA)1686Capital of the English Dominion of New-England in America.
Providence1689Capital of the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
1707Capital of the British Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
five capitals1776From 1776 to 1853, the legislature of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations rotated among the county seats of the state's five counties: Providence, Newport, East Greenwich, South Kingstown, and Bristol.
joint capitals1854From 1854 to 1899, the legislature of the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations alternated sessions between Providence and Newport.
Providence1900Capital of the State of Rhode Island.
South Carolina
Statehood in 1776
San Agustín (FL)1565Capital of the Spanish province of la Florida.[37]
Charlestown1670Capital of the English Province of Carolina.
1707Capital of the British Province of Carolina.
1712Capital of the British Province of South Carolina.
1776Capitals of the State of South Carolina.
Columbia1786
South Dakota
Statehood in 1889
Saint-Louis
San Luis
St. Louis (MO)
1765Capital of the Spanish (though predominantly Francophone) district of Alta Louisiana.
1800Capital of the French district of la Haute-Louisiane.
1804Capital of the District of Louisiana (under the authority of the Indiana Territory.)
1805Capital of the Territory of Louisiana.
1812Capital of the Territory of Missouri (1812–1821).
Detroit (MI)1834Capital of the Territory of Michigan (east of Missouri River 1834–1836).
Belmont (WI)1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin (east of Missouri River 1836–1838).
Burlington (IA)1837
1838Capitals of the Territory of Iowa (east of Missouri River 1838–1846).
Iowa City (IA)1841
Saint Paul (MN)1849Capital of the Territory of Minnesota (east of Missouri River 1849–1858).
Omaha (NE)1854Capital of the Territory of Nebraska (west of Missouri River 1854–1861).
Yankton1861Capitals of the Territory of Dakota.
Bismarck (ND)1883
Pierre1889Capital of the State of South Dakota.
Tennessee[66]
Statehood in 1796
New Bern (NC)1712Capital of the British Province of North Carolina.
1776Capital of the State of North Carolina.
Rocky Mount1790Capitals of the Territory South of the River Ohio.
White's Fort
Knoxville
1791
1796Capital of the State of Tennessee.
Kingston1807Capital of the State of Tennessee for one day in 1807 to fulfill treaty obligations with the Cherokee Nation.
Knoxville1807Capitals of the State of Tennessee.
Nashville1812
Knoxville1817
Murfreesboro1818
Nashville1826
Texas
Statehood in 1845
Los Adaes (LA)1729Capitals of the Spanish province of Tejas.
San Antonio de Béxar (now San Antonio)1772
Saltillo (COA)1824Capitals of the Mexican province of Coahuila y Tejas.
Monclova (COA)1833
San Felipe de Austin1835Capital of the Provisional Government of Texas.
Washington (now Washington-on-the-Brazos)1836Capitals of the Republic of Texas.
Galveston1836
Harrisburg1836
Velasco1836
Columbia1836
Houston1837
Austin1839
1845Capital of the State of Texas.
Utah
Statehood in 1896
Salt Lake City1849Capital of the extralegal State of Deseret.
Fillmore1850Capitals of the Territory of Utah.
Salt Lake City1858
1896Capital of the State of Utah.
Vermont[67]
Statehood in 1791
Westminster1777Capitals of the Republic of New Connecticut.
Windsor1777
1777Capital of the Vermont Republic.
1791Capitals of the State of Vermont.
Montpelier1805
Virginia[68]
Statehood in 1776
Jamestown1619Capitals of the English Colony of Virginia.
Middle Plantation
Williamsburg
1698
1707Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond1780Capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
(Capital of the Confederate States of America 1861–1865.)
(A rival pro-Union state government operated from Wheeling 1861–1863 and from Alexandria 1863–1865).
Washington[69]
Statehood in 1889
Champoeg (OR)1843Temporary capital of the disputed Oregon Country.
Oregon City (OR)1843Capital of the Provisional Government of Oregon in the Oregon Country.[49]
1848Capitals of the Territory of Oregon.
Salem (OR)1851
Olympia1853Capital of the Territory of Washington.
1889Capital of the State of Washington.
West Virginia
Statehood in 1863
Jamestown (VA)1619Capitals of the English Colony of Virginia.
Middle Plantation (VA)
Williamsburg (VA)
1698
1707Capital of the British Colony of Virginia.
1776Capitals of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Richmond (VA)1780
Wheeling1861Capital of the rival pro-Union government of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
1863Capitals of the State of West Virginia.
Charleston1870
Wheeling1875
Charleston1885
Wisconsin[70]
Statehood in 1848
Marietta (OH)1788Capital of the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Vincennes (IN)1800Capital of the Territory of Indiana.
Kaskaskia (IL)1809Capital of the Territory of Illinois.
Detroit (MI)1818Capital of the Territory of Michigan.
Belmont1836Capitals of the Territory of Wisconsin.
Burlington (IA)1837
Madison1838
1848Capital of the State of Wisconsin.
Wyoming[71]
Statehood in 1890
Lewiston (ID)1863Capital of the Territory of Idaho.
Yankton (SD)1864Capital of the Territory of Dakota.
Cheyenne1869Capital of the Territory of Wyoming.
1890Capital of the State of Wyoming.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Congress was forced to move from Philadelphia due to a riot of angry soldiers. See: Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783
  2. ^ Government offices were evacuated to Trenton, New Jersey, from August to November 1799 following an outbreak of yellow fever in Philadelphia.
  3. ^ The District of Columbia was formed February 27, 1801, with the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801. The city of Washington was founded in 1791 and construction of the new capital began while it was still part of Maryland. President John Adams moved to the White House on November 1, 1800 and the 6th United States Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800.[16]
  4. ^ President James Madison fled to the home of Caleb Bentley in Brookeville, Maryland following the burning of Washington on August 24–25, 1814. As such, the town claims to have been the "U.S. Capital for a Day" despite the fact that Congress never met there. See:"A Brief History". Town of Brookeville, Maryland. 2006. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved October 7, 2008.
  5. ^ Due to flooding in Sacramento, San Francisco served as a temporary capital from January 24, 1862 to May 15, 1862. See"California's State Capitols 1850–present" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 19, 2010. Retrieved March 14, 2013.

