List of British monarchs

United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland
Royal Arms
Royal coat of arms (common version on the left; Scottish version on the right)[a]

There have been 13 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland on 1 May 1707. England and Scotland had been in personal union since 24 March 1603. On 1 January 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merged, which resulted in the creation of the United Kingdom.

List

Queen Anne had ruled the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland since 8 March 1702. She became monarch of the Kingdom of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland on 1 May 1707. Her total reign lasted 12 years and 146 days. Queen Anne and King George I were second cousins as both were great-grandchildren of James I and VI. For a family tree that shows George I's relationship to Anne, see George I of Great Britain § Family tree.

Name
Reign
(Coronation date)
Duration of reignPortrait
(Coronation, when available)
ArmsBirth
Date, location, parents
MarriageDeathAgeHouseRef.
Royal Monogram of Queen Anne of Great Britain.svg
Anne

Anne Stuart
1 May 1707 O.S.
(23 April 1702 O.S.)[b]

1 August 1714 O.S.
7 years, 93 daysDahl, Michael - Queen Anne - NPG 6187.jpgRoyal Arms of Great Britain (1707-1714).svg6 February 1665 O.S.
St James's Palace
Daughter of James II and VII
and Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
St James's Palace; 28 July 1683 O.S.
5 children
1 August 1714 O.S.
Kensington Palace
49 years,
177 days
Stuart[2]
Royal Monogram of King George I of Great Britain as Georg Ludwig, Elector of Hanover.svg
George I

George Louis
1 August 1714 O.S.
(20 October 1714 O.S.)

11 June 1727 O.S.
12 years, 315 daysKing George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (3).jpgRoyal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg28 May 1660 O.S.
Leineschloss
Son of Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg
and Sophia of Hanover
Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
21 November 1682 O.S.
2 children
11 June 1727 O.S.
Osnabrück
67 years, 14 daysHanover[3]
Royal Monogram of King George II of Great Britain, Variant 2.svg
George II

George Augustus
11 June 1727 O.S.
(11 October 1727 O.S.)[i]

25 October 1760
33 years, 126 daysGeorge II by Thomas Hudson.jpg30 October 1683 O.S.
Herrenhausen Palace
Son of George I
and Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Celle
Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Herrenhausen Gardens; 22 August 1705 O.S.
8 children
25 October 1760
Kensington Palace
76 years, 350 days[4]
Royal Monogram of King George III of Great Britain, Variant.svg
George III

George William Frederick
25 October 1760
(22 September 1761)

29 January 1820
59 years, 97 daysAllan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg24 May 1738 O.S.
Norfolk House
Son of Prince Frederick
and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
St James's Palace; 8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor Castle
81 years, 239 days[5]
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg
[c]
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
Royal Monogram of King George IV of Great Britain, Variant.svg
George IV

George Augustus Frederick
29 January 1820
(19 July 1821)

26 June 1830
10 years, 149 daysGeorge IV 1821 color.jpg12 August 1762
St James's Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
St James's Palace; 8 April 1795
1 daughter
26 June 1830
Windsor Castle
67 years, 318 days[6]
Royal Monogram of King William IV of Great Britain.svg
William IV

William Henry
26 June 1830
(8 September 1831)

20 June 1837
6 years, 360 daysWilliam IV in 1833 by Shee cropped.jpg21 August 1765
Buckingham Palace
Son of George III
and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Kew Palace; 13 July 1818
2 daughters
20 June 1837
Windsor Castle
71 years, 303 days[7]
Royal Monogram of Queen Victoria of Great Britain.svg
Victoria

Alexandrina Victoria
20 June 1837
(28 June 1838)

22 January 1901
63 years, 217 daysQueen Victoria 1843.jpg24 May 1819
Kensington Palace
Daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
and Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
St James's Palace; 10 February 1840
9 children
22 January 1901
Osborne House
81 years, 243 days[8]
Royal Monogram of King Edward VII of Great Britain.svg
Edward VII

Albert Edward
22 January 1901
(9 August 1902)