References

  1. ^ "Article 1 Section 8 Clause 17 | Constitution Annotated | Congress.gov | Library of Congress". constitution.congress.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  2. ^ "U.S. Senate: Farewell to New York". www.senate.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  3. ^ Drexler, Ken. "Research Guides: Residence Act: Primary Documents in American History: Introduction". guides.loc.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  4. ^ a b González, Jennifer (November 17, 2015). "On This Day: Congress Moves to Washington, D.C. | In Custodia Legis: Law Librarians of Congress". blogs.loc.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  5. ^ Philadelphia, Mailing Address: 143 S. 3rd Street; Us, PA 19106 Phone:965-2305 Contact. "Congress Hall - Independence National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  6. ^ "Ceremonial Meeting of Congress in Philadelphia for Bicentennial of Constitution | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  7. ^ "A Special Session at Federal Hall in New York City | US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  8. ^ Observer, Dick Mason, The. "For a day, Meacham was 'capital of the United States all day long'". The Observer. Retrieved September 16, 2021.
  9. ^ "Meacham re-dedicates historic marker". East Oregonian. Retrieved September 16, 2021.
  10. ^ Riley, Edward M. (1953). "The Independence Hall Group". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 43 (1): 7–42. doi:10.2307/1005661. ISSN 0065-9746. JSTOR 1005661.
  11. ^ "Buildings of the Department of State - Buildings - Department History - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  12. ^ a b c Klein, Christopher. "8 Forgotten Capitals of the United States". HISTORY. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  13. ^ "Meeting Places for the Continental Congresses and the Confederation Congress, 1774–1789". Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  14. ^ "Meeting Places for the Continental Congresses and the Confederation Congress, 1774–1789". Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i "U.S. Senate: The Nine Capitals of the United States". www.senate.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  16. ^ Carter II, Edward C. (1971–1972), "Benjamin Henry Latrobe and the Growth and Development of Washington, 1798-1818", Records of the Columbia Historical Society: 139
  17. ^ "U.S. Senate: The Senate Convenes in Emergency Quarters". www.senate.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  18. ^ "U.S. Senate: On This Day: December 4, 1815". www.senate.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  19. ^ "U.S. Senate: Meeting Places and Quarters". www.senate.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  20. ^ Bureau, US Census. "City and Town Population Totals: 2020". The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  21. ^ Bureau, US Census. "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Population Totals: 2020". The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  22. ^ Bureau, US Census. "Combined Statistical Area Population Totals and city rankings: 2020". The United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 9, 2020.
  23. ^ a b Ehle, John (1988). Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. New York: Anchor Books Doubleday. ISBN 0385239548.
  24. ^ "Qualla Boundary | NCpedia". www.ncpedia.org. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  25. ^ "Muscogee Creek Nation -Culture/history". Muscogee Creek Nation.
  26. ^ nysmuseum (September 30, 2014), Haudenosaunee or Iroquois?, archived from the original on December 12, 2021, retrieved January 24, 2017
  27. ^ "Haudenosaunee Confederacy". www.haudenosauneeconfederacy.com. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  28. ^ "Haudenosaunee Confederacy". www.haudenosauneeconfederacy.com. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  29. ^ "Albany Congress | United States history [1754]". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  30. ^ "History & Culture - Federal Hall National Memorial (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  31. ^ "Buildings of the Department of State - Buildings - Department History - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  32. ^ Riley, Edward M. (1953). "The Independence Hall Group". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 43 (1): 7–42. doi:10.2307/1005661. ISSN 0065-9746. JSTOR 1005661.