6 May 1910
9 years, 105 daysKing Edward VII by Sir (Samuel) Luke Fildes.jpg9 November 1841
Buckingham Palace
Son of Victoria
and Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
Alexandra of Denmark
St George's Chapel; 10 March 1863
6 children
6 May 1910
Buckingham Palace
68 years, 178 daysSaxe-Coburg
and Gotha
Windsor[ii]
[10]
Royal Monogram of King George V of Great Britain.svg
George V

George Frederick Ernest Albert Windsor
6 May 1910
(22 June 1911)

20 January 1936
25 years, 260 daysKing George V 1911.jpg3 June 1865
Marlborough House
Son of Edward VII
and Alexandra of Denmark
Mary of Teck
St James's Palace; 6 July 1893
6 children
20 January 1936
Sandringham House
70 years, 231 days[11]
Royal Monogram of King Edward VIII of Great Britain, Variant.svg
Edward VIII

Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David Windsor
20 January 1936
(not crowned)

Abdicated 11 December 1936
327 daysKing Edward VIII, when Prince of Wales - Cope 1912.jpg23 June 1894
White Lodge
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Wallis Simpson
Château de Candé; 3 June 1937
No children
28 May 1972
Neuilly-sur-Seine
77 years, 340 days[12]
Royal Monogram of King George VI of Great Britain.svg
George VI

Albert Frederick Arthur George Windsor
11 December 1936
(12 May 1937)

6 February 1952
15 years, 58 daysKing George VI.jpg14 December 1895
Sandringham House
Son of George V
and Mary of Teck
Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Westminster Abbey; 26 April 1923
2 daughters
6 February 1952
Sandringham House
56 years, 54 days[13]
Royal Cypher of Queen Elizabeth II.svg
Elizabeth II

Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor
6 February 1952
(2 June 1953)

8 September 2022[14]
70 years, 215 days
Queen Elizabeth II in Coronation Robes.jpgArms of the United Kingdom.svg21 April 1926
Mayfair
Daughter of George VI
and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Philip Mountbatten
Westminster Abbey; 20 November 1947
4 children
8 September 2022
Balmoral Castle
96 years, 140 days[15]
Charles III
Charles Philip Arthur George Mountbatten-Windsor
8 September 2022[14]
(To be announced)

Present
2 days
Prince of Wales (enthroned) 2022.jpg14 November 1948
Buckingham Palace
Son of Elizabeth II
and Philip Mountbatten
(div. 1996)

St Paul's Cathedral; 29 July 1981
2 children
Camilla Parker Bowles
Windsor Guildhall; 9 April 2005
Alive73 years, 300 days[16]

Timeline

Charles III, King of the United KingdomElizabeth IIGeorge VIEdward VIIIGeorge VEdward VIIQueen VictoriaWilliam IVGeorge IVGeorge IIIGeorge II of Great BritainGeorge I of Great BritainAnne, Queen of Great BritainHouse of WindsorHouse of Saxe-Coburg and GothaHouse of HanoverHouse of Stuart

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Dates of start of reign and coronation given in Old Style calendar; date of death in New Style. (Duration of reign takes this into account.)
  2. ^ King George V changed the name of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to the House of Windsor on 17 July 1917.[9] This change was made in response to anti-German sentiment in the British Empire during World War I.

Coronations

  1. ^ There are two versions of the current Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. The common version is on the left, while the Scottish version is on the right. In the shield of the common version, England is represented in the first and fourth quarters, Scotland is represented in the second quarter, and Northern Ireland is represented in the third quarter. In the shield of the Scottish version, the Royal Arms of England and the Royal Arms of Scotland are exchanged.[1]
  2. ^ Queen Anne was crowned 23 April 1702 when she was monarch of the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Scotland, and the Kingdom of Ireland.
  3. ^ Used in 1801–1816.

References

  1. ^ "Coats of arms". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
  2. ^ "Anne (r. 1702–1714)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2018.
  3. ^ "George I (r. 1714–1727)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  4. ^ "George II (r. 1727–1760)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  5. ^ "George III (r. 1760–1820)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 20 May 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  6. ^ "King George IV (r. 1820–1830)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  7. ^ "William IV (r. 1830–1837)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  8. ^ "Victoria ( r. 1837–1901)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  9. ^ "No. 30186". The London Gazette. 17 July 1917. p. 7119.
  10. ^ "Edward VII (r. 1901–1910)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  11. ^ "George V (r. 1910–1936)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  12. ^ "Edward VIII (Jan–Dec 1936)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2016. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  13. ^ "George VI (r. 1936–1952)". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  14. ^ a b "Queen Elizabeth II has died, Buckingham Palace announces". BBC News. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  15. ^ "Her Majesty The Queen". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  16. ^ Bridge, London (8 September 2022). "The King". The Royal Family. Retrieved 9 September 2022.

External links

Media files used on this page

Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Author/Creator: unknown, Licence: PD
Crown of Saint Edward.svg
Crown of St Edward
King George V 1911.jpg
Coronation portrait of George V
Royal Monogram of King George III of Great Britain, Variant.svg
Author/Creator: Glasshouse, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Monogram of King George III of Great Britain and Hanover
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1801-1816).svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Hanover, and Brunswick (1801-1816)
Royal Cypher of Queen Elizabeth II.svg
Royal Cypher of Queen Elizabeth II
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and [Northern] Ireland as used from the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837 until 1953 (as used in all British realms except Scotland).
Royal Monogram of King George IV of Great Britain, Variant.svg
Author/Creator: Glasshouse, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Monogram of King George IV of Great Britain and King of Hanover, Variant
Arms of the United Kingdom.svg
Author/Creator: , Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as used by King Charles III from 2022 to the present (as used in all his British realms except Scotland).
Royal Monogram of King Edward VIII of Great Britain, Variant.svg
Author/Creator: This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape., Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Monogram of King Edward VIII of Great Britain, Variant
Royal Monogram of King George VI of Great Britain.svg
Author/Creator: This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape., Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Monogram of King George VI of Great Britain
Royal Monogram of Queen Victoria of Great Britain.svg
Author/Creator: This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape., Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Monogram of Queen Victoria of Great Britain
Royal Monogram of King George V of Great Britain.svg
Author/Creator: This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape., Licence: CC-BY-SA-3.0
Royal Cyper of King George V of Great Britain
Prince of Wales (enthroned) 2022.jpg
Author/Creator: Annabel Moeller (for the House of Lords), Licence: CC BY 2.0
The Prince of Wales, in full dress uniform, reads his mother's speech from the consort's throne in the House of Lords.
Royal Monogram of King William IV of Great Britain.svg
Author/Creator: This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape., Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Monogram of King William IV of Great Britain
George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg
Portrait of George II (1683–1760)
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (3).jpg
This set of images was gathered by User:Dcoetzee from the National Portrait Gallery, London website using a special tool. All images in this batch have been confirmed as author died before 1939 according to the official death date listed by the NPG.
Royal Monogram of Queen Anne of Great Britain.svg
Author/Creator: This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape., Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Monogram of Queen Anne of Great Britain
Royal Monogram of King George I of Great Britain as Georg Ludwig, Elector of Hanover.svg
Author/Creator: Glasshouse, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Monogram of George I of Great Britain as Georg Ludwig, Elector of Hanover
Royal Arms of United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Hanover, and Brunswick (1816-1837)
Royal Arms of Great Britain (1707-1714).svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Arms of Great Britain, France and Ireland (1707-1714)
Royal Monogram of King George II of Great Britain, Variant 2.svg
Author/Creator: Glasshouse, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Monogram of King George II of Great Britain, Variant 2
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Both Realms).svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0

The Royal coats of arms of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as used by Queen Elizabeth II (reign 1953– 2022) in Scotland (right) and elsewhere (left).

  • PINCES, J.H & R.V., The Royal Heraldry of England, 1974, Heraldry Today.
George IV 1821 color.jpg
King George IV depicted wearing coronation robes and four collars of chivalric orders: the Golden Fleece, Royal Guelphic, Bath and Garter.
Royal Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801).svg
Author/Creator: Sodacan, Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Arms of Great Britain, France, Ireland, Hanover, and Brunswick (1714-1801)
Royal Monogram of King Edward VII of Great Britain.svg
Author/Creator: This W3C-unspecified vector image was created with Inkscape., Licence: CC BY-SA 3.0
Royal Monogram of King Edward VII of Great Britain