  33. ^ Landers, Jane (2010). Atlantic Creoles in the Age of Revolutions. London: Harvard University Press. pp. 102–103.
  34. ^ The State of Muskogee, State Flags of Florida, Cultural, Historical and Information Programs, Office of Cultural and Historical Programs website, Florida Department of State, Government of Florida, retrieved October 31, 2007.
  35. ^ "Florida Timeline: Florida Senate Kids". archive.flsenate.gov. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  36. ^ Capitals of Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Updated October 29, 2001. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g The Spanish name La Florida originally referred to all of the American continent north of Mexico. As other European nations colonized North America, the extent of La Florida shrank to encompass only the Spanish territorial claims in the southeastern portion of the present United States.
  38. ^ Frequently Asked Questions About Alaska Archived June 13, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Statewide Library Electronic Doorway. Updated September 21, 2004. Accessed June 9, 2005; based on Alaska Blue Book 1993–94, 11th ed., Juneau, Department of Education, Division of State Libraries, Archives & Museums. ExploreNorth: The History of Sitka Archived February 18, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Department of Community and Economic Development, Alaska Community Database Online. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  39. ^ Capitals before the Capitol Archived March 7, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  40. ^ Educational Materials: Facts Archived June 26, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Arkansas Secretary of State. Accessed June 9, 2005. Washington State Park 19th century village in SW Arkansas Archived May 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism, Confederate Capital Old Division of State Parks. 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  41. ^ a b c The name Arkansas has been pronounced and spelled in a variety of fashions. The region was organized as the Territory of Arkansaw on July 4, 1819, but the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Arkansas on June 15, 1836. The name was historically pronounced /ˈɑːrkənsɔː/, /ɑːrˈkænzəs/, and several other variants. In 1881, the Arkansas General Assembly passed the following concurrent resolution (Arkansas Statutes, Title 1, Chapter 4, Section 105):

    Whereas, confusion of practice has arisen in the pronunciation of the name of our state and it is deemed important that the true pronunciation should be determined for use in oral official proceedings.

    And, whereas, the matter has been thoroughly investigated by the State Historical Society and the Eclectic Society of Little Rock, which have agreed upon the correct pronunciation as derived from history, and the early usage of the American immigrants.

    Be it therefore resolved by both houses of the General Assembly, that the only true pronunciation of the name of the state, in the opinion of this body, is that received by the French from the Native Americans and committed to writing in the French word representing the sound. It should be pronounced in three (3) syllables, with the final "s" silent, the "a" in each syllable with the Italian sound, and the accent on the first and last syllables. The pronunciation with the accent on the second syllable with the sound of "a" in "man" and the sounding of the terminal "s" is an innovation to be discouraged.

    Citizens of the State of Kansas often pronounce the Arkansas River /ɑːrˈkænzəs/ in a manner similar to the common pronunciation of the name of their state.

  42. ^ E. Dotson Wilson (2006). Ebbert, Brian S. (ed.). California's Legislature (PDF). Sacramento, California: State of California. pp. 157–165. Retrieved October 3, 2006.
  43. ^ Early Capitol and Legislative Assembly Locations Colorado State Archives, Colorado State Capitol Virtual Tour. Updated June 20, 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  44. ^ From December 3, 1859, to December 3, 1861, Denver City was formally the City of Denver, Auraria, and Highland.
  45. ^ On November 15, 1902, the City of Denver became the City and County of Denver.
  46. ^ Florida State History. Florida Division of Historical Resources.
  47. ^ Jackson, Edwin L. Story of Georgia's Capitols and Capital Cities Archived October 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Carl Vinson Institute of Government. University of Georgia. 1988
  48. ^ Chronological History of Idaho Archived August 7, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Idaho Office of the Governor. Created 2000. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  49. ^ a b c Clarke, S.A. (1905). Pioneer Days of Oregon History. J.K. Gill Company.
  50. ^ Past Capitols; based on Illinois Bluebook, 1975–1976. Created March 5, 2005. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  51. ^ Sabin, Henry. Making of Iowa, chapter 24: Locating a Capital. Originally published 1900 by A. Flanagan Co. of Chicago and New York; published online by Iowa History Project, posted August 25, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  52. ^ Harding, Eldon. Stories from the Kansas State Capital: Choosing a Capital City--Why Topeka? Archived March 12, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Kansas State Historical Society. April 2001. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  53. ^ Fitzgerald, Daniel (1988). Ghost Towns of Kansas. University Press of Kansas. pp. 61–65. ISBN 0700603689.
  54. ^ Kentucky's State Capitols Archived August 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. Accessed July 24, 2006.
  55. ^ Note: The Louisiana Capitals information may be incorrect or incomplete. See"Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 15, 2006. Retrieved June 28, 2006.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) and elsewhere.
  56. ^ Students Questions Frequently Ask Archived March 13, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Maine State Senate. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  57. ^ Historical Chronology. Maryland State Archives. Accessed July 24, 2006.
  58. ^ Michigan in Brief State of Michigan. Updated March 7, 2005. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  59. ^ Saint Paul's 150th birthday Archived April 11, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. City of Saint Paul, Minnesota. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  60. ^ Bunn, Mike and Clay Williams, Capitals and Capitols: The Places and Spaces of Mississippi's Seat of Government Archived May 11, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Mississippi History Now. Mississippi Historical Society Online. Posted September 2003. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  61. ^ Lambert, Kirby. Montana's crown jewel of architecture: The Montana state capitol Archived September 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Montana: The Magazine of Western History, Montana Historical Society. Summer 2002. Accessed June 10, 2005.
  62. ^ Rocha, Guy Nevada State Archives Historical Myth a Month: Myth #28, Las Vegas: Nevada's Next State Capital Archived August 22, 2003, at the Wayback Machine. Updated July 14, 2003. Accessed June 9, 2005; originally published as Sierra Sage, Carson City/Carson Valley, Nevada. May 1998 edition.
  63. ^ New Hampshire Senate Page For Kids. New Hampshire General Court. Accessed June 9, 2005. New Hampshire History in Brief. New Hampshire Division of Historical Resources. Created 1989. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  64. ^ Oregon Legislative Assembly History. Oregon State Archives. Accessed February 17, 2012.
  65. ^ The History of Pennsylvania's Capital. Pennsylvania Department of Education. Accessed July 24, 2006.
  66. ^ Capital Cities. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. 2002. Accessed March 12, 2006.
  67. ^ Early History of Montpelier, Vermont Archived February 12, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Vermont Historical Society. Accessed June 9, 2005; adapted from Esther Munroe Swift, Vermont Place-Names: Footprints of History, 1977, 1996, and Montpelier Heritage Group, Three Walking Tours of Montpelier, Vt., 1991.
  68. ^ About Our Capital Archived June 25, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Virginia General Assembly. Accessed July 20, 2006.
  69. ^ The History of Olympia. City of Olympia. Accessed June 9, 2005.
  70. ^ Cravens, Stanley H."Capitals and Capitols in Early Wisconsin" Archived June 23, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Wisconsin Blue Book Archived February 9, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, 1983–1984 edition.
  71. ^ Saban, Mary Thompson, Wyoming Sage: Brief History of Wyoming. Updated January 17, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005.

Further reading

  • Christian Montes. American Capitals: A Historical Geography (University of Chicago Press; 2014) 394 pages; scholarly study of geographic and other factors that have shaped the designation of capitals in all 50 states

External links

Media files used on this page

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Flag of California. This version is designed to accurately depict the standard print of the bear as well as adhere to the official flag code regarding the size, position and proportion of the bear, the colors of the flag, and the position and size of the star.
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The flag of the U.S. state of Ohio, officially known as the "Ohio Burgee"
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Flag of Oklahoma, adopted in November 2006.
Flag of Oregon.svg
Flag of Oregon (obverse): The flag was adopted by the state on February 26, 1925.[1] The state seal was decided in 1903.[2][3]
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Flag of Utah (enhanced variant).
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Map showing (in blue) states of the United States that have changed their capital city at least once.
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Map showing (in purple-pink) the states where the capital is the largest city in the state, based on the US 2010 census.
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This is an image of a place or building that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places in the United States of America. Its reference number is 66000293.

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Council House in New Echota
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The north side of the Independence Hall, August 2019
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Financial District, NYC
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US Capitol, west side
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Front of Navajo Nation Council Chamber in Window Rock, Arizona. Photograph taken on 2019-01-22T23:56:54Z.
Original Todd bear flag.jpg
The Original Todd Flag — with a California grizzly bear as a symbol of strength and unyielding resistance.
  • Bear flags were briefly used in 1846 by American settlers of the California Republic episode, in the former Mexican department of Alta California.
  • According to a newspaper article of 1878, one of the Bear Flags may have been designed by William L. Todd, a nephew of Mary Todd Lincoln.
  • An 1890 photograph of the original flag. It and the accompanying Storm Flag (bear flag by Peter Storm), were destroyed on April 18, 1906, in the fires that followed the great San Francisco Earthquake.
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Flag of the State of Nevada. The flag is described in Nevada Revised Statutes Chapter 235, Sec. 20 as follows: The body of the flag must be of solid cobalt blue. On the field in the upper left quarter thereof must be two sprays of Sagebrush with the stems crossed at the bottom to form a half wreath. Within the sprays must be a five-pointed silver star with one point up. The word “Nevada” must also be inscribed below the star and above the sprays, in a semicircular pattern with the letters spaced apart in equal increments, in the same style of letters as the words “Battle Born.” Above the wreath, and touching the tips thereof, must be a scroll bearing the words “Battle Born.” The scroll and the word “Nevada” must be golden-yellow. The lettering on the scroll must be black-colored sans serif gothic capital letters.
Castillo de San Marco National Monument - 49907540721.jpg
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The Castillo de San Marcos (Spanish for "St. Mark's Castle") is the oldest masonry fort in the continental United States; it is located on the western shore of Matanzas Bay in the city of St. Augustine, Florida. The Castillo was designed by the Spanish engineer Ignacio Daza, with construction beginning in 1672, 107 years after the city's founding by Spanish Admiral and conquistador Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, when Florida was part of the Spanish Empire. The fort's construction was ordered by Governor Francisco de la Guerra y de la Vega after a raid by the English privateer Robert Searles in 1668 that destroyed much of St. Augustine and damaged the existing wooden fort. Work proceeded under the administration of Guerra's successor, Manuel de Cendoya in 1671, and the first coquina stones were laid in 1672. The construction of the core of the current fortress was completed in 1695, though it would undergo many alterations and renovations over the centuries.

When Britain gained control of Florida in 1763 pursuant to the Treaty of Paris, St. Augustine became the capital of British East Florida, and the fort was renamed Fort St. Mark until the Peace of Paris (1783) when Florida was transferred back to Spain and the fort's original name restored. In 1819, Spain signed the Adams–Onís Treaty which ceded Florida to the United States in 1821; consequently the fort was designated a United States Army base and renamed Fort Marion, in honor of American Revolutionary War hero Francis Marion. The fort was declared a National Monument in 1924, and after 251 years of continuous military possession, was deactivated in 1933. The 20.48-acre (8.29 ha) site was subsequently turned over to the United States National Park Service. In 1942 the original name, Castillo de San Marcos, was restored by an Act of Congress.

Castillo de San Marcos was attacked several times and twice besieged: first by English colonial forces led by Carolina Colony Governor James Moore in 1702, and then by English Georgia colonial Governor James Oglethorpe in 1740, but was never taken by force. However, possession of the fort has changed six times, all peaceful, among four different governments: Spain, 1695–1763 and 1783–1821, Kingdom of Great Britain, 1763–1783, and the United States of America), 1821–date (during 1861–1865, under control of the Confederate States of America).

Under United States control the fort was used as a military prison to incarcerate members of Native American tribes starting with the Seminole—including the famous war chief, Osceola, in the Second Seminole War—and members of western tribes, including Geronimo's band of Chiricahua Apache. The Native American art form known as Ledger Art had its origins at the fort during the imprisonment of members of the Plains tribes such as Howling Wolf of the southern Cheyenne.

Ownership of the Castillo was transferred to the National Park Service in 1933, and it has been a popular tourist destination since then.

Source: Wikipedia